This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

By LUYANG SHAN

A dissertation/thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering MAY 2007

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I express my sincere and deep gratitude to my advisor and committee chairman, Dr. Pizhong Qiao, for his continuing assistance, support, guidance, understanding and encouragement through my graduate studies. His help comes from many different

aspects of academic research and personal life. His trust, patience, knowledge, and great insight have always been an inspiration for me. I would also like to thank Dr. William F. Cofer, Dr. J. Daniel Dolan, Dr. Lloyd V. Smith, and Dr. Michael P. Wolcott for serving in my graduate committee, for their interest in my research and careful evaluation of this dissertation. It is a great honor to have each of them to work with. Partial financial support for this study is received from the National Science Foundation (EHR-0090472), the University of Akron (UA) – Department of Civil Engineering (2003-2006), and Washington State University (WSU) – Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory (2006-2007). I gratefully acknowledge the contribution by Prof. Julio F. Davalos, Dr. Guiping Zou, and Dr. Jialai Wang to this study. I thank the graduate students, faculty and staff members at UA and WSU for their support over the past several years. In particular, I want to express my sincere appreciation to Prof. Wieslaw K. Binienda, Dr. Mijia Yang, Mr. David McVaney, and Ms. Kimberly Stone at UA; Prof. David I. McLean, Prof. Donald A. Bender, Ms. Judy Edmister, and Ms. Vicki Ruddick at WSU. The assistance in experimental works provided by Guanyu Hu and Geoffrey A. Markowski are greatly appreciated. I want to thank the support and samples provided by the Creative

iii

Pultrusions (CP), Inc., Alum Bank, PA and Dustin Troutman of CP for his patience and continuing support. Finally, I would like to thank my husband, Kan Lu, my daughter, Sarah Yichen Lu, my parents, Zhongyan Shan and Ali Wang, my sister, Luying Shan, and the rest of my family for their unconditional love and support. It would have not been possible for me to finish my study without their love and support.

iv

EXPLICIT BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC (FRP) COMPOSITE STRUCTURES Abstract by Luyang Shan, Ph.D. Washington State University May 2007 Chair: Pizhong Qiao Explicit analyses of flexural-torsional buckling of open thin-walled FRP beams, local buckling of rotationally restrained orthotropic composite plates subjected to biaxial linear loading and associated applications of the explicit solution to predict the local buckling strength of composite structures (i.e., FRP structural shapes and sandwich cores), and delamination buckling of laminated composite beams are presented. Based on nonlinear plate theory, of which the shear effect and beam bendingtwisting coupling are included, the buckling equilibrium equations of flexural-torsional buckling of pultruded FRP composite I- and channel beams are established using the second variational principle of total potential. The critical buckling loads for different span lengths are measured through experiments and compared with analytical solutions and numerical finite element results. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the load location, fiber orientation, and fiber volume fraction on the buckling behavior. The first variational formulation of the Ritz method is used to establish an eigenvalue problem for local buckling of composite plates elastically restrained along v

and flexural-orthotropy parameters on the local buckling stress resultants of various rotationally-restrained plates. The delamination buckling formulas are derived based on the rigid. vi .e. Numerical simulation is carried out to validate the accuracy of the formulas. aspect ratio. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the influences of the biaxial load ratio. and the parametric study of the shear effect is conducted to demonstrate the improvement of flexible joint model. The explicit buckling solutions developed facilitate design analysis and optimization of FRP composite structures and provide simplified practical design equations and guidelines for buckling analyses. conventional composite. and interfacedeformable bi-layer. shear-deformable bi-layer. respectively). and flexible joint deformation models according to three corresponding bi-layer beam theories (i. and the explicit solution in term of rotational restraint stiffness is presented with a unique harmonic shape function. semi-rigid..their four edges and subjected to a biaxial linear load. The applicability of the explicit solutions of restrained composite plates is illustrated in the discrete plate analysis of two types of composite structures: FRP structural shapes and sandwich cores. rotational restraint stiffness.

.................15 2......... LITERATURE REVIEW.......................1 1..................14 2.................................................1 I-sections....................................................................3...............................................26 vii ....................1 Development of FRP composite structures.....................2 Research significance..............................................................................................3......................................2 Open channel sections............................20 Delamination buckling................................................................7 Organization..iii ABSTRACT .........................3 Objectives and scope.1..................v TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................................2 1............................xiii CHAPTER 1...........................12 2.............................................................................................2 2........................................................................................................................5 1........................................................................................................1 1....................................................................................................................................1......................TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..................4 2.9 2.....................................3 Introduction...................xii LIST OF FIGURES .....................19 2....vii LIST OF TABLES...12 Flexural-torsional buckling..........................................................1 Problem statement and research significance...................1 2.............5 Local buckling........ INTRODUCTION............................................1 1...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Variational principle for stability analysis.........................................

...................9 Parametric study of Channel beams..................1 I-section composite beams............................35 3.......62 3......48 3..........................................................7 Explicit solutions.....................................................................................................................................2 3........................................................1 3..............1 I-section composite beams...................7......AND CHANNEL SECTION COMPOSITE BEAMS.....................................................................................57 3.5....2 Channel composite beams.......3 Introduction..............5 Displacement fields..8 Results and discussion............................32 Theoretical background: variational principles......32 3...........................................................43 3.......................61 3.................................4......7..............43 3.............1 I-section composite beams.................52 3.............50 Experimental evaluations of buckling of thin-walled FRP beams..................8.............................................................................................................9.....................2 Channel composite beams.....................................................4 Stress resultants.................1 Effect of load locations..............43 3.....................................................4........................48 3....68 viii .......6 3........................8............................................................................................................... FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF FRP I............9....66 3...................................................32 Formulation of the second variational problem for flexural-torsional buckling of thin-walled FRP beams...66 3..................2 Channel composite beams......................................61 3....3....48 3......................2 Channel composite beams.........2 Effect of fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction................5.......................52 3..............1 I-section composite beams........

..........2 Rotational restraint stiffness k................................5 Summary of special cases........1 Biaxial load ratio α......110 4.116 4...............................................................................................................................................................................................3 Aspect ratio γ...................................4....4 Parametric study.........1 Transcendental solution for the SSRR plate under uniaxial load......................................10 Concluding remarks .................. EXPLICIT LOCAL BUCKLING OF RESTRAINED ORTHOTROPIC COMPOSITE PLATES.......................121 4....................99 4......................................3 Validity of the explicit solution.....................................................3...............1 4................................................2........................................................................2.............73 4...........................2.............................4.....................121 4....107 4............................2 Out-of-plane displacement function...............2 Transcendental solution for the RRSS plate................3......................2 Introduction.................4.........................................2...........................2 Shape functions...........104 4...5 Generic solutions of RRSS and RFSS plates under uniform longitudinal compression.....111 4..........................................................................4 Special cases..................2................74 4.............................4 Orthotropy parameters αOR and βOR ....................................................................3 Explicit solution...............1 Variational formulation of energy method............................74 4...........103 4...........................78 4....3............1 Introduction..114 4..................................71 4.....................................84 4...............122 ix ...............73 Analytical formulation.....................5......5.......................119 4.................................................................80 4.4.................

........135 5.........155 Sandwich cores between the top and bottom face sheets ..............................137 5..............................3.........151 5...................................2.................163 Mechanics of bi-layer beam theories............3 5..........................................................161 6......167 6.. LOCAL BUCKLING OF FRP COMPOSITE STRUCTURES.4.........2..........136 5...4 Verification of RRSS and RFSS plates.......................................................................................2..2..............................2 Introduction...1 Local delamination buckling based on rigid joint model ...3 Interface deformable bi-layer beam theory and flexible joint model..163 6.........2........................................................163 6....................1 6.......................2 Summary for local buckling design of FRP shapes.................................2 Introduction..............................1 Conventional composite beam theory and rigid joint model...........132 4.........1 Determination of rotational restraint stiffness............5.......4 5.....................................189 x .......................................128 4.187 6.................1 5.............................................................................................. DELAMINATION BUCKLING OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE BEAMS............3 Delamination buckling analyses based on three joint models ..........4 Design guideline for local buckling of FRP shapes .............6 Concluding remarks .......180 6....136 FRP structural shapes.....5..148 5..............3 Design formulas for special orthotropic long plates...........2 Shear deformable bi-layer beam theory and semi-rigid joint model....................................................158 Concluding remarks............................171 6......5 Short FRP columns .138 5........................................................3 Numerical verifications ............................2...153 5.2.....

............4............................................6.....................................................1 Effect of delamination length ratio.......................216 APPENDIX A...................................206 6.............1 Conclusions.....................................203 6.193 6.................................................................... CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............214 BIBLIOGRAPHY............1 Global (Flexural-torsional) buckling of thin-walled FRP beams.............211 7....................2 Local buckling of rotationally restrained plates and FRP structural shapes..........191 6....210 7.............................3..............2 Local delamination buckling based on semi-rigid joint model.........................................................1.........231 B............3...........................................................1....................................................3 Influence of interface compliance ..3.2 Recommendations for future work.....................................................3 Local delamination buckling of laminated composite beams...............210 7........................4...........................210 7...............................................5 Concluding remarks.......4 Numerical validation...........2 Effect of shear deformation...............4 Parametric study.................................. COMPLIANCE MATRIX OF FLEXIBLE JOINT MODEL..........................................................................199 6......235 xi .....196 6....................... SHEAR STRESS RESULTANT DUE TO A TORQUE IN OPEN CHANNEL SECTION..........................213 7........208 7..........200 6....................3 Local delamination buckling based on flexible joint model.4...........1....

............100 4..............................3 Comparisons for flexural-torsional buckling loads of I............................4 Material properties of honeycomb core............1 Rotational restraint stiffness (k) and critical local buckling stress resultant ( N cr ) of different FRP profiles.....1 Panel stiffness coefficients for I........153 5.............5 Comparison of sandwich core local buckling loads...................133 5.......57 3...2 Panel stiffness coefficients for open channel composite beams............2 Comparisons of critical stress resultants for different FRP sections........53 3................3 Comparisons of local buckling stress resultants of box sections.................................160 6..............................................198 6........2 Comparisons of critical stress resultants for RRSS and RFSS plates.................LIST OF TABLES 3....1 Analytical and numerical simulation results of sub-layer delamination buckling....149 5..160 5...........1 Local buckling stress resultant along X axis under different boundary conditions....2 Analytical and numerical simulation results of symmetric delamination buckling.......................199 xii ........157 5......section composite beams62 4........section composite beams...........................

................17 Buckled channel C6x2-B beam (L = 335..................................................................................53 3...............................................28 cm (11....7 Cantilever configuration of FRP I-section composite beams..........................................................................1 I...6 Four representative FRP I-section composite beams.............................56 3.......................54 3....56 3...3 1..5 Displacement fields of channel section due to sideways displacement and rotation................................................................3 Moments on the top flange..................60 3..........0)) .........55 3............................................18 Finite element simulation of buckled I4x8 beam..........1 Common FRP structural shapes in civil engineering.........................................................28 cm (11.........................49 3.......58 3........10 Buckled I3x6 beam..................38 3...LIST OF FIGURES 1.......................................28 cm (11..0 ft............9 Buckled I4x8 beam.................)) .........44 3.....................................................59 3.........................................................2 Schematic diagram of pultrusion process............14 Load application at the cantilever tip through the shear center..........35 3....37 3...................................................15 Buckled channel C4x1 beam (L = 335...........0 ft.........................................................................55 3..................2 Coordinate system in individual panels of thin-walled beams..12 Buckled WF6x6 beam.........13 Cantilever configuration of FRP channel beam...60 3..............)) ..............54 3...........................and Channel section composite beams......................4 3..16 Buckled channel C6x2-A beam (L = 335.................8 Load applications at the cantilever beam tip...................11 Buckled WF4x4 beam.................................4 Cantilever open channel beam under a tip concentrated vertical load....................61 xiii ..............................................59 3.............

...63 3................................27 Flexural-torsional buckling load for C6x2-B beam at different applied load positions.......67 3..............................................65 3..................................82 xiv ........................................................3 Geometry of the rotationally restrained plate under uniform biaxial load..........................................65 3.....20 Finite element simulation of buckled C6x2-A beam.................................21 Finite element simulation of buckled C6x2-B beam...................66 3..................22 Flexural-torsional buckling load of C4x1 beam................................................................................71 4............................................................63 3................................23 Flexural-torsional buckling load of C6x2-A beam.........................69 3........................................................25 Flexural-torsional buckling load for C4x1 beam at different applied load positions...79 4...................26 Flexural-torsional buckling load for C6x2-A beam at different applied load positions.............................................................70 3.......................19 Finite element simulation of buckled C4x1 beam....... of channel beams.............................74 4................................................29 Influence of fiber orientation and flange width on flexural-torsional buckling load.....................................63 3.................................................28 Influence of fiber orientation (θ) on flexural-torsional buckling load of channel beams.....3.................................1 Geometry of the rotationally restrained plate under biaxial non-uniform linear load...............................................................................2 Illustration of harmonic functions..........................24 Flexural-torsional buckling load of C6x2-B beam..........................................................................30 Influence of fiber volume fraction on flexural-torsional buckling load of channel beams.................................64 3...........................................................................................................................67 3.............................................

...................................95 4..........13 Coordinate of the SSRR plate (kL along loaded edges) in the transcendental solution...............4 Geometry of the rotationally restrained plate under uniaxial loading.........................7 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = ∞ and k x = 0 (CCSS) .............96 4.........................112 4........................92 4.......107 4.......16 Local buckling stress resultant of RRSS plate......................15 Coordinate of the RRSS plate (kU along unloaded edges) in the transcendental solution..104 4....................113 xv ....................................94 4...........5 Plate simply-supported (with the rotational restraint stiffness k x = k y = 0 ) at the four edges (SSSS)..8 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = k x = ∞ (CCCC) ...........9 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = 0 and k x = k (SSRR) ................17 Local buckling stress resultant vs..........90 4...10 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = k and k x = 0 (RRSS) . the aspect ratio of SSRR plate......................................................12 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = k and k x = ∞ (RRCC) ..............18 Local buckling stress resultant vs.................................................................6 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = 0 and k x = ∞ (SSCC) ......................85 4..11 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = ∞ and k x = k (CCRR) ..........................88 4....................................................................................107 4................ biaxial load ratio α of SSSS plate under biaxial tension-compression................................... biaxial load ratio α.........110 4....83 4.............14 Local buckling stress resultant vs..............4..............................................................98 4....................

.....................................................28 Common plates with various unloaded edge conditions..........134 4.....114 4.....29 Critical buckling stress resultant Ncr of RRSS plate................................158 xvi .. flexural-orthotropy parameters.......3 Geometry of different FRP shapes ........118 4..116 4........5 Local buckling deformation contours of FRP thin-walled sections ...... aspect ratio γ (SSCC plate) ................ aspect ratio γ (CCCC plate) .................115 4.............134 5....................4..........120 4....................4 Comparison of the RF plate solution with FE results for T-section .......117 4.................................157 5.30 Critical buckling stress resultant Ncr of RFSS plate................6 Local buckling stress resultant of an FRP box section.....2 Illustration of deformation of the restraining plate in a box section .....152 5...... aspect ratio γ (SSSS plate) ...............142 5........24 Local buckling stress resultant vs...............27 RRSS and RFSS plates under uniaxial compression...19 Local buckling stress resultant vs.........7 Simulation of the sandwich core flat wall as an SSRR plate.......117 4....1 Plate elements in FRP shapes based on discrete plate analysis... rotational restraint stiffness k (RRRR plate) under uniaxial compression and biaxial tension-compression (γ = 0... aspect ratio γ (CCSS plate) ..............................147 5....................26 Normalized local buckling stress resultant vs...........23 Local buckling stress resultant vs........................140 5...........................25 Local buckling stress resultant vs.....22 Local buckling stress resultant vs.....118 4.........20 Local buckling stress resultant vs............. rotational restraint stiffness k (RRRR plate) under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-compression (γ = 1) ...............137 5.21 Local buckling stress resultant vs..........................................128 4.... biaxial load ratio α of different boundary plates under biaxial tension-compression (γ = 0............6955) ..............................................121 4...............6955) ........................................

.....205 xvii ....166 6............................11 Effect of delamination length ratios on symmetric delamination buckling.....................204 6.............204 6....................165 6............180 6.....1 A laminated composite beam with delamination area..............4 Rigid joint model based on conventional beam theory.......10 Effect of delamination length ratios on sub-layer delamination buckling.................................5.....14 Shear effect on sub-layer delamination buckling....................................................172 6.............16 Shear effect on sub-layer delamination buckling with different delamination length ratios..............................................................201 6.202 6........ delamination length ratios (symmetric delamination buckling).....9 Symmetric delamination buckling in numerical simulation (a/h = 2..............................................188 6..8 Geometry of honeycomb sinusoidal unit cell.....199 6...............197 6....................................................5 Semi-rigid joint model based on shear deformable beam theory........................................... delamination length ratios (sub-layer delamination buckling)..............159 5..................2 A crack tip element of bi-layer composite beam.......161 6.5).7 Local delamination buckling of laminated composite beam…........................................................................................................................167 6.3 Free body diagram of a bi-layer composite beam system.......................................................................................203 6......6 Flexible joint model based on interface deformable bi-layer beam theory.......................................13 Effective length ratio vs...164 6................8 Sub-layer delamination buckling of bi-layer beams in numerical simulation...........201 6.....................12 Effective length ratio vs.............9 Local buckling stress resultant of flat core wall in the sandwich.........................15 Shear effect on symmetric delamination buckling............

................17 Shear effect on symmetric delamination buckling with different delamination length ratios......................... interface compliance coefficients (symmetric delamination buckling).....1 Geometric parameters of open channel section............18 Delamination buckling load vs...................................231 A.....................207 6.......................................................................................................206 6.......6............208 A.............................................................19 Delamination buckling load vs......2 Shear flow in open channel section subjected to a torque Pz................ interface compliance coefficients (sub-layer delamination buckling) ...............231 xviii ...................................................................

Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to my family who provided emotional support xix .

and application of FRP composites in construction began in the 1980s and have lasted until today. composites have been increasingly used in civil engineering for semi-permanent structures and rehabilitation of old buildings. 1 .1 Problem statement and research significance 1. Because of their excellent properties (e.g. nonmagnetic. A comprehensive review on FRP composites for construction applications in civil engineering is given by Bakis et al.g.g. polyester. From the 1950s. and aramid) and low-cost. composites can meet the high performance requirements of space exploration and air travel.1. development. carbon.1 Development of FRP composite structures Polymeric composites are advanced engineering materials with the combination of high-strength. high-stiffness fibers (e.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. noncorrosive. composites were broadly used in the aerospace industry during the 1960s and 1970s (Bakis et al. and nonconductive). and for this reason.. 2002). E-glass. (2002).. light weight. and epoxy resins). environmentally resistant matrices (e. Extensive research. lightweight. particularly in aerospace and naval applications. The use of fiber-reinforced polymer or plastic (FRP) composite materials can be traced back to the 1940s in the military and defense industry.. vinylester.

glass. columns and deck panels are typical composite structures commonly used in civil infrastructure (Davalos et al. 2 . In addition to lightweight. FRP composites exhibit excellent energy absorption characteristics -suitable for seismic response.Structures made of FRP composites have been shown to provide efficient and economical applications in bridges and piers. noncorrosive.1). and nonconductive properties. polyester. Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) structural shapes in forms of beams.. Their manufacturing processes include pultrusion. A great need exists for new materials and methods to repair and/or replace deteriorated structures at reasonable costs. 1.g. Composite structures using in civil engineering are usually in thin-walled configurations (Fig. 1999). and the fibers (e. storage structures exposed to salts and chemicals. energy consumption and environmental pollution. nonmagnetic. transportation. and ease of handling. 1999 and 2000). and devastating effects of natural hazards such as earthquakes. competitive costs based on load-capacity per unit weight. high strength. 1996. Qiao et al. and durability. fatigue life.. retaining walls. FRP structural shapes are primarily made of E-glass fiber and either polyester or vinylester resins. high labor costs. FRP materials began to be extensively used in civil infrastructure from the 1980s and continue to expand in recent years. filament winding.g. FRP materials offer the inherent ability to alleviate or eliminate the following four construction related problems adversely contributing to transportation deterioration worldwide (Head 1996): corrosion of steel. vinylester. With the increasing demand for infrastructure renewal and the decreasing of cost for composite manufacturing. and installation. epoxy. carbon. and aramid) are used to reinforce the polymer matrix (e. and others (Qiao et al. airport facilities. and polyurethane).

is the most prevalent one in fabricating the FRP structural shapes due to its continuous and massive production capabilities. and hand lay-up etc. the first highway bridge using composites 3 . 1. lightweight.vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). 1.2). In 1986. a continuous manufacturing process capable of delivering one to five feet per minute of prismatic thin-walled members. because of their high specific stiffness and strength.1 Common FRP structural shapes in civil engineering Attention has been focused on FRP shapes as alternative bridge deck materials. while the pultrusion process (Fig. and potential modular fabrication and installation that can lead to decreased field assembly time and traffic routing costs. Fig. corrosion resistance.

was built in 1996 at McKinleyville. Scotland. Secondary bonding operations of cellular section are best accomplished at the manufacturing plant for maximum quality control. The first all-composites pedestrian bridge was installed in 1992 in Aberfeldy.S. Due to 4 . Design flexibility in this type of deck is obtained by changing the constituents of the shapes (such as fiber fabrics and fiber orientations) and. 1. by changing the cross section of the shapes. Kansas in 1997.reinforcing tendons in the world was built in Germany. Such shapes can be economically produced in continuous lengths by numerous manufacturers using well-established processing methods. to a lesser extent. followed by the first all-composite vehicular bridge as a sandwich deck built in Russell.2 Schematic diagram of pultrusion process Most currently available commercial bridge decks are constructed using assemblies of adhesively bonded FRP shapes. The first FRP reinforced concrete bridge deck in the U. WV. Continuous strand mat (CSM) Roving Stitched fabrics (SF) Resin supply Forming guide Heated die FRP profile To puller Fig.

