You are on page 1of 157

English for Foresters

Georgeta RA

English for Foresters

Editura MIRTON Timioara - 2005


3

Refereni tiinifici: Prof. univ. dr. Dagmar VIOIU U.S.A.M.V.B. Timioara Conf. univ. dr. Reghina DASCL Universitatea de Vest Timioara Lector univ. dr. Codrua GOA Universitatea de Vest Timioara

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents Foreword Unit 1 - Forestry: Definition and History Unit 2 - Forestry: Practice Unit 3 - Forest and Forest Fires (I) Unit 4 - Forest and Forest Fires (II) Unit 5 - Forest and the Lumber Industry Unit 6 - Forest: Classification Unit 7 - Tundra Unit 8 - Rain Forest Unit 9 - Tree: Definition and Importance Unit 10 - Types of Tree (I) Unit 11 - Types of Tree (II) Unit 12 - Major Parts of a Tree (I) Unit 13 - Major Parts of a Tree (II) Unit 14 - Tree Growth and Development Unit 15 - Planting and Caring for Trees Unit 16 - Angiosperms: Elm Unit 17 - Angiosperms: Birch Unit 18 - Angiosperms: Willow Unit 19 - Gymnosperms: Pine Unit 20 - Gymnosperms: Fir Unit 21 - Unusual Trees Unit 22 - Forest Industry Unit 23 - Products of the Forest Industry Unit 24 - Environmental Effects of the Forest Industry Index of Trees Bibliography 5 7 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 87 93 99 105 111 117 123 129 135 141 147 153 157

FOREWORD
This practical course of English is intended for advanced students specialising in Forestry at the Faculty of Horticulture. It contains the most important elements necessary to the acquisition of English in the field of forestry. The course contains 24 themes adapted to the study of the most important aspects of forestry: definition, importance, and practice of forestry; forest and forest fires; forest and the lumber industry; classification of forests; tundra and the rain forest; definition and importance of tree; types of tree; major parts of a tree; tree growth and development; planting and caring for trees; angiosperms (elm, birch, and willow); gymnosperms (pine and fir); unusual trees; products of the forest industry; environmental effects of the forest industry. The themes are presented mainly with the help of conventional texts meant to improve the students knowledge of English. Each lesson contains lexical and grammatical exercises meant to facilitate the consolidation of proper language skills (oral comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing) and the acquisition of a rich vocabulary necessary for both oral communication and understanding reference literature in the English of forestry. The author

UNIT 1 FORESTRY: DEFINITION AND HISTORY


Forestry is the management of forestlands for maximum sustained yield of forest resources and benefits. Although forestry originally concerned mainly timber production, it now also involves: - the management of grazing areas for domestic livestock; - the preservation of wildlife habitats; - watershed protection; - the development of recreational opportunities. The management of forestlands therefore helps to ensure that wooded areas are used for maximum benefit according to their nature. Attempts to regulate and manage forestlands occurred well before the 19th century in Rome, the Middle East, China, and Western Europe. Wars and political instability invariably interfered with these efforts; so destructive use of forests was common in the more densely populated countries. Early settlers in the United States of America, for example, regarded forests as impediments to cultivation and sought to remove them as quickly as possible. This attitude fostered a cut and get out philosophy among timber operators, and exploitative logging persisted well into the 20th century. Scientific forestry was initiated in the United States of America at the end of the 19th century largely through the influence of the federal government, with measures including the establishment of the Division of Forestry in 1885 and authorization of forest reserves in 1897. The latter became known as the National Forests in 1905, when the jurisdiction of reserves was transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture, and the Division of Forestry became the Forest Service. Since that time, forest management has been practiced on state and private lands as well as on federal holdings. Education in technical forestry began in Western Europe about 1825 with private schools in France and Germany; these were later replaced by state institutions. Until World War II, Western Europe (Belgium, England, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain) was the world leader in scientific forestry, and many famous schools and institutes were established there. In the United States of America, the first forestry curriculum was established in 1898. Forestry education is now offered in many universities throughout the United States of America and elsewhere in the world. (After David L. Adams & Edwin W. Tisdale, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

Vocabulary
cut and get out philosophy = filozofie de tipul taie i pleac concern (v.) = a preocupa Department of Agriculture = Ministerul Agriculturii Department of the Interior = Ministerul Afacerilor Interne domestic livestock = animale domestice early settlers = primii coloniti establishment = nfiinare, ntemeiere federal holding = proprietate federal forest management = managementul pdurilor forest reserve = rezervaie forestier forestland = inut mpdurit / pduros forestry = silvicultur forestry curriculum = program de nvmnt silvic foster (v.) = a stimula grazing area = zon de punat / pune interfere (v.) = a (se) interfera involve (v.) = a implica, a presupune logging = tiere de pduri mainly = n principal manage (v.) = a administra management = administrare, management occur (v.) = a se ntmpla preservation = conservare private / state land = teren n proprietate(a) privat / statului recreational opportunity = oportunitate de recreere regulate (v.) = a reglementa seek, sought, sought (v.) = a cuta sustained = durabil() technical forestry = silvicultur tehnic the Middle East = Orientul Mijlociu therefore = prin urmare timber operator = productor de cherestea timber production = producie de cherestea watershed protection = protejarea bazinelor de ap well before = cu mult nainte de well into = pn trziu n Western Europe = Europa Occidental wildlife habitat = habitatul animalelor slbatice wooded area = zon acoperit de pduri, zon mpdurit world leader = lider mondial yield = producie

10

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is forestry? What does it involve now? What does the management of forestlands help to? When and where did the first attempts to regulate and manage forestlands occur? What interfered with these efforts? Where was destructive use of forests common? How did early settlers in the United States of America regard forests? What did they seek to? What did this attitude foster? How long did exploitative logging persist? When and how was scientific forestry initiated in the United States of America? When was the Division of Forestry established? What did it turn into? When, how, and where did education in technical forestry begin in Western Europe? Who was the world leader scientific forestry? When was the first forestry curriculum established in the U.S.A.?

2. True or false?
True False

1. Forestry originally concerned only timber production. 2. Forestry also involves the management of grazing areas for domestic livestock. 3. The management of forestlands helps to ensure that wooden areas are used for maximum benefit according to their nature. 4. Attempts to regulate and manage forestlands occurred well before the 19th century in Rome, the Middle East, China and Western Europe. 5. Destructive use of forests was common in the less densely populated countries. 6. Early settlers in the United States of America regarded forests as impediments to cultivation. 7. Exploitative logging persists well into the 21st century. 8. Education in technical forestry began in Western Europe about 1825 with private schools.

11

3. Identify all the terms related to forestry in the text below. Forests provide many social, economic, and environmental benefits. In addition to timber and paper products, forests provide wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities, prevent soil erosion and flooding, help provide clean air and water, and contain tremendous biodiversity. Forests are also an important defence against global climate change. Through the process of photosynthesis, forests produce life-giving oxygen and consume huge amounts of carbon dioxide, the atmospheric chemical most responsible for global warming. By decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, forests may reduce the effects of global warming. 4. Match the following compounds and derivatives of forestry with their definitions. 1. forest 2. forestation 3. forester 4. forest green 5. forestland 6. forest ranger 7. forest reserve 8. forestry a. a large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush, woodland; the trees on such a tract b. a person who is expert in forestry; an officer having responsibility for the maintenance of a forest c. an area of forest set aside and preserved by the government as a wilderness, or a national park d. an olive-green colour e. any of the officers employed by the government to supervise the care and preservation of forests, especially public forests f. land containing or covered with forests g. the planting of forests h. the science of planting and taking care of trees and forests; the process of establishing and managing forests, forestation; forestland

5. Fill in with the proper noun from below. deforestation environmental erosion flooding forest greenhouse habitats The technique of slash and burn, utilized extensively to clear large areas of for agricultural and other purposes, causes an enormous amount of damage. The large amounts of carbon dioxide given off into the atmosphere during burning add to the effect. The removal of all trees and groundcover destroys animal and greatly accelerates , adding to the sediment loads of rivers and making seasonal much more severe.

12

6. Fill in the blanks with according to, opinion, or view, bearing in mind the following. We use according to when we want to show that the information comes from another person or place and not from our knowledge. It can also be used to suggest that you do not share someones opinion. We do not use according to with words like opinion or view. George, I owe him 10. the management, we should work extra hours till late at night. these figures, the company is doing well. to Marie, hes a really good teacher. to our records, the books you have borrowed should now be returned to the library. In the managements , we do not deserve restaurant tickets. The management of forestlands therefore helps to ensure that wooded areas are used for maximum benefit their nature. We will be paid to the amount of work we do.

7. Identify all the verbal forms in the text below then give their basic forms, as in the model.
Basic forms Verbal form infinitive past simple past participle present participle

are

be

was / were

been

being

In the United States and Canada, forests are threatened by extensive logging, called clear-cutting, which destroys plant and animal habitat and leaves the landscape bare and unproductive if not properly reforested. Small pockets of ancient forests from 200 to 1,200 years old still exist but are threatened by logging interests. Until the 1990s, the U.S. Forest Service was directed by Congress to maximize the harvest of timber in order to provide jobs. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, however, environmentalists sued the government for violating the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and heavy logging was deemed nonsustainable. As a result, the timber harvest was reduced and foresters were directed to follow a more sustainable policy called ecosystem management. This policy required foresters to focus on conserving natural habitats rather than maximizing tree harvest. Despite this change, many ancient forests remain unprotected. 8. Put the text above into Romanian. Use a dictionary.

13

9. Read the following then answer the question below. Huge areas of the richest forests in the world have been cleared for wood fuel, timber products, agriculture, and livestock. These forests are rapidly disappearing. The tropical rain forests of the Brazilian Amazon River basin were cut down at an estimated rate of 14 million hectares each year - an area about the size of the state of Wisconsin - in the 1990s. The countries with the most tropical forests tend to be developing and overpopulated nations in the southern hemisphere. Due to poor economies, people resort to clearing the forest and planting crops in order to survive. While there have been effective efforts to stop deforestation directly through boycotts of multinational corporations responsible for exploitative logging, the most effective conservation policies in these countries have been efforts to relieve poverty and expand access to education and health care. Have they cleared huge areas of forests for wood fuel, timber products, agriculture, and livestock in Romania? At what rate were Romanian forests cut down after 1990? Do you think the Romanians cleared their forests to plant crops in order to survive? How do you think we could stop deforestation in Romania?

Supplementary Reading: The Role of Forests


Forests provide habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals and perform many other important functions that affect humans. Photosynthesis is the chemical process in the leaves that uses sunlight and carbon dioxide to produce energy-supplying sugars for the tree. In the process the foliage gives off pure oxygen for breathing. The forest canopy (the treetops) and root systems provide natural filters for the water we use from lakes and rivers. When it rains, the forest canopy intercepts and re-distributes precipitation that can cause flooding and erosion, the wearing away of topsoil. Some of the precipitation flows down the trunks as stem-flow, the rest percolates through the branches and foliage as through-fall. The canopy is also able to capture fog, which it distributes into the vegetation and soil. Forests also increase the ability of the land to store water. The forest floor can hold as much as five times its weight in water and a tree contains water in its roots, trunk, stems, and leaves. Because of all this stored moisture, forests help to maintain an even flow of water in rivers and streams in times of flood or drought. The roots of the trees and other vegetation hold the soil in place and control erosion from wind and rain, preventing flooding and clouding of streams and rivers.

14

UNIT 2 FORESTRY: PRACTICE


Forestry comprises such specialties as dendrology, silviculture, forest protection, mensuration, engineering, utilization, and management. Dendrology concerns tree identification, distribution, age determination, and species characteristics. Silviculture studies the relationship of a forest to its environment and involves the development, care, and reproduction of stands of timber. Forest protection examines sources of injury, including disease, erosion, insect and animal destruction, and fire. The science of measuring forest stands, including rate of growth and potential yield of standing timber, is called mensuration. Forest engineering concerns the mechanics of cutting and transportation involved in modern timber growing and harvesting. Forest utilization considers the properties of wood and its conversion into lumber and wood products. Forest management applies business methods and the principles of technical forestry to the overall operation of forestlands. The practice of technical forestry includes many operations, from tree planting to harvesting. Central to the operation is the cycle of cutting and replenishment. Four major methods have been developed for this purpose: clear-cutting, selection, seed tree, and shelter wood. In clearcutting all trees in a given area are cut, and reproduction is obtained by artificial planting or by natural seeding from trees bordering the cleared areas. This method, adapted to light-demanding species, produces evenaged stands, allows control of stand composition, and is conducive to mechanized harvesting and disposal of slash, or logging debris. Selection cutting maintains a forest of mixed ages from which the largest and most mature trees are harvested periodically. Although this method is expensive and may cause injury to younger trees during logging, it provides continuous cover and an attractive forest and involves sounder ecological practices. In the seed tree method, about 10 percent of the trees in the cutting area are left in an evenly spaced pattern as a natural seed source. The shelter wood method, which involves the removal of the mature trees in cuttings over a 10- to 15-year period, promotes natural reproduction and produces relatively even-aged stands. Other practices contribute to the development of commercial forestry. These include artificial planting by direct seeding or transplants, especially in conjunction with clear-cutting; treatment with fertilizers to increase production; and the selection and breeding of timber trees, producing strains that excel in growth, disease resistance, or other desirable characteristics. These measures fit into the pattern of an intensive forestry in which greater production is obtained through technical knowledge and increased mechanization. (After David L. Adams & Edwin W. Tisdale, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

15

Vocabulary
be conducive to (v.) = a conduce / duce la border (v.) = a mrgini breeding = cretere selectiv care = grij clear-cutting = tiere ras cleared area = zon complet defriat consider (v.) = a lua n calcul / considerare conversion = conversie, transformare cuttings = tieri disease = boal disposal of slash = aruncarea resturilor / surcelelor environment = mediu even-aged stand = cultur arboricol n care arborii au aceeai vrst evenly spaced pattern = model egal distanat expensive = scump() fit into (v.) = a se potrivi cu harvesting = recoltare injury = vtmare light-demanding species = specie / specii iubitoare de lumin logging debris = resturi de pe urma tierilor de pduri lumber = cherestea, lemn de construcie mechanics = mechanic mensuration = msurare, msurtoare operation of forestlands = administrarea zonelor mpdurite overall = ntreg / ntreag potential yield = producie potenial provide (v.) = a furniza rate of growth = rata / viteza de cretere removal = ndeprtare replenishment = completare, (re)umplere seed tree = copac de smn seeding = nsmnare shelter wood = tierea arborilor maturi pentru a permite dezvoltarea celor tineri sound = sntos, -oas, teafr() stand = recolt stand of timber = recolt de lemn standing timber = lemn n picioare strain = tulpin timber growing = creterea arborilor pentru lemn timber tree = copac pentru cherestea / lemn

16

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What does forestry comprise? What does dendrology concern? What does silviculture study? What does forest protection examine? What is mensuration? What does forest engineering concern? What does forest utilization consider? What does forest management apply? What operations does the practice of technical forestry include? What is central to the operation? What methods have been developed for the cutting and replenishment cycle? What happens in clear-cutting? What are the advantages of this method? What does selection cutting maintain? What are the disadvantages of this method? What happens in the seed method? What does the shelter wood method involve? What other practices contribute to the development of commercial forestry? What is treatment with fertilizers good for? What do the selection and breeding of timber trees produce?

2. Match the following compounds of dendro- with their definitions. a. Biol. a treelike diagramme depicting evolutionary changes from ancestral to descendant forms, based on shared characteristics b. feeding on the wood of trees, as certain insects c. living in or on trees; arboreal d. the branch of botany dealing with trees and shrubs e. the science dealing with the study of the annual rings of trees in determining the dates and chronological order of past events f. treelike; branching like a tree; arborescent

1. dendrochronology

2. dendrogramme 3. dendroid(al) 4. dendrology 5. dendrophagous 6. dendrophilous

17

3. Identify all the terms related to forestry in the text below. Clear-cutting is a forestry harvesting technique in which all of the trees in a given area are removed. The advantages of this technique include the eventual production of trees of approximately the same age and height, which are easy to harvest using mechanized equipment. The disadvantages include the elimination of old growth forest and animal habitat, excessive erosion, and a visually unappealing landscape. 4. Fill in with the proper article from below, if possible. a an the Dense forests once covered much of France. By early 19th century, much of original forest cover had been cleared for farmland, fuel, and building materials. extent of tree cover has increased significantly since then, due in part to active reforestation programs. In 2000 forests covered 15.3 million ha of metropolitan France, 27.9% of its territory. France is third most forested nation in EU, behind Sweden and Finland. Forest cover is densest in eastern, southern, and south-western portions of France. About 2/3 of forests are made up of deciduous hardwoods, including oak, beech, and chestnut. Softwood species, primarily pine, spruce, and fir, comprise less than 1/3 of forest stands; most softwood stands are found in mountain regions. About 3/4 of forests are privately owned; the rest are state-owned. French wood production in 2000 totalled 50.2 million m3. About 60% of harvested wood is used in construction industry, 30% is used for pulp and paper, and 10% is used for firewood. 5. Fill in the blanks with all or all of, bearing in mind the following. You can use all (of) before nouns with the, those, his, etc. All, not all of is used before nouns without a determiner. All of is used before personal pronouns, but you can put all after the pronoun. All is singular with uncountable nouns, and plural with plural nouns. students hate exams. the money is spent. the people have gone. the students are coming to the party. Id like to come. Id like you to come. In clear-cutting trees in a given area are cut. They like parties.

18

6. Identify all the nouns in the text below then give their singular / plural forms, as in the model.
Form singular plural

forest

forests

Britain was once covered with thick forests, but over the centuries the expanding human population steadily deforested nearly the entire country, felling trees for fuel and building materials. Despite the fact that trees grow quickly in the cool, moist climate of the United Kingdom, only remnants of the great oak forests remained at the end of the 20th century. In 1919 only 5% of the United Kingdom was forested; as of 2000 this had increased to 10.7%. In comparison, 25% of Europe was forested. Yet even this is more than the 5% of Britain that was forested in 1919. Only 8% of England is covered by forest, 15% of Scotland, 12% of Wales, and 6% of Northern Ireland. Most of the forested area consists of commercially planted, fastgrowing coniferous trees in Wales and north-eastern Scotland. Britain has made efforts to increase the managed forest areas. Imports of wood and wood products are substantial because Britain produces only 15% of the wood it needs. The number of people employed in the timber industry is about 32,000, considerably less than 1% of the workforce. A Forestry Commission sets standards and provides advice on forestry matters. It manages 38% of the United Kingdoms forests directly and offers various plans to expand woodlands. The commission also sells woodlands to the private sector. Local authorities have the power to protect trees and woodlands, and it is an offence to cut any tree down without permission. Protected trees that die must be replaced. The Forestry Commission has plans to plant a new national forest in the English Midlands and 12 community forests. It provides funds to encourage local communities to develop existing forests in England, Wales, and Scotland. The commission has its own research centres and provides aid for forestry research at universities. 7. Point out the resemblances and the dissemblance between the following. Think of size of area, kind of vegetation, density of vegetation, geographical location, possibility to walk through, and precipitations. forest (a large area of land thickly covered with) trees and bushes jungle a tropical forest too thick to walk through easily rain forest a tropical forest with tropical trees growing thickly together and with a high rainfall wood(s) a place where trees grow thickly, smaller than a forest

19

8. Make up sentences of your own with the phrases below. Forest fire pine forest thick forest; Jungle animals jungle warfare. 9. What do the following mean? concrete jungle dead wood forest of hands law of the jungle out of the wood

Supplementary Reading: Gifford Pinchot


Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) was a noted American forestry expert, conservationist, and public official. Born in Simsbury, Connecticut, Pinchot graduated from Yale University in 1889, and studied forestry in several European countries before returning to the United States in 1892. From 1898 to 1910 he served as chief of the Division of Forestry (now the Forest Service) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture under presidents William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and William Howard Taft. Pinchot believed that forests and other natural resources should be protected from depletion through government regulation of commercial land use. Under Roosevelt, who was also a conservationist, Pinchot's strategy for protecting natural resources became national policy. During Taft's presidency, however, Pinchot felt that the government was moving away from the conservation strategies that he and Roosevelt had established. Pinchot filed charges against Richard Achilles Ballinger, Taft's secretary of the interior, accusing him of abandoning the nation's conservation policies. Ballinger was upheld by President Taft, who in 1910 dismissed Pinchot for insubordination. From 1923 to 1927 Pinchot served as governor of Pennsylvania. During his first year as governor he helped settle a strike that had paralyzed the anthracite coal mines. He served a second term as governor of Pennsylvania from 1931 to 1935. In addition to his duties at the Department of Agriculture and his two terms as governor, from 1903 to 1936 Pinchot was a professor of forestry at the Pinchot School of Forestry, which he helped found at Yale University. Pinchot's writings include Primer of Forestry (1899), The Fight for Conservation (1909), and Breaking New Ground (posthumously published in 1947).

20

UNIT 3 FOREST AND FOREST FIRES (I)


A forest is a plant community, predominantly of trees or other woody vegetation, occupying an extensive area of land. In its natural state, a forest remains in a relatively fixed, self-regulated condition over a long period of time. Climate, soil, and the topography of the region determine the characteristic trees of a forest. In local environments, dominant species of trees are characteristically associated with certain shrubs and herbs. The type of vegetation on the forest floor is influenced by the larger and taller plants, but because low vegetation affects the organic composition of the soil, the influence is reciprocal. Disturbances such as a forest fire or timber harvesting may result in a shift to another forest type. Left undisturbed, ecological succession will eventually result in a climax forest community. Human intervention is practiced to maintain some desirable forest types. Forest fires are natural or human-caused fires that burn forest vegetation. Foresters usually distinguish three types of forest fires: ground fires, which burn the humus layer of the forest floor but do not burn appreciably above the surface; surface fires, which burn forest undergrowth and surface litter; and crown fires, which advance through the tops of trees or shrubs. It is not uncommon for two or three types of fires to occur simultaneously. Fire management programs are extensive in the United States and other countries. Programs include fire prevention, fire fighting, and the use of fire in land management. Fire prevention. Most forest fires result from human carelessness or deliberate arson. Fewer fires are started by lightning. Weather conditions influence the susceptibility of an area to fire; such factors as temperature, humidity, and rainfall determine the rate and extent to which flammable material dries and, therefore, the combustibility of the forest. Wind movement tends to accelerate drying and to increase the severity of fires by speeding up combustion. By correlating the various climatic elements with the flammability of branch and leaf litter, the degree of fire hazard may be predicted for any particular day in any locality. Under conditions of extreme hazard, forests are closed to public use. Although organizations involved with fire control have traditionally fought all fires, certain fires are a natural part of the ecosystem. Complete fire exclusion may bring about undesirable changes in vegetational patterns and may also allow accumulation of fuel, with increased potential for feeding catastrophic fires. In some parks and wilderness areas, where the goal is to maintain natural conditions, lightning-caused fires may be allowed to burn under close surveillance. (After David L. Adams, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

21

Vocabulary
above the surface = la suprafa branch = crac, ramur burn (v.) = a arde carelessness = neglijen climax forest community = comunitate forestier ajuns la apogeu combustion = ardere, combustie crown fire = incendiu la nivelul coroanei arborilor deliberate arson = incendiere intenionat disturbance = perturbare drying = uscare eventually = n cele din urm extensive = extins(), mare extreme hazard = pericol extrem feeding = alimentare, hrnire fire fighting = lupta mpotriva incendiilor fire hazard = pericol de incendiu fire prevention = prevenirea incendiilor flammable material = material inflamabil forest fire = incendiu de pdure forest floor = pmntul de sub arborii dintr-o pdure forest undergrowth = vegetaia care crete la umbra pdurii forester = pdurar, silvicultor fuel = combustibil ground fire = incendiu la sol herb = iarb, plant humus layer = strat de humus leaf litter = frunze czute, ptur moart lightning = fulger rainfall = precipitaii self-regulated condition = stare cu auto-reglare shift = modificare, schimbare shrub = arbust speed up (v.) = a accelera surface litter = stratul de suprafa timber harvesting = recoltarea butenilor top = vrf undisturbed = netulburat() vegetational pattern = model vegetaional weather conditions = condiii meteorologice wilderness area = zon natural / slbatic woody = lemnos, -oas

22

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is a forest? What determines the characteristic trees of a forest? What are dominant species of trees characteristically associated with in local environments? What is the type of vegetation on the forest floor influenced by? Why is the influence reciprocal? What may disturbances such as a forest fire or timber harvesting result in? What will ecological succession result in if left undisturbed? What is human intervention practiced for? What is a forest fire? How many types of forest fires are there? What do ground fires burn? What do surface fires burn? Where do crown fires advance through? What do fire management programmes include? What do most forest fires result from? What determines the rate and extent to which flammable material dries and, therefore, the combustibility of the forest? What does wind movement tend to do? How may the degree of fire hazard be predicted for any particular day in any locality? What happens under conditions of extreme hazard? What may complete fire exclusion bring about? Why may lightning-caused fires be allowed to burn?

2. True or false?
True False

1. In its natural state, a forest remains in a relatively fixed, self-regulated condition over a short period of time. 2. The type of vegetation on the forest floor is influenced by the smaller and shorter plants. 3. Most forest fires result from human care or deliberate arson. 4. Complete fire exclusion may bring about undesirable changes in vegetational patterns. 5. In some parks and wilderness areas lightning-caused fires may be allowed to burn under close surveillance.

23

3. Fill in with the proper adjective from below. greater improved international large latest recent severe Fire-fighting crews are trained and organized to handle fires covering areas. They establish incident command posts, commissaries, and supply depots. Two-way radios are used to control operations, and airplanes are employed to drop supplies as well as chemicals. Helicopters serve as command posts and transport fire fighters and their equipment to areas that cannot be reached quickly on the ground. Some wildfires have required more than 10,000 fire fighters to be engaged at the same time. The U.S. Forest Service maintains research laboratories, which develop firefighting equipment and techniques, and a school that trains fire fighters in the fire-fighting techniques. conferences on wild-land fire prevention and fire fighting have been held with frequency in years. 4. Match the following compounds of fire with their definitions. 1. fire apparatus 2. fire engine 3. fire extinguisher 4. fire hat 5. fire hose 6. fire hydrant 7. fire truck 8. fireplug a. a helmet worn by a fire-fighter as a defence against falling materials from burning structures b. a hydrant used in extinguishing fires c. a portable container, usually filled with special chemicals for putting out a fire d. a special heavy-duty hose for use in fighting destructive fires e. a vehicle equipped for fire-fighting f. equipment for extinguishing destructive fires g. fire engine h. fire hydrant

5. Fill in the blanks with above or over, bearing in mind the following. The prepositions above and over can often be used in the same way. If there is an idea of movement or covering, over is used. Ground fires do not burn appreciably the surface. He pulled the blanket his head and fell asleep. Lets hang the painting the fireplace. Raise your arms your head. The bird flew the lake. The sheep jumped over the wall. They built a roof the courtyard. We flew the clouds.

24

6. Turn the passive constructions below into active ones, as in the model. Forest fires are spread by the transfer of heat. The transfer of heat spreads forest fires. Forest fires, often called wild-land fires, are spread by the transfer of heat, in this case to grass, brush, shrubs, and trees. Because it is frequently difficult to extinguish a forest fire by attacking it directly, the principal effort of forest fire fighters is often directed toward controlling its spread by creating a gap, or firebreak, across which fire cannot move. Firebreaks are made, and the fire crews attempt to stop the fire by several methods: trenching, direct attack with hose streams, aerial bombing, spraying of fireretarding chemicals, and controlled back-burning. As much as possible, advantage is taken of streams, open areas, and other natural obstacles when establishing a firebreak. Wide firebreaks may be dug with ploughs and bulldozers. The sides of the firebreaks are soaked with water or chemicals to slow the combustion process. Some parts of the fire may be allowed to burn themselves out. Fire-fighting crews must be alert to prevent outbreaks of fire on the unburned side of the firebreaks. 7. Put the following into Romanian. Use a dictionary. The Roman emperor Augustus is credited with instituting a corps of firefighting vigiles (watchmen) in 24 BC. Regulations for checking and preventing fires were developed. In the pre-industrial era most cities had watchmen who sounded an alarm at signs of fire. The principal piece of fire-fighting equipment in ancient Rome and into early modern times was the bucket, passed from hand to hand to deliver water to the fire. Another important fire-fighting tool was the axe, used to remove the fuel and prevent the spread of fire as well as to make openings that would allow heat and smoke to escape a burning building. In major conflagrations long hooks with ropes were used to pull down buildings in the path of an approaching fire to create firebreaks. When explosives were available, they would be used for this same purpose. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, fire brigades were formed by insurance companies. The government was not involved until 1865, when these brigades became London's Metropolitan Fire Brigade. The first modern standards for the operation of a fire department were not established until 1830, in Edinburgh, Scotland. These standards explained, for the first time, what was expected of a good fire department. After a major fire in Boston in 1631, the first fire regulation in America was established. In 1648 in New Amsterdam (now New York) fire wardens were appointed, thereby establishing the beginnings of the first public fire department in North America.

25

Supplementary Reading: Fire Engines


The first fire engines, which appeared in the 17th century, were simply tubs carried on runners, long poles, or wheels; water was still supplied to the fire site by bucket brigade. The tub functioned as a reservoir and sometimes housed a hand-operated pump that forced water through a pipe or nozzle to waiting buckets. The invention of a hand-stitched leather hosepipe in the Netherlands about 1672 enabled fire fighters to work closer to the fire without endangering their engines and to increase the accuracy of water placement. At about the same time the development of pumping devices made it possible to draw water from rivers and ponds. In the early 19th century copper rivets replaced the stitching on hoses, and 15-m lengths coupled with brass fittings enabled fire fighters to convey water through narrow passages, up stairways, and into buildings, while the pumps operated in the street. Cotton-covered rubber hose was developed around 1870. The steam-pump fire engine, introduced in London in 1829 by John Ericsson and John Braithwaite, was used in many large cities by the 1850s. Most steam pumpers were equipped with reciprocating piston pumps, although a few rotary pumps were used. Some were self-propelled, but most used horses for propulsion, conserving steam pressure for the pump. Steam fire engines were used in fighting the Chicago fire of 1871. With the development of the internal-combustion engine early in the 20th century, pumpers became motorized. Because of problems in adapting geared rotary gasoline engines to pumps, the first gasoline-powered fire engines had two motors, one to drive the pump and the other to propel the vehicle. The first pumper using a single engine for pumping and propulsion was manufactured in the United States in 1907. By 1925 the steam pumper had been completely replaced by motorized pumpers. The pumps were originally of the piston or reciprocating type, but these were gradually replaced by rotary pumps and finally by centrifugal pumps, used by most modern pumpers. At the same time, the pumper acquired its main characteristics: a powerful pump that can supply water in a large range of volumes and pressures; several thousand feet of fire hose, with short lengths of large-diameter hose for attachment to hydrants; and a water tank for the initial attack on a fire while fire fighters connect the pump to hydrants, and for areas where no water supply is available. In rural areas, pumpers carry suction hose to draw water from rivers and ponds. Current standards for pumper fire apparatus require that a fire pump have a minimum capacity of 2840 litres per minute at a pump pressure of 10.35 bars. They also call for a water tank capacity of at least 1893 litres.

26

UNIT 4 FOREST AND FOREST FIRES (II)


Fire detection and fighting. One of the most important aspects of forest-fire control is a system of locating fires before they are able to spread. Land-based forest patrols and lookouts have been largely replaced by surveillance aircraft, which detect fires, map their locations, and monitor their growth. Ground fires, once established, are difficult to extinguish. When the humus layer is not very deep, a ground fire may be extinguished with water or sand. Most ground fires, however, are controlled by digging trenches around the burning area and allowing the fire to burn itself out. Surface fires are limited by clearing the surrounding area of low vegetation and litter, or digging emergency furrows to confine the area. Crown fires are difficult to extinguish. They may be allowed to burn themselves out, they may be halted by streams, or they may be limited by backfired areas. Backfiring consists of carefully controlled burning of a strip of forest on the leeward side of the blaze, so that when the fire reaches the burned area it can go no farther. The use of fire in land management. Foresters may purposely ignite prescribed fires under carefully controlled conditions to remove unwanted debris following logging, to favour tree seedlings, or to keep fuels from accumulating. Since most grasses and shrubs grow well after fires, and animals are attracted to the tender and nutritious new growth, prescribed fires often benefit both wildlife and livestock. The mosaic of vegetation of different ages that results from frequent small fires favours a rich diversity of plant and animal life. Forest fires are often set deliberately to clear forested areas for grazing or agricultural purposes. In slash-andburn cultivation, subsistence farmers burn small plots of forest for space to grow crops. After two or three years, when the nutrients in the soil have been depleted, the plots are abandoned and other plots are cleared by fire. Large-scale agricultural operations use similar methods to clear forested areas. These practices, along with logging operations, destroyed much of the worlds tropical rain forests during the 1980s and 1990s. The El Nio weather pattern of 1997-1998 disrupted rainfall patterns, leaving many forests dry. Thousands of deliberately set forest fires raged out of control in Indonesia, Brazil, and Mexico, burning millions of hectares of rain forest. Thick clouds of smoke blanketed vast areas in Southeast Asia, South America, and Central America, sending tens of thousands of people to hospitals with respiratory illnesses related to the air pollution. (After David L. Adams, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

27

Vocabulary
backfire (v.) = a contra-aprinde blanket (v.) = a acoperi (ca o ptur) blaze = flacr, foc, pllaie, vlvtaie burn oneself out (v.) = a se stinge (despre foc) burning = ardere, combustie confine (v.) = a limita, a reduce deep = adnc(), profund() deplete (v.) = a epuiza, a goli, a istovi, a slei, a termina dig (v.) = a spa emergency = urgen extinguish (v.) = a stinge (un foc) fire detection = detectarea incendiilor furrow = brazd grasses = ierburi (ca tip de vegetaie) growth = cretere halt (v.) = a opri ignite (v.) = a aprinde (un foc, un amestec combustibil) keep from (v.) = a (se) feri de land-based = pe pmnt leeward side = partea aflat sub btaia vntului livestock = animale domestice lookout = observator, paznic, pndar, straj low vegetation = vegetaie joas / pitic map (v.) = a localiza pe hart once established = odat izbucnit() plot of forest = bucat / lot / parcel de pdure purposely = n mod intenionat rage out of control (v.) = a face ravagii, a scpa de sub control respiratory illness = boal respiratorie, boal a aparatului respirator sand = nisip slash-and-burn cultivation = agricultura de tip taie i d foc stream = curs de ap strip of forest = fie de pdure subsistence farmer = fermier de subzisten surrounding = nconjurtor, -oare surveillance aircraft = aviaie (utilitar) de supraveghere tender = fraged(), moale tree seedling = puiet de arbore trench = an weather pattern = model meteorologic wildlife = lumea / viaa slbatic, slbticie

28

Exercises
1. Answer the following. Can you name one of the most important aspects of forest-fire control? What have land-based forest patrols and lookouts been largely replaced by? What are the advantages of surveillance aircraft? How may a ground fire be extinguished when the humus layer is not very deep? How are most ground fires controlled? How are surface fires limited? How are crown fires extinguished? What does backfiring consist of? Why may foresters purposely ignite prescribed fires under carefully controlled conditions? What do prescribed fires often benefit? What does the mosaic of vegetation of different ages that results from frequent small fires, favour? Why are forest fires often set deliberately? What happens in slash-and-burn cultivation? Where did thousands of deliberately set forest fires rage out of control? What blanketed vast areas in Southeast Asia, South America, and Central America?

2. Match the following compounds of fire with their definitions. a. a group of fire-fighters, especially as formed temporarily or called upon to assist a fire department in an emergency; a small fire department privately employed by an institution b. a person employed to extinguish or prevent fires; a fire-fighter c. a person having authority in the prevention or extinguishing pf fires, as in towns or camps d. a person who fights destructive fires e. an official heading a bureau for the prevention or investigation of fires; a person who has charge of the fire-prevention equipment and personnel of an industrial plant f. the officer in charge of a municipalitys fire department(s)

1. fire brigade

2. fire chief 3. fire marshal 4. fire-fighter 5. fireman

6. fire warden

29

3. Fill in with the proper verb from below. are fits is was The ecosystem concept into an ordered view of nature that developed by scientists to simplify the study of the relationships between organisms and their physical environment, a field known as ecology. At the top of the hierarchy the planets entire living environment, known as the biosphere. Within this biosphere several large categories of living communities known as biomes that usually characterized by their dominant vegetation, such as grasslands, tropical forests, or deserts. The biomes in turn made up of ecosystems. The living, or biotic, parts of an ecosystem, such as the plants, animals, and bacteria found in soil, known as a community. The physical surroundings, or abiotic components, such as the minerals found in the soil, known as the environment or habitat. 4. Fill in the blanks with area(s), district, or region, bearing in mind the following. Area, district, and region can all be used when speaking about parts of Earths surface. Area is the most general word. It can be small or large, and is not thought of as a fixed land division. A district is smaller than a region, and is usually a fixed land division of a country or city. A region is usually large, is usually part of a country, and may or may not be thought of as a fixed land division. Edinburgh is in the Lothian of Scotland. Forest fires are often set deliberately to clear forested ... I find the people in this very friendly. Moldavia is an of high unemployment. Most ground fires are controlled by digging trenches around the burning Surface fires are limited by clearing the surrounding of low vegetation and litter, or digging emergency furrows to confine the ... The letters SW1 stand for a postal of London. The new factory will be built somewhere in the London The south-east is the richest in England. There arent any big stores in this of the town. Theres a parking behind the cinema. This is the most important commercial of this city.

30

5. Make sentences of your own with the following compounds of fire. fire alarm fire company fire department firehouse fire station - fire tower 6. Put the verbs in brackets in the text below in the right tense. Any given place (may) have several different ecosystems that (vary) in size and complexity. A tropical island, for example, (may) have a rain forest ecosystem that (cover) hundreds of square miles, a mangrove swamp ecosystem along the coast, and an underwater coral reef ecosystem. No matter how the size or complexity of an ecosystem (be) characterized, all ecosystems (exhibit) a constant exchange of matter and energy between the biotic and abiotic community. Ecosystem components (be) so interconnected that a change in any one component of an ecosystem (cause) subsequent changes throughout the system. 7. Put the following into Romanian. Use a dictionary. In addition to the exchange of energy, ecosystems are characterized by several other cycles. Elements such as carbon and nitrogen travel throughout the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem in processes known as nutrient cycles. For example, nitrogen travelling in the air may be snatched by a tree-dwelling, or epiphytic, lichen that converts it to a form useful to plants. When rain drips through the lichen and falls to the ground, or the lichen itself falls to the forest floor, the nitrogen from the raindrops or the lichen is leached into the soil to be used by plants and trees. Another process important to ecosystems is the water cycle, the movement of water from ocean to atmosphere to land and eventually back to the ocean. An ecosystem such as a forest or wetland plays a significant role in this cycle by storing, releasing, or filtering the water as it passes through the system.

Supplementary Reading: Ecosystem Management


Humans benefit from these smooth-functioning ecosystems in many ways. Healthy forests, streams, and wetlands contribute to clean air and clean water by trapping fast-moving air and water, enabling impurities to settle out or be converted to harmless compounds by plants or soil. The diversity of organisms, or biodiversity, in an ecosystem provides essential foods, medicines, and other materials. But as human populations increase and their encroachment on natural habitats expands, humans are having detrimental effects on the very ecosystems on which they depend. The survival of natural ecosystems around the world is threatened by many

31

human activities: bulldozing wetlands and clear-cutting forests - the systematic cutting of all trees in a specific area - to make room for new housing and agricultural land; damming rivers to harness the energy for electricity and water for irrigation; and polluting the air, soil, and water. Many organizations and government agencies have adopted a new approach to managing natural resources - naturally occurring materials that have economic or cultural value, such as commercial fisheries, timber, and water - in order to prevent their catastrophic depletion. This strategy, known as ecosystem management, treats resources as interdependent ecosystems rather than simply commodities to be extracted. Using advances in the study of ecology to protect the biodiversity of an ecosystem, ecosystem management encourages practices that enable humans to obtain necessary resources using methods that protect the whole ecosystem. Because regional economic prosperity may be linked to ecosystem health, the needs of the human community are also considered. Ecosystem management often requires special measures to protect threatened or endangered species that play key roles in the ecosystem. In the commercial shrimp trawling industry, for example, ecosystem management techniques protect loggerhead sea turtles. In the last thirty years, populations of loggerhead turtles on the south-eastern coasts of the United States have been declining at alarming rates due to beach development and the ensuing erosion, bright lights, and traffic, which make it nearly impossible for female turtles to build nests on beaches. At sea, loggerheads are threatened by oil spills and plastic debris, offshore dredging, injury from boat propellers, and getting caught in fishing nets and equipment. In 1970 the species was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. When scientists learned that commercial shrimp trawling nets were trapping and killing between 5000 and 50,000 loggerhead sea turtles a year, they developed a large metal grid called a Turtle Excluder Device (TED) that fits into the trawl net, preventing 97 percent of trawl-related loggerhead turtle deaths while only minimally reducing the commercial shrimp harvest. In 1992 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations requiring commercial shrimp trawlers to use TEDs, effectively balancing the commercial demand for shrimp with the health and vitality of the loggerhead sea turtle population.

32

UNIT 5 FOREST AND THE LUMBER INDUSTRY


Lumber industry is the production and harvesting of trees for varied uses, as in the fabrication of telegraph poles and railroad ties, and in building construction, shipbuilding, and furniture manufacture. The lumber industry includes the various businesses that convert trees, or timber, into lumber products. Other industries convert timber into pulp and paper, chemicals, or fuel-wood. The United States, Russia, Canada, Japan, Sweden, Germany, Poland, France, Finland, and Brazil are the chief lumber-producing countries in the world. In addition, many beautiful varieties of timber such as mahogany, ebony, and rosewood, used chiefly in furniture manufacture are produced in tropical Asian, Latin American, and African countries. Lumber is produced from both hardwood and softwood. Wood from broad-leaved trees is called hardwood, and wood from cone-bearing trees is called softwood, regardless of its actual hardness. Many types of softwood are actually harder than some of the so-called hardwoods. Most lumber in the U.S. is softwood, such as southern yellow pine, Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, western red-cedar, and true firs. Most hardwood lumber, such as oak, gum, yellow-poplar, maple, and ash, is used for miscellaneous industrial applications, primarily wood pallets. Hardwood species with beautiful colours and patterns, such as black walnut, black cherry, or red oak, are used for such high-grade products as furniture, flooring, panelling, and cabinets. Approximately one-fifth of all U.S. land grows potentially commercial timber, of which about 70 percent is privately owned. The U.S. annually produces over 30 billion board feet of lumber from these forests. (The board foot is the standard U.S. measure of lumber and equals the volume of a board that is 1 square ft in area and 1 in thick.) Over two-thirds of this lumber is softwood, which comes primarily from the Southeast and Pacific Northwest. Appalachian and north-eastern states produce the majority of hardwood lumber. As global demand for lumber rises, increased harvesting has developed in tropical countries and recently in the northern, or boreal, forests of Russia. The current rate of harvesting in tropical rain forests has alarmed scientists concerned with the ecological importance of these forests in the preservation of biodiversity. Forests also play an important role in regulating the climate of the planet by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Scientists are therefore also increasingly concerned about the role that tropical deforestation may play in global warming. (After P. Gregory Harris, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

33

Vocabulary
actually = de fapt ash = frasin (Fraxinus excelsior) black cherry = cire slbatic (Prunus avium) (black) walnut = nuc (Juglans regia) broad-leaved tree = copac foios building construction = construcii civile cabinet = mobil fin chiefly = n principal, mai ales cone-bearing tree = conifer Douglas-fir = (brad) duglas (Pseudotsuga douglasii, P. menziesii, P. taxifolia) ebony = abanos (Diospyros ebenum) fir (tree) = brad (Abies sp.) flooring = parchet, podea fuel-wood = lemn de foc furniture manufacture = fabricarea mobilei global warming = nclzirea global gum = eucalipt (Eucalyptus sp.) hardness = duritate hardwood = lemn de esen tare high-grade product = produs superior lumber industry = industria cherestelei lumber product = produs din cherestea mahogany = acaju, mahon (Swietenia mahogani) maple = arar (Acer sp.) oak = stejar (Quercus sp.) panelling = lambrisare; lambriu ponderosa pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus ponderosa) pulp = past de hrtie railroad tie = travers de cale ferat red oak = (specie de) stejar (Quercus sp.) red-cedar = ienupr de Virginia (Juniperus virginiana) regardless = indifferent de shipbuilding = construcii navale softwood = lemn de esen moale telegraph pole = stlp de telegraf timber = butean wood pallet = palet din lemn yellow pine = coconar (Pinus pinea) yellow poplar = (specie de arbore) (Liriodendron tulipifera var. aureomarginatum)

34

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is lumber industry? What does the lumber industry include? What do other industries convert timber into? What are the chief lumber-producing countries in the world? Where are mahogany, ebony, and rosewood produced? What is lumber produced from? What is hardwood? What is softwood? Are softwoods really soft? What species represent softwood in the U.S.A.? And in Romania? What is most hardwood lumber, such as oak, gum, yellow-poplar, maple, and ash used for? What are hardwood species with beautiful colours and patterns, such as black walnut, black cherry, or red oak used for? What is a board foot? Where has increased harvesting developed? What has alarmed scientists concerned with the ecological importance of forests in the preservation of biodiversity? What other role do forests also play?

2. True or false?
True False

1. The lumber industry includes the various businesses that convert trees, or timber, into paper. 2. The United States, Russia, Canada, Japan, Sweden, Germany, Poland, France, Finland, Romania, and Brazil are the chief lumber-producing countries in the world. 3. Lumber is produced from both hardwood and softwood. 4. Many softwoods are actually harder than some of the so-called hardwoods. 5. Most hardwood lumber is used for miscellaneous industrial applications, primarily wood pallets. 6. Hardwood species with beautiful colours and patterns are used for such high-grade products as furniture, flooring, panelling, and cabinets. 7. Softwood comes primarily from the Indian Ocean.

35

3. Fill in with the proper preposition from below. by in of on through to Carbon cycle is, ecology, the cycle carbon usage which energy flows the earth's ecosystem. The basic cycle begins when photosynthesising plants use carbon dioxide (CO2) found the atmosphere or dissolved water. Some this carbon is incorporated plant tissue as carbohydrates, fats, and protein; the rest is returned the atmosphere or water primarily aerobic respiration. Carbon is thus passed on herbivores that eat the plants and thereby use, rearrange, and degrade the carbon compounds. Much it is given off as CO2, primarily as a by-product aerobic respiration, but some is stored animal tissue and is passed to carnivores feeding the herbivores. Ultimately, all the carbon compounds are broken down decomposition, and the carbon is released as CO2 to be used again plants. 4. Fill in the blanks with attractive, beautiful, good-looking, handsome, or pretty, bearing in mind the following. Attractive can be used of men, women, and things. Beautiful is a much stronger word to describe a persons appearance than attractive, good-looking, handsome, or pretty. Beautiful can be used of women, children, and things, but not usually of men. Good-looking can be used of men and women, but not usually of things. Handsome is usually used of men, but a handsome woman is goodlooking in a strong healthy way. Pretty can be used of women, children, and things, but not usually of men. Every young girl has dreamt of meeting an young man. Hardwood species with colours and patterns are used for such highgrade products as furniture, flooring, panelling, and cabinets. I have greatly enjoyed the film Woman. Many varieties of timber such as mahogany, ebony, and rosewood, used chiefly in furniture manufacture are produced in tropical Asian, Latin American, and African countries. My house is as as my mothers house. On the wall there was the portrait of a child. She has always been the most girl in her class. The dress she wore at the party had a pattern. The soup was really Who has never admired a sunset?

36

5. Match the following synonyms with their definitions. a. a group or cluster of trees, usually not very large in area and cleared of underbrush; it is usually tended or cultivated b. an extensive area, preserving some or all of its wilderness and usually having game or wild animals in it c. resembles a forest but is a smaller tract of land, less wild in character, and generally closer to civilisation

1. forest 2. grove 3. wood(s)

6. Turn the following into Romanian, paying attention to the infinitive forms. Global warming is the term used to designate the increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere, oceans, and landmasses of Earth. The planet has warmed (and cooled) many times during the 4.65 billion years of its history. At present Earth appears to be facing a rapid warming, which most scientists believe results, at least in part, from human activities. The chief cause of this warming is thought to be the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, which releases into the atmosphere carbon dioxide and other substances known as greenhouse gases. As the atmosphere becomes richer in these gases, it becomes a better insulator, retaining more of the heat provided to the planet by the Sun. 7. Turn the active structures below into passive ones, as in the model. Most U.S. lumber production supplies domestic markets. Domestic markets are supplied by most U.S. lumber production. Most U.S. lumber production supplies domestic markets, particularly singlefamily homes. The national economy and natural events both influence the activity of the lumber industry. A good economy encourages people to build new homes or remodel existing ones. Natural disasters, such as the devastation left by Hurricane Andrew in Florida and Louisiana in 1992 and by the Mississippi River flooding in the Midwest in 1993, create a demand for lumber to rebuild damaged homes and businesses. Large forest fires, hurricanes, and epidemic outbreaks of forest pests can also damage forest lands and decrease timber supplies to local mills. Currently, the United States exports logs and finished lumber products primarily to Japan, Mexico, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Many of the exported logs are converted to lumber that is imported back into the United States. The Canadian provinces of Qubec and British Columbia are major global exporters of softwood logs and lumber products, and the United States both exports and imports lumber to and from Canada.

37

Supplementary Reading: Lumbering in the 20th Century


Large-scale logging of the nation's forests without concern for the future continued into the 20th century, and by then most of the original old-growth stands of trees had been cut. However, conservation of forests was bolstered when the federal government established the Division of Forestry in 1885 and authorized forest reserves in 1897. Some industry leaders realized as well that the once endless supply of big timber would soon disappear and in the 1920s began to purchase land to grow timber for the future. The economic boom following World War II fuelled lumber demand, especially for building suburban homes. During this time, some lumber companies and even public forests developed intensive forestry operations by growing single-species plantations and maximizing their production with fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides. However, at the same time, more people were becoming environmentally conscious. No longer were forests viewed only as sources of timber; they became valued as sources of recreation, clean water, wilderness, and biodiversity. Recently, environmental concerns over lumbering have intensified, particularly regarding public forests, which many people wish to preserve as wilderness areas, especially those containing old-growth stands of trees. Exploitative logging still occurs, damaging the reputation of conscientious members of the lumber industry. However, both lumber industry leaders and environmental advocates are working to prevent the destruction of forests and to protect the forest environment during logging. Many lumber companies have adopted what are known as best management practices, which prescribe methods for protecting the forest environment during harvesting operations. For example, a buffer zone of 50 feet around streams is not logged in order to protect stream ecology; water-bars, or trenches, are dug at right angles across logging roads to divert water from running down the roads and eroding the soil; and skid trails are reseeded with grass after a logging operation has been completed. State and federal regulations have made certain harvesting activities (operating in wetland areas, in endangered species habitats) illegal or subject to approval. Environmentalists have used the judicial system to halt logging, particularly on public lands. Foresters have searched for creative solutions to minimize the visual and ecological impacts of harvesting while producing timber in a sustainable manner. In addition, markets have developed for certified lumber products guaranteed to have come from sustainably managed forests. The efficacy of all these actions has been hotly debated from both emotional and scientific perspectives. At issue is the balance between private property rights, the jurisdiction of government to regulate industry, and the long-term, sustainable use of natural resources on a global basis.

38

UNIT 6 FOREST: CLASSIFICATION


Forests may be divided into the following eight general types on the basis of leaf characteristics and climate. 1. Deciduous forests of the temperate regions are typical for the eastern U.S. Two subtypes exist; forests of the same latitude in the two hemispheres are radically different, probably due to the continental climate of the northern hemisphere and the oceanic climate of the southern. 2. Deciduous monsoon forests are characteristic of Bengal and Myanmar and common throughout Southeast Asia and India; they are also found along the Pacific coastal regions of Mexico and Central America. The climate is characterized by heavy daily rainfall, seasonally relieved by dry periods during which the trees shed their leaves. 3. Tropical savannah forests are found in the campos of Brazil, where forest and grassland meet. Savannas (Africa and South America) are dominated by grasses and sedges, with open stands of widely spaced trees that are frequently thorny. 4. Northern coniferous forests form a worldwide belt in sub-arctic and alpine regions of the northern hemisphere. Gnarled scrub trees dominate at the northern tree line and on mountaintops. Spruce and fir trees are characteristic of the more northerly forests; pine, larch, and hemlock dominate farther south. These forests usually occupy formerly glaciated regions and occur in association with lakes, bogs, and rivers. 5. Tropical rain forests are characteristic of central Africa and the Amazon watershed. Plant growth is profuse, and the forest is always active. Tree species are highly diverse but usually have smooth, straight trunks and large, simple leaves. Large vines are common, but the tangled growth of a jungle occurs only where the normal forest area has been abused or at a rivers edge. 6. Temperate evergreen forests are found in the subtropical regions of North America and the Caribbean islands that have a warm maritime climate. It is best developed along the Gulf Coast and in Florida. The characteristic trees are live oak, magnolia, palms, and bromeliads. 7. Temperate rain forests, with broad-leaved evergreen trees, are common on Mediterranean coasts. Rainfall may be low, but the oceancooled air is moisture laden, and fogs are frequent. In the U.S. the temperate West Coast rain forests are dominated by hemlock, cedar, spruce, fir, and redwood. 8. Tropical scrub forests occur in regions of slight rainfall, bordering wetter forests. (After David L. Adams, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

39

Vocabulary
bog = bltoac, mlatin, mocirl broad-leaved evergreen tree = conifer cu frunza lat cedar = cedru (Cedrus sp, Chamaecyparis sp., Pinus sp.) coniferous forest = pdure de conifere deciduous forest = pdure de foioase dry period = perioad de secet edge = margine, muchie fir (tree) = brad (Abies sp.) fog = cea gnarled = aspru, -; noduros, -oas; rsucit(); strmb(), zgrunurosoas grassland = pune heavy daily rainfall = precipitaii abundente zilnice hemlock = brad de Canada, tsuga (Tsuga canadensis) highly = foarte larch = zad (Larix sp.) leaf = frunz low = sczut moisture laden = ncrcat() / plin() de umezeal northerly = nordic palm = palmier (Palma sp.) pine = pin (Pinus sp.) profuse = abundent redwood = sequoia (Sequoia sempervirens) scrub tree = pom pitic seasonally relieved = care se face evideniat() sezonal sedge = rogoz (Carex riparia) shed ones leaves (v.) = a-i scutura frunzele slight rainfall = precipitaii slabe spruce (fir) = molid (Picea sp.) straight = drept tangled = amestecat(), nclcit() temperate evergreen forest = pdure de conifere din zona temperat temperate rain forest = pdure tropical din zona temperat thorny = cu epi, epos, -oas tropical rain forest = pdure tropical tropical savannah forest = pdure tip savan din zona tropical tropical scrub forest = pdure tropical de arbori pitici vine = vi de vie watershed = bazin de ap widely spaced = mult distanat()

40

Exercises
1. Answer the following. How many general types of forests are there? What are deciduous monsoon forests characteristic of? What are savannas dominated by? What trees are characteristic of the more northerly forests? What species dominate farther south? What kind of regions do these forests usually occupy? What are tropical rain forests characteristic of? Where does the tangled growth of a jungle occur? Where are temperate evergreen forests found? What trees are characteristic of the climate? Where are temperate rain forests common? Where do tropical scrub forests occur?

2. Match the following coniferous with their definitions. a. a coniferous tree, Sequoia sempervirens, of California, noted for its great height, sometimes reaching to more than 107 m b. any coniferous tree belonging to the genus Abies, of the pine family, characterised by its pyramidal style of growth, flat needles, and erect cones c. any coniferous tree of the genus Larix, yielding a tough durable wood d. any evergreen, coniferous tree of the genus Picea, of the pine family, having short, angular, needle-shaped leaves attached singly around twigs and bearing hanging cones with persistent scales e. any evergreen, coniferous tree of the genus Pinus, having long, needle-shaped leaves, certain species of which yield timber, turpentine, tar, pitch, etc. f. any of several coniferous trees of the genus Tsuga, native to the U.S., characterised by a pyramidal manner of growth g. any of several Old World, coniferous trees of the genus Cedrus, having wide, spreading branches

1. cedar

2. fir

3. hemlock (spruce)

4. larch

5. pine

6. redwood 7. spruce

41

3. Fill in with the proper noun from below. climate growth habitats plant seeds shrub lands shrub-land shrubs vegetation Chaparral is a type of community that is dominated by small-leaved evergreen vegetation. Such are characteristic of the Mediterranean type of with warm, wet winters and long, dry summers. The name (Spanish chaparral scrub oak) is applied to the of California and Baja California that are dominated by scrub oak and by the dense chamiso and manzanita. Chaparral is fire dependent. Fire wipes out decadent , disposes of accumulated litter, recycles nutrients, and stimulates new, vigorous growth from and sprouts. Other shrub lands in the American Southwest with similar are sometimes called chaparral, but they lack chamiso, and the summers are not as long and dry. In other areas with a Mediterranean climate, equivalent communities are given such local names as the tomillares of Spain, the macchia of the Mediterranean countries and South Africa, the phrygana of the Balkans, and the brigalow of South Australia. 4. Identify the value of the preposition of in the texts below as in the model.
Value of the preposition of Example

1 2 3 4 5

belonging to shows a part in relation to a whole used in dates, in telling times, during that is / are, being in relation to, connected with

characteristic Indian Ocean

of

the

northern

a) The deciduous monsoon forest is characteristic of the northern Indian Ocean along the coasts of India, Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), and Southeast Asia. Typical throughout much of the year in such forests is heavy daily rainfall with intermittent dry periods during which the deciduous trees shed their leaves. b) A tropical savannah is defined as a relatively open, grassy plain with few trees and shrubs. Tropical savannas are characterized by distinct wet and dry seasons throughout the year and have a predominance of droughtresistant plant species. Tropical savannas are often thought of as intermediate between forests and steppes.

42

c) Each year logging and agriculture destroy rain-forest terrain equal in size to the state of Massachusetts (United States), threatening the survival of tropical rain forests throughout the world. Located in a narrow belt within four or five degrees of the equator, rain forests often provide the only home for thousands of known or as yet undiscovered species of animals and plants. The destruction of these rain forests is eliminating many of these irreplaceable species at an alarming rate. 5. Give the degrees of comparison (if possible) for the adjectives below picked up in the text Forest: Classification. Do as in the model. abused active alpine broad central characteristic coastal common coniferous continental cooled daily deciduous developed different diverse dry eastern far frequent general glaciated gnarled heavy large live low maritime normal northern oceanic open profuse relieved simple slight smooth spaced straight sub-arctic subtropical tangled temperate thorny tropical typical warm wet worldwide
Degree of Comparison comparative

positive

superlative

abused broad

more abused broader

the most abused the broadest

6. Place the indicated adverb in its proper position in the sentences below. Forests of the same latitude in the two hemispheres are different, due to the continental climate of the northern hemisphere. (radically probably) Large vines are common, but the tangled growth of a jungle occurs where the normal forest area has been abused or at a rivers edge. (only) Plant growth is profuse, and the forest is active. (always) Savannas are dominated by grasses and sedges, with open stands of spaced trees that are thorny. (widely frequently) The climate is characterized by heavy daily rainfall, relieved by dry periods during which the trees shed their leaves. (seasonally) The warm maritime climate is developed along the Gulf Coast and in Florida. (best) These forests occupy glaciated regions and occur in association with lakes, bogs, and rivers. (usually formerly) Tree species are diverse but have smooth, straight trunks and large, simple leaves. (highly usually)

43

7. Change the following sentences so as to introduce it is possible, perhaps, and possibly as in the model. Forests may be divided into eight general types. It is possible to divide forests into eight general types. He may not want to go with us to the experimental plots. It may not rain this week-end. Jane may help us with our final reports. Rainfall may be low on the Mediterranean coasts. She may call on you later. They may go to the mountains instead of to the coast. We may be late for the lecture this morning.