Chambers 1997. Creative Pultrusions. There are no codes and standards in structural design for FRP composites in civil structural engineering (Head and Templeman 1990. composites are then 5 . design information for FRP composite structural shapes has been developed mainly by the composites industry (e. In addition to the two manuals.1. as liability concerns prevent most structural engineers from utilizing a product if the basis for the technical design data is unknown. and Composites 1998). 1. changes in the material constituents do not lead to such obvious results. FRP composites are typically orthotropic or anisotropic.. For civil engineering applications. the modeling of FRP structural components should account for shear effects. variations in the cross section of shapes are feasible only if sufficiently high production warrants the tooling investment. however.g.. However. and Strongwell) in product literature. Unlike standard materials (e. Structural Plastic Design Manual (SPDM1984) and Eurocomp Design Code and Handbook (EDCH 1996). shear deformations in FRP composite materials are usually significant. Such independent verifiability is essential. the technical basis for the product information is often proprietary (Turvey 1996) and may not be independently verifiable.g. while changes in the geometry of FRP shapes can be easily related to changes in stiffness. steel and concrete).2 Research significance A critical obstacle to the widespread use and applications of FRP structures in civil engineering is the lack of simplified and practical design guidelines. For example.the potentially high cost of pultrusion dies. In addition. and their analyses are much more complex. and therefore.

e. material anisotropy and unique geometric shapes). On the other hand.e. low velocity impact). and supporting databases already exist. such as finite elements. Therefore. are often difficult to use. it must be taken into account in design and analysis of FRP composite structures. Since buckling can lead to a catastrophic consequence.perceived as being less reliable than more conventional construction technologies. thin-walled shapes) and material (i. structural stability is one of the most likely modes of failure for thin-walled FRP and laminated composite structures. 1999). relatively low stiffness of polymer and high fiber strength) properties. FRP composite structures usually undergo large deformation and are vulnerable to global and local buckling before reaching the material strength failure under service loads (Qiao et al.. delamination buckling of laminated structures can reduce the designed structure strength when it is subjected to compressive loading. Due to geometric (i... such as steel. Thus. and wood.g. where the design methods. which appears in laminated composite materials due to manufacturing errors (e. Because of the complexity of composite structures (e. concrete.g... which require specialized training. to expand the applications of composite structures. imperfect curing process) or in service accidents (e. masonry. standards. and are not always accessible to design engineers. common analytical and design tools developed for members of conventional materials cannot always be readily applied to composite structures. numerical methods.g. Such a design tool should allow designers to perform stability analysis of customized shapes as well as to optimize 6 . an explicit engineering design approach for FRP shapes should be developed. Due to the presence of the delaminated area.

flexural-torsional (global) buckling.e. To develop such explicit buckling solutions for several typical stability analyses (i.innovative sections. 1.2 Objectives and scope The goal of this study aims at developing effective and accurate theoretical approaches to derive explicit formulas for buckling analysis and design of Fiberreinforced Plastic (FRP) composite structures. local buckling. The second objective of the study is to conduct explicit local buckling analysis of orthotropic rectangular plates which are fully elastically restrained along their four edges and subjected to general linear biaxial in-plane loading and apply the explicit solution of 7 . The first objective of the study is to present a combined analytical and experimental study for flexural-torsional buckling of pultruded FRP I. and delamination buckling) of FRP composite structures is the main goal of this study. (c) To obtain the explicit flexural-torsional buckling solution of FRP open channel beams.and open channel composite beams: (a) To develop the second variational approach of the Ritz method for lateral (flexural-torsional) buckling analysis of FRP structural beams. The three main objectives of the study are elaborated as follows. (d) To experimentally and numerically verify the analytical approach and solutions.. (b) To obtain the explicit flexural-torsional buckling solution of FRP I-beams.

semi-rigid.. 8 . The third objective of the study is to develop the delamination buckling solutions of layered composite beams based on the rigid. and interface deformable beams. (b) To obtain the explicit local buckling solution of rectangular orthotropic composite plates with various rotationally restrained edge boundary conditions and loading conditions. and flexible joint deformation models: (a) To present three joint deformation models (i. (c) To verify the explicit analytical solutions of restrained orthotropic plates with transcendental solutions. shear deformable beams. the rigid. (e) To compare the local buckling solution of FRP structural shapes with experimental data and numerical simulation. and flexible joint models) based on three corresponding bi-layer beam theories of conventional composite beams. semi-rigid.e.orthotropic plates to predict the local buckling strength of different FRP composite shapes based on discrete plate analysis: (a) To develop the first variational approach of the Ritz method for local buckling analysis of elastically restrained composite plates. (d) To apply the explicit local buckling solutions of restrained orthotropic plates to predict the local buckling strength of different FRP structural shapes.

local buckling of orthotropic rectangular plates and FRP structural shapes and sandwich cores. A literature review on variational principle for stability analysis. (d) To compare the delamination buckling solutions among three joint deformation models. The buckling equilibrium equation is established using the second variational principle of total potential energy and then solved by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. and delamination buckling of laminated composite structures is presented in Chapter Two. a combined analytical and experimental study for the flexuraltorsional buckling of pultruded FRP composite I.(b) To develop delamination buckling analysis and obtain the solutions based on three joint deformation models.and open channel beams is presented. An experimental study of three different geometries of respective FRP cantilever I. 1. of which shear effect and beam bending-twisting coupling are included. and the organization of the dissertation. (c) To verify the solutions with numerical finite element simulations. Chapter One includes problem statement. 9 . objectives and scope of work. The total potential energy of the open section beams based on nonlinear plate theory is derived. flexural-torsional buckling of FRP beams. In Chapter Three. and the critical buckling loads for different span lengths are measured and compared with the analytical solutions and numerical finite element results.3 Organization There are a total of seven chapters in this dissertation.and open channel beams is performed.

the rotational restraint stiffness (k).. and the flexural-orthotropy parameters (αOR and βOR) on the local buckling stress resultants of various rotationally-restrained plates. clamped (C). A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the influences of the loading ratio (α). and the explicit solution in term of the rotational restraint stiffness (k) is presented. the first variational formulation of the Ritz method is used to establish an eigenvalue problem for the local buckling behavior of composite plates rotationally restrained (R) along their four edges (the RRRR plates) and subjected to general biaxial linear compression. the aspect ratio (γ).g. and RRCC plates) under biaxial compression (and further reduced to uniaxial compression) with a combination of simply-supported (S). and the application of local buckling solution of rotationally restrained plates (Chapter Four) to local buckling analysis of FRP structural shapes is illustrated using discrete plate analysis. the approximate expressions of the rotational restraint stiffness (k) for various common FRP sections are provided. SSCC. In Chapter Four. and/or restrained (R) edge conditions. In Chapter Five. The deformation shape function is presented by using a unique harmonic function in both the axes to account for the effect of elastic rotational restraint stiffness (k) along the four edges of the orthotropic plate. CCCC. the explicit local buckling solution for the rotationally restrained plates is simplified to several special cases (e. CCRR. The explicit local buckling 10 .A parametric study is conducted to study the effects of the load location. and design plots with respect to these parameters are provided. RRSS. CCSS. SSRR. Based on the different boundary and loading conditions. fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction on the global buckling behavior. the SSSS.

e.. In the last chapter. 11 . shear deformable bi-layer beam theory. material mismatch of two sub-layers.e. the delamination buckling analysis of laminated composite beams are performed using the rigid. respectively.. and flexible joint deformation models according to three corresponding bi-layer beam theories (i.formulas of rotationally restrained plates are applied to predict the local buckling of various FRP shapes (i. and the influence of interface compliance on the analytical results is conducted to demonstrate the evolution of the accuracy within three joint deformation models. A design guideline for local buckling prediction and related performance improvement is provided. In Chapter Six. conventional composite beam theory. major conclusions are summarized and suggestions for future investigations are presented. and interface deformable bi-layer beam theory). and the parametric study of shear effect. semi-rigid. Numerical simulation is carried out to validate the accuracy of the solution. thin-walled composite columns and honeycomb sandwich cores) based on the discrete plate analysis.

2 Variational principle for stability analysis Variational principle as a viable method is often used to develop analytical solutions for stability of composite structures. the goal of the study is to conduct the stability analysis of FRP composite structures. Section 2. 12 .CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.3 reviews the previous work on flexuraltorsional buckling of composite I.4 presents the work on the local buckling analysis of the composite rectangular plates and FRP shapes. Section 2.5 summarizes the work in the area of delamination buckling of laminated composite structures.and C. Many researchers have conducted different studies in these three areas.section beams. In this vein. Variational and energy methods are the most Accurate yet simple effective ways to analyze stability of conservative systems.2 reviews the background of the variational principle. delamination buckling of laminated composite beams. Section 2.1 Introduction As stated in Chapter one. which forms the theoretical foundation for obtaining approximate solutions to structural stability of FRP shapes. and it is necessary to present their work chronically and point out the uniqueness of study. local buckling of composite rectangular plates and FRP structural shapes. The stability analyses considered in this study consist of three parts: flexural-torsional (global) buckling of FRP I.and C. 2. Section 2.section beams.

there are so many researches on stability analysis of isotropic thin-walled structures using variational principles. while the positive definition of the second variation of total potential energy demonstrates that the equilibrium is stable. 13 . respectively. Smith et al. Roberts (1981) derived the expressions for the second order strains in thin walled bars and used them in stability analysis.. Ma and Hughes (1996) derived the nonlinear total potential energy equations to analyze the lateral buckling behavior of monosymmetric I-beams subjected to distributed vertical load and point load with full allowance for distortion of the web. The aforementioned studies only represent a small portion of research on stability analysis using variational principles with respect to traditional structures made of isotropic materials (e. Later. steel). The first variation of total potential energy equaling zero (the minimum of the potential energy) represents the equilibrium condition of structural systems.approximation of critical loads can be obtained with the concept of energy approach by choosing adaptable buckling deformation shape functions. With energy equations. The versatile and powerful variational total potential energy method has been used in many studies for stability analysis of structural systems made of different materials. Since Timoshenko derived the classical energy equation (Timoshenko and Gere 1961) in 1934. (2000) utilized variational formulation of the Ritz method to determine the plate local buckling coefficients. Bradford and Trahair (1981) developed energy methods by nonlinear elastic theory for lateral distortional buckling of I-beams under end moments. Bradford (1992) analyzed the buckling of a cantilever I-beam subjected to a concentrated force.g.

flexural-torsional (lateral) buckling is more likely to occur than local buckling.Due to anisotropy and versatile shapes of FRP composite structures. Hancock (1978. Because of the vulnerability of thinwalled FRP structures to buckling. For the long span FRP shapes. which was intended as background material for the design of beams whose strength is controlled by lateral-torsional buckling. This phenomenon is known as flexural-torsional (lateral) buckling. In the following. the literatures related to stability analysis of composite structures are reviewed. and the second variational total potential energy method is often used to develop the analytical solutions. the analysis of structural stability is relatively complex and computationally expensive compared to the one used for conventional isotropic structures. Clark and Hill (1960) performed a summary of the research conducted before the computer era in their renowned paper. stability analysis is even more critical and demanding. 1981). Ma and Hughes (1996) 14 . 2.3 Flexural-torsional buckling A long slender beam under bending about the strong axis may buckle by a combined twisting and lateral (sideways) bending of the cross section. The variational total potential energy principles provide a powerful and efficient tool to obtain the analytical solutions for stability of composite structures and can be used as a vehicle to develop explicit and simplified design equations for buckling of FRP shapes. Roberts (1981). A need exists to develop explicit analytical solutions for structural stability design of FRP composite shapes. Roberts and Jhita (1983).

Pandey et al. several analytical and experimental evaluations of lateral buckling of FRP structural shapes.e.. Brooks and Turvey (1995) and Turvey (1996a. With the use of Galerkin method to solve the equilibrium differential equation. I.3. In his study.conducted numerous analytical and theoretical investigations for the flexural-torsional (lateral) buckling of steel beams. and the observed results are compared well with numerical prediction using a finite-difference method. Barbero and Tomblin (1993) experimentally investigated the Euler buckling of FRP composite columns. In the following. (1995) presented a theoretical formulation for flexure-torsional buckling of thin-walled composite I-section beams with the purpose of optimizing the fiber orientation. the effects of load position on the lateral buckling response of FRP I-sections 15 . i. and simplified formulas for several different loading and boundary conditions were developed.and C-sections. 2. have been reviewed. b) carried out a series of lateral buckling tests on small-scale pultruded E-glass FRP beams. Barbero and Raftoyiannis (1994) extended the formulation of Roberts and Jhita (1983) to study the lateral and distortional buckling of simply-supported composite FRP I-beams under central concentrated loads. he emphasized that there is a potential danger in analysis and design of FRP beams without including shear deformation. of which the material is homogeneous and isotropic. Based on the energy consideration and variational principle.1 I-sections Mottram (1992) investigated the flexural-torsional buckling behavior of pultruded Eglass FRP I-beams experimentally. of which the material is homogeneous and orthotropic.

Using a seven-degree-of-freedom element. but in their studies. Lin et al. they used plate theory to allow for distortion of cross sections. and the simplified engineering equations for predicting the critical flexuraltorsional buckling loads are formulated. and the total potential energy equations for the instability of FRP I-beams are derived using nonlinear elastic theory. (1997) presented a comprehensive experimental and analytical approach to study flexural-torsional buckling behavior of full-size pultruded fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) I-beams. and the beam shear and bending-twisting coupling effects were included in the analysis. In their study. Sherbourne and Kabir (1995) studied the shear effect in the lateral stability of thinwalled fibrous composite beams. the stability equilibrium equation of the system was established based on vanishing of the second variation of the total potential energy. and the results were correlated with the approximate formula developed by Nethercot and Rockey (1971) and finite element eigenvalue analysis. and the transverse shear strain effect on the lateral buckling was investigated. Murakami and Yamakawa (1996) developed the approximate lateral buckling solutions for anisotropic beams. (1996) performed a parametric study of optimal fiber direction for improving the lateral buckling response of pultruded I-beams. The analysis is based on energy principle. Davalos et al. 16 . Utilizing the assumed stress functions. Kabir and Sherbourne (1998) studied the lateral-torsional buckling of I-section composite beams. Davalos and Qiao (1997) further studied the flexural-torsional and lateral-distortional buckling of composite FRP I-beams both experimentally and analytically.were investigated. The equilibrium equation is then solved by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. only simply-supported beams loaded with mid-span concentrated loads were studied.

The experiment results for a range of I-profiles indicated that the transverse shear moduli. Sapkas and Kollár (2002) presents the stability analysis of simply supported and cantilever. Based on full section and coupon tests. I. 17 . Roberts (2002) performed theoretical studies of the influence of shear deformation on the flexural. Kollár (2001b) studied the flexural-torsional vibration of open section composite beams with shear deformation. torsional.section. orthotropic composite beams subjected to concentrated end moments. Based on the governing energy equations and full section member properties.Johnson and Shield (1998) studied the lateral-torsional buckling of the doubly symmetric I-section composite beams. Kollár (2001a) modified the Vlasov's classical theory to include both the transverse (flexural) shear and the restrained warping induced shear deformations. from which the stability analysis of axially loaded. thin walled. and lateral buckling of pultruded fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) I-profiles. With the similarity between the buckling and vibration problems. Roberts and Masri (2003) further experimentally determined the flexural and torsional properties of pultruded FRP profiles. Fraternal and Feo (2000) developed a finite element method based on moderate rotation theory for the simulation of thin-walled composite beams. or uniformly distributed load. thin-walled open section. orthotropic composite columns is performed. Lee and Kim (2001) developed a displacement-based one-dimensional finite element model for flexural-torsional buckling of composite I-beams. The model was capable of predicting accurate buckling loads and modes for various configurations. concentrated forces. Qiao and Zou (2002) studied the free vibration of the fiber-reinforced plastic composite cantilever I-beams using the Vlasov’s thin-walled beam theory.

With the second variational method. Most recently. and three different types of buckling mode shape functions of transcendental function. Based on the classical lamination theory. Qiao et al. In their study.determined from full section three point bending tests. a general analytical model applicable to thinwalled I-section composite beams subjected to vertical and torsional load was developed in their study. and the closed form solutions for the influence of shear deformation on global flexural-torsional and lateral buckling of pultruded FRP profiles were developed in their study. load height application and pre-buckling deflections. are influenced significantly by localized deformation at the supports. Lee and Lee (2004) presented a flexural-torsional analysis of I-section laminated composite beams. (2003) presented a combined analytical and experimental study of flexural-torsional buckling of pultruded FRP cantilever I-beams. Based on a non-linear model taking into account flexural-torsional couplings. Sirjani and Razzaq (2005) presented the experimental results and theoretical study of I-section fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) beams subjected to a gradually increasing mid-span load which is applied about the beam major axis from the compression flange side through a point below the shear center. the shear effect and bending-twisting coupling is considered. 18 . and half simply supported beam function are put forward to obtain the eigenvalue solution. and it accounted for the factors of bending distribution. Mohri and Potier-Ferry (2006) derived a closed form analytical solutions for lateral buckling of simply supported isotropic I-section beams under some representative load cases. polynomial function. and the model accounts for the coupling of flexural and torsional responses for arbitrary laminate stacking sequence configuration.

(1996) presented a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach for lateral-torsional buckling. which included shear effects. there is no detailed study available on buckling of FRP open channel beams. they proposed an elastic buckling load formula for analysis and design of channel FRP beams.3. The study for open section beams is relatively complex due to the coupling of torsion and bending. Lee and Kim (2002) parametrically studied the lateral buckling analysis of a laminated composite beam with channel section under various configurations. Using these test results. Loughlan and Ata (1995.2. Kabir and Sherbourne (1998) proposed an analytical solution for predicting the lateral buckling capacity of composite channel-section beams using Vlasov’s thin-walled beam theory. 1997) investigated the torsional response of open section composite beams. Based on an experimental and theoretical study of the behavior of pultruded FRP channel section beams under the influence of gradually increasing static loads. Since some thin-walled shapes are slender with opensection configuration. Single-span members with several loading locations and various spans were tested. the structures only have one or no axis of symmetry and relatively low torsional stiffness. Razzaq et al. and the relationship between the lateral-torsional buckling load and the minor axis slenderness ratio was established. Rehfield and Atlgan (1989) presented the buckling equations for uniaxially loaded composite open-section members.2 Open channel sections Even though substantial research on the flexural-torsional buckling of the FRP Ibeams has been reported in the literature. and the 19 . Based on the classical lamination theory and Vlasov’s thin-walled beam theory for channel bars.

The available analytical solutions for buckling of open channel beams were primarily developed from Vlasov’s thin-walled beam theory. Shan and Qiao (2005) investigated the flexural-torsional buckling of FRP open channel beams using the second variational total potential energy method. and the results are compared with the experimental studies and numerical simulation. and they pointed out the influence of shear–deformation for different laminate stacking sequence and the pre-buckling deflections effect on buckling loads. local buckling is more likely to occur and finally leads to large deformation or material crippling. plates and beams). the shear strain of the middle surface in the laminate elements was not considered. Machado and Cortínez (2005) developed a geometrically non-linear theory for thin-walled composite beams for both open and closed cross-sections to numerically investigate the flexural–torsional and lateral buckling and post-buckling behavior of simply supported beams.g. A number of researchers presented studies on local buckling analysis on composite plates and FRP shapes.. however.4 Local buckling For short span FRP composite structures (e.material coupling for arbitrary laminate stacking sequence configuration and various boundary conditions are accounted for in their study. 2. The analytical solution of the flexuraltorsional buckling of open channel beams are derived in this study. and there were not many experimental and numerical validations of their approaches. Turvey and Marshall (1995) presented an extensive review of the 20 .

Brunelle and Oyibo (1983) used the first variational of total energy method to develop the generic buckling curves for special orthotropic rectangular plates. Bank and Yin (1996) presented the solutions and parametric studies for the buckling of rectangular plates subjected to uniform uniaxial compression with simply supported boundary condition along the loaded edges and one edge being free and the other edge being elastically restrained against rotation along the two unloaded edges. Durban and Zuckerman (1999) analyzed the elastoplastic buckling of a rectangular plate. Qiao et al. By modeling the flanges and webs individually and considering the flexibility of the flange-web 21 . Libove (1983) studied the buckled pattern of simply supported orthotropic rectangular plates under biaxial compression. Veres and Kollár (2001) presented the approximate closed-form formulas for local buckling of orthotropic plates with clamped and/or simply supported edges and subjected to biaxial normal forces. under uniform compression combined with uniform tension (or compression) in the perpendicular direction.research on composite plate buckling behavior. Several analytical efforts were made to develop explicit analyses of local buckling of orthotropic composite plates with various boundaries and loading conditions. Durban (1988) studied the stability problem of a biaxially loaded rectangular plate within the framework of small strain plasticity. Tung and Surdenas (1987) investigated the buckling of rectangular orthotropic plates with simply supported boundary condition under biaxial loading. with various boundary conditions. Based on the standard linear buckling equations and material behavior modeled by the small strain J2 flow and deformation theories of plasticity. (2001) reviewed and studied the applications of discrete plate analysis for local buckling of FRP shapes.