Supplementary Reading: Savannah


A savanna(h) is a tropical grassland with a scattering of shrubs and small and large trees. Savannas may result from soil conditions, from periodic fires caused by lightning or set by humans, or from climatic influences. Climatically determined savannas, as found in western and south-western Africa, develop in regions with marked wet and dry seasons, where rainfall ranges between 100 and 400 mm a year. These savannas vary from opencanopied forests with a grassy under-story to true savannas in which grasses are dominant. When the rainfall is 100 to 200 mm, generally only grasses can survive the dry season. When rainfall reaches 300 mm, the soil holds enough water to sustain shrubs through the dry season as well. When rainfall exceeds 300 mm, enough water is left to support solitary trees; and when rainfall exceeds 400 mm, enough moisture remains during the dry season to allow trees to grow more densely and to form a canopy, shading out the grasses. In regions of higher rainfall, such as eastern Africa, savannah vegetation is maintained by periodic fires. Consuming dry grass at the end of the rainy season, the fires burn back the forest vegetation, check the invasion of trees and shrubs, and stimulate new grass growth. These savannas are also influenced by large grazing mammals such as wildebeest and zebra. When abundant, the animals can so reduce the vegetation that the grassy cover cannot carry a fire. Woody vegetation then increases, changing savanna to woodland. Such woody growth can be reduced, in turn, by large browsers such as elephants. Soildetermined savannas include the llanos of Venezuela and the campos cerrados of Brazil. The latter are characterized by a hard crust in the soil, formed by ferric oxides. Grasses grow in the soil above the crust; trees grow where roots, following cracks in the crust, can reach deeper groundwater.

44

UNIT 7 TUNDRA
Tundra is the name for arctic plains encompassing most of the earth's terrain north of the coniferous forest belt, dominated by sedge, heath, willow, moss, and lichen. Similar plains, called alpine tundra, occur above the timberline in the high mountains of the world. The Antarctic region has a few areas of tundra as well. Plant life. The number of plant species on the tundra is few, and their growth is low, with most of the biomass concentrated in the roots. The growing season is short, and plants are more likely to reproduce vegetatively by division and budding than sexually by flower pollination. Typical arctic vegetation comprises cotton grass, sedge, and dwarf heath, together with associated mosses and lichens. These plant communities are adapted to sweeping winds and to soil disturbance from frost heaves. They carry on photosynthesis at low temperatures, low light intensities, and long periods of daylight. Alpine plant communities consist of mat-forming and cushion-forming plants, rare in the Arctic. These plants are adapted to gusting winds, heavy snows, and widely fluctuating temperatures. They carry on photosynthesis under brilliant light in short periods of daylight. Animal life. Arctic wildlife is circumpolar; the same or closely related species are found around the world. The variety of animal life is also limited in the challenging environment. Musk-ox, caribou, and reindeer are the dominant large grazers, feeding on grass, sedge, lichen, and willow. Arctic hare, or snowshoe rabbit, and lemming feed on grass and sedge. Predators include the wolf, arctic fox, and snowy owl. Polar bears, and sometimes brown bears, are seen. Many birds nest in the tundra shrubbery in summer, migrating to milder climates before the winter season sets in. Invertebrate life is scarce, but insects such as black flies and mosquitoes are abundant. Alpine animal life includes the mountain goat, big-horned sheep, pika, marmot, and the ptarmigan, a grouse-like bird. Flies are scarce but butterflies, beetles, and grasshoppers are abundant. The tundra ecosystem is extremely sensitive to disturbance with little ability to restore itself. Disruption of vegetative cover causes permafrost to melt deeply, with consequent collapse of ground and loss of soil. Vehicular tracks cause deep gullies that persist for years. The tundra wildlife is vulnerable to habitat destruction, to over-hunting, and to extinction through loss of any of the animal or plant species that make up the fragile, highly interdependent tundra community of life. (After Robert Leo Smith, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

45

Vocabulary
alpine tundra = tundra alpin arctic fox = vulpe arctic / polar (Vulpes lagopus) arctic hare = iepure arctic (Lepus) beetle = coleopter, gndac, goang big-horned sheep = oaie de munte (Ovis montana) black fly = musc neagr (Musca) brown bear = urs brun (Ursus arctos) budding = nmugurire butterfly = fluture caribou = caribu (Rangifer tarantus) cotton grass = bumbcari (Eriophorum angustifolium) cushion-forming = care formeaz pernue daylight = lumina zilei dwarf = pitic() frost heave = deplasare / dislocare / ridicare cauzat / provocat() de ger grasshopper = clu, cosa, lcust (Locusta) grouse-like = ca potrnichea scoian heath = iarb-neagr (Calluna vulgaris, Erica vulgaris) heavy snow = zpad abundent large grazer = ierbivor mare lemming = leming (Dicrostonyx, Lemmus) lichen = lichen, muchi de munte (Lichen sp., Usnea sp.) marmot = marmot (Arctomys marmotta) mat-forming = care formeaz rogojini mosquito = nar (Culicidae) moss = muchi mountain goat = capr de munte (Capra) musk-ox = bou-moscat (Ovibus moschatus) nest (v.) = a cuibri, a-i face cuib pika = mamifer erbivor (Ochotona, Prolagus) polar bear = urs-alb / -polar (Ursus maritimus) pollination = polenizare ptarmigan = potrniche-de-tundr, ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) reindeer = ren (Rangifer tarandus) sedge = rogoz (Carex riparia) snowshoe rabbit = iepure (Lepus americanus) snowy owl = bufnia polar (Strix) sweeping wind = vnt care mtur totul n calea lui tundra shrubbery = tufiurile tundrei willow = rchit, salcie (Salix sp.) wolf = lup (Canis lupus)

46

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is tundra? What is it dominated by? Where does alpine tundra occur? Where is most of the biomass in plants concentrated? How are plants more likely to reproduce? What does typical arctic vegetation comprise? What are these plant communities adapted to? How do they carry on photosynthesis? What do alpine plant communities consist of? What are these plants adapted to? How do they carry on photosynthesis? How is arctic wildlife? What are the dominant large grazers? What do they feed on? Who feeds on grass and sedge? What do predators include? How is invertebrate life? What does alpine animal life include? What is the tundra ecosystem extremely sensitive to? What is the tundra wildlife vulnerable to?

2. True or false?
True False

1. Tundra is the name for arctic plains encompassing most of the earth's terrain south of the coniferous forest belt. 2. The number of plant species on the tundra is few, and their growth is low. 3. Typical arctic vegetation comprises cotton, sedge, and dwarf heath. 4. Arctic plants carry on photosynthesis under brilliant light in short periods of daylight. 5. Arctic wildlife is circumpolar; the same or closely related species are found around the world. 6. Musk-ox, caribou, and deer are the dominant large grazers. 7. Flies are scarce but butterflies, beetles, and grasshoppers are abundant.

47

3. Match the following plants with their definitions. a. any complex organism of the group Lichenes, composed of a fungus in symbiotic union with an alga and having a greenish, grey, yellow, brown, or blackish thallus that grows in leaf-like, crust-like, or branching forms on rocks, trees, etc. b. any plant of the genus Erica, or of the family Ericaceae c. any rush-like or grass-like plant of the genus Carex, growing in wet places d. any rush-like plant constituting the genus Eriophorum, of the sedge family, common in swampy places and bearing spikes resembling tufts of cotton e. any tiny, leafy-stemmed, flowerless plant of the class Musci, reproducing by spores and growing in tufts, sods, or mats on moist ground, tree trunks, rocks, etc.

1. cotton grass

2. dwarf heath 3. lichen 4. moss

5. sedge

4. Fill in with the proper article from below, if possible.


a an the Harsh winters, low average temperatures, little snow or rainfall, and short summer season characterize tundra climate. The arctic tundra, in particular, is influenced by permafrost, layer of permanently frozen subsoil in ground. surface soil, which tends to be rocky, thaws in summer to varying depths. The combination of frozen ground and flat terrain on tundra impedes drainage of water. Held at surface or saturating upper layer of soil, water forms ponds and bogs that provide moisture for plants, thereby counteracting low precipitation. In relatively well-drained locations, periodic freezing and thawing of soil forms cracks in ground in regularly patterned polygons. Poorly drained areas produce irregular landforms such as hummocks, or knolls, frost boils, and earth stripes. Thawing of slopes in summer may move soil downslope to produce solifluction, or flowing soil terraces. All of these patterns, pronounced on arctic tundra, also appear on smaller scale on alpine tundra. Common to alpine tundra is bare rock-covered ground, called fell-fields, supporting growth of lichens. numerous microhabitats provided by these landforms give variety to landscape. 5. Put into Romanian the text above. Use a dictionary.

48

6. Give the present form of the verbs in brackets. Swans, of the family Anatidae, (may) live up to 35 years, and they (pair) for life. The mute swan or Cygnus olor, (be) about 1.5 m in length and (weigh) up to 13.5 kg. It originated in the eastern hemisphere but (be) now seen as a domesticated bird in many North American parks; large feral populations (inhabit) the Atlantic coastal states from Connecticut to Virginia, and, in fewer numbers, several mid-western states. Adult mute swans (be) pure white, with reddish bills. The bill (have) a black tip and (be) surmounted by a black knob at the base of the upper mandible. The young, called cygnets, (be) pale grey in colour and (have) a lead-coloured bill. The largest of the swans (be) the trumpeter swan or Cygnus buccinator, which (breed) from Alaska to the Rocky Mountain states, and (have) been introduced farther east. Its numbers were dangerously low at one time, but it (have) since recovered. Its counterpart in the eastern hemisphere (be) the whooper swan or Cygnus cygnus, which (have) a large yellow patch on the side of the bill and a differently shaped trachea. The whooper (look) much like the smaller Bewick's swan, the Eurasian subspecies of the tundra swan or Cygnus columbianus, of which the American population, which (have) less yellow on the bill, (have) long been called whistling swan. The black swan or Cygnus atratus, a red-billed bird that (resemble) the mute swan in shape, (inhabit) Australia, and the black-necked swan or Cygnus melanocorypha (be) confined to southern South America. A species with a similar range, the coscoroba swan or Coscoroba coscoroba, (be) an allwhite bird with a red bill; it (look) more duck-like than other swans. 7. Supply the necessary reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, etc.) in the sentences below. All the students should shave every morning. Did you enjoy at the party last Saturday night? Everybody likes to look at in the mirror from time to time. My colleague and I enjoyed very much at the party last month. The assistant hurt when she fell on the stairs. The children amuse with the kitten. The dog hurt when it jumped over the fence. The Professor cut on a piece of glass when making the demonstration. The tundra ecosystem is extremely sensitive to disturbance with little ability to restore We protect from the rain with an umbrella when on the experimental plot. You should not really blame for that mistake.

49

8. Give the antonyms of the adjectives below then use them in sentences of your own as in the model. abundant scarce Vegetables are abundant, but fruits are scarce this year. abundant animal brilliant deep dominant fluctuating fragile heavy high large long low mild northern rare scarce sensitive short similar typical vulnerable

Supplementary Reading: Lichen


The term lichen designates the living partnership of a fungus and an alga. The fungus component is called the mycobiont and is composed of intertwined, threadlike fibres called hyphae that are tightly packed into a tissue-like sheet. The fungus uses these hyphae to absorb food from its surroundings. The algal component, called the photobiont, makes its own food through photosynthesis and grows as a mass of green cells dispersed among the fungal hyphae. Lichens survive in a wide variety of environments, either forming small, circular crusts or leaf-like structures attached to bark, rocks, or soil, or as hair-like structures hanging from tree branches. The relationship between the fungus and the alga in lichen is an example of mutualism, in which both partners benefit from the partnership. This relationship enables each to tolerate harsh conditions where neither could survive alone. In this partnership, the fungus furnishes the alga with water, prevents overexposure to sunlight, and provides simple mineral nutrients, while the photosynthesising alga supplies food to the fungus even if no other organic material is available. In dry, barren areas where plants have a hard time growing, such as polar tundra, deserts, rocky outcrops, or high mountains, lichens are the primary photosynthesisers. Some remarkable species even grow inside porous rocks, just below the surface where some light can still reach the algal cells. Their ability to grow in severe conditions often makes lichens pioneers in plant succession, the process in which plants colonize bare rock or soil. Lichens release acids that break down inhospitable rock, permitting soiltrapping mosses and grasses to grab hold. In areas where soil gradually accumulates, such as a forest floor, the pioneering lichens are eventually replaced by plants and trees, although other lichens may grow on these plants and trees.

50

UNIT 8 RAIN FOREST


The term rain forest applies to woodland characterized by lush vegetation and comparatively high temperature and rainfall throughout the year. Rain forests are the worlds most biologically diverse ecosystems. Although they account for less than 7 percent of the land surface on Earth, they contain more than 50 percent - some scientists estimate as high as 90 percent - of its plant and animal species. One hectare of tropical rain forest may contain more than 600 species of trees. Even more impressive are the number and diversity of animal species that call rain forests their home. One study found more species of ants living on a single rain forest stump than exist in all of the British Isles. Rain forests also play a critical role in global climate regulation by absorbing carbon dioxide, a gas believed to be partially responsible for global warming. Plants naturally absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen gas in the process of photosynthesis, and tropical rain forests absorb more carbon dioxide than any other terrestrial ecosystem on earth. Global emissions of carbon dioxide have increased nearly 30 percent in the last century. There is general agreement among the scientific community that by absorbing some of the gas, rain forests play a vital role in lessening its impacts. To be classified as a rain forest, a forest must have a closed canopy, in which the treetops, or crowns, touch each other, creating a shaded forest interior. In addition, temperature and rainfall must be high and relatively even throughout the year. Forests that meet these criteria are found flanking the equator in South and Central America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. In South America, a vast, forested area of the Amazon River basin in Brazil and neighbouring countries is by far the largest rain forest in the world. It encompasses more than 3.5 million sq km - about half of the total global rain forest cover. The larger of two large rain forests in Asia is centred along the Malay Archipelago, including the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and the Republic of the Philippines. The other main rain forest in Asia is found primarily on the island of New Guinea and in northern Australia. In Africa, most of the rain forest is concentrated along the Atlantic coast and the Congo River Basin. In regions of the N and S hemispheres, small areas of temperate rain forest are found along the coasts where rainfall and humidity are high and winters are mild. Such temperate rain forests are found in the Pacific NW of the U.S. and SW Canada, for example. They are dominated by only a few tree species, however, making them differ dramatically from highly diverse tropical rain forests. (After Elizabeth Losos, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

51

Vocabulary
account for (v.) = a explica ant = furnic (Formica) as high as = pn la be believed to be (v.) = a fi considerat closed canopy = coroan apropiat cover = acopermnt, nveli criterion (pl. criteria) = criteriu crown = coroan even = egal() flank (v.) = a flanca give off (v.) = a da drumul, a elibera, a emana global climate regulation = reglarea climei globale global warming = nclzire global high = nalt(), mare however = totui impressive = impresionant() lessen (v.) = a uura lush = abundant(), luxuriant() main = principal() meet (v.) = a deplini neighbouring = nconjurtor, -oare primarily = n principal, mai ales shaded forest interior = spaiu cu umbr n interiorul pdurii stump = cioat, ciot; butean, butuc, buturug, trunchi throughout = pe tot parcursul treetop = vrful copacului

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What does the term rain forest apply to? What is very impressive in a rain forest? How do rain forests play a critical role in global climate regulation? How much have global emissions of carbon dioxide increased in the last century? What must a forest have to be classified as a rain forest? Where are rain forests found? Where are centred the two large rain forests in Asia? Where are temperate rain forests found?

52

2. Match the following features of weather with their definitions. a. a measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or substance with reference to some standard value b. a value of standard or normal atmospheric pressure, equivalent to the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 760 mm high, or 1013.2 millibars c. air in natural motion, as along the Earths surface d. direct light of the sun e. falling products of condensation in the atmosphere, as rain, snow, or hail; the amount precipitated f. the amount of water vapour in the air expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount that the air could hold at the given temperature g. the composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, as temperature, atmospheric / barometric pressure, (relative) humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averages over a series of years h. the state of being cloudy

1. (relative) humidity

2. atmospheric pressure

3. climate 4. cloudiness 5. precipitation

6. sunshine

7. temperature

8. wind

3. Fill in the blanks with cloud, fog, haze, or mist, bearing in mind the following. Cloud, fog, haze, and mist differ somewhat in their figurative uses. Cloud connotes especially daydreaming. Fog and haze connote especially bewilderness and confusion. Mist has an emotional connotation and suggests tears. From time to time he would go in a He has always had his head in the His mind is in the I cannot stand people who go in a I give up whenever I see a mist in somebodys eyes. I have gone in a about the details of the arrangement. My sons in a complete about his future.

53

4. Fill in with the proper adjective from below. annual balmy daily hot monthly resident steamy true Rain forests are typically and the average temperature is 25C. Temperature near the equator varies little over the course of a year, so rain forest temperatures are about the same year round the average minimum temperature in a rain forest is a 18C. Rain forests are not found where the temperature drops close to 0C because their plants and animals are not well adapted to withstand frost. Temperature in a rain forest depends not only on distance from the equator but also on altitude. As elevation increases, night-time temperatures go down significantly. This temperature variation affects forest ecology, and rain forests typically are not found above 1,000 m. 5. Give the corresponding adjective / adverb for the adverbs / adjectives below, as in the model.
Adjective Adverb

true typical

truly typically

Rain forests can average as little as 1.8 m, or as much as 9.0 m, of rainfall a year. What distinguishes a true rain forest is the distribution of precipitation throughout the year there are no dry seasons. Every month, typically more than 100 mm of rain falls. If a rain forest does have dry periods, they are usually short and unpredictable. In many climates, rainfall evaporation is carried away to fall as rain in distant places, but in the rain forests, nearly 50% of the precipitation comes from local evaporation. The warm, humid air surrounding a rain forest forms a microenvironment that permits little water to escape. Much of the rain that falls on the rain forest is intercepted by the trees in the canopy. Some of it rolls off the leaves and down the trunks to the forest below, but a high percentage evaporates and hangs as tiny droplets of water in the humid atmosphere. Gentle and continuous winds lift the tiny droplets higher in the atmosphere, where they cool and form clouds. When enough of these drops enter the atmosphere and cool, they condense and fall as rain, beginning the cycle again. 6. Group the terms related to climate in the text above, as in the model.
Climate
(relative) humidity atmospheric pressure cloudiness precipitation sunshine temperature wind

rain

54

7. Identify all the terms related to rain forest in the text below. Despite their incredible lushness and high diversity, one of the peculiarities of rain forests is that the soil is poor in nutrients that can be absorbed by plant roots. The nutritious minerals have been washed out of the soils by heavy rainfall and high temperatures over thousands of years. To compensate for the nutrient-poor rain forest soils, most tropical trees absorb the nutrients they can find and hold them in their living tissue. In contrast, the rich soils of temperate forests are better able to retain nutrients, enabling a temperate forest tree to absorb small amounts of minerals as the tree needs them. When tropical trees die, nutrients are released into the soils by decomposition. Rather than remaining in the soil reservoir as they would in a temperate forest, in the rain forest, the nutrients are rapidly absorbed again by other living organisms. 8. Restate each of the sentences below as in the model. This is the canopy in which the treetops touch each other. This is the canopy which the treetops touch each other in. This is the canopy the treetops touch each other in. He is the kind of colleague from whom it is difficult to get away. I finally found the book for which I was looking. It is a subject on which we will never agree. It was John from whom I borrowed the money. It was this book for whom he had to wait so long. The fellow with whom I roomed was from Suceava. The man to whom you were speaking is Dr. Evans. The person to whom you should speak is Professor Stan. The room in which we study is on the fifth floor. The students with whom he studies are mainly from Timioara. The thing about which they were arguing was really important. This is the book about which everyone is talking.

9. Complete the sentences below to get sentences similar to those above. The book for which The man to whom The professor from whom The room in which The street on which The students with whom The tools with which

55

Supplementary Reading: Indigenous People of the Tropical Rain Forest


Most of the worlds tropical rain forests are inhabited, and have been for thousands of years, by indigenous peoples who depend on the forests for their livelihoods. Many indigenous peoples live deep within the rain forest in areas that, to this day, are accessible only by river. Anthropologists believe that as many as 1,000 different cultures of indigenous peoples may be living in rain forests worldwide. Among the many small groups are the Yanomamo, the Ashaninka, and the Kayap of South America; the Baka Pygmies of Cameroon; and the Penan and Bentian Dayak of Borneo. Although each indigenous group has a different culture and customs, they all share a dependence on the rain forest habitat in which they live. Indigenous tribes often possess a great wealth of knowledge about the rain forests, including the medicinal uses of different plant species, the habits of breeding birds, and rainfall patterns. This knowledge has been passed down verbally from generation to generation. Many indigenous peoples collect fruits, nuts, firewood, construction materials, and game meat from the rain forests. Most also depend on small-scale agriculture for food and medicinal plants. Using a practice known as shifting cultivation, most indigenous peoples living in the rain forest clear small plots to plant gardens for food and medicine. Sometimes they clear the land by burning the forest. Called slash-and-burn agriculture, this method makes the clearing process easier and releases nutrients into the soil quickly. Because rain forest soils are nutrient-poor, garden production decreases significantly after a couple of years, at which point the garden is abandoned, and a new plot is cleared and planted. Indigenous peoples have relied on these agricultural methods for thousands of years. In the past, the abandoned plots were allowed to regenerate for many years before they were cleared and farmed again. These traditional shifting cultivation practices did not significantly damage the rain forest because the rain forests were so vast and populations of indigenous peoples relatively small. In the last half of the 20th century, indigenous tribes became vastly outnumbered by colonists migrating to the region. Attracted by seemingly unoccupied land, small-scale farmers and cattle ranchers threaten the survival of indigenous peoples and their rain forest habitat. Logging, mining, and oil and gas extraction have also drastically reduced the size of rain forests around the globe, and as the forests shrink, indigenous peoples are forced to compete for the limited land that remains. In this competitive environment, even the once-sustainable agricultural practices of indigenous peoples can cause significant damage to the fragile rain forest ecosystem.

56

UNIT 9 TREE: DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE


A tree is a woody plant with a distinct main stem, or trunk. At maturity, trees are usually the tallest of plants, and their height and single main stem differentiate them from shrubs, which are shorter and have many stems. Trees are perennials, plants that live for at least three years. The largest trees, however, are not necessarily the oldest. Trees grow throughout the world, from the extreme cold regions near the Arctic and the Antarctic to the hot tropical regions around the equator. They grow in both good and poor soil, in deserts and swamps, along shores, and at mountain elevations of several thousand feet. Although trees may grow singly, under natural conditions they more often grow in stands, which consist either of one species or of a mixture of species. A forest is a plant community made up of the trees, shrubs, and herbs that cover an area. Throughout much of North America, forests include only a few species of trees. In tropical forests, however, large numbers of different species can be found in very small areas (e.g., 476 tree species in a 1-ha Brazilian rain forest plot). Perhaps the most important ecological function of trees is protecting the land against erosion, the wearing away of topsoil due to wind and water. The trunks and branches of trees provide protection from the wind, and tree roots help solidify soil in times of heavy rain. In addition, trees and forests store water reserves that act as buffers for the ecosystem during periods of drought. In many areas the removal of forests has resulted in costly floods and subsequent droughts. Trees and forests also provide habitat, protection, and food for many plant and animal species. In addition, they play an important role in global climate and atmosphere regulation the leaves of trees absorb carbon dioxide in the air and produce oxygen that is necessary for life. Trees have many economic uses. Lumber from trees is the most widely used material in the building of homes and other structures. Trees yield edible fruits and nuts (oranges, grapefruits, apples, avocados, peaches, pecans, hickory nuts, and almonds). Trees and their fruits are also the source of many commercial waxes and oils (olive oil and coconut oil). Tree trunks are tapped for sap, used in making such products as maple syrup, rubber, and turpentine. The barks of certain trees yield cork and spices. Many trees yield important medicines (quinine). The bark of the yew tree is the source of the drug taxol (approved for treating ovarian cancer in 1992). Chemical materials produced by trees are used in tanning leather and in the manufacture of inks, medicines, dyes, and wood alcohol. In addition, trees are used in landscaping homes, parks, and highways. In regions with extreme climates, they serve as windbreaks or as shade against the sun. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

57

Vocabulary
almond = migdal bark = scoar buffer = tampon coconut oil = ulei de cocos cork = plut (din care se fac dopurile pentru astuparea sticlelor) costly = costisitor drought = secet dye = vopsea edible = comestibil() flood = inundaie height = nlime hickory nut = carie, hickory porcesc (Carya glabra) highway = autostrad ink = cerneal landscaping = amenajarea peisajului nconjurtor leather = piele (prelucrat) maple syrup = sirop de arar medicine = medicament mountain elevation = altitudinea munilor nut = orice fruct a crui smn este protejat de un nveli tare olive oil = ulei de msline peach = piersic pecan = fructul pecanului (Carya illinoensis, Carya olivae formis) provide (v.) = a furniza, a oferi removal of forest = despdurire rubber = cauciuc sap = sev shade = umbr shore = coast, rm spice = condiment stem = tulpin swamp = mlatin tanning = tbcire tap (v.) = a stoarce topsoil = stratul superior al solului turpentine = terebentin wax = cear wearing away = ndeprtare, splare windbreak = perdea dearbori (mpotriva vntului) yew tree = tis (Taxus baccata) yield (v.) = a da, a produce

58

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is a tree? What differentiates a tree from shrubs? How long do trees live? Where do trees grow? In what kind of soil do they grow? How do trees grow under natural conditions? What is a forest? What do forests in North America include? And tropical forests? What is the most important ecological function of trees? What do the trunks and branches of trees provide? What do trees and forests store? What has the removal of forests in many areas resulted in? What do trees and forests also provide? What role do trees and forests play in addition? What economic uses do trees have? What is lumber from trees used in? What fruits do trees yield? What are tree trunks tapped for? What are chemical materials produced by trees used in? What do trees serve as in regions with extreme climates?

2. True or false?
True False

1. A tree is a woody plant with a distinct main stem, or bark. 2. At maturity, trees are usually the tallest of plants, and their height and single main stem differentiate them from shrubs, which are shorter and have many stems. 3. The largest trees are necessarily the oldest. 4. A forest is a plant community made up of the trees, shrubs, and herbs that cover an area. 5. In tropical forests large numbers of different species can be found in very large areas. 6. The most important ecological function of trees is protecting the land against erosion. 7. Trees have few economic uses. 8. Many trees yield important medicines (quinine).

59

3. Fill in with the proper verb from below. are grow have include is live make match may A shrub a short, woody plant, typically with several stems arising from or near the ground. Shrubs perennial plants that is, they for at least three years. Although the distinction often artificial, shrubs generally shorter and more stems than trees. Shrubs wild in all but the coldest or driest regions of the earth. They be evergreen (retaining foliage throughout the year) or deciduous (losing foliage each year). Shrubs often planted to control erosion, the wearing away of topsoil by wind and rain, in exposed areas. Their variety of forms, foliage, flowers, fruits, and fragrance them popular in gardens and as landscape plants. According to 20th century British botanist Stanley Whitehead, shrubs the stable, long-life qualities of forest trees without the embarrassment of the latters size. They the floral beauty and grace of habit of herbaceous plants without their compelling need for support and attention. Popular shrubs the rhododendron, laurel, holly, dogwood, rose, and hydrangea. 4. Match the following nuts with their definitions. a. a dry fruit consisting of an edible kernel or meat enclosed in a woody or leathery shell; the kernel itself; a hard, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit, as the chestnut b. the edible nut of trees of the genus Castanea, of the beech family c. the edible nut of trees of the genus Juglans, of the North Temperate zone; the hickory nut d. the fruit of any of several North American, juglandaceous trees of the genus Carya e. the hard, aromatic seed of the fruit of an East Indian tree, Myristica fragrans, used as a spice; the similar product of certain other trees of the same genus or other genera f. the large, hard-shelled seed of the coconut palm, lined with a white edible meat and containing a milky liquid

1. chestnut 2. coco(a)nut 3. hickory nut 4. nut

5. nutmeg

6. walnut

5. Look carefully at the picture below and then answer the questions. Which is the tallest tree on Earth? Which of the trees in the picture has the largest canopy? What are the scientific names of the trees in the picture? What synonyms are there for these trees?

60

61

Supplementary Reading: Stem


Stem is the portion of vascular plants that commonly bears leaves and buds. It usually is aerial, upright, and elongate, but may be highly modified in structure. Subterranean stems include the rhizomes of the iris and the runners of the strawberry; the potato is a portion of an underground stem. Some plants have very short stems that bear a dense cluster of leaves. Those points on the stem at which leaves or buds arise are called nodes, and the regions of the stem between the nodes are known as internodes. The chief functions of stems are the production and support of leaves and reproductive structures, conduction of water and nutrients and food storage. In some plants stems also have the specialized functions of storing water and manufacturing food. Conducting tissues within plant stems are arranged in columns called vascular bundles. These bundles are composed of xylem, which conducts water up the stem, and of phloem, which transports sugars produced by the leaf down the stem. Vascular bundles extend into leaves, in which they are called veins. As the stem grows longer, new cells are added to the vascular system, providing conductive tissue for new leaves and branches. The arrangement of vascular bundles differs in the stems of the two major groups of angiosperms or flowering plants: the monocotyledons and the dicotyledons. In monocotyledons the vascular tissue occurs in many scattered bundles throughout the cross section of the stem. In dicotyledons the vascular bundles are arranged in a cylindrical ring; the remainder of the stem constitutes the fundamental tissue and is usually divided into the cortex, or portion outside the ring of vascular bundles, and the pith, the portion inside the cylindrical ring. The outer layer of the stem of herbaceous plants is called the epidermis. In the angiosperms only dicotyledons have true woody growth. Gymnosperms, comprising the conifers and related plants, all have woody stems with a thin layer of cells between the xylem and phloem, called the cambium. During the growing season, these cells divide actively, producing new cells that differentiate into xylem, or wood, toward the inner side of the cambium and phloem toward the outer side. As the cambium grows, the diameter of the stem increases, and the new phloem presses outward upon the soft tissues of the cortex, which become distorted and eventually die. A second layer of dividing cells, however, is formed either in the cortex or, in older stems, in the phloem. This layer of cells produces cork, which is the protective tissue that replaces the dead cells of the epidermis. The bark of tree trunks, thus, is a complex tissue consisting of phloem and cork. Herbaceous stems, lacking in woody growth, may derive strength by other means. The monocotyledon bamboo, for example, which does not develop wood, is strengthened by the presence of numerous fibres in its stem.