By using the higher-order shear deformation theory and a special displacement function. By considering the combined shape functions of simply-supported and clamped unloaded edges. Later. Qiao and Zou (2002) developed the explicit solution for buckling of composite plates with elastic restraints at two unloaded edges (RR) and subjected to nonuniformed in-plane axial action. which were applied to predict the 22 . (2001) obtained the critical buckling stress resultants and critical numbers of buckled waves over the plate aspect ratio for two common cases of composite plates with different boundary conditions. (2005) presented a buckling analysis for a rectangular laminated composite plate with arbitrary edge supports subjected to biaxial compression loading.connections. Qiao and Zou (2003) uniquely presented the explicit approximate closed-form solution for buckling of composite plates with elastically restrained and free unloaded edges (RF). By observing the solutions of composite plates with either simply supported or fully clamped (built-in) unloaded edges. (2005) presented the local buckling solution of simply supported rectangular plates under biaxial loading. Wang et al. By applying a variational formulation of the Ritz method to establish an eigenvalue problem. Ni et al. Qiao et al. Kollar (2002a) proposed an empirical solution for local buckling of unidirectionally loaded orthotropic plates with rotationally restrained unloaded edges. Qiao and Shan (2005) formulated the explicit local buckling solutions of composite plates with the elastic restraints along the unloaded edges and developed the generic formulas for the rotational restraint stiffness (k) of different FRP shapes. Kollar (2002b) used a similar approach to develop the closed-form solutions for buckling of unidirectionally loaded orthotropic plates with either clamped-free (CF) or rotationally restrained-free (RF) unloaded edges.

The same method was used to analyze the free vibration of symmetric cross-ply laminated plates with elastically restrained edges (Liew et al. which are equivalent to the case of the orthotropic composite plates under in-plane compression with various boundary conditions along the two loaded edges. Hung et al. and the elastic edge flexibilities were considered by simultaneously using both the linear elastic rotational and translational supports. b) investigated the effects of boundary constraints on the vibration characteristics of symmetrically laminated rectangular plates. El-Sayed and Sridharan (2002) studied the local buckling behavior of core walls of sandwich structures under the compression between the two facesheets. Masters and Evans (1996). Zhu and Mills (2000). (1997) studied the problem of free vibration of a moderately thick rectangular plate with edges elastically restrained against transverse and rotational deformation. (1993a. the vibration behavior of the restrained composite plates was studied in the literature. By using the Ritz method with a variational formulation and Mindlin plate theory. Papka and Kyriakides (1994). Qiao and Shan (2007) further expanded the local buckling solution of the composite plates with the boundary conditions of fully elastically restrained along their four edges and subjected to bi-axial loading. Xiang et al. Gorman (2000) employed the superposition method to obtain buckling loads and free vibration frequencies for a family of elastically supported rectangular plates subjected to unidirectionally uniform in-plane loading and tabulated the buckling loads for a fairly broad range of plate geometries and edge support stiffness.local buckling load of different FRP shapes. By the 23 . Gibson and Ashby (1988). 1997). Similar to the local buckling problems.

Their solution was later applied by Lee et al. The partial restraint offered by the face sheet-core interface has a pronounced effect on the local buckling response of composite sandwich panels under out-of-plane compression and should be considered in the buckling analysis. and the orthotropic plate was modeled as clamped along the two loaded edges and simplysupported along the other two unloaded edges.assumption that the two boundaries along the face sheet-core interfaces as rigidly restrained while the other two edges of the core wall perpendicular to the facesheets as simply-supported. which is seldom the case in practice. Shan and Qiao (2007) obtained the explicit local buckling equations of rotationally restrained orthotropic plates and validated the results with exact transcendental solutions. By using the discrete plate analysis technique. the flat core walls of sandwich structures can be modeled as an orthotropic plate (SSRR plate) rotationally restrained along the two loaded edges (namely the top and bottom facesheets) and simply-supported along the other unloaded edges at the periodic lines of unit cell core. The solution of a simplified case (SSRR plate) is used to predict the local buckling load of sandwich structures under the compression between the two facesheets. 24 . (2002) to study the behavior of honeycomb composite cores at elevated temperature. Zhang and Ashby (1992) predicted the buckling strength of the sandwich cores. Using the unique out-of-plane deformation shape functions of combined harmonics and polynomials. and the results match well with the numerical simulation and experimental study conducted by Chen (2004). Both of these studies assumed a completely rigid connection at the face sheet-core interface.

and box beams.e. Lee and Hewson (1978) investigated the local buckling of orthotropic thin-walled columns made of unidirectional FRP composites. Roberts and Jhita (1983) presented a theoretical study of the elastic buckling modes of I-section beams under various loading conditions that could be used to predict local and global buckling modes. The general solution is further simplified to several simplified cases and applied to predict the local buckling load of FRP shapes. Kollar (2003) illustrated the local buckling analysis of FRP beams and columns using the discrete plate analysis and applying the empirical formulas of buckling of orthotropic plates. Later. Lee (1978) presented an exact analysis and an approximate energy method using simplified deflections for the local buckling of orthotropic structural sections. Lee (1979) extended the solution to include the local buckling of orthotropic sections with various loaded boundary conditions.In addition to the local buckling analysis of the composite plates. several analytical efforts were made to develop explicit solutions of local buckling of FRP columns and beams.. and the minimum buckling coefficient was expressed as a function of the flange-web ratio. i. Barbero and Raftoyiannis (1993) used variational principle (Rayleigh-Ritz method) to develop analytical solutions for critical buckling load as well as the buckling mode under axial and shear loading of FRP I. Mottram (2004) reviewed and discussed the determination of flange critical local buckling load for pultruded FRP I-section columns. The explicit local buckling solutions are derived for a general orthotropic composite rectangular plate with elastically restrained along its four edges and subjected to bi-axial loading in this study. Based on energy considerations. FRP columns and 25 .

2. Bottega and Maewal (1983) developed an analytical model based on asymptotic analysis of postbuckling behavior for a symmetric two-layer isotropic circular plate. imperfect curing process) or in-service accident (e. (1985) studied the effect of delamination under axial loading for the 26 . Simitses et al.5 Delamination buckling Delamination appears in laminated composite materials due to manufacturing errors (e. Thus. with the aid of discrete plate analysis.g. isotropic plates using a thin-film model. Chai et al. Numerical simulation and parametric study are conducted to validate the analytical results. Various researches have been attempted to model and analyze the delamination buckling problem of beam.sandwich cores..or plate-type composite structures. low velocity impact). Due to the presence of delaminated area. Chai (1982) developed one of the first analytical delamination models by characterizing the delamination in homogeneous. Including the bendingextension coupling.g. and extended this approach to a general bending case which included the bending of a thick base laminate.. as a major failure mode in the laminated composite structures. (1981) conducted one-dimensional buckling analysis of single delaminated composite laminate plates. the designed buckling strength of the laminated structures can be reduced when it is subjected to the compressive loading. Later. Yin (1958) derived general formulae for thin-film strips and midplane symmetric delaminations in composite laminates and studied the effects of laminated structure on delamination buckling and growth. the delamination buckling has been extensively studied in the literature.

Chen and Li (1990a. 1988) used a perturbation technique to analyze the buckling and postbuckling responses of a one-dimensional (1D) orthotropic homogeneous elastic beam with a through-width delamination. Chen (1991) formulated the same problem as Kardomateas and Shmueser (1988). They considered the influence of the transverse shear on the buckling load and the postbuckling response of composites by using the classical buckling equations and shear effect correction terms. They tested specimens manufactured with a delamination at the mid-plane and concluded that the delamination did not degrade much the stiffness of the laminates. Based on a variational energy approach. Tracy and Pardoen (1988) studied the effect of delamination on the flexural stiffness of laminated beams. inclusion of the shear deformation effect reduced the overestimation of the buckling and ultimate load capacity of delaminated composite 27 . b) performed the theoretical and experimental studies on buckling characteristics of composite laminates with rectangular. Chai and Babcock (1985) developed a two dimensional model of the compressive failure in delaminated laminates. delamination buckling is likely to occur. Kardomateas and Shmueser (1987. As observed in glulam-FRP beam tests conducted by Kim (1995).homogeneous laminated plates. and the stretching-shearing coupling and bending-twisting coupling effects were considered in their study. but their analytical solution did not include the influence of bending extension coupling on delamination buckling. if the delamination was placed near the top surface of a beam. Yin et al. due to the nature of delamination at the neutral axis. (1986) conducted the research on the ultimate axial load capacity of a delaminated beam. According to the results in Chen (1991). elliptic or belt-shape surface delamination.

(1991) developed a theoretical model based on the earlier work of Chai et al. moment and energy release rate with adequate precision. 1994) used a large deflection and shear deformation theory to derive the closed form expressions for the critical buckling load and post-buckling deflection of asymmetric laminates with clamped edges. (1981) to study the local buckling of delaminated sandwich beams. b) conducted the buckling and post-buckling analysis of laminates with elliptic anisotropic delamination and pointed out the lowest order in Rayleigh-Ritz method to obtain force. Later. Yin and Jane (1992a. Suemasu (1993) investigated the compressive buckling of composite panels having through-width. Peck and Springer (1991) investigated the behavior of elliptical sub-laminates created by delaminations in composite plates that are subjected to in-plane compressive. Chen (1993. Sheinman and Soffer (1991) analyzed the nonlinear post-buckling behavior of a composite delaminated beam under axial loading. shear and thermal loads. and presented a method of continuous analysis to predict the local delamination buckling load of the face sheet of sandwich beams. Based on GLPT. (1993) developed a displacement-based. Somer et al. equally spaced multiple delaminations. one-dimensional finite-element model to predict critical loads and corresponding buckling modes for a multiple delaminated composite with arbitrary 28 . Reddy et al. (1989) developed a generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT) and implemented the theory to account for multiple delaminations between layers.plates. Lee et al. Shu and Mai (1993) performed the buckling analysis of a delaminated beam with the fiber bridging effect. Lim and Parsons (1992) used the Rayleigh-Ritz method to analyze the buckling behavior of multiple delaminated beams.

Adan et al. Lee et al. (1996) presented a one-dimensional finite element buckling and post-buckling analysis of cylindrically orthotropic circular plates containing single and multiple delaminations. Kyoung and Kim (1995) used the variational principle to calculate the buckling load and delamination growth of an axially loaded beam-plate with an asymmetric delamination (with respect to the center-span of the beam-plate). The effect of transverse normal and shear resistance from the core is accounted for. (1997) presented a method of continuous analysis for predicting the local delamination buckling load of the face sheet of sandwich beams. Kutlu and Chang (1995a. (1994) developed an analytical model for buckling of multiple delaminated composite under cylindrical bending and studied their interactive effects. They evaluated the effects of the shear deformation and other geometric parameters on the buckling strength and delamination growth of composite plates. The 29 . Yeh and Tan (1994) studied the buckling of laminated plates with elliptic delamination. Moradi and Taheri (1997) applied the differential quadrature technique to the delamination buckling of the laminated plate using the classical plate theory. Cheng et al.boundary conditions. (1997) developed an analytical solution for predicting delamination buckling and growth of a thin fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) layer in laminated wood beams under bending. and the analytical procedure allowed direct determination of the buckling load by considering the entire region without separating it into regions with and without delaminations. Kim et al. b) investigated the compression response of laminated composite panels containing multiple throughthe-width delaminations by both nonlinear finite element method and experiments.

Yu and Hutchinson (2002) analyzed a straight-sided delamination buckling with a focus on the effects of substrate compliance. Shu and Parlapalli (2004) developed a one-dimensional mathematical model using Bernoulli– Euler beam theory to analyze the buckling behavior of a two-layered beam with single asymmetric delamination for simple supported and clamped boundary conditions. Shu (1998) identified free mode’ and constrained mode’ of buckling for a beam with multiple delaminations by an exact solution. Li and Zhou (2000) presented the buckling analysis of delaminated beams based on the high-order shear deformation theory. the transverse and longitudinal position of the delamination area were considered in their investigation. Li et 30 . the length. the bending-extension coupling. Moradi and Taheri (1999) extended Chen (1991)’s work and applied the differential quadrature method (DQM) for the buckling analysis of one-dimensional (1D) general orthotropic composite laminated rectangular beam-plates which have a interlaminar delamination positioned in an arbitrary plane through its thickness and length. The transverse shear deformation. (1998) studied the buckling and post-buckling analysis of single and multiple delaminated orthotropic beams by nonlinear finite element analysis. the type of composites and fiber orientation. (2000) investigated the buckling analysis of elliptically delaminated composite laminates by taking into account of partial closure of delamination. Haiying and Kardomateas (1998) used a non-linear beam theory to study the multiple delaminations of orthotropic beams. Kyoung et al. Sekine et al. Later. Zhang and Yu (1999) analyzed delamination growth driven by the local buckling of laminate plates.accuracy and efficiency of the differential quadrature method (DQM) in calculating the buckling loads was reconfirmed by their results.

. the boundary condition. the rigid. delamination buckling formulas of laminated composite beams are derived based on the three joint models (i. and the ply angle of the material on the buckling load is analyzed.e. (2005) developed the strip transfer function method based on Mindlin’s first-order shear deformation theory to investigate the buckling of a delaminated plate. and a parametric study of the shear effect and material mismatch of two sub-layers in the bi-layer composite beam is conducted to compare the buckling analysis results from three different joint deformation models. the effect of the delamination tip deformation is usually not included. (2006) introduced nondimensionalized parameters named nondimensionalized axial and bending stiffnesses to study the buckling behavior of bi-layer beams with separated delaminations. and the influence of length.e. The three joint deformation models are established on three corresponding bi-layer beam theories (i. Numerical simulation is carried out to validate the accuracy of the formulas. Parlapalli et al.al.. conventional composite beam theory. 31 . sheardeformable beam theory. respectively) presented by Qiao and Wang (2005). and flexible joint models. respectively). depth and position of the delamination. semi-rigid. Though significant studies were conducted in the delamination buckling of laminated composite structures. In this study. and interface-deformable beam theory.

AND CHANNEL SECTION COMPOSITE BEAMS 3. the flexural-torsional buckling of pultruded FRP composite I. fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction on the buckling behavior. 3.and channel section beams is performed.and channel section cantilever beams which are subjected to a tip load at the end of the beams is analyzed using the second variational total potential energy principle and RayleighRitz method (Qiao et al.1 Introduction In this chapter.2 Theoretical background: variational principles Variational and energy methods are the most effective ways to analyze stability of conservative systems. Shan and Qiao 2005). The total potential energy of FRP shapes based on nonlinear plate theory is derived. An experimental study of three different geometries of FRP cantilever I. which includes shear effect and bending-twisting coupling. 2003. Accurate yet simple approximation of critical loads can be obtained with the concept of energy approach by choosing adaptable buckling deformation shape functions. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the load location. and the critical buckling load for different span lengths are measured and compared with the analytical solutions and numerical finite element results. The first variation of total potential energy equaling zero (the minimum of the potential energy) represents the equilibrium condition of structural 32 .CHAPTER THREE FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF FRP I.

Thus. 2V For linear elastic problems. the total potential energy attains a stationary value when the first variation of the total potential energy ( δΠ ) is zero.systems.2) 1 ∫ σ ij ε ij dV . the condition for the state of stability is characterized by the inequality δ 2 Π = −∑ Pi δ 2 qi + ∫ (σ ij δ 2 ε ij + δσ ij δε ij )dV > 0 V (3. Thus. the condition for the state of equilibrium is expressed as δΠ = −∑ Pi δ qi + ∫ σ ij δε ij dV = 0 V (3.4) 33 . If δ 2 Π is positive definite. and U = U (ε ij ) . It is possible to infer whether a stationary value of a functional Π is a maximum or a minimum by observing the sign of δ 2 Π . and only if. The total potential energy ( Π ) of a system is the sum of the strain energy ( U ) and the work ( W ) done by the external loads. Π is a minimum.3) The structure is in a stable equilibrium state if.1) where W = −∑ Pi qi . and it is expressed as Π = U +W (3. Then. the value of the potential energy is a relative minimum. while the positive definition of the second variation of total potential energy demonstrates that the equilibrium is stable. the total potential energy is expressed as Π = −∑ Pi q i + U (ε ij ) (3. the strain energy is given as U = For a structure in an equilibrium state.

4) is based on the second Gâteaux variation (Sagan 1969) which states that the second variation of I[y] at y = y0 is expressed as δ 2 I [h] = d2 I [ y 0 + th]t =0 dt 2 (3. while the second variation of total potential energy (Eq.5) Because qi is usually being expressed as linear functions of displacement variables.6) In this study.3)) corresponding to the equilibrium state of the structure is employed to establish the eigenvalue problem for local buckling of discrete laminated plates in FRP structures (see Chapter Four).1) is analyzed. In this section. the critical condition for stability analysis becomes δ 2 Π = δ 2U = ∫ (σ ij δ 2 ε ij + δσ ij δε ij )dV = 0 V (3. (3. of which the shear effect and beam bending-twisting coupling are included.and channel section beams (Fig. (3. 34 .4) vanishes. Therefore. 3. The total potential energy of FRP shapes based on nonlinear plate theory is derived. the flexural-torsional (global) buckling of pultruded FRP composite I. Based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method.Eq. (3.6)) representing the stability state of the system is applied to derive the eigenvalue solution for flexural-torsional (global) buckling of FRP beams. The second variational total potential energy method is hereby applied to analyze the global buckling of FRP composite structures. (3. the eigenvalue equation of global buckling is solved. δ2 qi in Eq. the first variation of total potential energy (Eq.

3. ∂y 2 κ xy = 2 ∂2w ∂x∂y (3. ∂x 2 κy = ∂2w .3 Formulation of the second variational problem for flexural-torsional buckling of thin-walled FRP beams For a thin-wall panel in the xy-plane. the in-plane finite strains of the mid-surface considering the nonlinear terms are given by Malvern (1969) as 2 2 2 ∂u 1 ⎡⎛ ∂u ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎤ + ⎢⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ εx = ∂x 2 ⎢⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 2 ∂v 1 ⎡⎛ ∂u ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎤ ε y = + ⎢⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ∂y 2 ⎢⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎥ ⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u ∂v ∂v ∂w ∂w + + + + γ xy = ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y (3.Y t X t b Z t b t b b Fig.7) The curvatures of the mid-plane are defined as κx = ∂2w .8) 35 .1 I.and Channel section composite beams 3.

web and flange) leading to no stretching-bending coupling ( β ij = 0).For a laminate in the xy-plane. The material of laminated panels in pultruded sections is thus orthotropic. and their mechanical properties can be obtained 36 .9b) Most pultruded FRP sections consist of symmetric laminated panels (e. the mid-surface in-plane strains and curvatures are expressed in terms of the compliance coefficients and panel resultant forces as (Jones 1999) ⎧ε x ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡α 11 α 12 ⎪ε y ⎪ ⎢α 12 α 22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪γ xy ⎪ ⎢α 16 α 26 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪κ x ⎪ ⎢ β 11 β 12 ⎪κ ⎪ ⎢ β12 β 22 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢ ⎪κ ⎪ ⎢ β16 β 26 ⎣ ⎩ xy ⎭ α 16 α 26 α 66 β16 β 26 β 66 β11 β12 β12 β 22 β16 β 26 δ 11 δ 12 δ 12 δ 22 δ 16 δ 26 β16 ⎤ ⎢ x β 26 ⎥ ⎢ N y ⎥⎢ β 66 ⎥ ⎢ N xy ⎥ δ 16 ⎥ ⎢ M x ⎢ δ 26 ⎥ ⎢ M y ⎥ δ 66 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦⎢ ⎡N ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ M xy ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (3. α 16 = α 26 = δ 16 = δ 26 = 0).9a) or the panel resultant forces are expressed in term of the stiffness coefficients and midplane strains and curvatures as ⎧N x ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ A11 N y ⎪ ⎢A ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ N xy ⎪ ⎢ A16 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪M x ⎪ ⎢ B11 ⎪M ⎪ ⎢ B12 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢ ⎪M ⎪ ⎢ B16 ⎣ ⎩ xy ⎭ A12 A22 A26 B12 B22 B26 A16 A26 A66 B16 B26 B66 B11 B12 B16 D11 D12 D16 B12 B22 B26 D12 D22 D26 ⎡ε ⎤ B16 ⎤ ⎢ x ⎥ B26 ⎥ ⎢ε y ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ B66 ⎥ ⎢γ xy ⎥ ⎥ D16 ⎥ ⎢κ x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ D26 ⎥ ⎢κ ⎥ ⎥ y D66 ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢κ ⎥ ⎣ xy ⎦ (3. the off-axis plies of the pultruded panels are usually balanced symmetric (no extension-shear and bendingtwisting coupling. Also.g..

either from experimental coupon tests or theoretical prediction using micro/macromechanics models (Davalos et al. which is due to the axial displacement and bending about the major axis. is derived using the simple beam theory. In this study. y (vtf ) x(utf ) y (vbf ) x(ubf ) z(wtf ) z(wbf ) y (vw) x(uw) z(ww) Fig. while the second part. the flange panels (either top or bottom) are modeled as a beam bending around its strong axis and at the same time as a plate bending and twisting around its minor axis. The first part. which p is due to the twisting and bending about the minor axis. The second variation of the total potential energy of the flanges is derived in two tf parts. δ 2U b .2 Coordinate system in individual panels of thin-walled beams 37 . is derived using the nonlinear plate theory. 3. 1996). δ 2U tf .

3 Moments on the top flange Then.or C-section shown in Fig 3.11b) 38 . the second variation of the total potential energy due to the top flange bending laterally as a beam can be written as tf b tf b b b b b δ 2U btf = ∫ ( N x δ 2 ε x + δ N x δε x + M x δ 2κ x + δM x δκ x )dx (3.First.10) The strain displacement field is ∂u tf 1 ⎛ ∂w tf + ⎜ ε = ∂x 2 ⎜ ∂x ⎝ b x b κx = ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (3. considering the top flange of either I. p y (vtf ) p x(utf ) p p p b z(wtf ) Fig. the axial and bending (about the major axis) stress resultants of the tf b flange are denoted by N x and M x (Fig. respectively. 3. 3.11a) ∂ 2 wtf ∂x 2 (3.2(a) as a tf b beam under the pure bending about its strong axis ( N zb = N xz = M zb = M xz = 0) and using the beam theory.3).