62

UNIT 10 TYPES OF TREE (I)


There are two general types of trees, angiosperms and gymnosperms: - Angiosperms are flowering plants in which the ovule, or seed, is encased in a protective ovary. With about 235,000 species, the angiosperm division is the largest and most diverse plant group. It is divided into dicots, plants with two cotyledons (seed leaf structures), that include the familiar broadleaf trees such as maple (family Aceraceae) and oak (family Fagaceae); and the monocots, plants with one cotyledon that include the palms (family Arecaceae) and lily trees. - Unlike angiosperms, gymnosperms (Greek for naked seed) do not bear flowers. Their seeds lie exposed in structures such as cones or fleshy cups called arils. The group includes about 500 tree species - including three major types, needle-leaf trees (or conifers), ginkgos (family Ginkgoaceae), and cycads (family Cycadaceae). As angiosperms, all dicots produce flowers, and their seeds are always enclosed in a protective covering. In temperate regions, most of these broadleaf trees are deciduous, meaning that they shed their foliage each year. Some non-tropical broadleaf trees, however, such as certain magnolias (family Magnoliaceae) and hollies (family Aquifoliaceae), are evergreen - that is, they retain foliage throughout the year. In warmer parts of the United States and in the tropics, most broadleaf trees are evergreen. Broadleaf trees include virtually all of the familiar trees and shrubs that are known to flower, such as the elm (family Ulmaceae), chestnut (family Fagaceae), alder (family Betulaceae), birch (family Betulaceae), and willow (family Salicaceae), as well as tropical species such as teak (family Verbenaceae) and mahogany (family Meliaceae). The most recognizable trees in the monocot angiosperm class are the palm trees (family Arecaceae). There are about 2500 species of palms, including the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) and date palm (family Arecaceae). Most palms lack branches and instead have enormous compound leaves (leaves composed of leaflets arranged along a central stem). Lily trees are another member of the monocot class. These trees are closely related to the familiar garden lily (family Liliaceae) and include yucca trees (family Agavaceae) such as the odd-looking Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), which is found in the deserts of the south-western United States. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

63

Vocabulary
alder = anin (negru), arin (Alnus glutinosa) bear (v.) = a avea, a purta birch = mesteacn (Betula alba, B. pendula B. verrucosa) (common / English) holly = laur (Ilex aquifolium) cycad = cicad (Cycas sp.) date (palm) = curmal (Phoenix dactylifera) elm = ulm (Ulmus sp.) fleshy cup = cup crnoas ginkgo = ginkgo (Gingko biloba) Joshua tree = copacul lui Joshua (Yucca brevifolia) lack (v.) = a(-i) lipsi leaflet = frunzu(li) lie (v.) = a se afla, a sta, a zace lily tree = (specie de arbore) (Yucca sp.) mahogany = acaju, mahon (Swietenia mahogani) maple = arar (Acer sp.) naked = dezvelit, gol needle-leaf tree = arbore cu frunzele n form de ace oak = stejar (Quercus sp.) odd-looking = care arat ciudat palm = palmier (Palma sp.) shed ones foliage (v.) = a-i scutura frunzele (Spanish / sweet) chestnut = castan (bun) (Castanea sativa, C. vesca) teak = tek (Tectoria grandis) willow = rchit, salcie (Salix sp.) yucca (tree) = yucca (Yucca filamentosa)

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What are angiosperms? How many species of angiosperms are there? How many divisions of angiosperms are there? What do dicots include? What do dicots produce? What do monocots include? What are gymnosperms? How many species of gymnosperms are there? What are the most common trees in the monocot angiosperm class?

64

2. Fill in with the proper preposition from below. by for from in of Angiosperm (Latin angi-, enclosed; Greek sperma, seed) is the common name the division or phylum comprising flowering plants, the dominant form plant life. Members the division are the source most of the food on which humans and other mammals rely and many raw materials and natural products. Included the division are most shrubs and herbs, most familiar trees except pines and other conifers, and specialized plants such as succulents, parasites, and aquatic types. Although about 230,000 species are known, many remain obscure. Flowering plants occupy almost every ecological situation and dominate most natural landscapes. About two-thirds occur the Tropics, where they are rapidly being exterminated human activities. Only about 1000 species are major economic importance, and the bulk the worlds food supply is derived only 15. Many hundreds more could be useful if properly investigated and developed. 3. Match the following deciduous with their definitions. 1. alder 2. birch 3. chestnut a. any betulaceous tree of the genus Alnus, growing in most places in northern or colder regions b. any fagaceous tree of the genus Quercus, bearing the acorn as fruit c. any of numerous trees of the genus Acer, species of which are grown as shade or ornamental trees, for timber, or for sap d. any of several trees of the genus Ilex, having glossy, spiny-toothed leaves, small, whitish flowers, and red berries e. any of the trees of the genus Castanea, of the beech family f. any tree of the genus Betula, comprising species with a smooth, laminated outer bark and close-grained wood g. any tree of the genus Salix, many species of which have tough, pliable twigs or branches used for wickerwork, etc. h. any tree of the genus Ulmus, characterised by the gradually spreading columnar manner of growth of its branches

4. elm 5. holly 6. maple 7. oak

8. willow

4. Which of the trees above grow in Romania and where?

65

5. Identify all the terms related to botany in the text below. The characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower, the function of which is the reproduction of the plant through the development of seeds. Flowers are highly modified shoots made up of four fundamental parts arranged in separate series, or whorls, on specialized stem tips. The outer series consists of the sepals, which are modified leaves or bracts that are usually green. The next inner series, the petals, are also modified leaves, but they are usually finer textured and more conspicuously coloured. The third series consists of the stamens, the pollen-producing male portion of the flower. The innermost series is the carpels, female structures that produce the seeds. Carpels are often fused into a structure called the pistil. The seeds of angiosperms develop in an ovary, a part of the carpel that surrounds and protects the egg-containing ovules. Seeds develop from the ovules after pollination and fertilization of the eggs. Ovules and seeds are not exclusive to angiosperms. The naked-seed plants, which include the conifers, cycads, and ginkgo, have ovules that lie exposed on the surface of specialized, scale-like leaves arranged into cones. The development of seeds from ovules enclosed in an ovary, which enlarges into a fruit as the fertilized seeds grow, is a feature unique to the angiosperms. 6. Put the text below into Romanian. Use a dictionary. The unique angiosperm flower probably evolved from a now extinct gymnosperm group that had insect-pollinated cones combining male and female reproductive parts. Living gymnosperms are mostly wind-pollinated, but among certain fossil and extant groups evidence of insect pollination exists. Although insects facilitate pollination, they also eat ovules, and it is believed that the development of the ovule-enclosing carpel of the angiosperm was an adaptation to protect the ovules and developing seeds from insect predation. The carpel also provided protection from other harmful environmental influences, such as dryness, and it allowed reduction in the size of the ovule, refinement of the process of pollination, and the development of other parts of the flower, all of which improved the chances of successful reproduction. 7. Look carefully at the picture below and then answer the following. What colour are the leaves, the flowers, and the fruits in the picture? Which of the trees whose fruits and flowers are presented in the picture can be met in Romania too? Which flowers in the picture are sweet-smelling? Which of the fruits in the picture are edible?

66

67

Supplementary Reading: Palm


Palm is the common name for a family (Arecaceae) of woody flowering plants widespread in the tropics. They are of great economic importance because of the food, fibre, and oil they provide, and because of their ornamental uses. The family is the only member of its order and contains about 2,600 species, making it the fourth largest among the monocots, after the grasses, lilies, and orchids. Palms have a characteristic growth form: a single, unbranched trunk topped with a tuft of fanlike or featherlike leaves. The flowers are borne in axillary clusters (inflorescences), and a large, interwoven mass of roots occurs at the trunk base. The trunks of palms, like those of other monocots, have no secondary growth; thus, the diameter of the trunk does not increase with the age of the tree, as in dicots. The growing tip of the trunk instead is built up into a large mass in the seedling stage, and maintains that broad width as the trunk matures. Bundles of vascular tissue are scattered throughout the trunks. The leaves of palms, often large, are formed a few at a time at the stem tips. They have large, sheathing bases that may leave semicircular scars on the stems when they fall off. The leaf blades are folded in a distinctive fashion called plicate. Flowers of palms are usually individually inconspicuous but are often borne in great masses, some containing as many as 250,000 flowers. Flower parts are in threes, with three sepals (outer floral whorls) and petals (inner floral whorls) and six stamens (male flower parts). The pistil (female flower part), which usually consists of three separate or fused carpels (eggbearing structures), matures into a single-seeded fruit that may be either a berry (a seed surrounded by a fleshy covering) or a drupe (a seed with a stony layer surrounded by a fleshy covering). Palms are overwhelmingly tropical in distribution. They occur there in habitats that range from lowland rain forests to high mountains, and from deserts to mangrove swamps. Their distribution in the tropical zones, however, is uneven. About 1,400 species occur in tropical Asia, whereas only about 120 occur in Africa. Another 130 species occur on Madagascar and other nearby islands in the western Indian Ocean near Africa, and about 950 species occur in the American tropics. Palms are important sources of foods such as dates, coconuts, and sago. Copra and coir, which are useful fibres, raffia, and rattan fibre also come from palms. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), native to West Africa but widely cultivated, has become a source of the vegetable oil used in making margarine and soap and in cooking. Palms are grown as ornamentals in tropical and subtropical regions, and many smaller species are used as houseplants.

68

UNIT 11 TYPES OF TREE (II)


The needle-leaf trees, or conifers, include such trees as: - pine (genus Pinus); - spruce (genus Picea); - fir (genus Abies); - yew (genus Taxus); - redwood (family Taxodiaceae); - cypress (family Cupressaceae). The seeds of these gymnosperms are usually produced in cones at the base of protective scales. As their name implies, needle-leaf trees have slender needle-shaped leaves. Because of their small surface area and structure, needle leaves are not seriously injured by very low temperatures or by severe droughts. For this reason, the forests of cold far northern latitudes and high-altitude arid regions consist mostly of needleleaf trees. Most needle-leaf trees are evergreens and retain most of their foliage throughout the year. Deciduous members of the group include: - bald cypress (Taxodium distichum); - larch (genus Larix). The ginkgo, or maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba), is the sole living survivor of the ancient division of ginkgo gymnosperms. The ginkgo was abundant in the Mesozoic era (about 240 million to 65 million years ago). Virtually unchanged since that time, this tree is recognized by its fanshaped leaves and the forking vein patterns on its leaves. A deciduous tree, the ginkgo grows slowly but may attain heights of more than 30 m. Ginkgos (family Ginkgoaceae of order Ginkgogoales in the phylum Ginkgophyta) are native to Asia, where they have been preserved as sacred trees in Chinese temples since antiquity, but they are also cultivated in Europe and the United States. Cycads (genus Cycas of the family Cycadaceae) are palm-like gymnosperms found mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Central America. There are about 100 species, with only one native to the United States. The trunk has no branches, and the long leaves are clustered near the top. Cycads are evergreen and may grow to heights of more than 18 m. They first appeared 285 million years ago and were the dominant plant type during the age of the dinosaurs, which roughly paralleled the Mesozoic era. Because the cycad is a popular ornamental tree, most cycad species are in danger of extinction because so many of them have been collected from the wild. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

69

Vocabulary
attain (v.) = a atinge bald cypress = chiparos de balt (Taxodium distichum) clustered = adunat sub form de ciorchine cycad = cicad (Cycas sp.) cypress = chiparos (Cupressus sp.) danger of extinction = pericol de dispariie fan-shaped leaf = frunz n form de evantai fir (tree) = brad (Abies sp.) forking vein = vene care se ramific ginkgo = ginkgo (Gingko biloba) larch = zad (Larix sp.) maidenhair tree = ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) pine = pin (Pinus sp.) preserve (v.) = a conserva redwood = sequoia (Sequoia sempervirens) roughly = de fapt sacred tree = copac sacru / sfnt scale = solz severe = aspru, - slender = subire, subirel, -iric, zvelt() slowly = ncet, lent sole = singur() spruce (fir) = molid (Picea sp.) survivor = supravieuitor wild = slbticie yew (tree) = tis (Taxus baccata)

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What do conifers include? Where are the seeds of gymnosperms usually produced? What do deciduous gymnosperms include? What is the gingko? How can the gingko be recognised? Where does it grow? What are cycads? Where are they found? How many species of cycads are there?

70

2. True or false?
True False

1. Conifers include such trees as cypress, fir, oak, pine, redwood, spruce, and yew. 2. The seeds of the gymnosperms are usually produced in cones at the base of protective scales. 3. Needle-leaf trees have thick needle-shaped leaves. 4. Needle leaves are seriously injured by very low temperatures or by severe droughts. 5. The forests of cold far northern latitudes and highaltitude arid regions consist mostly of needle-leaf trees. 6. Deciduous members of the group include bald cypress and larch. 7. The ginkgo is the sole living survivor of the ancient division of ginkgo gymnosperms. 8. Cycads are palm-like gymnosperms found mainly in temperate regions of Africa, Asia, Central America, and Europe. 9. Most cycad species are in danger of extinction because so many of them have been collected from the wild. 3. Fill in with the proper nouns from below. conifer families fern genera plant regions scales seed trees Gymnosperm (Latin gymn-, naked; Greek sperma, seed) is the common name for any seed-bearing vascular without flowers. There are several types: the cycad, ginkgo, , yew, and gnetophyte. Gymnosperms are woody plants, either shrubs, , or, rarely, vines (some gnetophytes). They differ from the other phylum of plants, the flowering plants, in that the seeds are not enclosed in carpels but rather are borne upon seed arranged in cones. The gymnosperms are the most ancient seed plants; they appear to have arisen from ancestors in the Devonian Period. Cycads retain the most primitive characters of the extant seed plants. Gnetophytes are considered from morphological and molecular evidence to share a common ancestry with the flowering plants. Living gymnosperms are distributed worldwide, with a majority, particularly the conifers, in temperate and subarctic Cycads and gnetophytes are mainly tropical to subtropical. There are about 70 with 600 species of living gymnosperms, far less than many of flowering plants. Gymnosperms are contained in four phyla: Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Pinophyta, and Gnetophyta.

71

4. Match the following evergreens with their definitions. a. a coniferous tree, Sequoia sempervirens, of California, noted for its height of from 200 to over 300 feet b. a large, ornamental, gymnospermous tree, Gingko biloba, native to China, having fan-shaped leaves, fleshy fruit, and edible nuts c. a tree, Taxodium distichum, of the southern U.S., yielding a strong, hard wood used in construction, shipbuilding, etc. d. any coniferous tree of the genus Larix, yielding a tough durable wood e. any evergreen, coniferous tree of the genus Picea, having short, angular, needle-shaped leaves attached singly around twigs f. any evergreen, coniferous tree of the genus Pinus, having long, needle-shaped leaves, various species of which yield timber, turpentine, tar, pitch, etc. g. any gymnospermous plant of the order Cycadales, intermediate in appearance between ferns and the palms, many species having a thick, unbranched, columnar trunk bearing a crown of large, leathery, pinnate leaves h. any of several evergreen coniferous trees of the genus Cypressus, having dark-green, scale-like, overlapping leaves i. any of several evergreen, coniferous trees of the genus Taxus, of the Old World, North America, and Japan j. any of the pyramidal coniferous trees of the genus Abies

1. bald cypress

2. cycad

3. cypress 4. fir 5. ginkgo

6. larch

7. pine

8. redwood

9. spruce 10. yew

5. Look carefully at the picture below and then answer the questions. Which of the leaves in the picture belong to deciduous trees and which to evergreen trees? Can you give arguments to support your answer? How would you describe the leaves in the picture from the point of view of their structure? What colour do you think the leaves in the picture are? What are the differences between the deciduous / evergreen leaves?

72

73

6. Supply for or since in the sentences below. Ginkgos have been preserved as sacred trees in Chinese temples antiquity. He has been absent Monday. He has taught in that university more than thirty years. I have been teaching English and French here 1998 or, to be more exact seven years. I have not been to the lab last week. I have not read anything else but reports two days. I have not seen Professor Bran several days. John has studied in this university six months now. She has been sick three days, this is why she has been absent from class. They have been friends high school. We have been planning this documentary trip a year. We have been waiting for the assistant thirty minutes now.

Supplementary Reading: Ginkgo


Ginkgo is a genus of deciduous trees (family Ginkgoaceae, order Ginkgogoales, phylum Ginkgophyta); the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba) is the only living representative of its family and order, although other plants of this order were abundant in the Mesozoic era. The ginkgo has been preserved as a sacred tree in Chinese temple gardens since ancient times. Botanists long believed that the species would have become extinct without this care, but wild ginkgos have been found in recent years in remote valleys of western China. Ginkgo trees grow 12 to 37 m tall. The ginkgo leaf is a fan-shaped structure with veins arising from the base and branching dichotomously throughout. The common name, maidenhair tree, is derived from the resemblance in venation between the ginkgo and the maidenhair fern. Larger branches of the ginkgo are covered with dwarf branches, called spurs, which grow slowly and bear leaves yearly. The ginkgo is dioecious that is, male and female cones are borne on separate trees. Male cones produce pollen that is distributed by wind; female cones bear seeds that are surrounded or enclosed by a malodorous fleshy integument that makes female ginkgo trees less preferred for ornamental purposes. The seed, called the ginkgo nut, is roasted and esteemed as a delicacy in China and Japan. The ginkgo is frequently planted in parks and ornamental gardens. The tree is also grown on the streets in large cities, where it flourishes in spite of air pollution, low sunlight, and other urban conditions. Horticultural varieties of ginkgo have been developed as a result of such extensive use.

74

UNIT 12 MAJOR PARTS OF A TREE (I)


The major parts of a tree are its roots, trunk, leaves, flowers, and seeds. These components play vital roles in a trees growth, development, and reproduction. Trees are held in place by anchoring organs called roots. In addition to anchoring the tree, roots also absorb water and minerals through tiny structures called root hairs. From the roots the water and mineral nutrients are carried upward through the wood cells to the leaves. Although the internal structure of most kinds of roots is similar, there are often external differences. Pines, for example, have a strongly developed taproot, or main root, in addition to branching side roots. In maples, on the other hand, there is little or no central taproot and the other roots are produced in great numbers near the surface of the soil. Roots grow constantly, and at the growing tip of each root is a region called the meristem, which is composed of special rapidly dividing cells. Just behind the meristem the cells become elongated, and farther from the tip the cells become differentiated into various kinds of plant tissue. In rapidly growing roots the root tip is covered by a root cap, a protective coat of loose cells that are constantly being rubbed off and replaced as the root grows. Bark is the outer protective covering of tree trunks. Because bark varies so widely in colour, texture, and thickness, its characteristics provide one of the most important means of identifying species of trees. Most of the total thickness of bark consists of outer bark, which is made up of dead cells. Outer bark may be very thick, as in the cork oak, or quite thin, as in young birches and maples. Openings in the outer bark allow the movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen to and from the inner tissues. The inner bark layer, called the phloem, consists of a thin layer of living cells. These cells act together to transport food in the form of sugars, which are made in the trees leaves, through the trunk and stems to other parts of the tree. Phloem cells have thin walls, and their living contents are so interconnected that the sugar solutions can pass easily and rapidly from one end of the plant to the other. As old layers of outer bark are sloughed off, new ones are constantly being added from the inside, where new phloem is always being created. Most of a tree trunk is occupied by the wood, or xylem layer, which consists almost entirely of dead cells. The living xylem cells, however, act as the trees plumbing system by transporting water and dissolved food through the trunk and stems. A layer of cells called the cambium separates the living xylem cells from the phloem. As the tree grows and develops, the cambium forms new phloem and xylem cells. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

75

Vocabulary
anchoring organ = organ de ancorare / fixare as = n timp ce, pe msur ce be held in place (v.) = a fi inut locului be rubbed off (v.) = a fi curat be sloughed off (v.) = a fi decojit become elongated (v.) = a se alungi carry upward (v.) = a cra n sus coat of cells = nveli de celule dead cell = celul moart from the inside = din interior growing tip = captul care crete inner bark layer = strat interior al scoarei inner tissue = esut interior just behind = chiar n spatele living cell = celul vie loose = degajat(), liber() outer bark = scoar exterioar plant tissue = esut vegetal plumbing system = sistem de evi root = rdcin root cap = vrful rdcinii root hair = perior radicular side root = rdcin lateral taproot = rdcin pivotant thickness = grosime tiny = fin(), mic() wall = perete wood cell = celul lemnoas xylem layer = strat lemnos

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What are the major parts of a tree? What role do they play? What is a taproot? What is a meristem? What role does bark play? What is cambium?

76

2. Fill in with the proper articles from below, where possible. a an the The layers of xylem cells form rings; these rings can be counted to determine age of tree in areas with distinct growing seasons. In young trees centre of woody column, inside xylem, consists of soft thin-walled cells called pith. pith serves as storage tissue for sugars and later as reservoir for wastes. In older trees pith is crushed by xylems woody tissue, and wastes are simply deposited in wood cells near centre of trunk. As result, in some trees cells within pith become dark in colour and form what is often called heartwood. lighter cells around them make up the sapwood. In monocot trees, such as palms, xylem and phloem tissues are grouped into bundles, which are scattered through mass of pith that makes up most of trees internal structure. In stems of such trees, yearly growth rings are not apparent, as they are in oaks, maples, and other trees of temperate regions. 3. Give antonyms for the words underlined as in the model. normal abnormal Under normal conditions the growth of roots is influenced chiefly by gravity and by the presence of water. Roots tend to grow downward into soil, unless water is more readily available at the surface. In addition to the primary growth in length occurring at the apex of the root, a secondary growth occurs that adds xylem, or wood, to the inside of the root and phloem toward the outside. Phloem produced in this manner becomes involved in the formation of bark, which covers old roots as well as old stems. Old roots often are virtually identical therefore with old stems. Because in many plants roots can be formed from a cut end of a stem, cuttings may be used for plant propagation. Some plants, such as the willow or geranium, root quite easily, whereas others, such as the conifer, rarely root without special treatment. Root formation can be stimulated on cuttings of many plants by the application of the so-called root hormones, substances found naturally in the plant when new roots are formed. Most commercial preparations of root hormones contain indoleacetic acid, one of the most common root-stimulating substances. Occasionally roots may be formed from leaves, as in the African violet, which may be propagated by rooting the cut end of a leaf base in water. In some plants roots may give rise to shoots. For example, the stems that are formed at various distances from the base of a Lombardy poplar arise from roots.

77

4. Match the proper root type with the proper plant. a. carrot, Daucus carota, in its wild form a widespread weed, and in cultivation valued for its edible orange root b. plantain, Plantago major, a weed with large, spreading leaves close to the ground and long, slender spikes of small flowers c. ragweed, Ambrosia trifida, a composite herb, the airborne pollen of which is the most prevalent cause of autumnal hay fever d. rue anemone, Anemonella thalictroides, small plant of North America, having white or pinkish flowers

1. fibrous root

2. fleshy root

3. taproot 4. tuberous root

5. Identify the terms related to physiology in the text below. Root is an organ of higher plants, usually subterranean and having several functions, including the absorption and conduction of water and dissolved minerals, food storage, and anchorage of the plant in the soil. The root is distinguished from the stem by its structure, by the manner in which it is formed, and by the lack of such appendages as buds and leaves. The first root of the plant, known as the radicle, elongates during germination of the seed and forms the primary root. Roots that branch from the primary root are called secondary roots. In many plants the primary root is known as a taproot because it is much larger than secondary roots and penetrates deeper into the soil. Beets and carrots are examples of plants with very large taproots. Some plants having taproots cannot be transplanted easily, for breaking the taproot may result in the loss of most of the root system and cause the death of the plant. Roots arising from the stem are known as adventitious roots. Such roots may be seen near the base of a corn stem. Adventitious roots formed high up on a stem are termed aerial roots or prop roots. Such roots aid in supporting the stem, as in the banyan, the mangrove, and certain orchids. 6. Look carefully at the picture below then answer the questions. Which of the trees in the picture are deciduous and which are evergreens? Which of the trees in the picture is the tallest? And the shortest? Which of the trees in the picture has the largest canopy? And the smallest? What differences are there between the barks of these trees? What would be the approximate colour of the trees in the picture?

78

79

Supplementary Reading: Family Tree


Genealogy is the history of the descent of a family, often rendered in a tabular list (family tree) in the order of succession, with the earliest known ancestor placed at the head and later generations placed in lines of direct and collateral descent. Genealogical tables are familiar from the Bible, especially the so-called Tree of Jesse (see Matthew 1:1-17). Genealogy also covers the study and research of pedigrees. The most practical use of genealogy is in the proving of wills, when knowledge of descent is necessary, especially if a dispute occurs, to ensure that property goes to the right person. Genealogy has also been used when legitimacy is in question. One of the best and most practical modern uses of genealogy is in the medical field; physicians have, with considerable success, examined genealogical records for the origin of unusual diseases in present-day families. The traditional method of those wishing to find their ancestors is to question parents and grandparents, for they are likely to possess written records and family Bibles, and their memories are often clear and accurate. From this start the researcher may visit libraries and courthouses and seek documentary evidence from municipal and village records and from church registers, which record weddings, christenings, and funerals. In the case of Americans, a family may be traced back to the time of its arrival in the new country. Research in the country of a family's origin is usually the most difficult because records may no longer exist and work may have to be conducted in a foreign language. British research is relatively easy because records were immaculately kept and few have been lost. Fortunately for U.S. researchers, American Mormons have the best worldwide modern records, for their missionaries spent many years copying pertinent documents in many foreign countries. In the United States, and to some extent in Europe and the United Kingdom, genealogy has developed into a major hobby. The great surge in U.S. interest started in the 1930s, increased somewhat after World War II, but reached a crescendo in the 1970s, especially after the publication of Roots (1976) by Alex Haley, which showed that despite few extant records, it is possible with hard work and good luck to construct one's family history. Genealogical research is an important adjunct to the study of history.

80

UNIT 13 MAJOR PARTS OF A TREE (II)


The main function of the leaves is the manufacture of sugars by the process of photosynthesis, when carbon dioxide and water are combined in the presence of light and the green pigment chlorophyll. Oxygen is produced as a by-product. Some of the newly formed sugar is used by the leaf cells for energy, but most is carried to other parts of the tree to provide energy for growth and development in those areas. The leaves are also the chief organs involved in the loss of water from the plant, called transpiration. Many of the trees tissues cannot function without a constant supply of water, necessary to prevent overheating or wilting of the leaves. Transpiration is responsible for the movement of water from the roots of the tree up to the top. As water is lost through the leaves, water that enters the roots is pulled upward through the xylem tissue to replace the lost moisture, ensuring a constant circulation of water through the tissues of the tree. All angiosperms bear flowers, the trees reproductive structures. In some trees (dogwoods, cherries, some magnolias), the flowers are large and colourful. Oaks, willows, and other temperate forest trees often bear small, pale, and inconspicuous flowers. In maples and many other trees the male and female reproductive parts are carried in separate flowers on the same tree (monoecism). In oaks, for example, the male pollen-producing flowers are borne in long hanging tassels and the short-stalked or stalk-less female flowers are located on the twigs. In some trees (hollies and willows), the male and female flowers are borne on separate trees (dioecism). In needle-leaf trees the male and female reproductive structures may be produced in cones rather than flowers, and in such cases there are always separate male and female cones. The cones are often produced on the same tree, but frequently there are more female cones in the upper branches. In all reproductive arrangements, the flowers or female cones are fertilized when wind, birds, bats, mammals, or insects carry pollen from the male structures to the female ones. Seeds, the ripened ovules of the plant that are capable of germination, are the product of fertilized flowers. In pines, each seed is surrounded by a wing-like structure allowing it to float down to the ground, riding air currents. Oak seeds are enclosed in acorns, which are either planted by squirrels or merely fall to the ground near the parent tree. Willow trees produce thin-walled, flask-shaped fruits that burst open, releasing the seeds. Each seed has a tuft of downy fibres, enabling it to be picked up by air currents and travel for considerable distances. Seeds of other tree species are dispersed by water, mammals, birds, and ants. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

81

Vocabulary
acorn = ghind allow (v.) = a da voie, a lsa, a permite ant = furnic (Formica) bat = liliac (Vespertilio) be picked up (v.) = a fi cules bear (v.) = a avea, a purta borne = purtat() burst open (v.) = a exploda, a se deschide by-product = produs secundar, sub-produs carry (v.) = a cra, a transporta cherry (tree) = cire (Prunus avium); viin (Prunus cerasus) considerable = considerabil(), mare distance = distan dogwood = snger (Cornus sanguinea) downy = pufos, -oas enclosed = nchis() flask-shaped = n form de sticl float (v.) = a pluti ground = pmnt, sol hanging = care atrn inconspicuous = discret(), neremarcabil() loss = pierdere mammal = mamifer manufacture = fabricare merely = pur i simplu moisture = umezeal overheating = supranclzire pull upward = a trage n sus release (v.) = a elibera ride (v.) = a clri, a merge clare pe ripened = copt, coapt short-stalked = cu codi scurt squirrel = veveri stalk-less = fr codi sugars = zaharuri tassel = panicul terminal thin-walled = cu perete subire tuft = smoc upper = superior, -oar wilting = vetejire wing-like = n form de arip

82

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is the main function of the leaves? What is photosynthesis? What is some of the newly formed sugar used by the leaf cells for? What is transpiration? What is a flower? What kind of flowers do oaks, willows, and other temperate forest trees often bear? What is monoecism? What is dioecism? Where may the male and female reproductive structures be produced in needle-leaf trees? Where are the cones often produced? When are the flowers or female cones fertilized? What are seeds? What are seeds dispersed by?

2. True or false?
True False

1. The main function of the leaves is the manufacture of oxygen by the process of photosynthesis. 2. Some of the newly formed sugar is used by the leaf cells for energy. 3. The leaves are also the chief organs involved in the loss of water from the plant, called transpiration. 4. Many of the trees tissues cannot function without a constant supply of oxygen, necessary to prevent overheating or wilting of the leaves. 5. Transpiration is responsible for the movement of water from the top of the tree down to the roots. 6. All angiosperms bear flowers, the trees nutritive structures. 7. Oaks, willows, and other temperate forest trees often bear small, pale, and inconspicuous flowers. 8. In needle-leaf trees the male and female reproductive structures may be produced in cones rather than flowers, and in such cases there are always separate male and female cones.

83

3. Fill in with the proper adjective from below. are brown golden-yellow orange purple purplish red reddish tiny vivid yellow yellowish-orange In addition to chlorophyll, leaf cells also may contain other pigments. These pigments account for the colour of autumn leaves. Among the pigments found in leaves are xanthophylls, carotenes, and and anthocyanins. Leaves also may contain tannins, which give them a colour in autumn. Like chlorophyll, xanthophylls and carotenes are contained in granules in some leaf cells. Although these pigments are present throughout the leaf's lifetime, their colours are usually masked by the green of chlorophyll. In the autumn, however, chlorophyll production decreases, and the and pigments become visible in the leaves. Eventually all pigment production stops, and the leaves turn Unlike xanthophylls and carotenes, anthocyanins are not contained in granules but are dissolved in the liquid part of leaf cells. In some plants, such as coleus and red cabbage, anthocyanins are always present, giving the leaves a or colour. In other plants, anthocyanins are not present throughout the life of the leaf, but are produced only under certain conditions. In oak and maple leaves, for example, sugar accumulates in autumn. This accumulation is believed to result in the formation of anthocyanins and the production of colours in the leaves. 4. Put the text above into Romanian. Use a dictionary. 5. Identify in the text above the terms belonging to biology, chemistry, and physics. 6. Match the following compounds and derivatives of leaf with their definitions. 1. leaf 2. leafage 3. leaf bud 4. leafed 5. leafless 6. leaflet 7. leafstalk 8. leafy a. a small maxillary or terminal protuberance on a plant, containing rudimentary foliage b. a small or young leaf c. foliage d. having large amounts of, covered with, or consisting of leaves or foliage; leaf-like, foliaceous e. having leaves f. one of the expanded, usually green organs borne by the stem of a plant g. petiole h. without leaves

84

7. Supply the nouns / verbs for the verbs / nouns underlined in the text below as in the model. What can you notice?
Nouns Verbs

development plant

develop plant

All leaves develop from buds, which are located at the nodes, or joints, of a plant stem and at the end of a plant stem. Contained in the buds are areas of rapidly growing tissue, called the meristem. The meristem gives rise to the first recognizable signs of the leaf. In the spring the buds shed their outer covering and open, exposing the leaves. As leaves develop, they are arranged on the stem in one of three ways: alternate, opposite, or whorled. The arrangement provides an equal distribution of leaf weight on the stem. It also prevents overlapping so that each leaf can receive adequate sunlight. The leaves of evergreens continue to function and manufacture food throughout the year. In deciduous plants, however, the leaves stop functioning in the autumn and drop off. Leaves may be killed by frost, but changes due to age and growing conditions occur well before then. Decreased day length, reduced light intensity, lower temperatures, lack of water, and decrease of growth-promoting substances in the plant all contribute to the decline of the leaves. The changes start in the weakest part of the petiole, at the base. During autumn the cells in the base of the petiole begin to disintegrate and die. As a result, the leaf blade is supported only by the veins in the petiole. Soon the vascular bundles become plugged, decreasing the flow of water, food, and minerals to and from the leaf blade. When the blade is disturbed, as by wind, it breaks off the plant at the base of the petiole. 8. Supply it is or there is / are in the blanks, as required. a cat in one of your flower beds. a new moon tonight. a pity that he must stop his English lessons. beginning to rain. cruel to treat animals in that way. plenty of time to do that later. raining very hard. snowing very hard. someone at the door. ten miles from here to the university. Frequently more female cones in the upper branches. In such cases always separate male and female cones.

85

Supplementary Reading: Flower Symbolism


The term flower symbolism refers to the use of flowers (and, by extension, leaves and berries) as national and religious symbols and as metaphors for human sentiments. Frequently, this use is related to a belief in their efficacy as charms or medicines. Floral symbols were used extensively in the writings and inscriptions of antiquity. The Old Testament, for example, contains many allusions to flowers, notably in the Song of Solomon. In ancient Egypt, the lotus, or sacred water lily, was frequently represented: It was associated with the life-giving power of the Nile River and with Osiris, lord of the dead. The Indian lotus was sacred to the Hindus, who believed that the god Brahma had been born in it. In the art of both Hinduism and Buddhism, the deities are frequently represented seated on a lotus throne. In ancient Greece the laurel was sacred to the god Apollo, and laurel wreaths were awarded to poets; the olive, sacred to the goddess Athena, was given to victorious athletes, notably in the Olympic Games. In Rome, crowns of oak leaves were bestowed upon victorious generals. Great symbolism has been attached to the rose. In Rome, it signified secrecy; conversations carried on at a council or banqueting table sub rosa (Latin for under the rose) were supposed to be in confidence. In Islamic tradition, white roses fell from the sweat of Muhammad on his way to heaven. Flowers have been adopted by noble families - and emblazoned on their coats of arms - and by countries, cities, and, in the United States, by individual states as official emblems. The golden chrysanthemum, native to eastern Asia, is the symbol of Japan's imperial crest. In France the fleurde-lis (a conventionalized representation of an iris) was adopted as the royal emblem by King Louis VI in 1108. In England, the house of Lancaster, whose symbolic emblem was a red rose, and the house of York, symbolized by a white rose, battled for the crown in the Wars of the Roses (1455-1458). The Greeks were the first to develop a language of flowers, known as florigraphy. Over the centuries, in western civilization, flower language became extensive. Many different species - according to their properties were associated with a wide range of human emotions, conditions, events, or ideas. The plays of English playwright William Shakespeare are a great source of traditional flower language. In Hamlet, for example, Ophelia describes the significance of the flowers she carries: Pansies stand for thought, rosemary for remembrance, and rue, or herb of grace, alludes to the flower's use in the sprinkling of holy water. Flower language was particularly popular in the 19th century in Europe and the United States as part of the then-fashionable cult of sentimentality.

86

UNIT 14 TREE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT


Trees grow in both height and diameter. A tree increases in height through the elongation of its trunk or branches and the seasonal production of new branches. The growth of the tree in diameter results from the activity of the cambium, the special cells lying at the inner surface of the bark. All branches arise from buds, which are located at the tips of twigs and at the bases of leaves. Within each bud is a meristematic region, or growing zone, similar to that in the root tip. The growing tip is surrounded by many tiny leaves, and the entire bud is covered with a series of protective scales. The cells in the growing tip, like those of the root tip, divide rapidly, elongate, and become differentiated into the various kinds of stem tissue. The part of the bark that causes the tree to grow in diameter is the cambium. During the growing season the cells of the cambium, like those of the stem tip and root tip, divide rapidly. They produce xylem, or wood cells, toward the centre of the trunk, and they produce phloem, or foodconducting cells, toward the bark. At places the cambium also produces rows of thin-walled cells that run horizontally through the xylem and the phloem. Known as rays, these horizontal cells conduct and store water and nutrients. Among tropical woody plants, growth continues throughout the year. In trees of temperate regions, however, the annual growth is usually crowded into a short period of a few weeks in early spring. When the stem of a tree is cut fully across, one can observe each years growth as a ring. By counting these rings, it is possible to determine the age of the tree as well as the growing conditions during its lifetime. In favourable conditions, when the tree experiences rapid growth, it forms wide rings, but in difficult times, when growth is slower, it forms narrower rings. Each annual ring consists of two parts. One part, which makes up most of the ring, is lightcollared wood composed of relatively large cells. These cells were formed during the spring, when growing conditions were best. The second part of the ring is darker and is composed of small thick-walled cells, which were formed during the less favourable months. The rate at which trees grow varies considerably. Young bamboo stems may increase at the rate of many centimetres a day until they eventually reach a height of 36 m with a diameter of more than 30 cm. Many needle-leaf trees, such as the longleaf pine, grow at a much faster rate than broadleaf trees like walnuts and oaks, especially in their early years. Some broadleaf trees, however, such as black locusts and cottonwoods, may grow rapidly in suitable soils. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

87

Vocabulary
arise (v.) = a aprea, a se nla, a se ridica bark = scoar become differentiated (v.) = a se diferenia black locust = salcm (Robinia pseudacacia) both and = att , ct i bud = mugur cause something to grow (v.) = a face ca ceva s creasc cottonwood = plop canadian (Populus balsamifera / deltoides) crowded = aglomerat() cut fully across (v.) = a tia n seciune transversal dark = nchis() la culoare; negru, neagr early years = primii ani elongation = alungire eventually = n cele din urm, pn la urm food-conducting = care conduce hrana growing zone = zon de cretere height = nlime in early spring = primvara devreme increase (v.) = a crete inner surface = suprafaa interioar lifetime = cursul vieii light-collared = cu un cerc / guler / inel alb longleaf pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus palustris) make up (v.) = a alctui may (v.) = a fi probabil, a putea narrow = ngust() nutrients = elemente nutritive rate = rat, vitez ring = inel row = ir, rnd run (v.) = a merge, a alerga scale = solz slow = ncet, nceat; lent() store (v.) = a depozita suitable = corespunztor, -oare, potrivit() surrounded = nconjurat() thick-walled = cu perei groi through = prin toward = ctre, spre walnut (tree) = nuc (Juglans regia) wide = lat()

88

Exercises
1. Answer the following. How does a tree grow in height? What does the growth of the tree in diameter result from? Where do all branches arise from? What is a meristematic region? What is the cambium? What do the cells of the cambium produce? What else does the cambium produce at places/ What are the so-called rays? Among what plants is growing continuous? What is a ring? How do they look like? What does each annual ring consist of? When do they form? At what rate may young bamboo stems increase? At what arte do many needle-leaf trees, such as the longleaf pine, grow? At what rate do some broadleaf trees such as black locusts and cottonwoods grow?

2. Fill in with the proper verb from below. acquired became began brought decorated gave made spread took was While Santa Claus increasingly familiar to Americans, the German Christmas tree also popularity in North America. As early as the 17th century, Germans had transformed this pagan symbol of fertility into a Christian symbol of rebirth. According to legend, the Christmas tree tradition with the founder of German Protestantism, Martin Luther. While walking through the forest on Christmas Eve, Luther so moved by the beauty of the starlit fir trees that he one indoors and it with candles to remind his children of Gods creation. In 1841 Prince Albert of Germany his wife, Queen Victoria of England, a gift of a Christmas tree. This reputedly the first Christmas tree in England, but the custom quickly. German immigrants the Christmas tree to other parts of Europe and to the United States and Canada, where it soon a popular tradition. Blownglass ornaments, tin angels, paper chains, candles, cornucopias filled with sugarplums, and other decorations the simple evergreen tree into a beautiful parlour centrepiece at Christmastime.

89

3. Match the following trees with their definitions. a. a large East Indian verbenaceous tree, Tectona grandis, yielding a hard, durable, resinous, yellowish-brown wood used for shipbuilding, furniture making, etc. b. a tall, tropical palm, Cocos nucifera, bearing a large, edible fruit c. a tree, Yucca brevifolia, growing in arid or desert regions of the south-western U.S.A. d. any of numerous plants of the family Palmaceae, most species being tall, unbranched trees surmounted by a crown of large pinnate or palmately cleft leaves e. any of several tropical American, meliaceous trees, Swietenia mahogany, yielding a hard, reddish-brown wood used for making furniture f. any tree of the genus Magnolia, having large, usually fragrant flowers and an aromatic bark, much cultivated for ornament g. the date-bearing palm, Phoenix dactylifera, having a stem reaching a height of 60 feet and terminating in a crown of pinnate leaves

1. coconut palm

2. date palm 3. Joshua tree

4. magnolia

5. mahogany

6. palm

7. teak

4. Put the following into Romanian. Use a dictionary. Official holidays in Lesotho include New Years Day (1 January), Army Day (20 January), and Moshoeshoes Day (12 March). Tree Planting Day (21 March) is important because Lesotho is subject to severe soil erosion and has virtually no forests. The government has sponsored several projects encouraging tree planting to provide timber for future building and fuel supplies, and to guard against further erosion. Other national holidays include Family Day (first Monday in July), Independence Day (4 October), National Sports Day (first Monday in October), Easter (Friday through Monday), and Christmas (25 and 26 December). 5. Look carefully at the picture below then answer the questions. What kind of forest is represented in the picture? Where are there temperate deciduous forests? What are the Romanian equivalents for the strata in such a forest? Could you give a few names of bushes and trees living in each of these strata?

90

91

6. Supply the proper form of the verbs in parentheses below. Give him this report as soon as you (see) him. I plan to wait here until the students (apologise) for their behaviour. I will not go to the library unless you (ask) me to. I will tell him when he (come) to bring the book back to me. If the river (rise) much higher, there will be a flood. If the workers (go) on strike, production will be greatly reduced. Lets finish the report before the professor (return). Sit at my desk while I (look) for the dictionary. When the weather (get) warmer, we can go to the experimental plots. Young bamboo stems may increase at the rate of many centimetres a day until they eventually (reach) a height of 36 m with a diameter of more than 30 cm.

Supplementary Reading: Nature Worship


Nature worship is the term for religious devotion paid either to nature as a deified collective entity or to all things in nature, including the elements, celestial bodies, plants, animals, and humanity. The worship of the elements does not seem to occur in the most rudimentary religions but frequently arises in later stages of religious development. The worship of fire, found among many primitive peoples, reached its highest development in the ancient Parsis sect of Persia. Celestial bodies have been deified in the religious systems of primitive and highly civilized peoples alike. The Khoikhoi of South Africa worship the moon; sun worship was practiced by the Iroquois, the Plains peoples, and the Tsimshian people of North America and reached a high state of development among the Native Americans of Mexico and Peru. The sun was also a Hindu deity, regarded as maleficent by the Dravidians of southern India, but considered benevolent by the Munda of the central parts. The Babylonians were sun worshipers, and in ancient Persia worship of the sun was an integral part of the elaborate cult of Mithras. The ancient Egyptians worshiped the sun god Ra; they also apotheosized the moon and the star Sirius. Other Egyptian deities included the constellations and the circumpolar stars. Plants and trees have been worshiped as totems or because of their usefulness, beauty, or fear-inspiring aspect. They are considered either as holy in themselves or as the dwelling places of spirits. Both the soma plant of India and the coca shrub of Peru have been worshiped for the intoxicating properties of products derived from them. Field crops, regarded as harbouring spirits of fertility, have been worshiped both by primitive tribes and by the peasants of Europe, among whom traces of the cult may still be found.

92

UNIT 15 PLANTING AND CARING FOR TREES


Whether trees are being planted for reforestation, ornament, shade, or fruit, the first step is selecting the species to be grown. The choice depends on such factors as the characteristics of the soil, the location of the site, and drainage. A good rule of thumb is to plant native trees. The hole for a seedling should be deep enough to hold the fully expanded root system of the seedling. Larger plants should be placed in a hole 60 cm deep with a diameter 60 cm greater than that of the ball of the roots. In poor soil the hole should be 1.8 m wide and 60 cm deep for a 2.5-m tree, and proportionately wider for taller trees. After the tree is placed in the hole, the soil should be firmly pressed around the roots, and the ground should be thoroughly soaked with water. Mixing bone meal or well-rotted manure into the soil will help the tree become established quickly. Most deciduous trees should be planted in the fall when they are not growing, but evergreens are usually planted in the spring, at the beginning or middle of their period of vigorous growth. After planting, the soil around a tree should be kept moist, but not soaked. If artificial watering is not practical, a layer of mulch 7 to 15 cm deep should be placed around the tree to conserve moisture and to discourage the growth of weeds. Because a transplanted tree does not adequately absorb water through its damaged roots, it is important to prevent water loss from the plant by pruning top limbs to limit transpiration. In good soils it is less important to fertilize than in poor soils. However, all trees grow better and faster and are less likely to become diseased if fertilizer is supplied in the proper amounts. This may be done most easily by placing a large handful of fertilizer in holes made by a crowbar at the edge of the spread of the trees limbs. The holes should be about 60 cm deep and about 5 cm in diameter, and they should be spaced about 90 cm apart. After the fertilizer has been introduced, the holes should be filled in with soil. Organic fertilizers such as manure and mulch are preferable to chemicals that may replace or destroy natural organisms in the soil. Pruning of ornamental trees maintains the form of the tree, removes weak or sickly branches, and rejuvenates old or unhealthy plants. If performed during a period of vigorous growth, pruning often also results in an increased production of flowers. In pruning, cuts are made just above the buds that point in the direction branches are desired. When large branches are removed, the cut should be made close to the trunk, and then covered for a time. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

93

Vocabulary
amount = cantitate ball of the roots = ghemotocul de rdcini be filled in (v.) = a fi umplut() be kept moist (v.) = a fi pstrat umed() become diseased (v.) = a se mbolnvi become established (v.) = a prinde rdcini, a se prinde bone meal = fin de oase crowbar = drug / manet / rang de fier cutting = tiere, tietur drainage = scurgere edge = margine, muchie fertilizer = ngrmnt handful of = mn de hole = gaur in the fall = toamna layer of mulch = strat de mulci less likely = mai puin probabil limit (v.) = a limita manure = gunoi de grajd poor soil = sol srac prevent (v.) = a mpiedica proper = corespunztor, -oare pruning = curarea pomilor reforestation = rempdurire rejuvenate (v.) = a rentineri remove (v.) = a ndeprta rule of thumb = regul empiric seedling = lstar shade = umbr sickly = slab() site = loc soak (v.) = a neca / sclda n ap supply (v.) = a furniza thoroughly = cu atenie / grij top limb = crac / creang / ramur din vrf unhealthy = nesntos, -oas water loss = pierdere de ap weak = slab() weed = buruian well-rooted = bine nrdcinat() whether = dac (da sau ba)

94

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is the first step in planting trees? What does the choice depend on? How deep should the hole for a seedling be? Where should larger plants be placed? How wide should holes be in poor soil? What should we do after the tree is placed in the hole? What helps the tree become established quickly? When should most deciduous trees be planted? When are evergreens usually planted? How should the soil around a tree be kept after planting? Why should a layer of mulch 7 to 15 cm deep be placed around the tree? Why is it important to prevent water loss from the plant by pruning top limbs to limit transpiration? In what conditions do all trees grow better and faster and are less likely to become diseased? How can this be done? Why are organic fertilizers preferable to chemicals? What are the effects of pruning?

2. True or false?
True False

1. Whether trees are being planted for reforestation, ornament, shade, or fruit, the first step is selecting the species to be grown. 2. A good rule of thumb is to plant exotic trees. 3. Most deciduous trees should be planted in the fall when they are not growing. 4. Evergreens are seldom planted in the spring. 5. After planting, the soil around a tree should be kept moist, but not soaked. 6. A layer of mulch 7 to 15 cm deep should be placed around the tree to encourage the growth of weeds. 7. It is important to prevent water loss from the plant by pruning top limbs to limit transpiration. 8. In poor soils it is less important to fertilize than in good soils.

95

3. Fill in with the proper prepositions from below. as by from in into of on Humus is decaying organic matter found soil and derived dead animal and plant material. During early decomposition, some the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are quickly dissipated water, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia, but the other constituents decompose slowly and remain humus. The chemical composition humus varies, because it depends the action living soil organisms, such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and certain kinds beetles, but usually it contains varying amounts proteins and certain uronic acids combined with lignins and their derivatives. Humus is a homogeneous, amorphous, dark-coloured, and practically odourless material. The end products the decomposition humus are mineral salts, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. As humus decomposes, plant residues are converted stable forms that are stored the soil and are usable plants food. The amount humus soil also affects such important physical properties the soil as structure, colour, texture, and moisture-holding capacity. The ideal development crop plants, for example, depends largely the humus content the soil. In areas where cultivated plants are grown, humus is constantly being depleted the soil the succession crops, and the organic balance the soil is restored adding humus in the form compost or manure. 4. Match the following compounds and derivatives of plant with their definitions. a. a farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country, on which cotton, tobacco, coffee, or the like, is cultivated, usually by resident labourers b. a person who plants; an implement or machine for planting seeds in the ground; the owner or occupant of a plantation c. any member of the vegetable group of living organisms; an herb or other small vegetable growth, in contrast with a tree or a shrub; a seedling or a growing slip, especially one ready for transplanting d. nourishment, as fertiliser, chemicals for plants e. plants collectively f. to put or set in the ground for growth, as seeds, young trees, etc.

1. plant (n.)

2. plant (v.)

3. plant food

4. plant kingdom 5. plantation 6. planter

96

5. Turn the sentences below as in the model. It is very interesting to study with Professor Smith. To study with Professor Smith is very interesting. In good soils it is less important to fertilize than in poor soils. It is important to prevent water loss from the plant by pruning top limbs to limit transpiration. It is not easy to learn English. It is not interesting to many students to study grammar. It is not necessary to speak with her now. It is often very helpful to be able to speak a foreign language. It is very interesting to travel to foreign countries. It was not fair to blame all the students for the bad results. It was very foolish to work so hard at his age. It was very important to learn ten new words every day. It will be very difficult to explain this matter to him. On the other hand, it is important to understand the grammar of a foreign language.

6. Change the sentences below as in the model. He should study more before his examination. He should have studied more before his examination. A layer of mulch 7 to 15 cm deep should be placed around the tree to conserve moisture and to discourage the growth of weeds. After fertilising, the holes should be filled in with soil. After placing the tree in the hole, the soil should be firmly pressed around the roots, and the ground should be thoroughly soaked with water. In poor soil the hole should be 1.8 m wide and 60 cm deep for a 2.5-m tree, and proportionately wider for taller trees. Larger plants should be placed in a hole 60 cm deep with a diameter 60 cm greater than that of the ball of the roots. Most deciduous trees should be planted in the fall. The hole for a seedling should be deep enough to hold the fully expanded root system of the seedling. The holes should be about 60 cm deep and about 5 cm in diameter, and they should be spaced about 90 cm apart. The soil around a tree should be kept moist, but not soaked. When removing large branches, the cut should be made close to the trunk, and then covered for a time.

97

7. Put the following into Romanian. Use a dictionary. Manure applies to plant or animal wastes used as fertilizer. Rich in humus (decaying organic matter), manure releases many important nutrients into the soil. However, manure is deficient in three important nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. A commercial fertilizer has about 20 times as much nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium as an equally massive amount of manure. For this reason, manure is often used in conjunction with other fertilizers. Manure also helps to loosen soil and retain water.

Supplementary Reading: Arbour Day


Arbour Day is an annual observance dedicated to the planting and conservation of trees. On Arbour Day, many people plant trees and bushes in their communities. Arbour Day educational programs provide information about trees, tree care, and the natural environment. In the United States, National Arbour Day is observed on the last Friday in April. However, because the ideal time to plant trees varies with the climate, many individual states observe Arbour Day on other dates. Many southern states observe Arbour Day as early as January or February, while in some northern areas Arbour Day is not held until May. Arbour Day was conceived in the 1870s by Julius Sterling Morton, a Nebraska newspaper editor. Like many pioneers who settled the treeless plains of Nebraska, Morton believed that planting trees would help beautify the state, provide shade, and prevent soil erosion by creating windbreaks. In 1872 he proposed a tree-planting day at a meeting of Nebraskas board of agriculture. The first Arbour Day celebrations were held on April 10 of that year, with prizes awarded to the individual or group who planted the most trees. Sponsors estimated that more than one million trees were planted on the first Arbour Day. In 1874 Nebraska governor Robert W. Furnas proclaimed a state-wide Arbour Day, to be observed on April 8. In 1885 the state of Nebraska made Arbour Day an annual legal holiday and changed its date of observance to April 22, to coincide with Mortons birthday. The holiday was soon adopted by other states. Since the 1880s Arbour Day has become popular as a school activity. Today, Arbour Day is observed in many countries throughout the world. The National Arbour Day Foundation, a non-profit organization based in Nebraska City, Nebraska, oversees and coordinates Arbour Day activities. The Foundation also conducts year-round educational and conservation programs.

98

UNIT 16 ANGIOSPERMS: ELM


Elm is a common name for trees and shrubs of a family widespread throughout the North Temperate Zone. The tall, deciduous trees of the representative genus have straight-veined elliptic leaves. The purple or yellowish flowers bloom in clusters and appear before the leaves unfold. The most common and most popular of the North American elms is the American elm (Ulmus americana), a tree valued for its ornamental shade qualities, which often grows to 37 m. Five other species from which numerous horticultural varieties have been developed, are native to the U.S. The Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia) is a small half-evergreen tree, frequently planted in the South and in California. The red or slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) is a common species of medium height. The rock or cork elm (Ulmus thomasii), valued for its corky, winged twigs, is hardy in the New England area and northern portions of the U.S. The wahoo or winged elm (Ulmus alata), is a small tree found primarily in Florida, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Another important species of elm is the English elm (Ulmus procera), which grows up to 30 m high; occasional specimens are much taller. Found throughout western Asia, Europe, and northern Africa, it has been introduced into the U.S. and planted along the streets of many cities. The wood is compact, durable, and water resistant and is used for the manufacture of numerous items. The outer bark is used medicinally; dyes are also made from it. The hackberry genus contains about 80 species of trees and shrubs, some of which produce edible fruits. In recent years the elm population in the U.S. has been markedly decreased by Dutch elm disease (DED) introduced accidentally from the Netherlands. Although it cannot be eliminated, effective control programs can slow the spread of the disease and greatly reduce the loss of trees. Several disease-resistant varieties of elm have been developed. Elm trees are also frequently destroyed by insects (gypsy moth, the tussock moth, and the bagworm) that feed on their foliage. The elm-leaf beetle is perhaps the most destructive to the foliage of the elm. It is a small yellowish-brown beetle, which begins to feed while the leaves are still young, eating large, round holes into them. The adult elm-leaf beetle deposits clusters of eggs on the undersides of the leaves and dies soon thereafter. The larvae feed voraciously on the leaves. Phloem necrosis, another serious disease, is caused by a virus carried by the leafhopper. Japanese zelkova (Zelkova serrata), a species resistant to DED, has replaced the American elm as an ornamental in many areas of the U.S. The name elm is also applied in Australia to a tall shrub (Duboisia myoporoides) of the nightshade family. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

99

Vocabulary
along the = de-a lungul American / white elm = ulm alb (Ulmus americana) bagworm = (omida unei molii) (Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, Oiketicus abbottii) bloom in clusters (v.) = a nflori sub form de ciorchini Chinese elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus parvifolia) cluster of eggs = ciorchine de ou control program = program de combatere cork / rock elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus thomasii) corky = de plut Dutch elm disease = boala ulmului cauzat de ciuperca Ophiostoma ulmi effective = efficient() elm-leaf beetle = insect duntoare a ulmului English elm = ulm englezesc (Ulmus procera) feed on (v.) = a se hrni cu gypsy moth = molie duntoare a ulmului (Lymantria dispar) hackberry = celtis occidental, smbovin american (Celtis occidentalis) half-evergreen tree = arbore pe jumtate conifer hardy = rezistent, tare item = obiect Japanese zelkova = (specie de) ulm (Zelkova serrata) leafhopper = insect duntoare a ulmului (Cicadellidae) markedly = n mod considerabil native to = originar din Netherlands (the) = Olanda nightshade = zrn (Solanum nigrum) phloem necrosis = necroza floemului / liberului purple = violet red / slippery elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus rubra) slow (v.) = a ncetini spread (n.) = rspndire straight-veined elliptic leaf = frunz eliptic cu vene drepte thereafter = dup aceea tussock moth = omida (proas a) fluturelui nocturn (Orgyia) underside = partea inferioar unfold (v.) = a se desface wahoo / winged elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus alata) widespread = larg rspndit() winged = naripat() yellowish = glbui(e)

100

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is elm? Where is it spread? What kind of leaves do the deciduous trees of the representative genus have? How do the purple or yellowish flowers bloom? When do they appear? What is the American elm valued for? What other species are native to the U.S.? Where is the Chinese elm frequently planted? How high is the red or slippery elm? What is the rock or cork elm valued for? Where is the wahoo or winged elm found primarily? How high does the English elm grow? How is its wood? What is DED? What are elm trees frequently destroyed by? What is the elm-leaf beetle? What is phloem necrosis caused by? What is the name elm also applied to in Australia?

2. Fill in with the proper noun from below. control destruction disease elms fungicides fungus infection leaves protection pruning removal tree - trees Dutch elm disease is a fungal of elm trees responsible for the devastation of tens of millions of around the world. The disease is characterized by gradual yellowing of the and defoliation. Eventually the infected dies. Dutch elm disease is caused by the Ophiostoma ulmi that is transmitted from diseased trees to healthy trees by bark beetles. Efforts to eliminate the disease have been unsuccessful, but certain programs slow the spread of the disease and greatly reduce the loss of trees. Effective control measures require the of all dead or dying elm wood, which are breeding sites for the bark beetle; the careful of weak or damaged branches; the immediate of newly infected trees; and the removal of all bark from elm firewood. Injection of into healthy trees provides partial against infection, and a vaccine developed in 1998 holds promise for further success in preventing Disease-resistant varieties of elm have also been developed.

101

3. Match the following elms with their definitions. 1. American elm 2. Chinese elm 3. elm 4. English elm 5. Japanese zelkova 6. red elm 7. slippery elm 8. wahoo (elm) 9. winged elm a. an elm, Ulmus alata, of America b. an elm, Ulmus alata, of south-eastern North America, having twigs edged with flat, corky projections; wahoo (elm) c. an elm, Ulmus americana, of North America, cultivated for shade and ornament d. an elm, Ulmus fulva, of Eastern North America, having a mucilaginous inner bark e. an elm, Ulmus parvifolia f. an elm, Ulmus procera, characterised by the gradually spreading columnar manner of growth of its branches g. an elm, Ulmus rubra h. an elm, Zelkova serrata i. any tree of the genus Ulmus

4. Supply still or any more in the sentences below, whichever is correct. A small yellowish-brown beetle begins to feed while the leaves are young. He thinks that he is the best professor in the department. He does not study in this class He is teaching English in that same school. Helen is the best student in the class. I think that Helen is not the most attractive girl in the whole school. John is not the best student in the class She does not study at that university We never see her at the school dances

5. Change the sentences below to negative, as in the model. We are still good friends. We are not good friends any more. The night is still young says the playwright. He is still in love with her. He is still president of the club. It is still raining. They are still in the same class as we are. They still live in Timioara. They still visit each other regularly. We still see them at the bar on Saturday night.