15c) .14) The non-linear strains and curvatures are given as 1 ⎛ ∂v tf ε = ⎜ 2 ⎜ ∂x ⎝ p x ⎞ 1 ⎛ ∂u tf ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 (3.15a) p γ xz = ∂u tf ∂u tf ∂v tf ∂v tf ∂w tf ∂w tf + + ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z (3.Considering Eq. considering the twisting and bending of the flange.13) b b where Ax = E x t f b f .12) Here the simplified forms of the stress resultants are expressed as tf Nx = b Ax b εx ； bf b b b M x = Dx κ x (3. the second variation of the total strain energy of the top flange is simplified as δ U 2 tf b ⎛ ∂δw tf = ∫∫ N ⎜ ⎜ ∂x ⎝ tf x 2 ⎧ ⎛ ∂δu tf ⎞ ⎪ b ⎟ dxdz + ∫ ⎨ Ax ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎪ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎩ 2 tf ⎞ b ⎛ ∂ δw ⎟ + Dx ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬dx ⎪ ⎭ (3. and E x is the Young’s modulus of the top flange plane in x-axis. (3.10) and neglecting the third-order terms. D x = Ext f b3 f 12 .15b) κ xp = ∂ 2 v tf ∂ 2 v tf p . κ xz = 2 ∂x∂z ∂x 2 39 (3. and without considering the distortion ( N zp = M zp = 0). the second variation of the total potential energy of the top flange behaving as a plate can be written as tf tf tf p tf p δ 2U tf = ∫∫ (N x δ 2ε xp + δ N x δε xp + N xzδ 2γ xz + δN xzδγ xz p p p p p + M xpδ 2κ xp + δM xp δκ xp + M xzδ 2κ xz + δM xzδκ xz dxdz ) (3. Now using the plate theory.

14) and (3.16) ⎛ ∂δv tf ∂δv tf ∂δu tf ∂δu tf ∂δw tf ∂δw tf + 2N ⎜ + + ⎜ ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ⎝ 1 ⎛ ∂ 2 δv tf ⎜ + δ 11 ⎜ ∂x 2 ⎝ ⎞ 4 ⎟ + ⎟ δ ⎠ 66 2 ⎛ ∂ 2 δv tf ⎜ ⎜ ∂x∂z ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬dxdz ⎪ ⎭ Therefore.15) and neglecting the third-order terms.2(b) as a plate in the xy-plane and using the plate theory. the second variation of the total strain energy of the top flange can be obtained tf δ2Utf = δ2Ub + δ2U tf p tf tf ⎧ ⎡⎛ ∂δutf ⎞2 ⎛ ∂δvtf ⎞2 ⎛ ∂δwtf ⎞2 ⎤ ∂δvtf ∂δvtf ⎪ tf tf ⎛ ∂δu ∂δu ⎟ ⎥ + 2Nxz ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ + = ∫∫⎨Nx ⎢⎜ ⎜ ∂x ∂z ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂z ⎝ ⎪ ⎢⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ 2 tf ∂δwtf ∂δwtf ⎞ b ⎛ ∂δutf ⎞ 1 ⎛ ∂2δvtf ⎞ 4 ⎛ ∂2δvtf ⎞ b ⎛ ∂ δw ⎞ ⎟ + Ax ⎜ + ⎜ ∂x ⎟ + Dx ⎜ ∂x2 ⎟ + δ ⎜ ∂x2 ⎟ + δ ⎜ ∂x∂z ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ∂x ∂z ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 11 ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ 66 ⎝ 2 2 2 2 (3. the total strain energy of the top flange is simplified as δ U 2 tf p ⎧ ⎪ tf = ∫∫ ⎨ N x ⎪ ⎩ tf xz ⎡⎛ ∂δv tf ⎢⎜ ⎜ ⎢⎝ ∂x ⎣ ⎞ ⎛ ∂δu tf ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (3. (3.18) The strains and curvatures of the web are given as 40 . 3.17) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬dxdz ⎪ ⎭ The second variation of the total strain energy of the bottom flange δ 2U bf can be obtained in a similar way. the second variation of the total strain energy of the web can be expressed as w w w w w w w w w δ 2U w = ∫∫(Nxwδ 2ε xw +δ Nxwδεxw + Ny δ 2ε y +δNy δεy + Nxyδ 2γ xy +δNxyδγ xy + Mxwδ 2κ x + w w w w w w w w δMxwδκxw + M y δ 2κ y +δM y δκy + Mxyδ 2κ xy +δMxyδκxy )dxdy (3.Considering Eqs. Considering the web shown in Fig.

+ + + + = ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y (3.19). + ⎢⎜ ε = ∂y 2 ⎢⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ w y (3.9b) and compability condition in Eq. (3.19b) γ w xz ∂u w ∂v w ∂u w ∂u w ∂v w ∂v w ∂w w ∂w w . κy = .21) . (3.19a) 2 2 2 ∂v w 1 ⎡⎛ ∂u w ⎞ ⎛ ∂v w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w w ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥.20) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬dxdy ⎪ ⎭ The second variation of the total strain energy of the whole beam can be obtained by summing the web.2 2 2 ∂uw 1 ⎡⎛ ∂uw ⎞ ⎛ ∂vw ⎞ ⎛ ∂ww ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥. ε = + ⎢⎜ ∂x 2 ⎢⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ w x (3.19d) Neglecting the third-order terms and considering the constitutive relation in Eq.18) is simplified as 2 2 w 2 ⎧ ⎡⎛ ∂δu w ⎞2 ⎛ ∂δvw ⎞2 ⎛ ∂δww ⎞2 ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ ∂δvw ⎞ ⎛ ∂δww ⎞ ⎤ ⎪ w w ⎛ ∂δu ⎞ ⎟⎥ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + N y ⎢⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +⎜ δ U = ∫∫ ⎨Nx ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎢⎝ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ⎥ ⎪ ⎢⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ 2 w w ⎛ ∂δu w ∂δu w ∂δvw ∂δvw ∂δww ∂δww ⎞ w ⎛ ∂δu w ⎞ w ⎛ ∂δv ⎞ ⎟ + A22 ⎜ ⎟ + A11⎜ + 2N ⎜ + + ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 w w w 2 w 2 ⎡ ⎛ ∂δu w ⎞ ∂δvw ∂δu w ⎤ w ∂δu ∂δv w ⎛ ∂δv ⎞ w ⎛ ∂ δw ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ +2 ⎥ + D11⎜ + 2 A12 ＋ 66 ⎢⎜ A ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x2 ⎟ ⎟ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ⎥ ⎢⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ w xy 2 w 2 w w 2 ⎛ ∂2δww ⎞ w ∂ δw ∂ δw w ⎛ ∂ δw ⎞ ⎟ + 2D12 +D ⎜ + 4D66 ⎜ ⎜ ∂y2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x∂y ⎟ ⎟ ∂x2 ∂y2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ w 22 2 2 2 2 (3. top and bottom flanges as δ 2U = δ 2U tf + δ 2U bf + δ 2U w and the critical condition (instability) is defined as 41 (3. the total strain energy of the web in Eq. (3. κ xy = 2 ∂x∂y ∂x 2 ∂y 2 w x (3.19c) ∂ 2 w tf ∂ 2 w tf ∂ 2 w tf w w κ = .

2 becomes ⎧ ⎪ tf δ U = ∫∫ ⎨ N x ⎪ ⎩ 2 ⎡⎛ ∂δu tf ⎢⎜ ⎜ ⎢⎝ ∂ x ⎣ ⎞ ⎛ ∂δv tf ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎛ ∂δ w tf ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ 1 ⎟ + ⎟ δ 11 ⎠ 2 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 tf ⎤ ∂δu tf ∂δ v tf ∂δv tf tf ⎛ ∂δ u ⎥ + 2 N xz ⎜ + ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂z ∂z ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ + ∂δw tf ∂δ w tf ∂x ∂z 2 tf 2 ⎞ b ⎛ ∂ δw ⎟ + Dx ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ 2 δv tf ⎜ ⎜ ∂x 2 ⎝ ⎞ 4 ⎟ + ⎟ δ 66 ⎠ 2 ⎛ ∂ 2 δv tf ⎜ ⎜ ∂x ∂z ⎝ ⎞ bf ⎟ + Nx ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎡⎛ ∂δu bf ⎢⎜ ⎜ ⎢⎝ ∂ x ⎣ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ ∂δv bf +⎜ ⎜ ∂x ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ ∂δ w bf ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ 1 ⎟ + ⎟ δ ⎠ 11 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎤ bf ⎥ + 2 N xz ⎥ ⎦ ⎛ ∂δ u bf ∂δ u bf ∂δv bf ∂δv bf ∂δw bf ∂δw bf ⎜ + + ⎜ ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z ⎝ 2 bf 2 b ⎛ ∂ δw + Dx ⎜ ⎜ ∂x 2 ⎝ ⎛ ∂ 2 δ v bf ⎜ ⎜ ∂x 2 ⎝ ⎞ 4 ⎟ + ⎟ δ 66 ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ 2 δ v bf ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x∂ z ⎝ 2 ⎛ ∂δ v w +⎜ ⎜ ∂x ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ ∂δ w w ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 w ⎡ ⎞ ⎤ w ⎛ ∂δ u ⎟ ⎥ + N y ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎢⎝ ∂ y ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡⎛ ∂ δ u w ⎞ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎟ dxdz + ∫∫ ⎨ N xw ⎢⎜ ⎬ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎝ ∂ x ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎩ 2 2 w ⎛ ∂δ v w ⎞ ⎛ ∂δ w w ⎞ ⎤ ∂δ u w w ⎛ ∂δ u ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎥ + 2 N xy ⎜ +⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 2 w ⎞ w ⎛ ∂ δw ⎟ + D 22 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 w ⎞ ∂ 2 δw w w ∂ δw ⎟ + 2 D12 2 ⎟ ∂x ∂y 2 ⎠ 2 ∂ δ v w ∂ δ v w ∂δ w w ∂δ w w + + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y 2 w w ⎛ ∂ δw + 4 D 66 ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x∂ y ⎝ 2 w ⎞ w ⎛ ∂ δw ⎟ + D11 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ dxdy = 0 ⎪ ⎭ (3. (3. (3.20). (3. the critical instability condition for the FRP beam in Fig.δ 2 Π = δ 2U = 0 which can be solved by employing the Rayleigh-Ritz method. the term ⎜ ⎜ ∂x ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 in Eq.21) can be further simplified by omitting ⎛ ∂δu tf all the terms which are positive definite (Roberts and Jhita 1983).33) 42 . 3. (3. Finally.22) The total potential or strain energy in Eq..e. i.12) and the terms involving the extensional stiffness coefficients Aij in Eq.

1 I-section composite beams For a cantilever beam subjected to a tip concentrated vertical load. the resultant forces (Qiao et al.4. the simplified stress resultant distributions on the corresponding panels are obtained from beam theory.4) is determined as 43 .34c) 3.34b) N Similarly for the web bf z N xw = N w xy tw P( L − x) y I Pt b = − w [( w ) 2 − y 2 ] 2I 2 (3.3. Due to unsymmetrical nature of the channel cross-section. The expressions for the flanges are tf Nx = N tf z P( L − x) 2I tf = N xz = 0 P( L − x) 2I bf = N xz = 0 bw t f bw t f (3.34a) bf Nx = − (3.4. the shear center of the beam (Fig.4 Stress resultants 3. For FRP I-beams. and the location or height of the applied load is accounted for in the analysis (Qiao 1997). 2003) are expressed in terms of the tip applied concentrated load P. 3.2 Channel composite beams The subject of concern in this study is a cantilever open channel beam under a tip concentrated vertical load passing through the shear center.

35a) where n = (Ex ) f (E x ) w and ( E x ) f and ( E x ) w are the effective longitudinal Young’s moduli of the flange and web panels..35b) x L tf y bw shear center tw P x z = z' P z shear center + Pz shear center bf Fig. 3.e. the shear center is simplified as e= 3b 2 f bw + 6b f P (3. For a channel section with uniform panels (i. respectively.4 Cantilever open channel beam under a tip concentrated vertical load 44 .e= nb f 1 t w bw +2 3 nt f b f (3. t f = t w and ( E x ) f = ( E x ) w ).

which is denoted as N xz and written as tfb N xz = − Pbw z ' t f 2I z 0 ≤ z' ≤ b f (3. 3. 3. and it is derived as (see details in Appendix A) 45 . the stress resultants on the channel cross section can be obtained by the equivalent method of the vertical load to the shear center.. For the flange panels. For a generic case. and the location (i. thus the longitudinal normal stress resultants due to P acting at the shear center are tf Nx = P( L − x)bw t f 2I z .37a) where z ' is the local coordinate on the top flange (see Fig. The first part comes tfb from the bending caused by P acting through the shear center. only the bending of the beam occurs. bf Nx = − P ( L − x)bw t f 2I z (3. the torque Pz does not cause stress resultants in the x-direction. both the torsion and bending of the beam are developed. 3.4).4).When a tip vertical load acts through the shear center. whereas for the tip load acting away from the shear center. and the other is the torsional effect caused by the torque of Pz on the cross-section (see Fig. which is denoted as N xz . of which the tip load acts at a distance z from the shear center (see Fig.e. In this study. the height y and horizontal off-shear center distance z) of the applied load is considered in analysis of panel stress resultants. the origin of the coordinate system is located at the shear center. tft The second part comes from the torque Pz. Then the stress resultants consist of two parts: one is related to the bending effect of P acting at the shear center.4(b)).36) tf The in-plane shear stress resultant N xz consists of two parts.

the w transverse normal stress resultant N y .38a) To consider the location of applied load along the height of one beam and denote y p as the distance of the applied load to the centroidal axis (z-axis in this study).37e) Similarly for the web panel.38b) 46 .37b) then the total in-plane shear stress resultant of the top flange caused by P at a generic point z is tf xz N =− Pbw z ' t f 2I z 3Pz ⎡ z ' ⎛ z ' ⎢2 − ⎜ + 2b f bw ⎢ b f ⎜ b f ⎝ ⎣ 2 ⎞ bw z ' t f ⎟ − ⎟ 2I z ⎠ 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3. and it is expressed as N xw = P ( L − x) yt w Iz (3.N tft xz 3Pz = 2b f bw ⎡ z' ⎛ z' ⎞ 2 b 2 z' t ⎢2 − ⎜ ⎟ − w f 2I z ⎢ bf ⎜ bf ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3. N xw only comes from the bending effect caused by P through the shear center.37c) The shear stress resultant for the bottom flange is expressed as bf tf N xz = − N xz (3. for the case of y p ≠ bw / 2 . is w Ny = P y + bw / 2 y p + bw / 2 − bw ≤ y ≤ yp 2 (3. N zbf = N ztf = 0 (3.37d) and there are no transverse normal stress resultants on the flanges.

w N y = −P y + yp bw − bw b ≤y≤ w 2 2 (3.w N y = −P y − bw / 2 y p − bw / 2 yp ≤ y ≤ − bw 2 (3. 47 .38d) w The in-plane shear stress resultant N xy consists of two parts: the first part is the result wb of the bending effect caused by P through the shear center denoted as N xy N wb xy P =− 2I z ⎧⎡⎛ b ⎞ 2 ⎫ ⎤ ⎪ w ⎪ 2 ⎢⎜ ⎟ − y ⎥t w + t f b f bw ⎬ ⎨ ⎪⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎪ ⎥ ⎦ ⎩⎣ ⎭ (3. which is denoted as N xy (see Appendix A) N wt xy 3Pz 3Pz = − 2b f bw 4b f I z ⎧ ⎡⎛ bw ⎞ 2 ⎤⎫ ⎪ ⎪ bw b f t f + t w ⎢⎜ ⎟ − y 2 ⎥ ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ (3.38f) and then the total shear stress resultant of the web panel caused by P is w N xy = 3Pz P − 2b f bw 2 I z 2 ⎫ ⎤ ⎞⎧⎡ ⎛ ⎜1 + 3 z ⎟⎪⎢⎛ bw ⎞ − y 2 ⎥t w + t f b f bw ⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ ⎜ 2b ⎟⎨ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎪ f ⎠⎪⎢ ⎥ ⎝ ⎦ ⎩⎣ ⎭ (3.38e) wt and the second part is due to the torque. Pz. Pz. 12 2 The detailed derivation of the in-plane shear stress resultant distribution in the flange and web panels under a constant torque.38c) and for the case of y p = −bw / 2 or bw / 2 . is given in Appendix A.38g) where I z = 1 1 3 2 t w bw + b f t f bw .

48 . w tf = w tf ( x) dx (3. z ) = − zθ bf . 3. the buckled displacement fields for the web. z ) = − z dw tf tf . top and bottom flange panels of the I-section are derived. bottom and web panels are derived.e. Considering the compatibility conditions of the deformation of the flange and web panels. w bf = w bf ( x) dx (3. z ) = − zθ tf . the displacement fields for the top.5. v = v bf ( x.39a) For the bottom flange (in the xz-plane) u bf = u bf ( x. y ) For the top flange (in the xz-plane) u tf = u tf ( x.39b) (3.2 Channel composite beams For the flexural-torsional buckling of open channel beams.39c) 3. v = v tf ( x.5 Displacement fields 3. and the distortion of the panels is not considered in this study.3.5. the displacements are linear in the z-direction) and considering the compatibility conditions at the flange-web intersections.1 I-section composite beams Assuming that the top and bottom flanges do not distort (i. z ) = − z dw bf bf .5).. the flange and web panels still remain straight. For the web (in the xy-plane) u w = 0. w w = w( x. The sideways displacement ( w ) due to lateral bending and rotation ( θ ) due to torsion of the cross section about the centroid are coupled (see Fig. v w = 0.

z ) = − z dw bf dx (3. z ) = − z dw tf dx (3.5 Displacement fields of channel section due to sideways displacement and rotation For the top flange panel (xz-plane). the displacements are also linear in the z-direction u bf = u bf ( x.sid e w a y ro ta tio n to ta l u c e n tro id + c e n tro id = c e n tro id v c e n tro id + c e n tro id = c e n tro id w c e n tro id + c e n tro id = c e n tro id Fig.41b) v bf = v bf ( x. 3. the displacements are linear in the z-direction u tf = u tf ( x. z ) = − z tan θ tf ≅ − zθ tf w tf = w tf (x ) For the bottom panel (xz-plane).40a) (3.40c) v tf = v tf ( x.40b) (3.41a) (3. z ) = − z tan θ bf ≅ − zθ bf 49 .

and λ m satisfies the following transcendental equation cos(λ m ) + cosh(λ m ) 50 . As the web panel is not allowed to distort and remains straight in flexural-torsional buckling. y ) dw dx (3. The shape functions of buckling deformation for both the sideways deflection and rotation of the web.6 Explicit solutions For the global (flexural-torsional) buckling of I.42c) Considering the relationship of the rotations and displacements of the panels and the rotation ( θ ) and displacement ( w ) of the cross section.44) sinh(λ m ) + sin(λ m ) . can be selected as exact transcendental function as (Qiao et al. w tf = w + bw b θ . w bf = w − w θ 2 2 (3.or channel section beams. 2003) λm x λ x λ x λ x ⎫ ⎧ w⎫ ⎧ w ⎫ ⎧ ) − sinh( m ) − β m [cos( m ) − cosh( m )]⎬ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬ ∑ ⎨sin( L L L L ⎭ ⎩θ ⎭ ⎩θ ⎭m =1.42a) (3. which satisfy the cantilever beam boundary conditions. the displacements are defined as u w = z0 vw = 0 w w = w( x .w bf = w bf (x ) For the web (xy-plane). the crosssection of the beam is considered as undistorted. 2.K⎩ where β m = (3. the displacement fields become θ tf = θ bf = θ .42b) (3.3.43) 3. w w = w + yθ . the sideways deflection and rotation of the web are coupled.41c) (3.

6bw ) D16 2 Ψ3 = a11b 3 (279.cos(λ m ) cosh(λ m ) − 1 = 0 with λ1 = 1.64bw D11 + 20. w bf = w − w θ .22)). λ3 = 7. 2 2 θ tf = θ bf = θ (3. the flexural-torsional buckling load.46) By applying the Rayleigh-Ritz method and solving for the eigenvalues of the potential energy equilibrium equation (Eq.3b 3 bw d11 + 5043.854757 .9bw L2 D66 ) 3 2 Ψ7 = a11b 4 bw [bw (−203.8b 4 bw d11 + 2. w tf = w + bw b θ . 2003) Pcr = Ψ1 ⋅ bw LΨ2 + ( Ψ3 + Ψ4 + Ψ5 + Ψ6 + Ψ7 ) / bw 2 where Ψ1 = (6b f + bw ) /[ 2 L3 ⋅ (76.5L2 d 66 + 10087 L2 D66 )] and the following material parameters are defined as: 51 .8bw D11 − 459. (3.45) The displacements and rotations (referring to Eq. (3.5L2 D66 ) f 2 + b f (2235.4 L2 D16 + 125.5b f bw + 0.16bw )] f { } (3.5b 3 L2 d 66 f f f f f 5 3 + 4. for a free-end point load applied at the centroid of the cross-section is obtained as (Qiao et al. (3.694091.6bw D11 + 10. Pcr .39)) of panels in the I-section beam then become w w = w + yθ .4 L2 D16 − 5511L2 D11 D66 ) 6 2 2 2 Ψ5 = bw (7bw D11 + 31.96b f bw + 0.5b 2 − 6.5L2 d 66 − 918. λ 2 = 4.6bw ) f f 5 2 2 2 Ψ4 = b f bw (62.5 L2 D11 D66 ) 2 2 Ψ6 = a11b 3 bw (1118b 5 d11 − 101.7 L2 d 66 D11 − 305.5b 2 − 25.4bw D11 − 1377.47) Ψ2 = (123b f − 5.875104.

a11 = 1 / α 11 , a 66 = 1 / α 66 , d11 = 1 / δ 11 , d 66 = 1 / δ 66

(3.48)

3.7 Experimental evaluations of buckling of thin-walled FRP cantilever beams 3.7.1 I-section composite beams

In this study, four geometries of FRP I-beams, which were manufactured by the pultrusion process and provided by Creative Pultrusions, Inc., Alum Bank, PA, were tested to evaluate their flexural-torsional buckling responses (Qiao et al. 2003). The four I-sections (Fig. 3.6) consisting of (1) I4×8×3/8 in. (I4x8); (2) I3×6×3/8 in. (I3x6); (3) WF4×4×1/4 in. (WF4x4); and (4) WF6×6×3/8 in. (WF6x6) were made of E-glass fibers and polyester resins. Based on the lay-up information provided by the manufacturer and a micro/macromechanics approach (Davalos et al. 1996), the panel material properties of the FRP I-beams are obtained and given in Table 3.1. The clamped-end of the beams was achieved using two steel angles attached to a vertical steel column (Fig. 3.7). Using a

loading platform (Fig. 3.8), the loads were initially applied by sequentially adding steel angle plates of 111.2 N (25.0 lbs), and as the critical loads were being reached, incremental weights of 22.2 N (5.0 lbs) were added until the beam buckled. The tip load was applied through a chain attached at the centroid of the cross section (Fig. 3.8). Two LVDTs and one level were used to monitor the rotation of the cross section, and the sudden sideways movement of the beam was directly observed in the experiment. The buckled shapes of four geometries at a span length of 365.8 cm (12.0 ft.) are shown in Figs. 3.9 to 3.12, and their corresponding critical loads were obtained by summing the weights added during the experiments. Varying span lengths from 182.9 cm (6.0 ft.) to 52

396.2 cm (13.0 ft.) for each geometry were tested; two beam samples per geometry were evaluated, and an averaged value for each pair of beam samples was considered as the experimental critical load. The measured critical buckling loads and comparisons with analytical solutions and numerical modeling results are given in Table 3.3.

I 4x8x3/8" (I4x8)

I 3x6x3/8" (I3x6)

WF 4x4x1/4" (WF4x4)

WF 6x6x3/8" (WF6x6)

Fig. 3.6 Four representative FRP I-section composite beams

Table 3.1 Panel stiffness coefficients for I- section composite beams

Section I4×8 I3×6 WF4×4 WF6×6

D11

D12

D 22

D66

(N-cm) 150,200 146,800 45,728 145,700

(N-cm) 28,905 28,792 10,749 28,679

(N-cm) 69,100 68,648 23,824 68,422

(N-cm) 33,082 32,969 12,194 32,856

a11 (N/cm)

a 66

(N/cm) 521,500 539,000 308,000 476,000

d11 (N-cm)

d 66 (N-cm)

3,378,000 3,465,000 1,995,000 3,115,000

208,900 210,000 50,018 196,500

40,195 40,873 12,646 38,502

Note: a11 = 1 / α 11 , a 66 = 1 / α 66 , d11 = 1 / δ 11 , d 66 = 1 / δ 66

53

Fig. 3.7 Cantilever configuration of FRP I-section composite beams

Fig. 3.8 Load applications at the cantilever beam tip

54

Fig. 3.9 Buckled I4x8 beam

Fig. 3.10 Buckled I3x6 beam

55

Fig. 3.11 Buckled WF4x4 beam

Fig. 3.12 Buckled WF6x6 beam

56

706 51.757 D66 (N-cm) 8.436 47.2 Panel stiffness coefficients for open channel composite beams D11 Section (N-cm) C4x1 C6x2-A D12 (N-cm) 11.829 29.474 d66 (N-cm) 8. The three channel sections consisting of (1) Channel 4"x1-1/8"x1/4" (C4x1).618 92.815 42. (2) Channel 6"x15/8"x1/4" (C6x2-A). 3..2. which were manufactured by the pultrusion process and provided by Creative Pultrusions.827 a11 (N/cm) a66 (N/cm) d11 (N-cm) 38.14). Based on the lay-up information provided by the manufacturer and a micro/macromechanics approach (Davalos et al.971 9. 57 . were tested to evaluate their flexural-torsional buckling responses (Shan and Qiao 2005).478 The channel beams were tested in cantilever configuration.810 30.049 374.162. and (3) Channel 6"x1-11/16"x3/8" (C6x2-B) were all made of Eglass fiber and polyester resins.3.459 D22 (N-cm) 28. A piece of aluminum angle with notched groove was rigidly attached to the channel beam tip. PA.900 248. Table 3.2 Channel composite beams Three geometries of FRP channel beams.759 1.745 1.200 152.795 29.524 34. and the location of loading could be adjusted so that the load was applied through the shear center (Fig.7.636. Alum Bank. The clamped-end of the beams was achieved using wood clamp and inserted case pressured by the Baldwin machine (Fig. Inc. the panel material properties are computed and given in Table 3. Using a loading platform (Fig.951 2.993 9.095 11.692 285.222 C6x2-B 164.250.13). 1996). 3.

15 to 3. two beam samples per geometry were evaluated. Fig. incremental weights of steel plates were added until the beam buckled.) are shown in Figs. and an averaged value for each pair of beam samples was considered as the experimental critical load.14). the loads were initially applied by sequentially adding steel plates. The representative buckled shapes of three channel geometries at a span length of 335. and their corresponding critical loads were obtained by summing the weights added during the experiments. 3.3.13 Cantilever configuration of FRP channel beam 58 . 3. 3. Varying span lengths for each geometry were tested.14).2. and as the critical loads were being reached. and the sudden sideways movement of the beam was directly observed in the experiment. The tip load was applied through a chain attached at the shear center of the cross section (Fig. The measured critical buckling loads and comparisons with analytical solutions and numerical modeling results are presented in Section 3.28 cm (11.17.0 ft. One level was used to monitor the rotation of the cross section.8.

3.14 Load application at the cantilever tip through the shear center Fig.Fig.28 cm (11.0 ft.15 Buckled channel C4x1 beam (L = 335. 3.)) 59 .

)) Fig.28 cm (11.28 cm (11.0 ft)) 60 .16 Buckled channel C6x2-A beam (L = 335. 3.Fig. 3.0 ft.17 Buckled channel C6x2-B beam (L = 335.

the critical buckling load. 3. 3. 2003).1 I-section composite beams By solving for the eigenvalues of the energy equation (Eq. I3×6.18 Finite element simulation of buckled I4x8 beam The comparisons of critical buckling loads among analytical solution using the exact transcendental shape function. experimental data and finite element results are given in Table 3.) (b) L = 304. I4×8. can be explicitly obtained as given in Eq.8 cm (10.18). 1995) and finite element method (FEM). the classical Vlasov theory (Pandey et al. 1995).3. The analytical solutions and experimental results are also compared with classical approach based on Vlasov theory (Pandey et al.3 for span lengths of L = 61 .9 cm (6.8.) Fig. Pcr . the four experimentally tested FRP I-beam sections are considered (i.47) based on the exact transcendental shape functions (Qiao et al. The commercial finite element program ANSYS is employed for modeling of the FRP beams using Mindlin eight-node isoparametric layered shell elements (SHELL99) (Fig. (a) L = 182. (3. WF4×4 and WF6×6).22)).8 Results and discussion 3.0 ft. To verify the accuracy of the proposed analytical approach.e. (3..0 ft.

8 cm (12.476 304.783 10.624 2. and the present analytical solution shows a good agreement with FEM results and experimental data.943 1.2 Channel composite beams By solving the eigenvalues of the energy equation (Eq.8 (12 ft) I3 × 6 WF4 × 4 WF6 × 6 3.3 Comparisons for flexural-torsional buckling loads of I-section composite beams Length L (cm) Section I4 × 8 Analytical solution Pcr (N) 4.151 6.) and L = 365.765 2. The panels of FRP channel beams were modeled using Mindlin eight-node isoparametric layered shell elements (SHELL 99) (Figs.201 2. (3. C6x2-A and C6x2B) are also compared with the finite element results.436 8. which are obtained using the commercial finite element modeling (FEM) program ANSYS.321 1.860 3.0 ft.19 to 3.192 1.338 1.547 1.356 920 5. the critical buckling loads Pcr of open channel beams (C4x1.365 933 5.304.174 1.476 ⎯ 2.8 cm (10.22)).428 Finite element Pcr (N) 4.8. 62 .010 2.).058 1.8 (10 ft) I3 × 6 WF4 × 4 WF6 × 6 I4 × 8 365.21).0 ft.494 1. 3.503 2.360 1.774 Experimental data Pcr (N) 4.014 5.498 8. Table 3.526 3.956 1. The analytical solutions and experimental results (C4x1.614 Classical solution Pcr (N) 5. C6x2-A and C6x2-B) are obtained (Shan and Qiao 2005).

0 ft.) (b) L = 487.0 ft.) (b) L = 487.0 ft.20 Finite element simulation of buckled C6x2-A beam (a) L = 182.96 cm (2.0 ft.0 ft. 3.) Fig.68 cm (16.21 Finite element simulation of buckled C6x2-B beam 63 .68 cm (16.19 Finite element simulation of buckled C4x1 beam (a) L = 182.88 cm (6.) (b) L = 487. 3.) Fig.88 cm (6.0 ft. 3.68 cm (16.) Fig.(a) L = 60.

0 1.0 2. Flexural-Torsional Buckling Load Pcr (kN) 4. And these figures indicate that the present analytical predictions match well with the FEM and experimental results for relatively long span lengths. the critical load decreases as the span increases.19 to 3.0 0.22 Flexural-torsional buckling load of C4x1 beam 64 .0 Experiment FEM present 3. the flexural-torsional buckling is more prominent. where the critical buckling mode shapes are shown for the buckled channel beams with the respective short and long span lengths using finite element modeling by ANSYS. respectively. 3. the buckling load is more prone to warping and lateral distortional instability which is not considered in this study. 3.The critical buckling loads ( Pcr ) versus the span lengths (L) for the three geometries of C4x1.24. C6x2-A and C6x2-B are shown in Figs.21. As expected. 3. while for shorter span lengths.0 100 200 300 400 500 Length L (cm) Fig. This phenomenon can also be observed in Figs. and with the span increasing.22 to 3.

8 0.24 Flexural-torsional buckling load of C6x2-B beam 65 .2 0.8 0.2 1.2 0.4 0.4 1.0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Length L (cm) Fig.4 0.6 1. 3.6 0.0 0.6 0. 3.23 Flexural-torsional buckling load of C6x2-A beam 2.8 1.2 Flexural-Torsional Buckling load Pcr (kN) 1.0 Experiment FEM present 0.0 Flexural-Torsional Buckling load Pcr (kN) 1.1.0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Experiment FEM Present 350 Length L (cm) Fig.

top and bottom) are shown in Figs. the effect of load location along the vertical line through the shear center is negligible for long spans.0 2.3.0 1. The comparisons of critical buckling loads among three locations (shear center.9.0 0. the load position is more significant. (3. 3. and they indicate that as the load height increases. 3.25 Flexural-torsional buckling load for C4x1 beam at different applied load positions 66 .38b). the critical buckling load becomes smaller.0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Length L (cm) Fig. (3.25 to 3.1 Effect of load locations To study the effect of the load position on critical buckling loads. and (3.0 4.0 Flexural-Torsional Buckling load Pcr (kN) 6.9 Parametric study of channel beams 3.38c). As shown in Figs. the location of applied load along the vertical line passing through the shear center of the channel tip cross section is included in the analytical formulation (see Eqs.27 for the given three FRP sections.38d)). and the buckling of beam is more pronounced. whereas for intermediate spans.27. 7.0 P Applied at Top Flange P Applied at Centroid P Applied at Bottom Flange 5. 3.25 to 3.0 3.

27 Flexural-torsional buckling load for C6x2-B beam at different applied load positions 67 .0 Flexural-Torsional Buckling load Pcr (kN) 1.8 1.0 200 250 300 350 P Applied at Top Flange P Applied at Shear Center P Applied at Bottom Flange 400 450 500 Length L (cm) Fig.6 0.1.2 0.8 0. 3.0 0.0 0.2 1. 3.26 Flexural-torsional buckling load for C6x2-A beam at different applied load positions 2.4 1.0 200 250 300 350 P Applied at Top Flange P Applied at Shear Center P Applied at Bottom Flange 400 450 500 Length L (cm) Fig.6 1.4 1.4 0.2 0.8 0.2 1.6 0.6 Flexural-Torsional Buckling load Pcr (kN) 1.4 0.

The critical buckling load with respect to ply angle (θ) at the fiber volume fraction of 40% is shown in Fig.2 Effect of fiber orientation and fiber volume fraction To study the influence of fiber architecture (i.9. However. Unlike the web deformation in the flexural-torsional buckling behavior of I-beams (Qiao et al.5. 2003).e. To investigate the effect of fiber angle orientation. as the width of the flange reduces (as the weak axis of the channel and the weak axis of the web are more 68 .28. This phenomenon of maximum buckling resistance with unidirectional composites can be explained by the displacement fields under combined sideways flexure of the channel about its centroid (i. 1996) is applied to obtain the panel properties. fiber angle orientation and fiber volume fraction) on flexural-torsional buckling of channel composite beams.. the sideways flexure of the channel cross-section is more dominant and thus leads to the optimum angle of θ = 0º. and each layer has equal thickness and a fiber volume fraction of 40%. and the classical lamination plate theory (Jones 1999. 3. where a maximum critical buckling load for all the spans can be observed at θ = 0º. the web of the channel beams undergoes both axial displacement due to bending about the weak axis (sideways flexure) and rotation (torsion).3. 3. the weak axis) and rotation of the cross section shown in Fig. Davalos et al. a parametric study of channel section 6”x1-5/8”x1/4” made of E-glass fiber and polyester resins is performed. In this study.e. the laminated panel with lay-up of [0o/ ± θ]s in the panels of channel section is considered (θ as a design variable). The micromechanics with periodic microstructure (Luciano and Barbero 1994) is used to compute the individual layer properties..

in which the magnitude of the web axial displacement due to sideways flexure becomes smaller and the web thus primarily undergoes rotation.0 1. With the increasing beam span length (see Fig. but the ply angle orientation still plays an important role due to the dominance of the sideways flexural behavior of the channel section.) is 31. the beam with fiber orientation around θ = 45º exhibits the best shear/torsional resistance.28).6 0.).0 ft.4 3.0 ft.8 cm Beam Length L=365. as expected.8 0.28 Influence of fiber orientation (θ) on flexural-torsional buckling load of channel beams 69 .76 cm Flexural-Torsional Buckling load Pcr (kN) 3.88 cm Beam Length L=243.92 cm Beam Length L=182.76 cm (12. At the width bf = 0 cm corresponding to a rectangular cross section beam.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 40% volume fraction 60 70 80 90 Ply Angle (θ) Fig. the rate of the change in critical buckling load from 0º to 90º is 41.2 2. 3.close to each other).0 0. 3.92 cm (4.4 0. 3. the influence of ply angle begins to reduce (for the short span of 121. the fiber orientation varying away from θ = 0º begins to take place (see Fig.29).84 cm Beam Length L=304.2 0. 3.8 2.8%).2 Beam Length L=121.7%.0 2.2 1. while for the long span of 365.6 2.4 2.

70 .76 cm) is included to represent the short to long channel spans.3175 cm b f =0 cm 0 20 40 60 80 Ply Angle (θ) Fig.29 Influence of fiber orientation and flange width on flexural-torsional buckling load of channel beams Similarly. The critical buckling load with respect to different fiber volume fraction is shown in Fig.8 cm and 365. the fiber volume fraction is significantly important for improving the buckling resistance. As expected. 3. 3.5875 cm b f =0.0 0.30.7 b f =1. 243. The analysis of five span lengths (L = 121.92 cm. 182.88 cm. the effect of fiber volume fraction (Vf) on flexural-torsional buckling behavior is studied (Vf as a design variable) with a given lay-up of [0o/ ± 45o]s.9 0.8575 cm 0.1275 cm b f =2.84 cm.8 b f =4.Normalized Flexural-Torsional Buckling load Pcr / Pcr max 1. 304.

0 Beam Length L=121.10 Concluding remarks In this chapter.8 cm Beam Length L=365.0 1. The stress resultants and displacement fields of flexural-torsional buckling for I.88 cm Beam Length L=243.6. The analytical eigenvalue solutions for the cantilever I.0 Flexural-Torsional Buckling Load Pcr (kN) 5.92 cm Beam Length L=182.84 cm Beam Length L=304. 3.and open channel section beams are obtained using the exact 71 .and open channel section beams considering combined bending and torsion effect are provided in the study.and open channel section beams is presented.76 cm 3.0 2. a combined analytical and experimental study of the flexural-torsional buckling of pultruded FRP composite cantilever I.30 Influence of fiber volume fraction on flexural-torsional buckling load of channel beams 3.0 4. The second variational problem and total potential energy of the beams based on nonlinear plate theory is derived.0 0.0 0 20 40 60 80 Fiber Volume Fraction (%) Fig. and the shear effects and beam bending-twisting coupling are considered in the analysis.

The analytical formulation and related parametric study presented shed light on the flexural-torsional buckling behavior of cantilever I.and open channel sections and can be employed in optimal design of FRP composite beams. fiber orientation. experimental tests and FEM results match reasonably well in this study. and the critical buckling load for different span lengths are obtained.transcendental function. The analytical solutions. A parametric study on the effects of load location through the shear center across the height of the cross-section. An experimental study of four different geometries of FRP cantilever I. 72 . and fiber volume fraction on buckling behavior of channel beams is also presented.section and three open channel beams is performed.

1).2). Due to different rotational restraint effects and loading conditions. Thus. and the loading case can be reduced to uniform or uniaxial compression (Fig. the rotationally restrained orthotropic plates can be considered as the basic elements of different composite structures in broad structural applications. some boundaries of the rotationally restrained plates can be simplified as simply-supported or clamped cases.CHAPTER FOUR EXPLICIT LOCAL BUCKLING OF RESTRAINED ORTHOTROPIC COMPOSITE PLATES 4. 4.. stiffened plates. and honeycomb cores in sandwiches) can be modeled as an orthotropic plate rotationally restrained along the four edges where the conjunctions of plates meet and are subjected to a biaxial non-uniform linear load (Fig. panel walls in thin-walled FRP shapes. The rotational restraint stiffness (k) is used to consider the flexibility of the plate conjunctions. 73 .g. and the solution will be applied to the local buckling analysis of FRP shapes in the following chapter (Chapter Five).1 Introduction The general case of composite plates in common composite structures (e. 4. The explicit local buckling analysis of the composite plates elastically restrained along the four edges is conducted in this chapter.

1 Geometry of the rotationally restrained plate under biaxial non-uniform linear load 4. The total potential energy (Π) of a plate system is the summation of the strain energy (U) stored in the plate and elastic restraint edges and the work (V) done by the external loads.2.Y NyL NxU Ny NyR NxU ky b Nx kx ky NyL Ny a kx Nx NxL NxL X NyR Fig. and it is expressed as ∏ = U +V where V = −∑ N i qi . and U = U (ε ij ) .1 Variational formulation of energy method The first variational principle of total potential energy is used to analyze the local buckling of elastically restrained orthotropic plates under biaxial non-uniform in-plane loading. 4.1) . Thus. 74 (4.2 Analytical formulation 4.

and the work done by the in-plane biaxial force ( δV ) are computed by properly choosing out-of-plane buckling displacement functions (w). the total potential energy attains a stationary value when the first variation of the total potential energy ( δΠ ) is zero.1). xy dxdy 2Ω 75 { } (4. the first variations of the elastic strain energy stored in the plate ( δU e ). In the variational form of the Ritz method. Then. 4. xx w. yy + 2D12 w. the strain energy is given as U= 1 ∫ σ ij ε ij dV 2V (4. The plate is elastically restrained along four edges with the elastic rotational restraint stiffness coefficients kx at X = 0 and a. the condition for the state of equilibrium is expressed as δΠ = −∑ N i δ qi + ∫ σ ij δε ij dV = 0 V (4.4) A variational formulation of the Ritz method is then applied to solve the elastic buckling problem of the elastically restrained orthotropic plates subjected to non-uniform in-plane biaxial load (i. The elastic strain energy in an orthotropic plate (Ue) is given as Ue = 1 2 2 2 ∫∫ D11 w.5) .2) (4. the strain energy stored in the elastic restraints along the rotationally restrained boundaries of the plate ( δU Γ ).e.. Nx and Ny). yy + 4D66 w. and ky at Y = 0 and b (see Fig.3) For a plate in an equilibrium state. xx + D22 w.Π = − ∑ N i q i + U (ε ij ) For linear elastic problems.

Then. j = 1.1) and Γx is along the length of the plate (Γx = 0 to a). xx w. while k y is the elastic rotational restraint stiffness at the edges of y = 0 and b (Fig.where Dij (i. yy + w. (4. xx + D22 w. yy + D12 (δw. yy δw.7) is the elastic rotational restraint stiffness at the edges of x = 0 and a (Fig. the corresponding first variation of strain energy stored in the elastic restraints along the rotationally restrained boundary of the plate ( δU Γ ) is. 6) are the plate bending stiffness coefficients (Jones 1999) and Ω is the area of the plate.7) where k x in Eq. 4.6) Ω For the plate with rotational restraints distributed along the four edges. 2. xy }dxdy (4.8) 76 . Therefore. yy ) + 4 D66 w. xy δw. the first variational form of elastic strain energy stored in the plate ( δU e ) becomes δU e = ∫∫ {D11 w. δU Γ = k y ∫ ( Γx ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w | y =0 )δ ( | y =0 )dx + k y ∫ ( | y =b )δ ( | y =b )dx ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y Γx ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w + k x ∫ ( | x =0 )δ ( | x =0 )dy + k x ∫ ( | x =a )δ ( | x =a )dy ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x Γy Γy (4. xxδw. the strain energy ( U Γ ) stored in the equivalent elastic rotational springs is given as UΓ = ∂w ∂w 1 1 2 2 ∫x k y ( ∂y | y =0 ) dx + 2 Γ∫x k y ( ∂y | y =b ) dx 2Γ ∂w ∂w 1 1 + ∫ k x ( | x =0 ) 2 dy + ∫ k x ( | x = a ) 2 dy ∂x ∂x 2 Γy 2 Γy (4. 4.1) and Γy is along the width of the plate (Γy = 0 to b). xxδw.