102

6. Identify all the terms related to entomology in the text below. Bark beetle (family Scolytidae, order Coleoptera) is the common name for any of a family of small, cylindrical tree-feeding beetles. They are found throughout the world wherever forests grow; about 470 different species occur in the United States. Most burrow in the bark and sapwood of trees, but a few species tunnel into the heartwood. Bark beetles are sometimes called engraver beetles because of the intricate patterns formed by their tunnels. Most bark beetles are brown and compact in shape. They resemble weevils, their closest relatives, except they lack the prolonged snout. Male bark beetles are attracted to females by a sex pheromone (volatile odour) and mate in or near the female's larval burrow. Females migrate to a new place on the same tree or to a new tree and start another burrow. The female lays her eggs in pockets at intervals along the tunnel. When the eggs hatch as larvae, each individual forms its own tunnel at an angle to the original burrow made by the female. The larval tunnels may radiate outward under the bark to form a gallery, the shape of which is characteristic of certain species. The larvae are white, legless grubs. After their last growth stage, they form a pupal case of the last larval skin and begin to metamorphose into adult beetles. When the beetle emerges from the pupa as an adult, it burrows directly to the surface of the tree. Adults searching for new trees are attracted to the odours given off by damaged or diseased wood, especially those under attack by other bark beetles. Bark beetles kill trees by girdling the sapwood with their burrows, cutting off the flow of nutrients to the tree's roots. A healthy tree may resist bark beetle attack by flooding the beetle tunnels with its own thick sap, or pitch, under high pressure. Some species of bark beetle also carry plant diseases, especially fungi. The smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus), with black thorax and red wing cases, is a principle carrier of DED. The western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis) is a major pest of evergreen forests in the western U.S. The damage caused by these species and others like them results in the loss of millions of dollars a year in timber resources and is a major concern of agriculture and forestry. 7. Identify the terms related to nature in the text below. Most seeds begin to germinate only with the warming days of spring, months after they have fallen to the ground. As the embryo inside expands, the seed cracks and a root emerges to provide the seedling with both stability and nutrients from the soil. While the root continues to grow and branch downward, the embryonic stem sprouts upward. Nourished from this point by the cotyledons, or seed leaves previously folded within the seed coat, the seedling will develop a shoot with adult leaves.

103

8. Change the sentences below so as to introduce may as in the model The elm-leaf beetle is perhaps the most destructive to the foliage of the elm. The elm-leaf beetle may be the most destructive to the foliage of the elm. It is possible that John will be at the meeting tonight. It is possible that the professor will help us with our work. It is possible that we will be late for the lecture. Perhaps it will not rain this afternoon. Perhaps the assistant will give us a helping hand. Perhaps they will go to the mountains instead of to the plains tomorrow. Possibly George will offer to lend us his dictionary. Possibly the weather will get warmer next week. Possibly they will go by train to Bucharest.

Supplementary Reading: The Chestnut


Chestnut is the common name for certain related trees of the beech family, and for their fruit. The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) is a magnificent tree, reaching a height of 30 m, with a trunk diameter of 1 m. Formerly one of the most common trees in forests from Maine to Michigan and southward to Louisiana, it was much valued both for its nuts and for its timber, which was coarse-grained, light, and durable. These trees have been attacked by a disease called chestnut blight caused by a fungus. The disease, probably imported from Asia, started near New York City about 1904 and spread rapidly. No cure has been found, and virtually every American chestnut tree in the United States has been killed. Although young shoots spring up around the dead trunks, they die before they become old enough to bear fruit. Another, smaller species native to the United States is the chinquapin (Castanea pumila), which produces durable wood but inferior nuts. The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), an important source of lumber and nuts in the Mediterranean area, has also been affected by the blight. In Europe and in parts of Japan and China, chestnuts are an important source of food. Both the Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata) and the Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) have been introduced into the United States with promising results. These trees are smaller than the American chestnut but are more resistant to blight. The Chinese chestnut produces a large, tasty nut, but the yield from the Japanese tree is of inferior quality.

104

UNIT 17 ANGIOSPERMS: BIRCH


Birch is the common name for a family of woody trees or shrubs that produce separate, abundant, tiny male and female flowers in dense clusters. The family is widely distributed in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere, reaching the southern hemisphere only in South America. The family contains 6 genera and about 150 species. Birch trees have various uses: - Birch trees of the family's representative genus produce closegrained wood of uniform texture that is used in furniture, flooring, plywood, and veneers. - Birch beer, once popular, is derived from the sap. - The bark of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) was used by Native Americans to build canoes. - Oil of wintergreen, once derived from the bark of sweet birch (Betula lenta), is now manufactured synthetically. - Several species are useful ornamentals, for example, the European white birch (Betula pendula), which has many horticultural varieties. - One genus (Corylus) is the source of hazelnuts and filberts, which have been used as food since ancient times. The family also contains alder, hornbeam, ironwood or hop hornbeam, among others: - Most are shrubs or short-lived trees that are too small when mature to provide useful lumber. - Red alder (Alnus rubra) of the Pacific Northwest is an important exception, providing wood for inexpensive furniture. Members of the birch family exhibit several adaptations to fertilization by wind pollination, which is common throughout the group. Separate clusters of male and female flowers are produced on the same plant, developing in the fall and maturing in the early spring. Sepals and petals are very small or entirely absent, exposing the pollen-bearing stamens and pollen-collecting pistils to the wind. Enormous quantities of small, easily wind-dispersed pollen grains are shed in the spring by male flowers. The female flowers, however, are not fully mature when the pollen is shed; the styles and pollen-receiving stigmas have formed, but the ovules, which must be fertilized to mature into seeds, have not formed. The pollen remains lodged in the tissue of the styles for several weeks while the ovules mature. Fertilization and seed production follow this process. (After Marshall R. Crosby, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

105

Vocabulary
alder = anin (negru), arin (Alnus glutinosa) birch = mesteacn (Betula alba, B. pendula B. verrucosa) birch beer = berea de mesteacn close-grained wood = lemn cu fibra deas easily wind-dispersed = uor de rspndit de ctre vnt (European) hazel = alun (Corylus avellana) (European white) birch = mesteacn (Betula alba, B. pendula, B. verrucosa) exhibit (v.) = a expune filbert = alun (Corylus sp.) genus (pl. genera) = gen hop hornbeam = (specie de) mesteacn (Ostrya virginiana) hornbeam = carpen american (Carpinus americana), carpen comun (Carpinus betulus), crpini, grbar (Carpinus duinensis) ironwood = (specie de) arbore (Eusideroxylon sp., Olea sp., Ostrya sp.) lodged = rmas() Native American = Indian din America, Piele Roie paper birch = (specie de) mesteacn (Betula papyrifera) plywood = (foaie de) furnir, placaj pollen grain = gruncior / grunte de polen pollen-bearing = care poart polen pollen-collecting = care colecteaz polen red alder = (specie de) anin / arin (Alnus rubra) sap = sev short-lived = care triete puin, cu via scurt sweet birch = (specie de) mesteacn (Betula lenta) veneer = furnir

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is birch? How many genera and species are there? What do birch trees of the family's representative genus produce? What is birch beer derived from? What was the bark of paper birch used by Native Americans to build? What is oil of wintergreen derived from? What is the source of hazelnuts and filberts? What else does the family contain?

106

2. True or false?
True False

1. Birch is the common name for a family of woody trees or shrubs that produce separate, abundant, tiny male and female flowers in dense clusters. 2. The family contains 6 genera and 150 species. 3. The family is widely distributed in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere, reaching the southern hemisphere only in South America. 4. Birch trees of the family's representative genus produce close-grained wood of uniform texture that is used in furniture, flooring, plywood, and as fuel. 5. Birch beer, now very popular, is derived from the sap. 6. The bark of paper birch was used by Native Americans to build canoes. 7. Genus Corylus is the source of hazelnuts and filberts. 8. The family also contains alder, hornbeam, ironwood or hop hornbeam. 9. Red alder provides wood for expensive furniture. 10. Separate clusters of male and female flowers are produced on the same plant. 3. Fill in with the proper article from below. a an the Beech is common name for family of woody flowering plants that often dominate temperate forests, and for its representative genus. The beech family contains some 7 genera and nearly 800 species. Many of its members including oaks, chestnuts, and beeches are important sources of timber, food, and other useful materials. The flowers in beech groups are usually individually inconspicuous, with bract-like floral tubes (perianths); female and male flowers are borne separately in dense clusters called spikes or, if pendulous, catkins. The male catkins are often conspicuous in spring, when they shed their pollen, as in oaks. A unique feature of the family is cupule, cuplike, often scale-covered structure that surrounds single-seeded nut. The cap of acorn is good example of cupule. Members of beech family are trees or, rarely, shrubs. The leaves are usually deciduous (falling in autumn), but live oak of south-eastern coastal plain and California scrub oak of California and Baja California, for example, are evergreen, as are some other species.

107

4. Match the following deciduous trees with their definitions. a. a North American birch, Betula papyrifera, having a tough bark and yielding a valuable wood b. a North American tree, Betula lenta, having smooth, blackish bark and twigs that are a source of methyl salicylate c. a tree, Alnus oregona (or Alnus rubra), of western North America, having smooth, mottled light grey bark and oval serrate leaves d. any betulaceous tree of the genus Alnus, growing in moist places in northern or colder regions e. any betulaceous tree of the genus Carpinus, yielding a hard, heavy wood f. any of several Eurasian and North American trees of the genus Ostrya, of the birch family, especially O. virginiana, bearing hop-like fruiting clusters g. any of various trees yielding a hard, heavy wood, as the American hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana h. any tree of the genus Betula, comprising species with a smooth, laminated outer bark and close-grained wood i. black birch j. black birch k. the European birch, Betula pendula, yielding a hard wood

1. (European) white birch

2. alder

3. birch

4. black birch 5. cherry birch

6. hop hornbeam

7. hornbeam

8. ironwood 9. paper birch 10. red alder 11. sweet birch

5. Identify the terms related to dendrology in the text below. Beeches (family Fagaceae, of the order Fagales) are placed in an order with three other families. The southern beech family (Nothofagaceae) contains a single genus confined to the southern hemisphere. Its some 35 species include both deciduous and evergreen trees. Southern beeches are exploited for timber and indirectly as food: Fungi that grow on some are eaten, and the wood of others, partially rotted, is used as cattle feed. The other families of the order are the birch family (Betulaceae) and a onegenus family of shrubs and trees (Balanopaceae) restricted to Queensland and north-eastern Australia.

108

6. Put the following into Romanian. Use a dictionary. Beeches are distributed widely in North America and Eurasia and extend through the Malay Archipelago to eastern Australia and New Zealand. They also occur in the Andes of southern South America. Members of the family are conspicuous or dominant in the hardwood forests of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The beech genus itself is a group of about ten species of deciduous trees native to the North Temperate Zone. The pale, smooth bark and elongated winter buds are characteristic features. The American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is the only species native to the United States, where it occurs extensively east of the Mississippi River. The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was introduced into North America in Colonial times and is often found in parks. The copper beech, with lateappearing, copper-coloured leaves, and the weeping beech, with hanging branches, are cultivated varieties of the European beech. The fruits of beech, called beechnuts or beechmast, contain nearly 50 percent oil and are used as pig feed in Europe. The wood is extensively used in furniture and flooring. Old-fashioned clothespins are also made of beech. 7. Change the sentences below as to introduce the corresponding form of have to in place of must. All the students must spend more time on their English. He has to work tonight if he wants to hand in the paper tomorrow. He must have more practice in conversation. He must leave the class at once. He must spend more time on his homework. She must help him with his homework every day. The ovules must be fertilized to mature into seeds. They must help her with her report. They must stay in the lab at least two hours. We must learn at least ten new words every day if we want to speak English well. You must pay more attention to pronunciation. You must sign your name at the bottom of the page.

8. Change the sentences above to present time, to past time and to future time using have to, as in the model. He must leave at once. He has to leave at once. He had to leave at once. He will have to leave at once.

109

9. Give synonyms for the words underlined in the text below. Alder is the common name for a group of shrubs and trees native to cold and temperate climates. Because the alder's wood resists decay underwater, it is used for bridge pilings. Dye was formerly obtained from the bark of many species. The black alder (Alnus glutinosa) is a native of Europe. It usually grows to about 15 m. Among the varieties used for ornamental planting are the golden alder, with bright golden-yellow leaves, and the cut-leaved alder, with narrow, deeply incised leaves. The grey or Eurasian white alder (Alnus incana) has acute leaves, downy underneath, and grows to a height of about 24 m.

Supplementary Reading: Teak and Mahogany


a) Teak (Tectona grandis) is the common name for a tall, deciduous timber tree, of the verbena family (Verbenaceae). The tree, which attains a height of about 30 m, is native to India and the Malay Archipelago and is cultivated in the Philippine Islands and Java. The bluish to white flowers are arranged in terminal panicles, or clusters. The fruit is a drupe. Because of its durability and strength, teakwood is used throughout the world as lumber in shipbuilding. In the tropics, the wood is used primarily for the construction of furniture; teak furniture has been known to resist the attacks of insects and the corrosive effects of weather for hundreds of years. Substitutes for teak, which have been under extensive cultivation because of the increasing demand, are loosely termed teaks. African teak (Oldfieldia africana), or African oak, is a hardwood tree of the spurge family. b) Mahogany is the common name for a medium-size family (Meliaceae) (about 550 species in about 50 genera) of tropical trees and shrubs important for high-quality woods. True mahoganies are members of an American genus (Swietenia) and an African genus (Khaya). Members of the family usually have pinnately compound (branching) leaves and three to five sepals and petals. The five to ten stamens are fused along their filaments (stalks) to form a tube. Mahogany wood is heavy, strong, and easily worked and resists rot and termites. It is used in cabinetry and veneers and formerly, before all the large trees were cut, in construction. Other genera in the family besides the true mahoganies also yield useful wood, oils, insecticides, and edible fruits. The chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach), native to the Himalayas, is widely planted in the southern United States as an ornamental.

110

UNIT 18 ANGIOSPERMS: WILLOW


Willow is the common name for a small family (Salicaceae) of woody flowering plants, and for certain trees of its representative genera. The willow family comprises about 435 species of willows (genus Salix) and poplars (genus Populus), including the aspens and the cottonwoods. Members of the family usually live in moist habitats and in floodplains and riverbanks; they are rapid-growing, often pioneer, species. Their wood is used in many ways, and their leaves supply food for wildlife. Some species are ornamental. The family contains two genera: willow and poplar. Both are widespread in the northern hemisphere; a few species occur in the southern hemisphere. The 35 or so species of poplar are trees and the majority of the 400 or so species of willow are shrubs. Willows are particularly abundant and important in the Arctic tundra, where they are low and mat-like; they are also found above the timberline on mountains. Willows and poplars produce male and female flowers on separate plants. The flowers are very simple, lacking both sepals and petals. They appear in dense clusters, called catkins, before or during the growth of new leaves in the spring. The catkins of poplars are pendent and produce no nectar; wind is the agent of pollination. The catkins of willows, in contrast, are erect and produce abundant, scented nectar that attracts insects, especially bees and moths, which carry out pollination. Insect pollination of the highly simplified flowers of willows is an exception to the rule in the plant kingdom that only plant groups with complex, showy flowers have their pollen distributed by insects. In the early spring, however, before most other flowers appear, insects rely on the nectar of willow catkins as a food source. The fruits of willows and poplars are small capsules containing numerous seeds, each of which has cotton-like threads that act as parachutes, aiding in wind dispersal. If the seeds land on proper, moist soil, they germinate within one or two days. Most willows and poplars grow rapidly, reaching flowering age within a few years, but they are short-lived, some lasting only 20 years. The economic importance of the family varies. Twigs of the common osier (Salix viminalis) are grown for use in basket-making, and the light but dent-resistant wood of other willows is used for artificial limbs, wooden shoes, and cricket bats. Willow bark contains the active compound salicin, used in many folk medicines. Aspirin is a derivative of salicylic acid, which was first synthesized from derivatives of willow bark. Several willows, such as weeping willow (Salix babylonica) and pussy-willow (Salix discolor), are of horticultural importance. (After Marshall R. Crosby, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

111

Vocabulary
aid in = a ajuta la artificial limb = membru (bra, picior) artificial aspen = plop-de-munte, plop tremurtor (Populus tremula) basket-making = confecionarea de couri de nuiele bee = albin (Apis) carry out (v.) = a efectua catkin = ament, mior (common) osier = lozie, mlaj, rchit (Salix viminalis) cotton-like = asemntor cu bumbacul, ca bumbacul cottonwood = plop canadian (Populus balsamifera / deltoides) cricket bat = bt de cricket dent-resistant wood = lemn rezistent la aciunea mecanic derivative = derivat erect = n sus, ridicat() first = pentru ntia / prima dat floodplain = lunc inundabil flowering age = perioada de nflorire folk medicine = medicament popular in contrast = n schimb in the early spring = la nceputul primverii land (v.) = a ateriza, a cdea pe pmnt last (v.) = a dura, a ine low = scund() mat-like = ca o rogojin() moist habitat = habitat umed moth = molie particularly = mai ales, n special pendent = atrntor pioneer species = specie pionier poplar = plop pussy-willow = salcie (Salix discolor) rely on (v.) = a se baza pe riverbank = mal de ap curgtoare showy = artos, -oas, frumos, -oas thread = fir, a timberline = limita climateric a arborilor de construcie weeping willow = salcie pletoas / plngtoare (Salix babylonica) willow = salcie (Salix sp.) wind dispersal = mprtierea cu ajutorul vntului within = n (interval de) wooden shoe = nclminte / pantof de lemn

112

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is willow? How many species does the willow family comprise? Where do members of the family usually live? How is used their wood? How many genera does the family contain? Where are they spread? Where are willows abundant? What kind of flowers do willows and poplars produce? What are catkins? How are the catkins of poplars? And those of willows? Who carries out pollination? How are the fruits of willows and poplars? How do most willows and poplars grow? What are twigs of the common osier grown for? What is salicin? What is aspirin? What willows are of horticultural importance?

2. Fill in with the proper adjective from below. brushy cooler different flattened greyish-olive high long low middle pale similar small white woody Empidonax flycatcher is the name for a genus of , insect-eating North American songbirds (genus Empidonax, family Tyrannidae, order Passeriformes). They winter in Mexico and Central and South America and migrate north in spring and summer to nest in and habitats throughout the United States and Canada. The 11 species of empidonax flycatchers are very in appearance. All are about 11 to 14 cm long and have bills with whiskers at the base. They are in colour with eye rings and wing bars. The species can be distinguished mainly by their calls and songs, but also by their habitat and geographic range. For example, the dusky flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri) is found at mountain elevations in the western United States, where the habitat includes bushes as well as trees. The Hammonds flycatcher (Empidonax hammondii) lives in the same range but prefers the surroundings of coniferous (pine, spruce, and fir) forests. Some species feed entirely on insects while others also include spiders, berries, and seeds in their diets.

113

3. Match the following deciduous trees with their definitions. 1. aspen 2. common osier 3. cottonwood 4. poplar 5. pussy-willow 6. quaking aspen 7. red osier a. a poplar of America, Populus tremuloides, having leaves that tremble in the slightest breeze b. a poplar of Europe, Populus tremula, having leaves that tremble in the slightest breeze c. a small, American willow, Salix discolor, having silky catkins d. a willow, Salix purpurea, having tough, flexible twigs or branches used for wickerwork e. a willow, Salix viminalis f. an Asian ornamental willow, Salix babylonica, characterised by the drooping habit of its branches g. any of several American poplars, as Populus deltoides, having cotton-like tufts on the seeds h. any of the rapidly growing, salicaceous trees of the genus Populus, usually characterised by the columnar or spire-like manner of growth of its branches i. any tree of the genus Salix, many species of which have tough, flexible twigs or branches used for wickerwork

8. weeping willow

9. willow

4. Identify all the words related to wildlife in the text below. All empidonax flycatchers forage for insects by watching from a perch, then flying out to catch their prey in the air. Nesting takes place in spring and summer. Courtship varies among species, but it typically begins with the male singing characteristic mating songs at dawn. Often the male chases the female through the trees. The female builds the nest, sometimes with help from the male, generally in the branches of a tree or bush. Most species build cup-shaped nests constructed of moss, weeds, and grass held together with spider webs, strips of bark, and lichen. The nest is then lined with finer, softer materials, such as grass, plant down, animal hair, feathers, and fur. The female generally lays three or four creamy-white eggs that are, in some species, spotted with brown. She incubates, or warms, the eggs by sitting on them for about two weeks until they have hatched. Both parents feed the young until they are ready to leave the nest, or fledge, usually two to three weeks after hatching. Although the numbers of most empidonax species are stable, some are vulnerable to loss of habitat. Willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) nesting along streams in the south-western United States are considered threatened or endangered due to a loss of streamside habitat.

114

5. Supply the present tense simple or the future tense simple of the verbs in parentheses below. If he (arrive) on time, I will speak with him. If he fails the test, he (have) to repeat the course. If he works hard, he (succeed). If I (find) the book, I will give it to you. If I (have) a car this summer, I will go to the mountains. If I finish my work in time, I (go) to the ball game. If John studies hard, he (pass) his examinations. If the bus (be) late, we will not be able to attend the lecture. If the seeds land on proper, moist soil, they (germinate) within one or two days. If you (save) your money, you will be able to go on a vacation. If you (study) hard, you can easily pas your examinations. If you do not hurry, we (be late) for class.

6. Put the following into Romanian. Use a dictionary. Titmouse is the traditional name for members of a family of songbirds (genus Parus of the family Paridae, order Passeriformes). The only birds still called titmice are the crested North American species, such as the tufted titmouse (Parus bicolor), a grey bird with rusty flanks, 15 cm long, of the eastern half of the United States and adjacent southern Canada. The non-crested American species are called chickadees; all are small birds with black or brown caps and bibs. The familiar black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus), about 13 cm long, has the widest range, from Alaska south to Kansas and Ohio and farther south in the Rockies and Appalachians. In the rest of the range of the family (around the world except in South America and Australia), the common name has been abbreviated to tit. The tits of Eurasia are more diverse than the American species. Several, such as the willow tit (Parus montanus), look much like American chickadees, but others are more colourful. The most familiar European species, found in woodlands, parks, and gardens, are the great tit (Parus major), 14 cm long, and the blue tit (Parus caeruleus), 11 cm long. The great tit looks something like a large chickadee but has a yellow belly, and its black bib extends as a stripe down the abdomen. The blue tit also has a yellow belly, but has a blue cap and blue on the wings. Titmice are gregarious most of the year and forage in flocks, often mixed with kinglets, nuthatches, and creepers. They are regular visitors to feeders. When the breeding season begins, pairs leave the flock and set up territories. Titmice nest in holes in trees, and many species readily accept nest boxes.

115

7. Change the sentences below into causative forms as in the model. Insects distribute the pollen of plant groups with showy flowers. Plant groups with showy flowers have their pollen distributed by insects. Everybody should shine his / her shoes. I cut my hair every three or four months. I e-mailed those messages yesterday. I expect to repair my PC soon. I have pressed all my summer clothes. I must repair my watch. I pulled two teeth. We must paint our class soon.

Supplementary Reading: Date Palm


Date palm (family Arecaceae) is the common name for several related trees found in tropical regions. The common date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is native to northern Africa, southwest Asia, and India and is cultivated extensively in hot, dry regions throughout the world. The trunk is straight and rough and grows to a height of up to 18 m. It bears a head of waxy-green, barbed leaves, about 3 m long, and a number of branching spikes that, on the female tree, bear 200 to 1,000 dates each. A cluster of dates weighs up to 12 kg, and the annual yield of a single tree may reach 270 kg. The tree begins to bear about the eighth year, reaches maturity at 30 years, and begins to decline at about 100 years. From earliest times, fertilisation has been aided by cutting off the male flower cluster just before the stamens ripen and suspending it among the flowers of the female tree. In many parts of northern Africa, Iran, and Arabia, date palms are the main wealth of the people, and dates are the chief article of food. The fleshy part of the fruit contains about 58 percent sugar and 2 percent each of fat, protein, and minerals. Leaf stalks are used for basketry and wickerwork, leaves are woven into bags and mats, and fibre from both is made into cordage. Another species, the sugar date palm, or toddy palm (Phoenix sylvestris), is cultivated in India for its sap. The sap may be boiled down to form jiggery, or guru, a crude sugar; or it may be used as a fresh beverage, or to make palm wine, from which arrack, a rum-like liquor, may be distilled. Date palms are often cultivated in the southern United States for ornamental effect in regions too cool for the fruit to ripen. The blue date palm (Phoenix zeylanica) grows in clumps and has silvery blue foliage; the pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) is a dwarf species that is also popular in the north as a greenhouse plant or houseplant.

116

UNIT 19 GYMNOSPERMS: PINE


Pine is the common name for a medium-size family (Pinaceae) of trees, mostly evergreen, of widespread distribution in the temperate areas of the northern hemisphere, and for its representative genus. The family (210 species placed in 10 genera) has enormous economic importance as a source of timber and pulpwood, among other products. Members of the family characteristically have helically arranged needle-like leaves. In several genera the leaves are borne in clusters that are actually short branches, or spurs, on which the leaves are arranged in tight helices. The Pinaceae have separate female (producing the seeds) and male cones (producing the pollen). Male and female cones are produced on the same plant; the cones are woody when mature; the seeds are winged. The family is distinguished from other conifers on the basis of its seed cones. Each of the flattened scales on which the seeds are borne is under laid by a distinct, sterile bract (reduced leaf) that is usually shorter than the scale. The seed cones are drooping in all members of the family except the fir (Abies) and a small genus (Keteleeria) confined to South China and Southeast Asia. All members of the family have evergreen leaves except the golden larch (Pseudolarix) and the larch. The pine genus itself is the largest in the family (about 110 species). Pines grow in a wide range of habitats, from sea level to altitudes of 4000 m and are distinguished by the leaves (bundles containing a specific number of leaves, with a sheath of short, scale-like leaves at the base). Pines are divided into two groups based primarily on the scale leaves. The soft pines have leaves in bundles of five, and the scale leaves fall away from mature leaf bundles: the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), of NE North America; pion pine (Pinus edulis), of the SW, the seeds of which are edible; bristle-cone pine (Pinus aristata), the Rocky Mountain species; and the Great Basin bristle-cone (Pinus longaeva), which can live more than 5000 years and is the oldest known living thing on the planet. Through analysis of bristle-cone rings, scientists can tell what the climate was more than 10,000 years ago. The hard pines have leaves in clusters of two or three, and the scale leaves persist in mature clusters: the lodge-pole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia), extending from Alaska to Baja California; longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), of the SE coastal plain; and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), of the W America. Both groups are economically important (timber, pulp, tar, and turpentine). Members of a pine family thought to be extinct for 50 million years were discovered in a rain forest in Australia, in 1994. The pine family also includes Douglas fir, hemlock, and spruce. (After Marshall R. Crosby, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

117

Vocabulary
be borne in cluster (v.) = a avea forma unui ciorchine be extinct (v.) = a disprea bristle-cone pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus aristata) bundle = mnunchi Douglas-fir = (brad) duglas (Pseudotsuga douglasii, P. menziesii, P. taxifolia) drooping = pletos, pletoas; plngtor, -oare eastern white pine = pin alb / strob (Pinus strobus) edible = comestibil() (European) larch = larice, zad (Larix decidua) fir (tree) = brad (Abies sp.) golden larch = (specie de) pin (Pseudolarix) Great Basin bristle-cone = (specie de ) pin (Pinus longaeva) hemlock = brad de Canada, tsuga (Tsuga canadensis) lodge-pole pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus contorta latifolia) longleaf pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus palustris) needle-like = ca acul, n form de ac pine = pin (Pinus sp.) pion pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus edulis) ponderosa pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus ponderosa) pulpwood = lemn pentru past de hrtie sheath = teac spruce (fir) = molid (Picea abies) spur = pinten underlaid = susinut() winged = cu aripi, naripat()

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is pine? How many genera and species are there in the Pinaceae family? What does its economic importance consist in? What is the family Pinaceae distinguished from other conifers? Do all members of the family have evergreen leaves? What is the largest genus in the family? What are pines divided into? What are the two groups differentiated by? What does the pine family include?

118

2. True or false?
True False

1. The family Pinaceae has enormous economic importance as a source of timber and pulpwood, among other products. 2. In several species of Pinaceae the leaves are borne in clusters that are actually short branches. 3. Male and female cones are produced on different plants; the cones are woody when mature; the seeds are winged. 4. The family Pinaceae is distinguished from other conifers on the basis of its seed cones. 5. All members of the family Pinaceae have evergreen leaves except the golden larch. 6. The pine genus itself is the largest in the family (about 110 species). 7. Pines are divided into two groups based on the scales. 8. The Great Basin bristle-cone can live more than 5000 years and is the oldest known living thing on the planet. 9. Through analysis of bristle-cone rings, scientists can tell what the climate was more than 100,000 years ago. 3. Fill in with the proper verb from below. are contain has have is may occurs produce remain split was The best-known cedar the cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani), mentioned often in the Old Testament; the First Temple of Solomon built of this wood (see 1 Kings 5:6). It native to Asia Minor, and today only a few original groves , although they some trees of great age. Trees reach 30 m in height and spreading branches that off from the main trunk, unlike most conifers, which a single dominant trunk. The dark to bright green leaves about 2.5 cm long, and the upright cones about 10 cm long. The Cyprus cedar (Cedrus brevifolia), usually considered only a variety of the cedar of Lebanon, on the island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean. The Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) closely related to the cedar of Lebanon and in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa. The remaining cedar, deodar (Cedrus deodara), in the Himalayas and an important timber tree in India. Unlike the other species, which horizontal branches and cones flat at the apex, the deodar pendulous branches and rounded cones.

119

4. Match the following. a. a large pine, Pinus ponderosa, of western North America, having yellowishbrown bark b. a pine of the Rocky Mountain region, Pinus edulis, bearing large edible seeds c. a pine, Pinus aristata, of the southwestern U.S., bearing short needles crowded into long, thick bundles and cones having scales tipped with a slender, curved spine d. a pine, Pinus longaeva e. a pine, Pinus Strobus f. a tall, narrow, slow-growing coniferous tree, Pinus contorta (latifolia), of western North America, having egg-shaped cones that remain closed for years g. an American pine, Pinus palustris, valued as a source of turpentine and for its timber h. any evergreen, coniferous tree of the genus Pinus, having long, needle-shaped leaves, various species of which yield timber, turpentine, tar, pitch, etc. i. bristlecone pine

1. bristlecone pine 2. eastern white pine

3. Great Basin bristle-cone

4. hickory pine 5. lodge-pole pine 6. longleaf pine

7. pine

8. pion (pine) 9. ponderosa pine

5. Make sentences as in the model. some members of a pine family extinct for 50 million years Some members of a pine family are said / reported / thought to be extinct for 50 million years. pine the common name for a medium-size family of trees pines grow in a wide range of habitats pion pine (Pinus edulis) edible seeds the family Pinaceae enormous economic importance as a source of timber and pulpwood the Great Basin bristle-cone (Pinus longaeva) the oldest known living thing on the planet the pine genus itself the largest in the family Pinaceae

6. Put into Romanian the text under the picture below.

120

121

7. Put the text below into Romanian. Use a dictionary. Cedar is the common name for three or four species of large trees (family Pinaceae) native to mountainous areas of North Africa and Asia. Cedar trees belong to the pine family, the members of which have needle-like leaves and, like all conifers, bear their seeds on scales clustered into cones. They differ from other members of the family in their evergreen fourangled leaves borne on short side-branches. The genus produces fragrant, durable, red-coloured wood used in construction and cabinetry. Although no true cedars are native to North America, they are planted as ornamentals in milder areas, and various horticultural varieties, based on growth form and leaf colour, exist.