9c) δV = N xL ∫∫ ⎜1 − η x Ω ⎛ ⎝ x⎞ y⎞ ⎛ ⎟ w.2x dxdy + N yR ∫∫ ⎜1 − η y ⎟w. a and y = 0. η x = ( N xU − N xL ) / N xU η y = (N yL − N yR ) / N yL Thus.9a) where N xL . x δw.4)) δΠ = δU e + δU Γ − δV = 0 (4. y dxdy a⎠ b⎠ Ω ⎝ (4. the first variation of work done by the in-plane biaxial force becomes (4. N yL and N yR are defined as the uniform compressive force per unit length at the boundaries of x = 0.1).2y dxdy 2 2 b⎠ a⎠ Ω ⎝ Ω ⎝ V = (4.10) Using the equilibrium condition of the first variational principle of the total potential energy (see Eq.The work (V) done by the in-plane non-uniformly distributed biaxial compressive force ( N xL . N xU . 4.11).9b) (4. b (Fig. see Fig. (4. 77 . N xU . y δw.11) and substituting the proper out-of-plane displacement function (w) into Eq. (4. 4. x dxdy + N yL ∫∫ ⎜1 − η y ⎟ w. the standard buckling eigenvalue problem can be solved by the Ritz method. N yL and N yR .1) can be written as y⎞ x⎞ 1 1 ⎛ ⎛ N xL ∫∫ ⎜1 − η x ⎟w.

A particular case of the first buckling mode. When ω1 (ω 2 ) = 0 . 4. In this study. The combined sinusoidal functions along the respective X and Y directions are chosen as the buckling displacement function (Qiao and Shan 2007): ⎧ πx 2πx ⎞⎫⎧ πy 2πy ⎞⎫ ⎛ ⎛ w( x.0).1. the unique combination of weighted sine and cosine functions is conformable to the local buckling shape function of the plate rotationally restrained along the four edges. respectively.2(a)).2. while ω1 (ω 2 ) = 1 corresponds to the deformation of plate with clamped boundaries (Fig. 78 . it is very important to choose the proper out-ofplane buckling displacement function (w)..2 Out-of-plane displacement function To solve the eigenvalue problem. By properly choosing the weight constants ω1 and ω 2 . as shown in Fig.12) provides a unique approach to account for the elastic restraining effect along the edges. is considered in this study to obtain the explicit local buckling solution of the relatively short plates (i. a unique out-of-plane buckling displacement field expressed as weighted functions is applied to obtain the explicit analytical solution for local buckling of the orthotropic plate subjected to in-plane biaxial non-uniform compression along the X and Y axis. along both the directions of the plate. with the plate aspect ratio γ = a/b being close to 1.2(b)). (4.e. which develops only one half-wave.12) a a ⎠ ⎭⎩ b b ⎠⎭ ⎝ ⎝ ⎩ where. 4. 4. y ) = ⎨(1 − ω1 )sin + ω1 ⎜1 − cos ⎟⎬⎨(1 − ω 2 )sin + ω 2 ⎜1 − cos ⎟⎬ (4. it equals to the shape function of the plate with simplysupported boundaries (Fig. the novel displacement function in Eq.4.

13b) (4. y ) = 0 w(a.4 0.1. 4. 4. y ) = 0 ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M x (0.5 0.14c) .5 1 0.4 0. the boundary conditions along the four rotationally restrained and loaded edges can be written as w(0.2 0.6 2 1.13d) w( x.0) = 0 w( x.2 0.6 0.8 1 0.4 0.6 0.0) = − D22 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = −k y ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y =0 ⎝ ⎠ y =0 79 (4.2 Illustration of harmonic functions As shown in Fig. y ) = − D11 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = −k x ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ x =0 ⎠ x =0 ⎝ (4. y ) = − D11 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = − k x ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ x = a ⎠ x=a ⎝ (4.13c) ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M x (a. b) = 0 ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M y ( x.8 1 (a) ω = 0 (b) ω = 1 Fig.13a) (4.1 0.2 0.8 0.14b) (4.14a) (4.

k x a + 4πD11 k yb k y b + 4πD22 (4. (4.12) into Eqs. (4. Any values of k x or k y between these two extreme conditions represent the elastically restrained boundary conditions. (4. b) = − D22 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = −k y ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y =b ⎝ ⎠ y =b (4.13) and (4.15) are all positive definite values.1) can be explicitly expressed in terms of the elastic rotational restraint stiffness as 80 . the local buckling coefficient for the elastically restrained plate (see Fig.3 Explicit solution By substituting Eq. (4.⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M y ( x.6).11). while.15) ω1 = ω2 = Note that the elastic rotational restraint stiffness k x and k y in Eq.2.10) and summing them according to Eq. 4. (4. After some symbolic computation. k x or k y = 0 corresponds to the simply-supported boundary condition at the rotationally restrained edges.8). the weight constants ω1 and ω 2 are obtained in terms of the elastic rotational restraint stiffness (kx and ky) as kxa . (4.14d) By considering Eqs. (4.14). k x or k y = ∞ stands for the clamped (built-in) boundary condition at the rotationally restrained edges. 4. the solution of an eigenvalue problem for the local buckling of the elastically restrained plate subjected to the biaxial non-uniform in-plane compression load is obtained.

ηx = ηy = 0) is presented. and 2 η 2 = 32ω 2 (− 1 + ω 2 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω 2 + 4ω 2 ).1) (force per unit length) of the elastically restrained plate can be written in term of the local buckling coefficient as N xL = βπ 2 D22 b2 .β= + 2 πγ 2 D22η1η 4 − 12γ 2 k y b(− 1 + ω 2 ) η1 2 2 πD22 ((2 − η x )η 2η 5 + αγ (2 − η y )η1η 6 ) D22 ( )+ ( 4(D12 + 2 D66 )η 5η 6 (2 − η x )η 2η 5 + αγ 2 (2 − η y )η1η 6 2 πD11η 2η 3 − 12 k x a (− 1 + ω1 ) η 2 2 πγ D22 (2 − η x )η 2η 5 + αγ 2 (2 − η y ) 1η 6 (4. α = NyR/NxL is the ratio of biaxial stress resultants. N yR = αβπ 2 D22 b2 (4. 2 η 4 = 32ω 2 (− 1 + ω 2 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω 2 + 17ω 2 ). η 3 = 32ω1 (− 1 + ω1 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω1 + 17ω12 ). only the solution of the plate local buckling under uniform biaxial loading (i. (4.9c). see Fig. The local buckling representative stress resultant (NxL and NyR. 81 .18) To describe the linearly distributed loads along two axes. The bounds for ηx and ηy are given as 0≤ ηx ≤ 2 and 0≤ ηy ≤ 2.. 4.e. In this study. η1 = 32ω1 (− 1 + ω1 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω1 + 4ω12 ). with ηx (ηy) = 0 corresponding to the case under uniform compression and ηx (ηy) = 2 related to NxL = -NxU (NyL = -NyR). ηx and ηy in Eqs. the load distribution factors.16) η 2 ( ( ) ) ) where γ = a/b is the aspect ratio of the plate.9b) and (4. η 5 = 32ω1 (− 1 + ω1 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω1 + 5ω12 ). (4.17) 2 η 6 = 32ω 2 (− 1 + ω 2 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω 2 + 5ω 2 ). are used.

When ηx = ηy = 0 (NxU = NxL = Nx and NyL = NyR = Ny).20) + + D 22η 2 πγ 2 D 22η 5 82 . when α = 0 (Ny = 0). 4. 4. and the local buckling coefficient becomes β BU πγ 2 D22η1η 4 − 12γ 2 k y b(− 1 + ω 2 )2 η1 πD11η 2η 3 − 12k x a (− 1 + ω1 )2 η 2 = + πD22 (η 2η 5 + αγ 2η1η 6 ) πγ 2 D22 (η 2η 5 + αγ 2η1η 6 ) 2(D12 + 2 D66 )η 5η 6 + D22 (η 2η 5 + αγ 2η1η 6 ) Y Ny (4. the restrained rectangular plate is under biaxial uniform compression Nx and Ny (Fig.19) ky b Nx kx ky kx Nx X Ny a Fig. the restrained rectangular plate is under uniaxial compression Nx (Fig.3 Geometry of the rotationally restrained plate under uniform biaxial load Further.4). 4. and the local buckling coefficient becomes: β = uni πγ 2 D 22η 1η 4 − 12γ 2 k y b(− 1 + ω 2 )2 η 1 πD 22η 2η 5 πD11η 3 − 12k x a (− 1 + ω1 )2 2(D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 (4.3).

D22 83 . ψ2 = πD22 πD22 ψ3 = 2( D12 + 2 D66 )η 5η 6 . . 4.e.Y kx b Nx ky kx ky Nx X a Fig.22) 2 2 (2 − σ x )η 2η 5 + αγ cr (2 − σ y )η1η 6 γ cr (2 − σ x )η 2η 5 + αγ cr (2 − σ y )η1η 6 ( ) ( ) πD22η 4 − 12k y b(− 1 + ω 2 ) 2 πD11η 3 − 12k x a(− 1 + ω1 ) 2 where ψ 1 = . dβ / dγ = 0 ).21) β cr = 2 2 γ crη1ψ 2 + ψ 3 2η 2ψ 1 + 2 (4. (4. the respective critical aspect ratio ( γ cr ) and critical local buckling coefficient ( β cr ) for the elastically restrained orthotropic plate subjected to biaxial in-plane load can be derived as γ cr = root{(((2 − σ x )η 2η 5ψ 2 − α (2 − σ y )η 6ψ 3 ) 1γ 4 η 2 − 2α (2 − σ y ) 1η 2η 6ψ 1γ 2 − (2 − σ x )η 2η 5ψ 1 = 0 η ) } (4..16) with respect to the aspect ratio (γ = a/b) (i.4 Geometry of the rotationally restrained plate under uniaxial load By minimizing Eq.

Eqs. the respective critical aspect ratio ( γ cr ) and critical local buckling coefficient ( β cr ) become BU 2 γ cr = root {((η 2η 5ψ 2 − αη 6ψ 3 ) 1γ 4 − 2αη1η 2η 6ψ 1γ 2 − η 2η 5ψ 1 ) = 0} (4.21) and (4. and they could be used to determine the critical aspect ratio and its corresponding critical buckling coefficient when the plate only undergoes the one half-wave in both the X and Y axes.23) η BU β cr = 2 γ crη1ψ 2 + ψ 3 η 2ψ 1 + 2 2 2 η 2η 5 + αγ crη1η 6 γ cr (η 2η 5 + αγ crη1η 6 ) (4.For the restrained rectangular plate under biaxial uniform compression Nx and Ny at the condition of ηx = ηy = 0 (NxU = NxL = Nx and NyL = NyR = Ny).25) 4.16). (4. For any specific α = NyL/NxU.4 Special cases In this section. the explicit formulas for several special cases which are commonly used in the practical plate design and analysis are obtained using Eq. (4. the critical local stress resultant N cr of the fully restrained rectangular plate is defined as: N cr = ( N xU )cr = β cr π 2 D22 b2 (4. (4.2.12)) in both the in-plane directions is considered.22) are the solution for a particular plate with minimum buckling resistance. an orthotropic plate with double-symmetric boundary conditions is 84 . As noticed in this study.24) Since only the out-of-plane displacement function for the first mode of buckling (see Eq.

The first two Rs stand for the boundary condition for the edges along X axis.5 Plate simply-supported (with the rotational restraint stiffness k x = k y = 0 ) at the four edges (SSSS) When k x = k y = 0 and η x = η y = 0 . and the notation of RRRR plate is used to represent the elastic restraining effect along the four edges. with R → S when kx (or ky) = 0 and R → C when kx (or ky) = ∞..considered. (a) k x = k y = 0 (SSSS) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny b Nx Nx X Ny a Fig. while the last two Rs correspond to the ones for the edges along Y axis. It is noted that the explicit solutions for some simplified cases are available in the literature (Qiao et al. 2005. 2001Wang et al. 4. which could indirectly verify the accuracy of the present solution. which means that all the four edges are simplysupported and the plate is subjected to uniformly distributed biaxial loads in the X85 . Shan and Qiao 2007).

the local buckling coefficient is simply expressed as SSSS β iso = 1 + 1 γ 2 SSSS . (4.27b) If α = 0 (Ny = 0) (i. (4.e. (4. Nx = Ny).direction at x = 0 and a as well as in the Y-direction at y = 0 and b (Fig. Eq. = γ (1 + αγ ) 2 2 2 2 N SSSS iso π 2 D ⎛ (1 + γ 2 ) ⎞ ⎟ = 2 ⎜ 2 b ⎜ γ (1 + αγ 2 ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (4. 86 . Eq. (4.29) are identical to the solution given by Wang et al. the uniaxial compression case).28) becomes (N ) SSSS x iso = π 2D ⎛ b2 1⎞ ⎜γ + ⎟ ⎜ γ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (4. 4. (4. (4.28) and if the considered material is isotropic. the explicit local buckling coefficient in Eq.5).16) can be thus simplified as β SSSS 2( D12 + 2 D66 ) D11 γ2 = 2 + + γ D22 (1 + αγ 2 ) D22 (1 + αγ 2 ) 1 + αγ 2 (4.. N iso = π 2D ⎛ b 2 1 ⎞ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ ⎜ γ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4..27a).26) is reduced to N xSSSS = ⎫ 2( D12 + 2 D66 ) π 2 D22 ⎧ D11 + +γ 2⎬ ⎨ 2 2 D22 b ⎩ γ D22 ⎭ (4. (2005) for the SSSS plate (simply-supported at the four edges) subjected to biaxial.27a) For the simple case of α = 1 (i. Eq.26) and if the considered material is isotropic.26) is further reduced to β SSSS iso (1 + γ ) .27b) and (4.29) Eqs.e.

g.g. and uniaxial compression. a square plate).22) is further simplified to 87 . To determine the low bound on the loading ratio α = Ny/Nx. respectively. the square plate subjected to equal biaxial compression and tension loads.. the plate is subjected to a biaxial compressiontension loading.26) approaches infinite.equally biaxial. (4. SSSS For the case of the orthotropic plate with the critical aspect ratio γ cr (simplified from Eq. (4. and it indirectly verifies the accuracy of Eq. i. the plate never buckles as the buckling load in Eq. leading to α SSSS > − 1 γ2 (4.21)).e. the minimum loading ratio α must be larger than -1 to enable the plate to buckle. When α is a negative value (α < 0).26) must be positive definite.31a) γ cr = root {((D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 2αD11γ 2 − D11 ) = 0} (4.22) with k x = k y = 0 can be simplified as 2 γ cr D22 + 2( D12 + 2 D66 ) D11 + 2 2 2 D22 (1 + αγ cr ) D22 γ cr (1 + αγ cr ) SSSS β cr = (4. When α = -1..e. (4. the local buckling load in Eq. e. for the orthotropic plate with the aspect ratio of γ = 1 (i. (4.30) For example. Eq.. for the case of the simply-supported (SSSS) plate.16) for this special case.. α = 0 (Ny = 0). (4. (4. e.31b) For the case of uniaxial compression. the explicit critical local buckling coefficient in Eq.

respectively.32) Eq. (4.6 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = 0 and k x = ∞ (SSCC) For the case of k y = 0 . the explicit local buckling coefficient for γ SSCC and γ cr simplified as β SSCC = 16 D11 + 8γ 2 ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 3γ 2 D22 γ 2 D22 4 + 3αγ 2 ( ) (4.32) is identical to the one reported by Qiao et al. k x = ∞ and η x = η y = 0 . which represents a plate with the two simply-supported edges of y = 0 and b and the two clamped edges at x = 0 and a (Fig. 4. 4. (2001) with m = 1 (where m is the number of the buckled half-waves along the longitudinal direction). (b) k y = 0 and k x = ∞ (SSCC) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny b Nx Nx X a Ny Fig.6). SSCC can be.33) 88 .SSSS (N x )cr = 2π 2 { D11 D22 + ( D12 + 2 D66 )} b2 (4.

(4.36) is simplified to N xSSCC = 3γ 2 π 2D 4 { 2 +2+ } 4 b2 γ (4.38) 89 .35) For the case of uniaxial compression.22) are further simplified to N xSSCC = π 2 D22 b2 { 2( D12 + 2 D66 ) 3γ 2 4 D11 + + } 4 D22 γ 2 D22 (4.36) SSCC (N x )cr = 2π 2 { 3D11 D22 + ( D12 + 2 D66 )} b2 ⎛D = 1.37a) SSCC γ cr (4. Eq.e..37b) and if the considered material is isotropic.4 3 (D12 + 2 D 66 )(2 + 3α ) + 3(D 22 (4 + 3α ) − 4α (D12 + 2 D66 )) SSCC β cr = 2 D11 (2 + 3α ) D 22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) (4. α = 0 (Ny = 0). the positive definition of the local buckling coefficient leads to the low bound on the loading ratio as α SSCC > − 4 3γ 2 (4.34b) For the plate subjected to a biaxial compression-tension loading (α < 0). (4.34a) ⎞ ⎛ D11 (2 + 3α ) ⎟ 3D 22 (2 + 3α )⎜ 2 + 6α ⎜ D 22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D 66 ) ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ γ cr = root {((3D22 − 6α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 24αD11γ 2 − 16 D11 ) = 0} (4. i.16) and (4. Eqs.52⎜ 11 ⎜D ⎝ 22 ⎞4 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1 (4.

and η x = η y = 0 . k x = 0 . which corresponds to a plate with the two clamped edges at x = 0 and a and the two simply-supported edges of y = 0 and b CCSS (Fig. (4.39) 90 .36) to (4.38) are the same as those reported by Shan and Qiao (2007). 4. the explicit local buckling coefficient for γ and γ cr can be.22) for this special case.7 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = ∞ and k x = 0 (CCSS) For the case of k y = ∞ . 4.7). (c) k y = ∞ and k x = 0 (CCSS) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny b Nx Nx X Ny a Fig.Eqs. (4. simplified as β CCSS = 3D11 + 8γ 2 ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 16γ 4 D22 γ 2 D22 3 + 4αγ 2 ( ) (4.16) and (4. respectively. and it indirectly verifies the accuracy of Eqs.

CCSS β cr ⎧ D11 (3 + 8α ) ⎪ 3 (D22 (3 + 4α ) − α (D12 + 2 D66 )) 3D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) 8 ⎪ = ⎨ D22 ⎪ ⎞ ⎛ D11 (3 + 8α ) ⎟ (3 + 8α )⎜ 3 + 3α ⎪ ⎜ 3D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ D12 + 2 D66 ⎪ + ⎬ D11 (3 + 8α ) ⎪ 3 + 3α 3D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) ⎪ ⎭ (4.16) and (4. i.43b) 91 .42) (N x )CCSS cr = 8π 2 3b 2 { 3D 11 D22 + ( D12 + 2 D66 ) 1 } (4.40b) For the plate subjected to a biaxial compression-tension loading (α < 0).e.40a) γ cr = root {((48D22 − 32α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 24αD11γ 2 − 9 D11 ) = 0} (4.22) are simplified to 8( D12 + 2 D66 ) 16γ 2 ⎫ π 2 D22 ⎧ D11 = + + ⎨ ⎬ 3D22 3 ⎭ b 2 ⎩ γ 2 D22 N CCSS x (4. α = 0 (Ny = 0).43a) CCSS γ cr ⎛D = 0..658⎜ 11 ⎜D ⎝ 22 ⎞4 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (4.41) For the case of uniaxial compression. the positive definition of the local buckling coefficient leads to the low bound on the loading ratio as α CCSS > − 3 4γ 2 (4. (4. Eqs.

respectively.45a) γ cr = root {((3D22 − 4α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 6αD11γ 2 − 3D11 ) = 0} (4.8 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = k x = ∞ (CCCC) For the case of k y = k x = ∞ and η x = η y = 0 . the explicit local buckling CCCC can be.8). which corresponds to a plate with the four clamped edges at x = 0 and a and y = 0 and b (Fig. 4.44) CCCC β cr = 2 4 12 D11 + 8γ cr ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 12γ cr D22 2 2 3γ cr D22 1 + αγ cr ( ) (4.(d) k y = k x = ∞ (CCCC) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny b Nx Nx X Ny a Fig. simplified as coefficient for γ and γ cr β CCCC = 12 D11 + 8γ 2 ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 12γ 4 D22 3γ 2 D22 1 + αγ 2 ( ) (4.45b) For the plate subjected to a biaxial compression-tension loading (α < 0). the positive definition of the local buckling coefficient leads to the low bound on the loading ratio as 92 . 4.

47) (N ) CCCC x cr π 2 D22 ⎧ 4 D11 8( D12 + 2 D66 ) 2 ⎫ = + + 4γ cr ⎬ ⎨ 2 3D22 b 2 ⎩ γ cr D22 ⎭ ⎛D ⎞ 1 4 (4. 4.α CCCC > − 1 γ2 (4.9 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = 0 and k x = k (SSRR) 93 .22) are simplified to CCCC = Nx ⎫ π 2 D22 ⎧ 4 D11 8( D12 + 2 D66 ) + + 4γ 2 ⎬ ⎨ 2 2 3D22 b ⎩ γ D22 ⎭ (4.46) For the case of uniaxial compression. (4. Eqs. α = 0 (Ny = 0).48a) CCCC γ cr = ⎜ 11 ⎟ ⎜D ⎟ ⎝ 22 ⎠ (4.. i.e.48b) (e) k y = 0 and k x = k (SSRR) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny b Nx k Ny k Nx X a Fig.16) and (4.

50a) γ cr = root {((D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ))η1η 5γ 4 − 2αη1ψ 1 D22γ 2 − η 5ψ 1 D22 ) = 0}(4.. 4. (4.49) (4. the explicit local buckling coefficient SSRR for γ and γ cr can be as β SSRR πD11η 3 − 12ka(− 1 + ω1 )2 2(D12 + 2 D66 )η 5 γ 2η1 = + + η 5 + αγ 2η1 πγ 2 D22 (η 5 + αγ 2η1 ) D22 (η 5 + αγ 2η1 ) SSRR β cr = 2 γ crη1 D22 + 2( D12 + 2 D66 )η 5 ψ1 + 2 2 2 D22 (η 5 + αγ crη1 ) γ cr (η 5 + αγ crη1 ) (4.9).e.50a) are reduced to β SSRR = 2 γ 2η1 πD11η 3 − 12ka(− 1 + ω1 ) 2(D12 + 2 D66 ) + + η5 D22 πγ 2 D22η 5 (4.51) SSRR β cr = 2 πD11η 3 − 12ka(− 1 + ω1 ) πD22η1 + 2π ( D12 + 2 D66 )η 5 πD22η 5 2 (4. Eqs. i.52) 94 .For the plate subjected to the biaxial uniform in-plane load (η x = η y = 0 ) along two rotationally restrained edges at X = 0 and a ( k x = k ) and simply-supported along the other two edges at Y = 0 and b ( k y = 0 ) (Fig.49) and (4.50b) For the case of uniaxial compression. α = 0 (Ny = 0).

the explicit local buckling coefficient RRSS for γ and γ cr can be. respectively.10 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = k and k x = 0 (RRSS) For the plate subjected to the biaxial uniform in-plane load (η x = η y = 0 ) along two simply-supported edges at X = 0 and a ( k y = 0 ) and rotationally restrained along the other two edges at Y = 0 and b ( k x = k ) (Fig.53) RRSS β cr = (4. written as β RRSS = πγ 2 D22η 4 − 12γ 2 kb(− 1 + ω 2 )2 D11η 2 + 2 2 πD22 (η 2 + αγ η 6 ) γ D22 (η 2 + αγ 2η 6 ) 2(D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 + D22 (η 2 + αγ 2η 6 ) 2 γ crψ 2 + 2( D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 D11η 2η 6 + 2 2 2 D22 (η 2 + αγ crη 6 ) γ cr D22 (η 2 + αγ crη 6 ) (4.54a) 95 .(f) k y = k and k x = 0 (RRSS) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny k b Nx Nx k X Ny a Fig. 4.10). 4.

54b) For the case of uniaxial compression. 4..53) and (4.11 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = ∞ and k x = k (CCRR) For the plate subjected to the biaxial uniform in-plane load (η x = η y = 0 ) along two rotationally restrained edges at X = 0 and a ( k x = k ) and clamped along the other two 96 .55) β RRSS cr = πD22η 2 (4.56) (g) k y = ∞ and k x = k (CCRR) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny b Nx k k Nx X Ny a Fig.2 γ cr = root {((η 2ψ 2 D22 − 2αη 62 (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 2αη 2η 6 D11γ 2 − η 2 D11 ) = 0}(4.e. (4. i. Eqs. α = 0 (Ny = 0).54a) are further reduced to β RRSS 2(D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 πγ 2 D22η 4 − 12γ 2 kb(− 1 + ω 2 )2 D = + 2 11 + πD22η 2 D22η 2 γ D22 2 πD11η 2 πD22η 4 − 12kb(− 1 + ω 2 ) + 2π ( D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 2 (4.

the explicit local buckling coefficient for γ CCRR and γ cr can be.58b) For the case of uniaxial compression.10). (4. i.edges at Y = 0 and b ( k y = ∞ ) (Fig. 4.57) and (4. α = 0 (Ny = 0). Eqs.60) 97 . respectively.558a) are simplified to β CCRR 8(D12 + 2 D66 ) 16γ 2η1 πD11η 3 − 12ka(− 1 + ω1 ) = + + 2 3η 5 3D22 πγ D22η 5 2 (4..e.59) β CCRR cr = 8 πD11η 3 − 12ka(− 1 + ω1 ) 2 3πD22η1 + 8π ( D12 + 2 D66 )η 5 3πD22η 5 (4.58a) γ cr = root {((48D22 − 32α (D12 + 2 D66 ))η1η 5γ 4 − 24αη1ψ 1 D22 γ 2 − 9η 5ψ 1 D22 ) = 0}(4.57) β CCRR cr 2 48πγ crη1 −ψ 3 3ψ 1 = + 2 2 2 9πη5 + 12παγ crη1 γ cr 3η 5 + 4αγ crη1 ( ) (4. written as β CCRR 3πD11η 3 − 36ka(− 1 + ω1 ) 8(D12 + 2 D66 )η 5 16γ 2η1 = + + 2 2 2 3η 5 + 4αγ η1 πγ D22 3η 5 + 4αγ η1 D22 3η 5 + 4αγ 2η1 2 ( ) ( ) (4.

62b) 98 .12 Plate with the rotational restraint stiffness k y = k and k x = ∞ (RRCC) For the plate subjected to the biaxial uniform in-plane load (η x = η y = 0 ) along the two clamped edges at X = 0 and a ( k x = ∞ ) and rotationally restrained along the other two edges at Y = 0 and b ( k y = k ) (Fig. the explicit local buckling coefficient for RRCC γ and γ cr can be written as β RRCC 3πγ 2 D22η 4 − 36γ 2 kb(− 1 + ω 2 ) 16 D11η 2 = + 2 2 πD22 (4η 2 + 3αγ η 6 ) γ D22 (4η 2 + 3αγ 2η 6 ) 2 8(D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 + D22 (4η 2 + 3αγ 2η 6 ) RRCC cr (4. 4. 4.61) β 2 9πγ crψ 2 −ψ 3 16 D11η 2 = + 2 2 2 12πη 2 + 9παγ crη 6 γ cr D22 4η 2 + 3αγ crη 6 ( ) (4.12).62a) 2 γ cr = root {((3η 2ψ 2 D22 − 6αη 62 (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 24αη 2η 6 D11γ 2 − 16η 2 D11 ) = 0}(4.(h) k y = k and k x = ∞ (RRCC) and η x = η y = 0 (Uniform load) Y Ny k b Nx Nx k X Ny a Fig.

99 . Eqs. α = 0 (Ny = 0).63) β RRCC cr = 2 3πD11η 2 πD22η 4 − 12kb(− 1 + ω 2 ) + 2π ( D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 2 πD22η 2 (4.64) 4. respectively) of the orthotropic plate subjected to the biaxial uniform loading under different boundary conditions are summarized in Table 4.2.1.e. (4.62a) are simplified to β RRCC 2(D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 3πγ 2 D22η 4 − 36γ 2 kb(− 1 + ω 2 ) 4D = + 2 11 + D22η 2 4πD22η 2 γ D22 2 (4..61) and (4.For the case of uniaxial compression. i.5 Summary of special cases The local buckling stress resultant expressed with the one along X axis (Nx and (Nx)cr for the case of γ and γ cr .

Table 4.1 Local buckling stress resultant along X axis under different boundary conditions Case Y Ny N x (for γ ) 2 2 2 π 2 D22 ⎛ πγ D22η1η 4 − 12γ k y b(− 1 + ω2 ) η1 ⎜ b2 ⎜ πD22 (η 2η5 + αγ 2η1η 6 ) ⎝ X (N x )cr (for γ cr ) 2 ⎞ η 2ψ 1 π 2 D22 ⎛ γ crη1ψ 2 + ψ 3 ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ η η + αγ 2 η η + γ 2 (η η + αγ 2 η η ) ⎟ b ⎝ 2 5 cr 1 6 cr 2 5 cr 1 6 ⎠ ky b Nx kx ky kx Nx Ny a + πD11η 2η 3 − 12k x a (− 1 + ω1 )2η 2 2(D12 + 2 D66 )η 5η 6 ⎞ ⎟ + πγ 2 D22 (η 2η5 + αγ 2η1η 6 ) D22 (η 2η5 + αγ 2η1η 6 ) ⎟ ⎠ RRRR Y Ny γ cr = root {((η 1η 2η 5ψ 2 − αη 1η 62ψ 2 )γ 4 − 2αη 1η 2η 6ψ 1γ 2 − η 22η 5ψ 1 ) = 0} b Nx Nx π 2 D 22 ⎛ X Ny b 2 2( D12 + 2 D66 ) D11 γ2 ⎜ 2 + + ⎜ γ D 1 + αγ 2 D22 1 + αγ 2 1 + αγ 2 22 ⎝ ( ) ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎞ π 2 D22 ⎛ γ cr D22 + 2( D12 + 2 D66 ) D11 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 2 2 2 ⎟ ⎜ b ⎝ D22 (1 + αγ cr ) D22 γ cr (1 + αγ cr ) ⎠ a SSSS Y Ny γ cr = root {((D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 2αD11γ 2 − D11 ) = 0} ⎛ ⎜ 4 3 (D + 2 D )(2 + 3α ) + 3(D (4 + 3α ) − 4α (D + 2 D )) 12 66 22 12 66 ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 2 D11 (2 + 3α ) ⎟ D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎛ ⎞ D11 (2 + 3α ) ⎟ ⎟ 3 D22 (2 + 3α )⎜ 2 + 6α ⎟ ⎜ D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ π 2 D22 ⎜ b Nx Nx X π 2 D22 ⎛ 16 D11 + 8γ 2 ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 3γ 2 D22 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ b2 ⎜ γ 2 D22 (4 + 3αγ 2 ) ⎝ ⎠ b2 a Ny SSCC Y Ny γ cr = root {((3D22 − 6α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 24αD11γ 2 − 16 D11 ) = 0} b Nx Nx X π 2 D22 ⎛ 3D11 + 8γ 2 ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 16γ 4 D22 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ b2 ⎜ γ 2 D22 (3 + 4αγ 2 ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎧ ⎫ D11 (3 + 8α ) ⎪ 3 (D22 (3 + 4α ) − α (D12 + 2 D66 )) ⎪ 3D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) D12 + 2 D66 8π ⎪ ⎪ + ⎬ 2 ⎨ b ⎪ ⎛ ⎞ D11 (3 + 8α ) D11 (3 + 8α ) ⎪ ⎟ 3 + 3α (3 + 8α )⎜ 3 + 3α ⎪ ⎜ ⎟ 3D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) ⎪ 3D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ) ⎠ ⎭ ⎝ ⎩ 2 Ny a γ cr = root {((48 D22 − 32α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 24αD11γ 2 − 9 D11 ) = 0} CCSS 100 .

Y Ny b Nx Nx X π 2 D22 ⎛ 12 D11 + 8γ 2 ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 12γ 4 D22 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ b2 ⎜ 3γ 2 D22 (1 + αγ 2 ) ⎝ ⎠ 2 4 π 2 D22 ⎛ 12 D11 + 8γ cr ( D12 + 2 D66 ) + 12γ cr D22 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ b2 ⎜ 3γ cr D22 (1 + αγ cr ) ⎠ ⎝ Ny a CCCC Y Ny γ cr = root {((3D22 − 4α (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 6αD11γ 2 − 3D11 ) = 0} π 2 D 22 ⎛ ⎜ b Nx k Ny k Nx b2 πD η − 12ka(− 1 + ω1 )2 γ 2η 1 + 11 2 3 ⎜ η + αγ 2η πγ D 22 (η 5 + αγ 2η 1 ) 1 ⎝ 5 2 ⎞ π 2 D22 ⎛ γ crη1 D22 + 2( D12 + 2 D66 )η 5 ψ1 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 2 2 2 ⎜ b ⎝ D22 (η 5 + αγ crη1 ) γ cr (η 5 + αγ crη1 ) ⎟ ⎠ X + a 2(D12 + 2 D 66 )η 5 ⎞ ⎟ D 22 η 5 + αγ 2η 1 ⎟ ⎠ ( ) γ cr = root {((D22 − 2α (D12 + 2 D66 ))η1η 5γ 4 − 2αη1ψ 1 D22γ 2 − η 5ψ 1 D22 ) = 0} SSRR Y Ny k b Nx Nx π 2 D 22 ⎛ πγ 2 D 22η 4 − 12γ 2 kb(− 1 + ω 2 )2 ⎜ b2 ⎜ πD 22 (η 2 + αγ 2η 6 ) ⎝ X 2 ⎞ D11η 2η 6 π 2 D22 ⎛ γ crψ 2 + 2( D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 2 2 2 ⎜ b ⎝ D22 (η 2 + αγ crη 6 ) γ cr D22 (η 2 + αγ crη 6 ) ⎟ ⎠ k + Ny a γ D 22 (η 2 + αγ η 6 ) 2 2 D11η 2 + 2(D12 + 2 D 66 )η 6 ⎞ ⎟ D 22 η 2 + αγ 2η 6 ⎟ ⎠ ( ) 2 γ cr = root {((η 2ψ 2 D22 − 2αη 62 (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 2αη 2η 6 D11γ 2 − η 2 D11 ) = 0} RRSS Y Ny b Nx k k Nx X Ny a 3πD11η 3 − 36 ka (− 1 + ω1 ) 16γ η 1 + ⎜ 3η + 4αγ 2η b πγ 2 D 22 3η 5 + 4αγ 2η 1 1 ⎝ 5 8(D12 + 2 D 66 )η 5 ⎞ ⎟ + D 22 3η 5 + 4αγ 2η 1 ⎟ ⎠ π D 22 ⎛ ⎜ 2 2 2 2 ( ) 2 ⎞ π 2 D22 ⎛ 48πγ crη1 −ψ 3 3ψ 1 ⎜ ⎟ + 2 2 2 b 2 ⎜ 9πη5 + 12παγ crη1 γ cr (3η 5 + 4αγ crη1 ) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) γ cr = root {((48 D22 − 32α (D12 + 2 D66 ))η1η 5 γ 4 − 24αη 1ψ 1 D22 γ 2 − 9η 5ψ 1 D22 ) = 0} CCRR 101 .

η 3 = 32ω1 (− 1 + ω1 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω1 + 17ω12 ) . ψ2 = .Y Ny k b Nx Nx π 2 D22 ⎛ 3πγ 2 D22η 4 − 36γ 2 kb(− 1 + ω 2 )2 ⎜ b2 ⎜ πD22 (4η 2 + 3αγ 2η 6 ) ⎝ X π 2 D22 ⎛ b2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 9πγ crψ 2 −ψ 3 16 D11η 2 ⎜ ⎜ 12πη + 9παγ 2 η + γ 2 D 4η + 3αγ 2 η 2 cr 6 cr 22 2 cr 6 ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ k + Ny a 8(D12 + 2 D66 )η 6 16 D11η 2 + 2 γ D22 4η 2 + 3αγ η 6 D22 4η 2 + 3αγ 2η 6 2 ( ) ( ) 2 γ cr = root {((3η 2ψ 2 D22 − 6αη 62 (D12 + 2 D66 ))γ 4 − 24αη 2η 6 D11γ 2 − 16η 2 D11 ) = 0} RRCC Note:γ = a/b. and ψ 3 = . k x a + 4πD11 k y b + 4πD22 η1 = 32ω1 (− 1 + ω1 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω1 + 4ω12 ) . η 6 = 32ω 2 (− 1 + ω 2 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω 2 + 5ω 22 ) . ω1 = k yb kxa . η 2 = 32ω 2 (− 1 + ω 2 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω 2 + 4ω 22 ). η 4 = 32ω 2 (− 1 + ω 2 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω 2 + 17ω 22 ). D22 πD22 πD22 102 . ω2 = . η 5 = 32ω1 (− 1 + ω1 ) − 3π (1 − 2ω1 + 5ω12 ) . ψ1 = πD22η 4 − 12k y b(− 1 + ω 2 ) 2 2( D12 + 2 D66 )η 5η 6 πD11η 3 − 12k x a(− 1 + ω1 ) 2 .

the off-axis layers are usually balanced symmetric and no bending-twisting coupling exists (D16 = D26 = 0). and they serve as a validation tool to the explicit solution. The governing differential equation for buckling of a symmetric anisotropic plate under in-plane axial loading is expressed as (Whitney 1987) ∂4w ∂4w ∂4w ∂4w ∂4w ∂4w + D22 4 D11 4 + 4 D16 3 + 2 D12 2 2 + 4 D66 2 2 + 4 D26 ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y 3 ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂2w + Nx 2 = 0 ∂x (4.3 Validity of explicit solution To validate the accuracy of the explicit local buckling solution obtained from the energy method given above. and Eq.66) In the following. 103 .65) For most of composite plates. which correspond to special orthotropic plates. and (2) the other one with the RRSS edge conditions. are presented. the exact transcendental solutions (Qiao et al. (4. 2001) of two special cases: (1) an anisotropic plate with the SSRR edge conditions.4.65) can be further simplified as ∂4w ∂4w ∂4w ∂2w ∂4w + 2 D12 2 2 + 4 D66 2 2 + D22 4 + N x 2 = 0 ∂x 4 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x D11 (4. Both the cases are subjected to longitudinal compression along the X-axis. the exact transcendental solutions for the SSRR and RRSS plates are presented.

y ) = ⎜ C1 cos 1 + C 2 sin 1 + C 3 cos 2 + C 4 sin 2 ⎟ sin b b b b ⎠ b ⎝ 104 (4. y ) = f ( x) sin By introducing the following coefficients D12 + 2 D66 Nx ⎛ b ⎞ D .69) .3. β = 22 . μ 2 = ⎜ ⎟ D11 D11 2 D11 ⎝ π ⎠ 2 πy b (4.4. 4.66). can be obtained as k πx k πx k πx k πx ⎞ πy ⎛ w( x.13 Coordinate of the SSRR plate (kL along loaded edges) in the transcendental solution Considering the boundary condition and coordinate system given in Fig.67) α= (4. which is similar to the formula given by Bleich (1952).1 Transcendental solution for the SSRR plate under uniaxial load Y b Nx kL O kL Nx X a Fig.13. (4.68) the general solution of Eq. 4. the buckling shape function for the first mode of SSRR plate can be assumed as w( x.

Assuming the equal elastic restraint stiffness (kL) along the edges x = ±a/2.where k1 and k2 are defined as k1 = μ 2 − α + k 3 .13) is established as 105 .71) into the boundary conditions. 4. (4.69)) is a symmetric function of x when the load reaches to the critical value. the buckling criterion for the plate with equal rotational restraint stiffness along two loaded edge and simply-supported along the other two unloaded edges (SSRR) (see Fig. the deformation shape function (Eq. (4.69) is reduced to k πx k πx ⎞ πy ⎛ w( x.72a) ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M x | a = − D11 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ a = − k L ⎜ ∂x ⎟ a x=± ⎝ ⎠ x=± ⎠ x=± ⎝ 2 2 2 (4.13. 4. When the determinant of the coefficient matrix vanishes. y ) = ⎜ C1 cos 1 + C 3 cos 2 ⎟ sin b b ⎠ b ⎝ By substituting Eq. (4. Eq. Therefore.70) As shown in Fig.72b) two homogeneous linear equations in terms of C1 and C2 are obtained.71) w x=± a 2 =0 (4. the origin O of the coordinates X and Y is located at the midpoint of the unloaded edge (y = 0). k 3 = (μ 2 −α ) 2 −β (4. k 2 = μ 2 − α − k 3 . (4.

(4. The material properties of the example plate are given as follows: D11 = 44. D12 = 10.51)) and the transcendental solution (Eq. and the maximum difference is below 0. To eliminate the influence introduced by the geometry of different plates. and D66 = 10. (4. D22 = 46.350 N-cm.51)) are in an excellent agreement with the numerical transcendental solutions (Eq. the normalized predictions obtained from the explicit local buckling formula (Eq.73) 2 k 2π k 2πa D11 ⎛ k 2π ⎞ k 2πa − sin + ⎜ ⎟ cos b 2b kL ⎝ b ⎠ 2b cos The local buckling stress resultants obtained from the explicit equation (Eq.688 N-cm. 4.098 N-cm. both the explicit and transcendental solutions are normalized as N xb2 N = D22 ∗ x (4. (4. (4.64 cm (0.73)) solved numerically are compared for an orthotropic SSRR plate with the thickness of 0.14.403 N-cm.74) As shown in Fig.4%.73)).51) for the SSRR plate. 106 . (4.25 in).k1πa 2b 2 k1π k1πa D11 ⎛ k1π ⎞ k πa − sin + ⎜ ⎟ cos 1 b 2b kL ⎝ b ⎠ 2b cos k 2πa 2b = 0 (4. thus indicating the validity of the present explicit formula in Eq.

4.64 cm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Aspect ratio γ Fig.14 Local buckling stress resultant vs.098 N-cm D12= 10.403 N-cm D22= 46.2 Transcendental solution for the RRSS plate Y kU b Nx X O Nx kU a Fig.15 Coordinate of the RRSS plate (kU along unloaded edges) in the transcendental solution 107 .3. the aspect ratio of SSRR plate 4.350 N-cm D66= 10. 4.1400 Normalized local buckling stress resultant Nx* 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Explicit solution Exact trancedental solution D11= 44.688 N-cm kL = 4482 N-cm/ cm t = 0.

77) a ⎝ a a a a ⎠ where p1 and p2 are defined as p1 = α '+ p3 .76) the general solution of Eq. The buckling shape function for the first mode of RRSS plate can be defined as w( x. p 2 = − α '+ p3 .66) for the RRSS plate (Fig. Eq. the origin O of the coordinates X and Y is located at the mid-point of the left loaded edge (x = 0).15. y ) = sin πx ⎛ p πy p πy ⎞ ⎜ C1 cosh 1 + C 3 cos 2 ⎟ a ⎝ a a ⎠ (4. 4. β ' = 11 . χ 2 = x ⎜ ⎟ D22 ⎝ π ⎠ D22 D22 2 πx a f ( y) (4. the deformation shape function (Eq. 4.15) is given as w( x.75) (4. 4. p3 = α ' 2 − β '+ χ 2 (4.78) As indicated in Fig.79) 108 . (4.15.77) is simplified as w( x. Therefore. y ) = sin By introducing the following coefficients N ⎛a⎞ D + 2 D66 D α ' = 12 . (4. y ) = sin πx ⎛ p πy p πy p πy p πy ⎞ ⎜ C1 cosh 1 + C 2 sinh 1 + C 3 cos 2 + C 4 sin 2 ⎟ (4. (4.A similar approach is applied to obtain the exact transcendental solution for the RRSS plate (see Fig.15) with the boundary condition and coordinate system shown in Fig.77)) is a symmetric function of y when the load reaches the critical buckling value. 4. Assuming the equal elastic restraint stiffness (kU) along the edges (y = ±b/2).