Supplementary Reading: Spruce


Spruce is the common name for a genus (Picea of the family Pinaceae) of about 40 species of coniferous trees, indigenous to the northern hemisphere, nearly half being natives of North America. The genus, of the pine family, was formerly combined with a fir genus, from which it differs in having pendulous cones, persistent woody leaf-bases, and four-angled leaves, scattered and pointing in every direction. Spruces occur farther north than most trees, forming forests within the Arctic Circle, and extending south, especially in the mountains, as far as the Pyrenees in Europe and the Himalayas in Asia; in the United States, spruces occur as far south as North Carolina and Arizona. The white spruce and black spruce cover extensive areas in Canada, almost to the total exclusion of other trees. In Europe the Norway spruce is similarly distributed; the timber is valuable for fuel and for house building and is exported from Norway and Sweden for masts and spars of sailing vessels. In North America the prevailing species over the greatest extent of territory are the white spruce (Picea glauca) and the black spruce, although in lumbering the two species are seldom distinguished. The former is found from New York to British Columbia and northward to Newfoundland and Labrador, Hudson Bay, and Alaska. The white wood is light in weight, soft, compact, nearly odourless, and with scarcely distinguishable sapwood. It is used for general building purposes and also yields some of the spruce gum of commerce. The black spruce (Picea mariana) has a distribution somewhat similar to that of the white, except that it descends along the mountains to Virginia. It is a somewhat smaller tree, but otherwise similar to the white spruce. It forms immense forests in Maine, New York, Canada, and elsewhere and is used largely for wood pulp and paper. A third species, the red spruce (Picea rubens), a valuable timber tree, is limited essentially to New England but is also found along the Appalachians as far south as Georgia.

122

UNIT 20 GYMNOSPERMS: FIR


Fir is the common name for any of a genus (Abies of the family Pinaceae) of trees. The trees, known as true firs, generally have the following features: - a straight trunk with somewhat pyramidal growth; - branches growing in whorls from the trunk; - cones erect at maturity and composed of thin, close scales, each scale bearing two winged seeds; - flat, scattered leaves, with the midribs showing clearly on the whitish undersides. About 25 species of true firs are widely scattered throughout the northern hemisphere. The silver fir of Europe (Abies alba) sometimes reaches a height of 46 m, with large boughs curved upward at their outer extremities. The leaves are dark green above, with two white lines beneath. When seen from below, the tree appears to have a silvery colour. It is abundant in the mountains of southern and central Europe. It is also found in Asia, in the Caucasus Mountains. Ten species of fir are native to North America, growing chiefly in the region west of the Rocky Mountains, and achieving maximum growth in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges. These firs have the following features: - The balsam fir (Abies balsamea) is found from Virginia to the island of Newfoundland and north-westward to the Yukon and Labrador. It grows from 12 to 18 m high, and its leaves are highly fragrant and resinous. The balsam fir, probably the best known of the true firs, is used for pulpwood and yields the oleoresin known as Canada balsam. - The noble fir (Abies procera), found in California, Washington, and Oregon, grows to a height of 30 to 60 m, with a trunk as large as 2.4 m in diameter. - The alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) is smaller than the noble fir, growing commonly from 24 to 30 m high. It is found from New Mexico to Alaska in the Rocky Mountains. - The lowland or grand fir (Abies grandis), growing from Montana to the Pacific Coast, at times reaches a height of 91 m. True firs do not have the resin ducts that typify true pines or spruce, although these trees all resemble one another in softness of wood. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

123

Vocabulary
above = deasupra achieve (v.) = a atinge, a realiza alpine fir = (specie de) brad (Abies lasiocarpa) although =dei appear (v.) = a prea at times = uneori balsam fir = brad canadian (Abies balsamea) below = sub beneath = dedesubt bough = creang Canada balsam = balsam de Canada chiefly = cu precdere, n principal, mai ales curved upward = curbat() n sus dark green = verde nchis feature = (trstur) caracteristic fir (tree) = brad (Abies sp) flat = turtit() fragrant = parfumat() grand / lowland fir = (specie de) brad (Abies grandis) grow to a height of (v.) = a crete pn la o nlime de midrib = nervure principal mountain range = lan muntos noble fir = (specie de) brad (Abies procera) oleoresin = rin fluid outer extremity = extremitate exterioar pyramidal growth = cretere piramidal reach (v.) = a ajunge la, a atinge resemble one another (v.) = a semna unul / una cu altul / alta resin duct = canal prin care curge rina resinous = rinos, -oas scattered = mprtiat() silver fir = brad (Abies alba) silvery = argintiu, -ie softness = moliciune somewhat = oarecum straight = drept, dreapt typify (v.) = a stabili tipuri underside = partea inferioar whitish = albicios, -oas whorl = vrtej widely = larg

124

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is fir? What are the general features of true firs? How many species of true firs are widely scattered throughout the northern hemisphere? What height does the silver fir of Europe reach? How are its leaves? Where is the silver fir abundant? Where is it also found? How many species of fir are native to North America? Where do they grow? What are their features? Where is the balsam fir found? What is it used for? Where is the noble fir found? How high does it grow? How does the alpine fir look like? Where is it found? Where does the grand fir grow? What height does it reach? What do true firs resemble true pines or spruce in?

2. Fill in with the proper preposition from below. by for from in near of Conifer (phylum Pinophyta) is the common name a group plants that is characterized seed-bearing cones and that includes about 550 the 700 known species gymnosperms, plants with seeds that are not enclosed an ovary. There are two orders conifers: Pinales and Taxales. Conifers are known fossils more than 290 million years old. Although more species conifers once existed, they are still a widely distributed group and are one the world's most important renewable resources. In late 1994, descendants a group of conifers (family Auracariaceae) widespread the Cretaceous period were discovered the Wollemi National Park, Sydney, Australia. Thirty-nine trees, the tallest which reaches a height 40 m, were found a remote area of the rain forest. Fossils the ancestors the newly discovered trees exist, but scientists had believed that the group had become extinct 50 million years ago.

125

3. Match the following firs with their definitions. a. a coniferous tree, Abies alba, native to Europe, the young branches of which are covered with greyish fuzz b. a coniferous tree, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, of western North America, often over 200 feet high, and yielding a strong, durable timber c. a fir, Abies lasiocarpa, of the Rocky Mountains, yielding a soft, brittle wood used for making boxes, crates, etc. d. a fir, Abies procera, of the north-western U.S., which may grow to a height of 250 ft e. a large fir, Abies grandis, of the western coast of North America, having a narrow, pointed crown and yielding a soft wood used for lumber, pulp, and boxes f. a North American fir, Abies balsamea, that yields Canada balsam g. any of the pyramidal coniferous trees of the genus Abies h. grand fir

1. alpine fir

2. balsam fir

3. Douglas fir 4. fir 5. grand fir 6. lowland fir 7. noble fir 8. silver fir

4. Identify the terms related to botany in the text below. Conifers, like flowering plants, reproduce by means of seeds, which contain food tissue and an embryo that will grow into a plant. The seeds are borne on the scales of female cones rather than being surrounded by carpel tissue, and the pollen is produced in separate male cones rather than in anthers. Pollination in conifers is always dependent on wind currents to blow the abundant yellow pollen from the male cones to the female cones. Conifers usually have needle-shaped or scale-like leaves, and nearly all are evergreen. They typically have straight trunks with horizontal branches varying more or less regularly in length from bottom to top, so that the trees are conical in outline. They vary in size from shrubs to giant sequoias. 5. Look carefully at the picture below and then answer the questions. What does the picture present? How could you translate the notes in the picture? What tree parts are the different wood figures in the picture below obtained from? What are the wood figures in the picture used for? Which of the wood figures in the picture can be found at your place?

126

127

6. Change the infinitives in the sentences below to continuous forms as in the model. When seen from below, the tree appears to have a silvery colour. When seen from below, the tree appears to be having a silvery colour. He has to do something every minute while in the class. He seems to do his best in statistics. He seems to find the work on the experimental plot easy I prefer to do something more useful than correcting papers. I would like to study English instead of French. She appears to enjoy his English classes. She is supposed to work in the agricultural chemistry laboratory. She seems to have some difficulty with that experiment. They are said to learn fast about agricultural machines. You ought to spend more time on your English.

Supplementary Reading: Cypress


Cypress is the common name for several related coniferous trees and shrubs of the family Cupressaceae. The common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), native to the Mediterranean region, is a symmetrical evergreen that resembles some poplars and often reaches a height of more than 27 m. It has a close-grained yellow or reddish wood so resinous that it resists rotting even after prolonged submersion in water. The Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) is an even larger tree found on the Pacific Coast in California. It sometimes grows as tall as 46 m, with a base trunk circumference of 3 m. This cypress is normally symmetrical but is often distorted into fantastic shapes by the action of the winds. Another true cypress is the cedar of Goa, or Portugal cedar (Cupressus lusitanica), which is often planted in the United States for the decorative effect of its spreading branches. Among trees to which the name cypress is often applied are two trees of the western United States, the Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) and the yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and a pine of the eastern United States, the white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides). These are so-called false cypress. The bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) of the family Taxodiaceae is a valuable timber tree of Mexico and the southern United States. It is deciduous, with a massive trunk as much as 52 m high. This tree grows at the edges of swamps or streams, and its roots form natural crooks, or knees, that extend above the water. The knees are frequently used for curved members in the construction of wooden boats.

128

UNIT 21 UNUSUAL TREES


There are many types of unusual trees around the world that exhibit a variety of interesting characteristics: prehistoric relics, trees that exhibit bizarre growth patterns or formations, and trees with interesting strategies for obtaining the air, water, and nutrients necessary for growth. The banyan tree begins life with a single trunk; aerial roots grow down from its spreading limbs and take root. These roots enlarge, eventually becoming trunk-like, and in old age a single tree may have the appearance of a small forest. The largest banyan, found on the island of Sri Lanka, has 350 major trunks and several thousand smaller ones. Its name comes from a Hindu word for trader, because in many regions where banyans are found, traders and merchants use the trees shade while displaying their wares. The baobab tree, the closely related bottle tree, and certain cactus trees have trunks with fleshy centres. These trunks store large amounts of water, enabling the trees to survive the arid conditions under which they grow. Its trunk may measure 9 m in diameter. The bottle tree has a bulging bottleshaped trunk. Cacti, although frequently covered with spines, can yield water to a lost hiker even in the driest desert. Although it is native to Africa, the sausage tree is cultivated as an ornamental in warm areas such as southern Florida and Hawaii. It has large deep red flowers, which are replaced eventually by giant sausage-shaped fruits about 60 cm long. Both the flowers and fruits are borne on long stems hanging from the limbs of the tree. The pencil tree, a native of Asia, is grown as an ornamental in Hawaii and elsewhere because of its odd twigs, which are swollen, pencillike, and bright green. The twigs serve the tree in place of leaves, which are almost totally lacking. It has strongly caustic sap causing a skin rash, and it may even cause temporary or permanent blindness if it touches the eye. Bald cypress trees are deciduous needle-leaf trees that grow in swampy areas, are unusual because of special breathing organs known as cypress knees. These organs are extensions from the root system that project above the usual water level and absorb oxygen from the air for use by the roots. Strangler fig trees are an example of a parasitic method of development that occurs in several plant families. A seed is deposited by a bird, monkey, or other animal in a depression or a crotch of a limb. The seed sprouts and begins to develop, and roots eventually find their way to the ground, sometimes travelling 25 m or more. There the roots take hold and begin to enlarge toward each other, enclosing the trunk of the host tree. Finally, the roots join side by side to restrict the growth of the original tree, which eventually rots away, leaving the parasite standing as an independent plant. (After Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

129

Vocabulary
aerial root = rdcin aerian bald cypress (tree) = chiparos de balt (Taxodium distichum) banyan tree = smochin indian (Ficus bengalensis) baobab tree = baobab (Adansonia digitata) blindness = orbire bottle tree = specie de arbore nrudit cu baobabul bottle-shaped = n form de sticl breathing organ = organ respiratoriu bulging = umflat() cactus (pl. cacti) = cactus (Opuntia cactus) crotch = bifurcare, bifurcaie, ramificare display (v.) = a etala, a expune elsewhere = aiurea enable (v.) = a permite enlarge (v.) = a se mri fleshy = crnos, -oas giant = uria() growth pattern = model de cretere hiker = drume host tree = arbore gazd knee = genunchi lost = rtcit() merchant = negustor monkey = maimu (de talie mic) occur (v.) = a se afla, a se gsi odd = ciudat() pencil tree = specie de arbore originar din Asia pencil-like = ca un creion relic = relicv sausage tree = (specie de) arbore (Kigelia africana, K. pinnata) sausage-shaped = n form de crnat skin rash = mncrime de piele sprout (v.) = a da lstari, a ncoli strangler fig tree = arbore parazit din pdurile tropicale survive (v.) = a supravieui swampy = mltinos, -oas swollen = umflat() take root (v.) = a prinde rdcini trader = comerciant unusual = neobinuit() wares = bunuri, mrfuri

130

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What types of unusual trees are there around the world? How does the banyan tree begin life? How does it enlarge? How many trunks does the largest banyan tree in the world have? What do the baobab tree, the bottle tree, and the cacti store? How much does the baobab tree measure in diameter? How does the bottle tree look like? What are cacti covered by? Why is the sausage tree cultivated? Where is it cultivated? How does it look like? How does a pencil tree look like? What can its sap cause in humans? Why is the bald cypress tree unusual? What are cypress knees? How does the strangler fig tree multiply?

2. True or false?
True False

1. The banyan tree begins life with a single trunk, aerial roots grow down from its spreading limbs and take root. 2. The baobab tree has a trunk with a hard centre. 3. The bottle tree has a bulging bottle-shaped trunk. 4. Cacti, although rarely covered with spines, can yield water to a lost hiker even in the driest desert. 5. Although it is native to Africa, the sausage tree is cultivated as an ornamental in warm areas such as southern Florida and Hawaii. 6. The pencil tree, a native of Asia, is grown as an ornamental in Hawaii and elsewhere because of its odd twigs, which are swollen, pencil-like, and bright blue. 7. Bald cypress trees are deciduous needle-leaf trees that grow in swampy areas, are unusual because of special breathing organs known as cypress knees. 8. Strangler fig trees are an example of a parasitic method of development that occurs in few plant families. 9. The roots of the Strangler fig tree travels 25 m or more.

131

3. Fill in with the proper noun from below. Family fruit genus growth leaflets order pest shrubs tree trees wood Ailanthus is the common name for a medium-sized of tropical and subtropical and , and for its representative genus. Leaves of the ailanthus group are compound with many feathery and occur alternating on the leaf stems. The is usually winged. The comprises about 22 genera and 170 species and is a member of the that also contains the mahogany and citrus trees. The ailanthus is of limited importance as a source of timber, for the bitter principles extracted from its and used in medicines, and for ornamentals. The of heaven, a native of northern China, was introduced into the United States in 1874. Its hardiness and rapid make it useful in urban settings, but it is difficult to eradicate once established and is considered a in some areas. Ailanthuses belong to the Simaroubaceae. The representative is Ailanthus. 4. Match the following trees with their definitions. a. a tree, Taxodium distichum, of the southern U.S., yielding a strong, hard wood used in construction, shipbuilding, etc. b. an East Indian fig tree, Ficus benghalensis, whose branches send out adventitious roots to the ground, sometimes causing the tree to spread over a wide area c. any large, bombacaceous tree of the genus Adansonia, especially A. digitata, which is native to tropical Africa, has an exceedingly thick trunk, and bears a gourd-like fruit d. any of several trees, species of the genus Sterculia (Firmiana), native to warmer regions, as S. rupestris and S. trichosiphon e. any of various fleshy-stemmed plants of the family Cactaceae, usually leafless and spiny, often producing showy flowers, chiefly native to the hot, dry regions of America

1. bald cypress (tree)

2. banyan (tree)

3. baobab (tree)

4. bottle tree

5. cactus

5. Give examples of unusual plants in fiction literature: vegetables; trees.

132

6. Identify the terms related to botany in the text below. Arborvitae (Latin for tree of life) is the common name for certain related evergreen trees of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), so named early in the 17th century because of the medicinal value ascribed to their balsamic resin. Extracts of this resin increase blood pressure and reduce fever. The leaves have a fragrant, balsam-like odour. The wood is reddish, light, and durable. Some of the larger species are valuable timber trees. The smaller species are cultivated in gardens and as wind-screens for more tender plants. The common, or American, arborvitae, often called white cedar (Thuja occidentalis), is found in the north-eastern regions of North America as far south as Virginia. It flourishes in moist, cool places and attains a height of 15 m. The branches are horizontally expanded, compressed or flattened, and have small, scale-like leaves. The cones are small and obovate. The only other species native to North America is the giant arborvitae (Thuja plicata), found west of the Rocky Mountains from northern California to Alaska. Sometimes called red cedar or canoe cedar, it may attain a height of 60 m under favourable conditions, and the trunk may exceed 4.5 m in diameter. The Oriental arborvitae (Thuja orientalis) of the Old World is smaller and less hardy than the American species. It has denser foliage, more nearly vertical branches, and larger, rougher, and more nearly spherical cones. 7. State each of the sentences below twice as in the model. He likes (take) lessons from Professor Evans. He likes to take lessons from Professor Evans. He likes taking lessons from Professor Evans. Adrienne will start (do) research in that department next month. Ann hates (distribute) secretarial work. Economists hope to begin (increase) salaries in the spring. He has begun (take) English classes. He intends (leave) school soon. I neglected (speak) to Professor Jonas about that report. Joan loves (work) in this laboratory. John intends (attend) three English lessons a week. John prefers (go) private lessons. She will continue (study) in that class. The seed sprouts and begins (develop). There the roots take hold and begin (enlarge) toward each other. They prefer (meet) at nine oclock instead of at eight. When will he start (come) to class?

133

8. Supply the past (perfect) form of may in the sentences below as in the model. In old age a single tree may have the appearance of a small forest. In old age a single tree may have had the appearance of a small forest. I may leave my keys at home. I may lose my keys in the parking area. It may be Mary at the door. She may go home in the end. She may take the book by mistake. The storm may delay the plane. They may call you again.

Supplementary Reading: Trumpet Tree


Trumpet tree (family Bignoniaceae) is the common name for a genus of about 100 species of shrubs or trees with large, showy, trumpet-shaped flowers. Native to the tropical Americas, trumpet trees are widely cultivated as ornamentals in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They grow best in deep, fertile soil and full sun. The silver trumpet tree or tree of gold (Tabebuia argentea) is native to Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil. It attains heights of 8 m. The silvery compound leaves (leaves that consist of several leaflets arranged along a central stem) have five to seven leaflets, each one 6 to 18 cm long. The golden yellow flowers can reach 6.25 cm in length. The pink trumpet tree (Tabebuia heterophylla), a native of the West Indies, typically grows to heights of 10 m. Its leaves are 15 to 30 cm long, with leaflets 5 to 15 cm long. The flowers are usually a dark pink. In addition to being a popular ornamental, this pink trumpet tree is used to provide shade for coffee bushes. The wood is used in construction. The name trumpet tree is sometimes used for a plant known as the snakewood tree (Cecropia peltata). A member of the Cecropia family, this tree is native to the West Indies. Though comparatively short-lived, it is a popular ornamental in the tropics and subtropics. Traditionally, West Indian natives used the hollow stems to make trumpet-like instruments for communicating over distances. The tree grows to heights of 15 m or more. It has circular leaves, about 30 cm in diameter that are spirally arranged near the ends of branches. The underside of each leaf is densely covered with white hairs. The small flowers grow in dense spikes, with male and female flowers on separate trees. Male spikes are up to 4 cm long with a short stalk. Female spikes grow to 6 cm with no stalk. The fleshy, oblong fruit is grey with black dots and contains a single seed.

134

UNIT 22 FOREST INDUSTRY


Forest industry is the industry that supplies wood, paper, chemicals, energy, and other products from trees. It includes the lumber industry (encompassing the various businesses that convert trees, or timber, into lumber products). Lumber and plywood are used to construct homes and business facilities furnished with tables, chairs, desks, and other furniture. Paper is used for newspapers, magazines, and books. Wood utility poles often support the wires that deliver electric and telephone service. Commerce is dependent on wood containers and pallets, as well as paperboard packaging. The chemical industry uses wood as a base product for making turpentine, rayon, food flavourings, and cellophane tape. Of the 3.35 billion cu m of wood harvested in 1996, 56% was burned for fuel and 44% was manufactured into wood products (lumber and paper). The total weight of wood harvested worldwide each year exceeds the total weight of metals, concrete, and plastics consumed worldwide each year. Forests are widely distributed, making wood abundant and accessible. Wood can be cut and processed with relatively simple technologies and quite efficiently. Forests are a renewable resource that can be replanted after being harvested and the variety of tree species that grow worldwide provides wood with a wide range of strength, durability, and other physical and mechanical properties, as well as visually attractive grains, textures, and colours. Wood was used by early humans to make tools, hunting weapons, shelter, fire, and other necessities. As civilizations advanced, so did uses for wood (stone blocks used for building were mined from quarries using dry wood wedges). The quarrier drove a dry wood wedge into a rock fracture then poured water on the dry wedge. The water caused the wedge to swell, helping to split the stone. Other uses included wood planks that were joined together and cut into wheels for carts, and wood lashed together to make boats and ships. In Ancient times, great strides were made in the use of wood for architecture, shown by records of Roman writer and encyclopaedist Pliny the Elder in the Ten Books of Architecture. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Industrial Revolution began changing the way many wood products were produced: machines replaced manual labour during this period of industrialization; most wood products previously made by hand in small workshops or in the home were soon being manufactured in factories; wood was blended with adhesives and other materials, to form composite lumber products, a wood product possessing a wider range of beneficial properties than standard lumber. (After David Briggs, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

135

Vocabulary
blend (v.) = a amesteca burn for fuel (v.) a arde drept combustibil business facilities = dotri pentru afaceri cart = cru cellophane tape = folie de celofan concrete = beton deliver (v.) = a livra drive (v.) = a introduce dry wood wedge = ic / pan de lemn uscat food flavouring = arom alimentar furnish (v.) = a mobila furniture = mobil grains = granulaie, granulozitate, textur granular hunting weapon = arm de vntoare in the home = n cas lash (v.) = a dobor made by hand = fcut() cu mna, fcut() manual manual labour = munc manual mine from (v.) = a scoate (din min) paperboard packaging = ambalaj de carton plank = scndur pour (v.) = a turna previously = anterior quarrier = muncitor ntr-o carier quarry = carier (de piatr etc.) rayon = mtase artificial, vscoz renewable resource = resurs regenerabil rock fracture = crptur ntr-o stnc shelter = adpost split (v.) = a despica stone block = bloc de piatr strength = trie stride = pas (mare) swell (v.) = a se umfla tool = unealt wheel = roat wire = cablu, srm wood container = container din lemn wood pallet = palet din lemn wood utility pole = stlp utilitar din lemn workshop = atelier

136

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What is the forest industry? What does it include? What are lumber and plywood used to? What is paper used for? What does commerce depend on? What does the chemical industry used wood as? How can wood be cut and processed? What features does wood have? How was wood used by early humans? How were stone blocks used for building mined from quarries? What other uses of wood were there? When did the Industrial Revolution begin changing the way many wood products were produced? How?

2. Fill in with the proper adjective from below. commercial continental historical low private public unsuitable Historians estimate that in 1600 about 405 million ha of what is now the U.S. were forested. Estimates from records show that by 1900 about 236 million ha of this area were still forested. Most of the reduction was due to the clearing of land for farms, cities, roads, and suburbs. Including Alaska, about two-thirds of existing U.S. forest lands or about 198 million ha, are forests. The remaining forests (99 million ha) are located in parks and preserves or contain -quality timber stands for use. individuals and companies own and manage about 72% of forest lands in the U.S. and supply 80% of the harvest. agencies such as the National Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and state forestry agencies manage 28% of the forest lands and supply 20% of the harvest. 3. Identify the terms belonging to economy in the text below. The degree to which a country can develop a forest industry depends on many factors, including types of tree species available, size and accessibility of the forests, availability of suitable transportation routes, and proximity to world markets. Although forest industries have developed in countries such as Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines, the most established forest industries are located in the northern temperate regions of the world, primarily in Europe, North America, and Siberia.

137

4. Match the following compounds of wood with their definitions. a. a person accustomed to life in the woods and skilled in the arts of the woods, as hunting, trapping, etc.; a lumberman b. a person skilled in woodcraft c. a person who chops wood, especially one who chops down trees d. a person who cuts down trees for firewood e. a person whose craft is wood carving f. a skill in everything that pertains to the wood or forest, especially in making ones way through the woods, or in hunting, trapping, etc.; forestry; the art of making or carving wooden objects g. a worker in wood, as a carpenter, joiner, or cabinetmaker h. the act or art of working wood i. the art of process of engraving designs in relief with a burin on the end grain of wood, for printing j. the art or technique of carving objects by hand from wood or of carving decorations into wood; a carving or decoration made by this art or technique k. woodsman

1. wood carving 2. wood craft 3. wood engraving 4. wood-carver 5. woodchopper 6. woodcraftsman

7. woodcutter 8. woodman 9. woodsman

10. woodworker 11. woodworking

5. Supply the corresponding words for the terms underlined in the text below as in the model.
Noun Word family Adjective Verb

forest

forested

forest

About 45% of Canada or about 417 million ha is forested. About 56% or about 235 million ha of existing Canadian forest lands are commercial forests, about of which is either inaccessible or protected by forest harvest regulations. About 90% of Canadian forest lands are publicly owned, and these forests supply nearly 80% of the harvest, which was about 188 million cu m in 1996. The United States and Canadian forest industries are closely intertwined. The United States exports hardwood products to Canada because it has more hardwoods than Canada. At the same time, much of the softwood newsprint and lumber consumed in the United States is imported from Canada.

138

6. Supply the gerund form of the verbs in parentheses below. Ask the student whether he minds (come) back this afternoon. Did you enjoy (travel) through Europe last summer? Do you mind (wait) a few minutes in the hall? I enjoy (study) with Miss Smith. I have always enjoyed (listen) to the radio. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Industrial Revolution began (change) the way many wood products were produced. Mr. Stan stopped (go) to his English class. Steven denies (take) the book. They are considering (hold) the classes in the evening. They finished (paint) the class in September. We are considering (buy) an automobile. We will appreciate (receive) an answer immediately.

7. Supply the corresponding preposition from below. as in of to The name cedar is also applied other conifer trees with fragrant wood (family Cupressaceae). The well-known white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) grows swamps the eastern United States and reaches a height 24 m. An arborvitae is also called cedar; western cedar (Thuja plicata) and eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) are both important timber trees the United States. Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), widespread the eastern United States, is a juniper. A flowering tropical American mahogany known Spanish or West Indian cedar (Cedrela odorata) belongs the family Meliaceae. 8. Put the text below into Romanian. Use a dictionary. Mulch applies to substances spread on the ground to protect the roots of plants from extreme temperature and moisture changes. Mulch may be manure, sawdust, leaves and grass, cereal chaff, peat moss, straw, or even stones. The term is also applied to a layer of fine, loose, dry surface soil called dust mulch, which is maintained around plants to check evaporation of moisture and promote aeration of the soil. Organic materials used for mulching, in addition to protecting the plants, decay in time and enrich the soil. Weeds grow sparsely in the mulched area. Natural mulch is formed by fallen leaves and by decaying non-woody plant parts. Horticulturists have also used shredded tree bark, wood chips, vermiculite, and black polyethylene film.

139

Supplementary Reading: Anatomy of the Modern

Forest Industry
The modern forest industry includes three categories of facilities: primary manufacturers, secondary manufacturers, and wholesalers and retailers. Primary manufacturers, which typically use logs as raw material, include sawmills, veneer mills, and pulp mills. Primary manufacturers process logs, so these mills tend to be located in rural areas near sources of timber. Secondary manufacturers convert products such as lumber, plywood, and particleboard into finished goods, such as furniture, doors, boats, and packaging. Secondary plants are typically located close to major transportation routes and population centres that serve as markets. Because primary and secondary wood products can be transported by ship efficiently and cost-effectively, wood products are an important component of international trade. Wholesalers and retailers sell finished wood products to contractors and homeowners. Most wholesalers and retailers are located in or adjacent to population centres. The forest industry employs workers with a broad range of skills. Workers in the forest industry include chemists, engineers, foresters, heavy equipment operators, loggers, mill operators, truck drivers, and paper and wood scientists. Tens of thousands of people rely on the forest industry for a living. For example, in the mid-1990s the U.S. forest industry employed about 1,371,000 workers, and the Canadian forest industry employed about 366,000 workers. Two fundamental forces affect the economy of the forest industry: population growth and interest rates on borrowed money. Consumption of many wood products, especially paper and paperboard, follows population growth. As global literacy and standards of living increase, individuals consume more newspapers and magazines, writing paper, printing paper, and countless goods packaged in wrapping, cartons, and boxes made from paper and paperboard. Interest rates affect the availability and cost of home mortgages and construction financing. (Higher interest rates make it more expensive to borrow money, discouraging people from buying new homes or starting new construction projects.) Interest rates have a major effect on demand for lumber, veneer, and other wood construction materials because wood products are used to construct, furnish, and later maintain and remodel homes and other buildings.

140

UNIT 23 PRODUCTS OF THE FOREST INDUSTRY


Wood types differ considerably in properties such as colour, density, and hardness, making timber a resource that is valuable in a wide variety of contexts. Each of the samples of commonly used woods shown here has distinctive characteristics. Mahogany is a tropical tree prized for its heavy, strong, easily worked wood. Hickory is a tough, hard wood used for tool handles, furniture, and smoke wood for meat. Instrument makers favour the strong, richly coloured wood of the cherry tree. Yew is strong, fine-grained wood used for cabinet-making and archery bows. Like mahogany, the wood of the iroko is resistant to both rot and insects and bears the interlocked grain of many tropical trees. Oak is one of the worlds most durable woods. It is used in barrel-making, veneers, and flooring. A rich colour and swirling grain makes walnut a popular wood for cabinets and gunstocks. Larch is a tough, relatively cheap wood used in construction and frequently made into pulp for paper. The trees used as raw material by the forest industry are often classified as either softwoods or hardwoods. Softwoods, or conifers, belong to the group of plants known as gymnosperms. Conifers include pines, cedars, spruces, larches, and firs, and conifers are common in the worlds temperate and boreal (northern) regions. Hardwoods belong to the group of plants called angiosperms. They include broad-leaved tree species such as oak, maple, beech, walnut, mahogany, teak, and balsa. Both softwood and hardwood species have many uses. Because they often have attractive grain patterns, many types of hardwood are cut into appearance-grade lumber used for interior woodwork and to make furniture. While some softwood species are also made into appearancegrade lumber, softwoods are more commonly made into products such as poles and pilings, support lumber used for construction, and paper and cardboard. The name softwood does not imply that the wood of such a tree is softer than that from a hardwood. Indeed, the wood of some softwood trees is harder than that of some hardwood trees. All trees are formed mostly of cells whose length runs parallel to the stem. A smaller number of cells run perpendicular to the stem. Cells of both categories serve three functions in a tree: to transport water and nutrients, to provide mechanical strength and support, and to allow food storage. Hardwood trees have a greater variety of types of vertically aligned cells than do softwood trees. This greater variety often produces attractive grain patterns when wood is cut and finished along the length of these cells (the grain). Many hardwoods are desirable for making furniture, cabinets, and panelling. (After David Briggs, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

141

Vocabulary
appearance-grade lumber = cherestea cu aspect plcut archery bow = arc pentru tir balsa = balsa, plut (Ochroma lagopus) barrel-making = confecionarea de butoaie bear (v.) = a suporta, a susine cherry tree = cire easily worked = uor de lucrat favour (v.) = a favoriza grain pattern = modelul lemnului gunstock = pat de puc hardness = duritate, trie hickory = carie, hickory porcesc (Carya glabra) instrument maker = fabricant de instrumente interior woodwork = decoraiuni interioare din lemn interlocked = ncruciat() iroko = arbore de esen tare din estul Africii pilings = gard de ipci, palisad prize (v.) = a preui raw material = materie prim relatively cheap = relativ ieftin() richly coloured wood = lemn bogat colorat rot = putregai, putreziciune sample = eantion smoke wood for meat = lemn pentru afumatul crnii support lumber = cherestea de sprijin swirling grain = granulaie n vrtej tool handle = mner de instrument tough = dur()

Exercises
1. Answer the following. What do wood types considerably differ in? What is mahogany prized for? What is hickory used for? Why is cherry tree favoured for by instrument makers? What is yew used for? What is the wood of the iroko resistant to? What is oak used in?

142

2. True or false?
True False

1. A rich colour and swirling grain makes walnut a popular wood for cabinets and gunstocks. 2. Larch is a tough, relatively expensive wood used in construction and frequently made into pulp for paper. 3. Softwoods, or conifers, belong to the group of plants known as gymnosperms. 4. Conifers include pines, cedars, spruces, larches, and firs, and conifers are common in the worlds temperate and boreal (southern) regions. 5. Hardwoods belong to the group of plants called angiosperms. 6. Both softwood and hardwood species have few uses. 7. Softwoods are more commonly made into products such as poles and pilings, support lumber used for construction, and paper and cardboard. 8. The wood of some softwood trees is less hard than that of some hardwood trees. 9. A smaller number of cells run perpendicular to the stem. 10. Cells serve two functions in a tree: to transport water and nutrients, to provide mechanical strength and support, and to allow food storage. 11. The greater variety of types of vertically aligned cells in hardwood trees often produces attractive grain patterns when wood is cut and finished along the length of these cells (the grain). 12. Many hardwoods are desirable for making furniture. 3. Fill in with the proper article from below, if possible. a an the Angiosperm is common name for division Magnoliophyta. Angiosperms are divided into two classes, Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida, popularly termed dicots and monocots, representing separate evolutionary lines that must have diverged early in history of group. direct predecessors of angiosperms are thought to have been woody gymnosperms; certain woody groups of dicots are thought to be primitive angiosperms. Monocots are more advanced than dicots, and they evolved from primitive dicot group.

143

4. Match the following uses of wood with their definitions. 1. cabinet 2. flooring 3. furniture 4. panelling 5. piling a. a floor; floors collectively; materials for making floors b. a mass of building piles considered collectively; a structure composed of piles c. a piece of furniture with shelves, drawers, etc., for holding or displaying objects d. a very thin layer of wood or other material for facing or inlaying wood e. objects or parts made of wood; the interior wooden fittings, especially of a house, as doors, stairways, mouldings, etc. f. the movable articles, as tables, chairs, bedsteads, desks, cabinets, etc., required for use or ornament in a house, office, or the like g. wood or other material made into panels; a surface of panels, especially of decorative wood or wood-like panels; panels collectively

6. veneer

7. woodwork

5. Put the following products of the forest industry into Romanian. Use a dictionary. chemical, energy and fuel products lumber products particleboard round-wood products veneer products (plywood, laminated veneer lumber) wood fibre products (paper, medium density fibreboard, insulation board, hardboard) wood flake and strand products (wafer-board and oriented strand board, laminated strand lumber and oriented strand lumber)

6. Identify the terms related to lumber industry in the text below. After their bark is removed, logs are conveyed to saws that cut them into shorter lengths. Next, these log sections are transported through a series of saws that slice the logs into lumber of the desired length, width, and thickness. Logs are processed into lumber in several steps. First the logs are cut into shorter lengths, and these shorter sections are then sawn along their length into boards. Another saw is used to cut the board into lumber having the desired width and thickness. Next, the waste edges are trimmed to square the edges. Similarly, the waste ends are cut to square the ends. The lumber is then stacked to dry.

144

7. Express as adverbs in comparative form the words in parentheses in the text below. All trees are formed (most) of cells whose length runs parallel to the stem. Ann returned the book to the library (soon) we expected. He prepares his homework (careful) most students. I get up every morning (early) all my students. Oak is one of the worlds (much) durable woods. She speaks English (good) she speaks French. While some softwood species are also made into appearance-grade lumber, softwoods are (common) made into products such as poles and pilings.

8. Change the words in parentheses in the text below to adverbs in comparative form then complete the sentences in your own words. He arrived (late) He studies (hard) I go there (often) I sing (beautiful) I speak (clear) She speaks (good) She walks (slow) They came (early) They run (rapid)

Supplementary Reading: Lumber


Lumber is a rectangular length of wood sawn parallel to the tree stem and cut to specific width, thickness, and length. To manufacture lumber, logs are received in a sawmill yard where they are sorted and graded to identify which logs are best suited for making specific products. Next, machines remove the bark from the logs, and then the logs are crosscut (cut perpendicular to the grain) to specific lumber lengths. Each crosscut log is conveyed into a saw that cuts through the log lengthwise at measured intervals to produce boards of a given thickness. These boards are cut lengthwise to square the edges by removing the round outside surface of the log and to produce lumber of standardized widths. Then the ends of the boards are cut to square the ends and to produce lumber of standard lengths. Although this lumber may be sold in its rough condition, most lumber is dried in a kiln (drying oven) and then planed (levelled) to smooth the surfaces before being marketed.

145

Lumber is marketed in three major grades: structural grade, appearance grade, and factory grade. Structural grades are used as load-bearing (support) lumber in houses and other buildings. Structural lumber is typically covered by other materials in the finished building, so the appearance of structural lumber is often not a major consideration. Softwood species such as Douglas fir, western hemlock, and southern pines are the most common types of structural-grade lumber. As its name suggests, appearance-grade lumber is valued for colour and texture. It is often used for flooring, panelling, shelving, and interior trimming. This grade of lumber is often stained or left in its natural state because of its quality appearance. Appearance-grade lumber of lower quality is used for crating and pallets, fence boards, and light general construction. Hardwood species used for appearance grade include oak, birch, maple, and cherry. Softwood species include Douglas fir, western hemlock, white pine, and ponderosa pine. Factory-grade lumber is used to manufacture furniture, windows, doors, mouldings, stairs, cabinets, and many other products. While both structuralgrade and appearance-grade lumber typically are not tooled extensively for use, factory-grade lumber is usually tooled extensively to form furniture and other products. Lumber is limited by both tree size and the strength of the particular type of wood. These limitations can be overcome by finger-jointing, edge-gluing, and laminating boards together to create lumber of almost any size. Fingerjointing is a process of cutting grooves into board ends so that wood pieces can be fitted together end-to-end and glued into longer pieces. Edge-gluing is a process where the sides of narrow boards are glued together to make wider pieces. Laminating is a process where lumber is stacked and then glued together to make structural beams and other products. These processes are used to make products such as shelving, doors, and windows. Techniques such as finger-jointing, edge-gluing, and laminating allow manufacturers to produce beams and other building components that are customized to meet specific size and strength requirements. The individual boards comprising a piece of laminated lumber can be kiln dried at precise temperatures, and knots and other defects are later removed as well. This type of quality control is not possible with large, single units of structural lumber; therefore, laminated lumber can be made stronger and with more uniform properties. Another advantage is that laminated beams can be shaped into curves and other configurations during the lamination process. For example, many arenas built for the 1994 Winter Olympic Games in Lillehammer, Norway, included laminated wood beams. In addition, large wood beams used in churches, gymnasiums, and office and shopping buildings are often composed of laminated lumber.

146

UNIT 24 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF THE FOREST INDUSTRY


Forests are considered a renewable resource because if soils are left intact and trees are replanted, forests can grow back in harvested areas. As more natural resources are needed to supply a growing human population, some forest companies are adopting a life-cycle approach to consider the environmental and economic effects incurred through the entire pathway of a product. This approach helps companies evaluate processes and materials that produce less pollution, are more energy efficient, and create products that are easier to recycle or reuse. Harvesting timber can cause environmental problems. At the end of the 20th century, one of the greatest environmental concerns worldwide was deforestation, particularly the destruction of the tropical rain forests of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. Brazil and Indonesia have rapidly growing populations migrating from crowded cities to less populated regions typically occupied by rain forest. These countries have programs that give settlers a parcel of land to clear and farm, so roads are built into the rain forest, valuable timber is removed, and the remaining rain forest is burned to clear the land for farming. In many cases, settlers raise crops for only a few years before the thin soil is leached (emptied) of nutrients and can no longer support agriculture. When the soil becomes barren, settlers are forced to clear additional rain forest to raise crops, resulting in more soil erosion. Species of wildlife that live in rain forests are also displaced or killed when these forests are cleared by loggers and farmers. Not only are wildlife species endangered by habitat destruction, but many tree species are facing extinction as well. According to a 1998 study published by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 976 tree species currently face extinction worldwide. Wood products often fare well in life-cycle comparisons with materials such as steel, concrete, and brick. For example, relative to these materials, wood products require relatively little energy to manufacture. Wood is a good insulating material (poor conductor of heat). As a result, buildings made from wood do not consume as much heat energy as those made from steel, concrete, and brick, which must be insulated to help slow escaping heat. Wood-based products such as paper and paperboard are also relatively easy to recycle - many paper products sold today contain paper fibres that have been recycled. Lastly, unlike other building and packaging products (concrete and plastic), wood products are biodegradable (capable of being decomposed) when disposed of. (After David Briggs, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2003)

147

Vocabulary
as well = de asemenea barren = gol, goal; sterp, stearp brick = crmid clear (v.) = a cura, a elibera concrete = beton consider = a evalua, a examina, a lua n discuie crowded = aglomerat() currently = n prezent deforestation = despdurire displaced = dezrdcinat(), mutat() dispose of = a arunca la gunoi emptied = golit() endanger (v.) = a periclita, a pune n pericol environmental concern = ngrijorare / preocupare legat de mediu environmental problem = problem de mediu face extinction (v.) = a se confrunta cu dispariia fare well (v.) = a se comporta bine farm (v.) = a cultiva, a face agricultur, a practica agricultura grow back (v.) = a crete la loc heat energy = energie termic incur (v.) = a atrage asupra sa, a se expune la insulating material = material izolant lastly = n sfrit leached = golit(), splat() left = lsat() life-cycle approach = abordare din punctual de vedere a ciclului de via logger = cherestegiu, tietor de copaci packaging product = produs de ambalare parcel of land = lot / parcel de pmnt pathway = crare, drum poor conductor of heat = slab conductor de cldur recycle (v.) = a recicla renewable resource = resurs regenerabil require (v.) = a cere, a necesita reuse (v.) = a reutiliza settler = colon(ist) slow (v.) = a ncetini steel = oel unlike = spre deosebire World Conservation Monitoring Centre = Centrul Mondial de Monitorizare a Conservrii

148

Exercises
1. Answer the following. Why are forests considered a renewable resource? What kind of approach are some forest companies adopting and why? What was one of the greatest environmental concerns worldwide at the end of the 20th century? Why is deforestation one of the greatest environmental concerns in Brazil and Indonesia? What happens when the soil of these countries becomes barren? What happens to species of wildlife that live in rain forests? How many tree species currently face extinction worldwide? What advantages presents wood in comparison with other materials?

2. Fill in with the proper verb from below. anchor are carries extend grow has is The root composed of three types of tissue: the epidermis, or surface layer; the ground tissue, or cortex; and the vascular core, situated at the centre of the root. Certain cells of the epidermis modified for an absorptive function. Long, tube-like projections, called root hairs, from these cells into the absorptive surface of the root and the root to soil particles. Water absorbed by root hairs transferred across the cortex, the region of water and food storage, and into the vascular core, which it up into the stem. Organization of the vascular core in a root markedly different from that in a stem. In the stem the vascular tissues xylem and phloem grouped together in vascular bundles. In the root a central core of xylem radial bands that outward toward the cortex, and between these bands strands of phloem. In aerial roots the xylem core, which usually solid in subterranean roots, often a central zone of pith. 3. Put the text below into Romanian. Use a dictionary. Insects and diseases are a continuing menace to forests. Various insects, such as the gypsy moth, the tussock moth, and the spruce budworm, devastate extensive areas by defoliation. Other insects serve as carriers for the causative agents of diseases that destroy trees. Parasitic tree diseases may be caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes, or by such parasitic plants as the mistletoe or dodder. Non-infectious diseases of trees include sunscald, drought injury, and root drowning (suffocation), nutritional excesses / deficiencies, winter injury, injury from smoke, gases, and fumes.

149

4. Match the following wooden objects with their definitions. 1. barrel 2. bow a. a contrivance for producing musical sounds b. a cylindrical vessel, usually of wood, with slightly bulging sides made of staves hoped together, and with flat, parallel ends c. a flexible strip of wood or other material, bent by a string stretched between its ends, especially for propelling arrows d. a long, cylindrical, often slender piece of wood, metal, etc. e. a part of a thing made specifically to be grasped or held by the hand f. a substance made from rags, straw, wood, or other fibrous material, usually in thin sheets, used to bear writing or printing or for wrapping things, decorating walls, etc. g. a thin, stiff pasteboard, used for signs, boxes, etc. h. the wooden or metal piece to which the barrel and mechanism of a rifle are attached

3. cardboard 4. gunstock 5. handle

6. instrument 7. paper 8. pole

5. Group the speech parts in the text below as in the model.


Speech part
conjunction preposition adjective pronoun numeral adverb article noun

three Three major forest areas exist in the United States. The western forests of the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific coast are coniferous and contain Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, western white pine, Engelmann spruce, and white fir. More than half of the softwood lumber yield of the United States comes from the productive Douglas fir forests of the Pacific Northwest. The South Atlantic and Gulf states account for most of the remaining softwood lumber, chiefly from longleaf, shortleaf, loblolly, and slash pines. Hardwoods, yielding about one-fourth of the total production, are found in the eastern half of the United States, with particularly dense stands in the area surrounding the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys. Among the many hardwood species are oaks, black walnut, yellow poplar, and sugar maple.

150

verb

6. Read the text below. Give as many variants as possible in both reading and writing for the underlined parts. More than one-fourth of the forest area of the United States is under the administration of the Forest Service. Beginning in 1891 with a single area in Wyoming, the National Forest System had by the late 1980s expanded to more than 77 million hectares in 44 states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The earliest national forests, called forest reserves, were established through reservation of public lands. Present national forests, whose boundaries are established by Congress, cover areas that include about 17 percent privately held land, which the federal government is acquiring gradually. Almost every state has a state forester, whose duties involve administration and protection of state forestlands. 7. Read the texts below then identify the main idea in each of them. a) An herb is a soft-tissued plant that does not develop permanent woody tissues above ground. Such plants may be annual, biennial, or perennial. Herbaceous plants are generally considered to include soft-tissued angiosperms, or flowering plants, but may also include the ferns, club mosses, and horsetails. The term herb is applied by pharmacists to any plant or plant part that has medicinal properties. Herb parts that are used as food or seasoning are called culinary herbs or potherbs. b) Roots of many plants are edible and contain considerable quantities of food materials, particularly starch. Root crops important in agriculture include the sweet potato, beet, turnip, carrot, parsnip, and cassava. The wild forms of these plants have much smaller roots than the cultivated forms because continued development by agricultural peoples has improved the size, texture, food value, and flavour of the roots in cultivated varieties. c) The brilliant autumn colours characteristic of the leaves of many plants is due to the presence of accessory leaf pigments that normally assist the plant in photosynthesis by capturing specific wavelengths of sunlight. These pigments, carotenoids, become visible when the leaf dies in the fall. d) Veneer products are made by stacking wood sheets and then gluing these layers together. Once arranged, the sheets are glued together into a strong construction material that is used to make wall panels, highway signs, boats, cabinets, furniture, and numerous other wood products that are thin, strong, and can cover a large surface area. Two important types of veneer products are plywood and laminated veneer lumber.

151

e) The terms roundwood and log refer to the long section of the tree stem, or trunk. Roundwood products include fence posts, home-building logs, utility poles, and marine pilings. Roundwood products are manufactured by first removing the bark and then milling the resulting log to the desired shape and diameter. Some roundwood products are treated with chemical preservatives, such as creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA), to prevent damage from insects and rotting. f) According to the second account of creation in the biblical book of Genesis, Adam was created from the dust of the earth and placed in the Garden of Eden; Eve, the first woman, was created from one of Adams ribs. Tempted by Eve, Adam ate the forbidden fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, and the two were expelled from Paradise for their disobedience. In the engraving Adam and Eve (1504), by German artist Albrecht Drer, the Serpent prompts Eve to share the fruit with her mate.

Supplementary Reading: Canadian Forests


The forestlands of Canada stretch across the continent in a belt varying from about 800 to 950 km in width. Forests producing usable timber cover about 3 million sq km. Coniferous trees make up four-fifths of the total, and deciduous trees the rest. The belt of conifers that extends from the Atlantic coast westward and northwest to Alaska includes spruce, balsam, fir, and pine, with poplar and white birch the principal deciduous species represented. South of this coniferous belt are the mixed forests of the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence, and Acadian regions. Here the major conifers are eastern white and red pine, eastern hemlock, spruce, cedar, and fir. Also present are deciduous yellow birch, maple, oak, and basswood trees. On the western coast, in British Columbia, the large coniferous species provide more than one-fourth of all wood cut in Canada annually. Most important are cedar, hemlock, spruce, fir, and Douglas fir. More than 90 percent of productive forestland is publicly owned. Its administration and protection is largely vested in the various provincial governments, which lease the forests to private industry. In the three Maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island), however, a sizable proportion of the forestland is privately owned. On the federal level, the Canadian Forestry Service of the Department of the Environment promotes improved management of forest resources and better products, in addition to providing advisory services to the provincial forestry administrations.

152

INDEX OF TREES
acacia = salcm (Robinia pseudacacia) African oak = (specie de) arbore (Oldfieldia africana) African teak = (specie de) arbore (Oldfieldia africana) alder = anin (negru), arin (Alnus glutinosa) alpine fir = (specie de) brad (Abies lasiocarpa) American beech = (specie de) fag (Fagus grandifolia) American chestnut = (specie de) castan (Castanea dentata) American elm = ulm alb (Ulmus americana) ash = frasin (Fraxinus excelsior) aspen = plop-de-munte, plop tremurtor (Populus tremula) Atlas cedar = (specie de) cedru (Cedrus atlantica) bald cypress (tree) = chiparos de balt (Taxodium distichum) balsa = balsa, plut (Ochroma lagopus) balsam fir = brad canadian (Abies balsamea) banyan tree = smochin indian (Ficus bengalensis) baobab tree = baobab (Adansonia digitata) beech = fag (Fagus sylvatica) birch = mesteacn (Betula alba, B. pendula, B. verrucosa) black alder = anin (negru), arin (Alnus glutinosa) black cherry = cire slbatic (Prunus avium) black locust = salcm (Robinia pseudoaccacia) black spruce = (specie de) molid (Picea mariana) black walnut = nuc (Juglans regia) blue date palm = (specie de) curmal (Phoenix zeylanica) bristle-cone pine = (specie de ) pin (Pinus aristata) cactus (pl. cacti) = cactus (Opuntia cactus) cedar = cedru (Cedrus sp, Chamaecyparis sp., Pinus sp.) cedar of Goa = (specie de) chiparos (Cupressus lusitanica) cedar of Lebanon = (specie de) cedru (Cedrus libani) cherry (tree) = cire (Prunus avium); viin (Prunus cerasus) chestnut = castan (bun) (Castanea sativa, C. vesca) chinaberry tree = (specie de) arbore (Melia azedarach) Chinese chestnut = (specie de) castan (Castanea mollissima) Chinese elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus parvifolia) chinquapin = (specie de) castan (Castanea pumila) coconut palm = cocotier (Cocos nucifera) common cypress = (specie de) chiparos (Cupressus sempervirens) common date palm = curmal (Phoenix dactylifera) common holly = laur (Ilex aquifolium)

153

common osier = lozie, mlaj, rchit (Salix viminalis) cork elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus thomasii) cottonwood = plop canadian (Populus balsamifera / deltoides) cycad = cicad (Cycas sp.) cypress = chiparos (Cupressus sp.) Cyprus cedar = (specie de) cedru (Cedrus brevifolia) date (palm) = curmal (Phoenix dactylifera) deodar = (specie de) cedru (Cedrus deodara) dogwood = snger (Cornus sanguinea) Douglas-fir = (brad) duglas (Pseudotsuga douglasii, P. menziesii, P. taxifolia) drooping birch = mesteacn pletos (Betula pendula) drooping willow = salcie pletoas / plngtoare (Salix babylonica) eastern red cedar = ienupr de Virginia (Juniperus virginiana), eastern white cedar = arborele vieii (Thuja occidentalis) eastern white pine = pin alb / strob (Pinus strobus) ebony = abanos (Diospyros ebenum) elm = ulm (Ulmus sp.) English elm = ulm englezesc (Ulmus procera) English holly = laur (Ilex aquifolium) Eurasian white alder = anin / arin alb (Alnus incana) European beech = fag (Fagus sylvatica) European chestnut = castan (bun) (Castanea sativa, C. vesca) European hazel = alun (Corylus avellana) European larch = larice, zad (Larix decidua) European white birch = mesteacn (Betula alba, B. pendula, B. verrucosa) filbert = alun (Corylus sp.) fir (tree) = brad (Abies sp.) ginkgo = ginkgo (Gingko biloba) golden larch = (specie de) pin (Pseudolarix) grand fir = (specie de) brad (Abies grandis) Great Basin bristle-cone = (specie de) pin (Pinus longaeva) grey alder = = anin / arin alb (Alnus incana) gum = eucalipt (Eucalyptus sp.) hackberry = celtis occidental, smbovin american (Celtis occidentalis) hazel = alun (Corylus avellana) hemlock = brad de Canada, tsuga (Tsuga canadensis) hickory = carie, hickory porcesc (Carya glabra) holly = laur (Ilex aquifolium) hop hornbeam = (specie de) mesteacn (Ostrya virginiana) hornbeam = carpen american (Carpinus americana), carpen comun (Carpinus betulus), crpini, grbar (Carpinus duinensis) ironwood = (specie de) arbore (Eusideroxylon sp., Olea sp., Ostrya sp.)

154

Japanese chestnut = (specie de) castan (Castanea crenata) Japanese zelkova = (specie de) ulm (Zelkova serrata) Joshua tree = copacul lui Joshua (Yucca brevifolia) larch = larice, zad (Larix decidua) lily tree = (specie de arbore) (Yucca sp.) lodge-pole pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus contorta latifolia) longleaf pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus palustris) lowland fir = (specie de) brad (Abies grandis) magnolia = magnolie (Magnoliaceae) mahogany = acaju, mahon (Swietenia mahogani) maidenhair tree = ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) maple = arar (Acer sp.) Monterey cypress = (specie de) chiparos (Cupressus macrocarpa) noble fir = (specie de) brad (Abies procera) oak = stejar (Quercus sp.) oil palm = palmierul de ulei (Elaeis guineensis) osier = lozie, mlaj, rchit (Salix viminalis) palm = curmal (Phoenix dactylifera) palm = palmier (Palma sp.) paper birch = (specie de) mesteacn (Betula papyrifera) pecan = pecan (Carya illinoensis, Carya olivae formis) pine = pin (Pinus sp.) pion pine = (specie de) pin pin (Pinus edulis) ponderosa pine = (specie de) pin (Pinus ponderosa) Port Orford cedar = (specie de) cedru (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) Portugal cedar = (specie de) chiparos (Cupressus lusitanica) pussy-willow = salcie (Salix discolor) pygmy date palm = (specie de) curmal (Phoenix roebelenii) red alder = (specie de) anin / arin (Alnus rubra) red elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus rubra) red oak = (specie de) stejar (Quercus sp.) red spruce = (specie de) molid (Picea rubens) red-cedar = ienupr de Virginia (Juniperus virginiana) redwood = sequoia (Sequoia sempervirens) rock elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus thomasii) sausage tree = (specie de) arbore (Kigelia africana, K. pinnata) sedge = rogoz (Carex riparia) silver fir = brad (Abies alba) slippery elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus rubra) Spanish cedar = (specie de) cedru (Cedrela odorata) Spanish chestnut = castan (bun) (Castanea sativa, C. vesca) speckled alder = anin / arin alb (Alnus incana) spruce (fir) = molid (Picea abies)

155

sugar date palm = (specie de) curmal (Phoenix sylvestris) sweet birch = (specie de) mesteacn (Betula lenta) sweet chestnut = castan (bun) (Castanea sativa, C. vesca) teak = tek (Tectoria grandis) toddy palm = (specie de) curmal (Phoenix sylvestris) wahoo elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus alata) walnut (tree) = nuc (Juglans regia) weeping willow = salcie pletoas / plngtoare (Salix babylonica) West Indian cedar = (specie de) cedru (Cedrela odorata) western cedar = (specie de) tuie (Thuja plicata) Weymouth pine = pin alb / strob (Pinus strobus) white cedar = (specie de) cedru (Chamaecyparis thyoides) white elm = ulm alb (Ulmus americana) white pine = pin alb / strob (Pinus strobus) white spruce = (specie de) molid (Picea glauca) willow = rchit, salcie (Salix sp.) winged elm = (specie de) ulm (Ulmus alata) yellow cedar = (specie de) cedru (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) yellow pine = coconar (Pinus pinea) yellow poplar = (specie de arbore) (Liriodendron tulipifera var. aureomarginatum) yew (tree) = tis (Taxus baccata) yucca (tree) = yucca (Yucca filamentosa)

156

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. *** Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. Harlow: Longman, 2003. 2. *** Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2002. 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. 3. *** New Standard Encyclopedia. 20 vol. Chicago: Standard Educational Corporation, 1995. th 4. *** The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 29 vol. 15 Edition. 1992. 5. *** Webster Comprehensive Dictionary. Encyclopedic Edition, 2 Volumes. Chicago: J. G. Ferguson Publishing Company, 1995. 6. *** Websters Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Gramercy Books, 1996. 7. *** Websters Universal Dictionary & Thesaurus. Geddes & Grosset, 2003. 8. Adamson, D., D. Cobb. 1992. Active Grammar Exercises. Singapore: Longman, 1992. 9. Andrews, S. Preparing for Proficiency. Students Book. London: Heinemann, 1984. 10. Banta, A., R. Albu, M. Popa, C. Ciobanu, A. Trofin. English for Advanced Students. Iai: Institutul European, 1993. 11. Benson, M., E. Benson, R. Ilson. The Combinatory Dictionary of English. Amsterdam Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1990. 12. Borza, Al. Dicionar etnobotanic. Bucureti: Ed. Academiei R.S.R., 1968. 13. Butur, V. Enciclopedie de etnobotanic romneasc. Bucureti: Ed. tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1979. 14. Ciocrlan, V. Flora ilustrat a Romniei. Bucureti: Ed. Ceres, 2000. 15. Levichi, L. (Editor). Dicionar englez-romn. Bucureti: Ed. Academiei R.S.R., 1974. 16. Levichi, L. (Editor). Dicionar englez-romn. Ed. A II-a. Bucureti: Ed. Univers Enciclopedic, 2004. 17. Levichi, L. D. Limba englez contemporan. Lexicologie. Bucureti: Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, 1970. 18. Levichi, L., A. Banta. Dicionar englez-romn. Bucureti: Ed. Teora, 1995. 19. Morris, R., Rebecca Snelling, B. Way (Editors). Book of Britains countryside. The essential new reference guide to wildlife habitats, flora and fauna. London: Midsummer Books, 1998. 20. Prvu, C. Universul plantelor: mic enciclopedie. Bucureti: Ed. Enciclopedic, 2000. 21. Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, J. Svartvik. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman, 1972. 22. Ra, Georgeta, Cteva observaii asupra numelor compuse romneti de plante. Lucrri tiinifice, Agricultur. XXXII, Partea III, Timioara: Ed. Agroprint, 839-844: 2000. 23. Swan, M. Practical English Usage. Oxford: O.U.P., 1991. 24. Urdang, L. (Editor in Chief), The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Random House, 1968.

157