2%.By substituting Eq. the buckling criterion for the plate with equal rotational restraint stiffness along two unloaded edges and simply-supported along the other two loaded edges (RRSS) is established as p1πb 2a 2 p1π p1πb D22 ⎛ p1π ⎞ p πb sinh − ⎜ ⎟ cosh 1 a 2a kU ⎝ a ⎠ 2a cosh p 2πb 2a = 0 (4. 109 .81) 2 p 2π p 2πb D22 ⎛ p 2π ⎞ p 2πb − sin + ⎜ ⎟ cos a 2a kU ⎝ a ⎠ 2a cos Similarly.79) into the following boundary conditions.80b) 2 two homogeneous linear equations in terms of C1 and C2 are obtained. and the maximum difference between the two solutions is within 0.53)) and numerical transcendental solution (Eq. When the determinant of the coefficient matrix vanishes. an orthotropic RRSS plate with the same dimensions and material properties as the example in the SSRR plate presented before it is analyzed using the explicit equation (Eq.80a) My | ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ = − D22 ⎜ 2 ⎟ b ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ b = −kU ⎜ ∂y ⎟ b y =± ⎝ ⎠ y =± ⎝ ⎠ y =± 2 2 (4. (4. (4.81)).16.81)) of the orthotropic RRSS plate is obtained. (4. As shown in Fig. and the respective local buckling stress resultants are obtained. (4. (4.53)) and the numerical transcendental solution (Eq. w b 2 y =± =0 (4. an excellent match between the explicit solution (Eq. 4.

64 cm 200 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Aspect ratio γ Fig.403 N-cm D22= 46.16 Local buckling stress resultant of RRSS plate Due to the excellent agreements of the explicit and numerical transcendental solutions. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the influence of these three parameters on the 110 . (4. with one half-wave of buckled shape along both the directions) are a function of the load ratio (α).1000 Normalized local buckling stress resultant Nx* 800 Explicit solution Exact transcendental solution 600 400 D11= 44. the presented explicit formulas can be used with confidence in predicting the local buckling load of rotationally restrained plates.350 N-cm D66= 10.4 Parametric study As expressed in Eq. 4.098 N-cm D12= 10. 4.e. the rotational restraint stiffness (k) and the aspect ratio (γ). the explicit local buckling formulas for the relatively short plate (i.16)..688 N-cm kU = 4482 N-cm/ cm t = 0.

α > 0) is plotted in Fig.local buckling stress resultants of various rotationally-restrained plates.17. the CCCC plate has the strongest local buckling resistance. while α = ∞ corresponds to the plate subjected to the simplified uniaxial compression along Y axis. For a fixed aspect ratio γ = 1. it is found that the local buckling stress resultant of the SSCC plate only subjected to uniaxial compression along X axis (α = 0) is the same as that of CCSS plate only subjected to uniaxial compression along Y axis (α = ∞). while the SSSS one is the weakest one. The minimum value of the local buckling stress resultant of the plate with different boundary conditions appeared when the biaxial load ratio α = 1. SSCC.4.1 Biaxial load ratio α The biaxial load ratio (α) has an influence on the local buckling stress resultant of the fully restrained rectangular plate subjected to biaxial compression. 4. The effect of material orthotropy on the local buckling stress resultants is also investigated.0) with the four different boundary conditions (SSSS.17. as expected. a specific square plate (γ = 1. As shown in Fig. To show the effect of the biaxial load ratio on the local buckling stress resultant. When α = 0. 4. 4. CCSS.. while the local buckling stress resultant of the SSCC plate subjected to uniaxial compression only along Y axis (α = ∞) is the same as that of CCSS plate subjected to uniaxial compression only along X axis (α 111 . and the relationship between the normalized local buckling stress resultant and the biaxial load ratio of the biaxial compression-compression case (i.0. This indicates that the square plate is much easier to buckle when it is subjected equal biaxial compression. and CCCC) are analyzed.e. the plate is subjected to a simplified uniaxial compression along X axis.

It indicates that the local buckling resistance increases with the growth of tension subjected to the two edges of the plate.6955. 4.= 0). and 1. 100 80 60 Ncr b2/D22 40 20 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 SSSS SSCC CCSS CCCC Logrithmetric loading ratio α Fig. To study the effect of α on the local buckling stress resultant.. and when the loading ratio α approaches the low bound as defined in Eq. the buckling load will asymptotically go infinite and the plate will never buckle (see Fig. the representative composite plates with the simply-supported boundary along its four edges and different aspect ratios (γ = 0.4377). 1.4377) are analyzed.30) (e.5 with respect to γ = 0. the plate is under biaxial tension-compression.18. biaxial load ratio α When α is negative. and 1. 1. -1. This indirectly validates the accuracy of the present local buckling solution of the fully restrained plate subjected biaxial compression. 112 . (4. and -0.18).6955.g. and the results are shown in Fig. 4. 4.17 Local buckling stress resultant vs. the low bound of α = -2.

5 0.6955 γ =1 γ = 1.39). (4. 113 .44) for the SSSS. respectively.1200 1000 800 Ncr b2/D22 600 γ = 0. as demonstrated in Eqs. SSCC. and CCCC plates. 4.19).5 -1. CCSS.26). when the loading ratio α approach to the low bound. biaxial load ratio α of SSSS plate under biaxial tension-compression The boundary conditions have the influence to the local buckling resistance of the composite plate subjected to biaxial tension-compression. (4. (4. The aspect ratio γ = 0. and (4. the plate will never buckle. Similarly.6955 is chosen rather than the square plate (γ = 1) because it avoids the singularity of the solution caused by the combination of boundary condition and aspect ratio. and it can be shown in the relationship between the local buckling stress resultant and loading ratio (see Fig.18 Local buckling stress resultant vs.0 -1.33).0 -0.4377 400 200 0 -2. 4. The low bound of the loading ratio depends on the boundary conditions.0 Loading ratio α Fig.

0 -0. For a fully restrained plate (RRRR) of equal elastic restraint (kx = ky = k) with the fixed aspect ratios γ = 1.6 -1.300 250 200 Ncr b2/D22 150 100 SSSS CCSS SSCC CCCC -1.20 and 4.8 -1. As expected.8 -0. biaxial load ratio α of different boundary plates under biaxial tension-compression (γ = 0.4 -1. the 114 .0 50 0 -2. 4.4.6955) 4.2 0. respectively.19 Local buckling stress resultant vs. 4. the relationship between the normalized local buckling stress resultant and the rotational restraint stiffness k under different loading ratio α is plotted in Figs. respectively. kx (or ky) = 0 and kx (or ky) = ∞ correspond to the two extreme boundary conditions which are simply-supported and clamped.6 -0.2 Rotational restraint stiffness k The local buckling stress resultant of the fully rotationally restrained plate is a function of the rotational restraint stiffness (kx and ky).4 -0.0 Loading ratio α Fig.6955.2 -1.0 and γ = 0.21.

local buckling stress resultant increases with the growth of the rotational stiffness. 4. 100 80 Ncr b2/D22 60 40 20 α=0 α = 0. rotational restraint stiffness k (RRRR plate) under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-compression (γ = 1) 115 . while the SSSS one (k = 0) is the weakest one.5 α=1 0 0 5e+4 1e+5 2e+5 2e+5 Rotational stiffness k (kx = ky) Fig.20 Local buckling stress resultant vs. and the CCCC plate (k = ∞) has the strongest local buckling resistance.

4. and it indicates that the boundary conditions along the X axis (ky) contribute more to the local buckling stress resultants of the fully rotationally restrained plate (Shan and Qiao 2007). and 1) with respect to the aspect ratio is given in Figs.5. CCSS. and CCCC) with different loading ratios (α = 0.25. 0.3 Aspect ratio γ The relationship between the local buckling stress resultant of the plate with different boundary conditions (SSSS.4. SSCC. especial for the CCSS and CCCC plates.22 to 4. CCSS. 116 . 4.5 α =0 0 5e+4 1e+5 2e+5 2e+5 Rotational stiffness k (kx = ky) Fig.6955) 4.200 150 Ncr b2/D22 100 50 α = -1 α = -0. and CCCC) under uniaxial compression (α = 0) are more sensitive to the change of the aspect ratio. rotational restraint stiffness k (RRRR plate) under uniaxial compression and biaxial tension-compression (γ = 0. The plates (SSSS. SSCC.21 Local buckling stress resultant vs.

0 1.6 0.22 Local buckling stress resultant vs.5 α=1 60 50 Ncr b2/D22 40 30 20 10 0 0. 4.8 1.70 α=0 α = 0.0 Aspect ratio γ Fig.2 1.0 1.8 1.6 1. aspect ratio γ (SSCC plate) 117 . 4.0 Aspect ratio γ Fig.23 Local buckling stress resultant vs.8 2.6 1.8 2.2 1.4 1. aspect ratio γ (SSSS plate) 200 150 α=0 α = 0.5 α=1 Ncr b2/D22 100 50 0 0.4 1.6 0.

4 1.4 1.0 1.24 Local buckling stress resultant vs.6 1.8 1.5 α=1 Ncr b2/D22 150 100 50 0 0.250 200 α=0 α = 0. 4.8 2.0 1. 4.6 1.6 0.5 α=1 Ncr b2/D22 150 100 50 0 0.6 0.2 1. aspect ratio γ (CCSS plate) 250 200 α=0 α = 0.8 1.0 Aspect ratio γ Fig.0 Aspect ratio γ Fig.25 Local buckling stress resultant vs.2 1. aspect ratio γ (CCCC plate) 118 .8 2.

αOR and βOR approach values of zero. while for a material with high orthotropy. while the plate with the low material orthotropy (e.e..82a) β OR = D12 + 2 D66 D11D22 (4. For an isotropic material. two flexural-orthotropy parameters (Brunelle and Oyibo 1983) are considered α OR = 4 D22 D11 (4. The effect of material orthotropy for the SSSS.82b) The nondimensional parameters in Eq.g. αOR and βOR 1 for an isotropic material) has the highest buckling resistance. 119 . and CCCC plates is shown in Fig. RRRR. (4.4 Orthotropy parameters αOR and βOR To investigate the influence of material orthotropy on the local buckling stress resultant. the flexural-orthotropy parameters αOR and βOR take on values of unity..26. there is a large gradient change of buckling load for the lesser restraining condition (e.82) represent the bending stiffness ratios. 4.4. αOR and βOR 0) reduces the buckling resistance considerably. As expected.4. The restraining boundary condition also has some influence on the buckling resistance.. the high material orthotropy (e.g. i..g. the SSSS plate) as the flexural-orthotropy parameters change.

6 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.2 0.2 1.8 Ncr/Ncr iso 0.4 0.1.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.0 Flexural-orthotropy parameter αOR (a) Effect of flexural-orthotropy parameter αOR 1.2 Simply-supported (SSSS) Fully rotationally restrained (RRRR) with k = 15340 Nm/m Clamped (CCCC) 1.26 Normalized local buckling stress resultant vs.8 1.8 Ncr/Ncriso 0.0 Simply-supported (SSSS) Fully rotationally restrained (RRRR) with k = 15340 Nm/m Clamped (CCCC) 0. 4.2 0. flexural-orthotropy parameters 120 .2 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 Flexural-orthotropy parameter βOR (b) Effect of flexural-orthotropy parameter βOR Fig.6 0.

the explicit local buckling solution of the RRSS and RFSS (F represents the free boundary condition) plates using the new shape functions. x R.27 RRSS and RFSS plates under uniaxial compression 121 Pl ate II . which develops only one half-wave. which is typically the component of thin-walled columns and beams.5.0).S.E a R R. Edge e dg .e.4.S.. respectively.S.1 Introduction The aforementioned sections mainly focus on developing the explicit local buckling solution of the relatively short plates (i. b Nx S. along both the directions of the plates. Edge y (a) RR unloaded edges (b) RF unloaded edges Fig. ge Ed R. x b Nx S. k ge Ed a ee Fr z Nx S. Generic solutions of RRSS and RFSS plates under uniform longitudinal compression 4.S. For a generic plate (with a wide range of γ). is developed in this section. 4.E k R L R. which uniquely combines the polynomial and harmonic functions. and only consider a particular case of the first buckling mode. for different boundary cases. Edge y Pl ate I z Nx S. Edge kR e dg .5. with the plate aspect ratio γ = a/b being close to 1.

27(a). the displacement function chosen by combining harmonic and polynomial buckling deformation functions is stated as (Qiao and Zou 2002) 2 3 4 ⎧ ⎫ mπx ⎪y ⎛ y⎞ ⎛ y⎞ ⎛ y⎞ ⎪ ∞ w( x.27.4.84b) (4. respectively..2 Shape functions To solve the eigenvalue problem.84a) (4. b) = 0 ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M y ( x. the boundary conditions along the rotationally restrained unloaded edges can be written as w( x.e. the unique buckling displacement fields are proposed. y ) = ⎨ + ψ 1 ⎜ ⎟ + ψ 2 ⎜ ⎟ + ψ 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎬∑ α m sin a ⎪b ⎝b⎠ ⎝b⎠ ⎝ b ⎠ ⎪ m =1 ⎩ ⎭ (4.83) where ψ 1 . As shown in Fig. to explicitly obtain the analytical solutions for local buckling of two representative long plates (i.84c) (4.0) = 0 w( x.84d) Then the assumed displacement function for the RRSS plate shown in Fig.5.0) = − D22 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = − k L ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y =0 ⎝ ⎠ y =0 ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M y ( x. 4.ψ 2 and ψ 3 are the unknown constants which satisfy the boundary conditions. 4. the RRSS and RFSS plates) as shown in Fig. For the RRSS plate in Fig. b) = − D22 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = − k R ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y =b ⎝ ⎠ y =b (4.27(a). 4. it is very important to choose the proper out-ofplane buckling displacement function (w).27(a) can be obtained as 122 . 4. In this section.

it corresponds to the displacement function of the SFSS plate. whereas.0 relates to that of the CFSS plate. For the RFSS plate shown in Fig. and it can be uniquely expressed as (Qiao and Zou 2003.0) = 0 ⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ⎛ ∂w ⎞ M y ( x.87b) 123 . Qiao and Shan 2005) ⎧ ⎡ 3 ⎛ y ⎞ 2 1 ⎛ y ⎞3 ⎤⎫ ∞ y mπx ⎪ ⎪ w( x.0) = − D22 ⎜ 2 ⎟ = −k ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y =0 ⎠ y =0 ⎝ (4. k L or k R = ∞ represents the clamped (built-in) boundary condition at the rotationally restrained edges.87a) (4. 4. y ) = ⎨ + L ⎪ b 2 D22 ⎩ 2 22 2 2 ⎛ y ⎞ 12 D22 + D22 (5k L + 3k R )b + k L k R b ⎜ ⎟ − 2 6 D22 + D22 k R b ⎝b⎠ 2 4 2 ⎛ y⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝b⎠ 3 12 D + D22 (4k L + 4k R )b + k L k R b ⎛ y ⎞ ⎫ ∞ mπx ⎪ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎬∑ α m sin 2 a 12 D22 + 2 D22 k R b ⎝ b ⎠ ⎪ m =1 ⎭ (4.0.⎧ ⎪y k b w( x. the displacement function is chosen by linearly combining the simply supported-free (SF) and clamped-free (CF) boundary displacements.85). y ) = ⎨(1 − ω ) + ω ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎬∑ α m sin b a 2 ⎝ b ⎠ ⎥ ⎪ m =1 ⎪ ⎢2 ⎝ b ⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ (4.85) Noting that k L and kU are all positive values.27(b). The boundary conditions along the rotationally restrained (y = 0) and free (y = b) unloaded edges are specified as w( x. When ω = 0. as given in Eq. whereas ω = 1. (4. k L or k R = 0 corresponds to the simply-supported boundary condition at the rotationally restrained edges of y = 0 or y = b.86) where ω is the unknown constant which can be obtained by satisfying the boundary conditions.

y ) = ⎨(1 − 3D22 + bk b 3D22 + bk ⎪ ⎩ ⎡ 3 ⎛ y ⎞ 2 1 ⎛ y ⎞3 ⎤⎫ ∞ mπx ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎬∑ α m sin a 2 ⎝ b ⎠ ⎥ ⎪ m =1 ⎢2 ⎝ b ⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ (4. (4. Then the displacement function for the RFSS plate shown in Fig.87c) (4. (4. (4. 2001).86) does not exactly satisfy the free edge conditions as defined in Eqs.86)) provides adequate accuracy of local buckling prediction for the RFSS plate when compared to the exact transcendental solution (Qiao et al. whereas. (4.⎛ ∂2w ⎞ ∂2w M y ( x.87c) and (4.88) Similarly.87d) Eq. 4. As illustrated in the later section. Considering Eq. In this study. in Eq. ω is obtained in term of the rotational restraint stiffness k. (4.27(b) can be written as ⎧ bk y bk ⎪ ) + w( x. (4. which is the dominant term for ⎜ ∂y 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y=b the moment and shear force at the free edge of y = b. b) = ⎢ ⎜ D12 2 + D22 2 ⎟ + 2 ⎜ 2 D66 ∂y ⎜ ∂x ⎜ ∂x∂y ⎟⎦ y =b ∂x ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ (4.88).87d).87b). in order to derive the explicit formula for the RF plate.86) is used to approximate the free edge 2 condition. b) = ⎜ D12 2 + D22 2 ⎟ = 0 ⎜ ∂y ⎟ y =b ∂x ⎝ ⎠ ⎡∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂ 2 w ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ = 0 V y ( x. k = 0 (simply-supported at the rotationally restrained edge) corresponds to the plate with the simply supported-free (SF) boundary condition along the unloaded edges. the approximate deformation function (Eq. k = ∞ (clamped at the rotationally restrained edge) refers to 124 . the unique buckling displacement function in Eq. and it satisfies the condition of ⎛ ∂ w ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 0 .

8).91) 125 . see Fig. 4. For 0 < k < ∞ . (4.6). the local buckling coefficient for the RRSS long plate (see Fig.85) into Eqs. 4.10) and summing them according to Eq.e.the one with the clamped-free (CF) boundary condition.040γ (6D22 + k R b) D22 ⎭ ( ) where γ = a/b is the aspect ratio of the plate.27(a)) (force per unit length) can be written in term of the local buckling coefficient as N xRRSS = β RRSS π 2 D22 b2 (4.11). dβ / dγ = 0 ).27(a)) can be explicitly expressed in term of rotational restraint stiffness as β RRSS = 2 2 2 2 γ 2 (η 4 k L b 2 + 4η 5 D22 k L b + 36η 6 D22 ) (D12 + 2D66 )(η 7 k L b 2 + 3η8 D22 k L b + 72η9 D22 ) (4. (4. By substituting Eq.89) with respect to the aspect ratio (γ = a/b) (i.89) + + 2 2 2m 2π 4 (6D22 + k R b) 210π 2 (6D22 + k R b) D22 10. (4.90) By minimizing Eq. (4. (4. the restrainedfree (RF) condition at unloaded edges is taken into account in the formulation.. the solution of an eigenvalue problem for the RRSS long plate can be obtained.080(6D22 + k R b) 2 2 2 η10 k L b + 2η 2 k L bD22 + 2η11 D22 2 2 ⎧ γ 2 (6D22 + k L b)2 k R b ⎪ γ kLb + ⎨ 2 4 ⎪ 2m π D22 2m 2π 4 (6D22 + k R b)2 D22 ⎩ + 2 2 m 2 D11 η1k L b 2 + η 2 D22 k L b + 4η3 D22 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ 2 2 ⎪ 5. The plate local buckling stress resultant (Nx. After some symbolic computation. RRSS RRSS the respective critical aspect ratio ( γ cr ) and critical local buckling coefficient ( β cr ) for the RRSS long plate can be achieved as 2 2 ⎧ m 4 η1 k L b 2 + η 2 D22 k L b + 4η 3 D22 D11 ⎫ 4 = 0. (4.663⎨ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎩ η12 k L b + η13 D22 k L b + 36η14 D22 D22 ⎭ RRSS γ cr ( ( ) ) 1 (4.

2 2 D22 D22 2 2 2 2 1.464 D22 + 1. Finally. 2 2 D22 D22 2 2 2 2 4. η12 = . (4. (4. (4.RRSS β cr = 2 2 π 2 D22 (η10 k L b 2 + 2η 2 D22 k Lb + 2η11 D22 ) 24 {2(D )( 12 2 2 + 2 D66 ) η 7 k L b 2 + 3η8 D22 k Lb + 72η9 D22 ( 2 2 2 2 + 3.η10 = . 2 2 D22 D22 η13 = 2 2 2 2 396 D22 + 156 D22 k R b + 13k R b 2 24 D22 + 11D22 k R b + k R b 2 . by substituting Eq. (4. 2 2 D22 D22 2 2 2 2 72 D22 + 15 D22 k R b + k R b 2 312 D22 + 70 D22 k R b + 5k R b 2 . η8 = . 2 2 D22 D22 η5 = η7 = 2 2 2 2 54 D22 + 9 D22 k R b + 2k R b 2 24 D22 + 6 D22 k R b + 19k R b 2 . η2 = . (4.10).88) into Eqs.11).η14 = 2 2 D22 D22 Noting that Eq.92) is independent of the number of buckling half-wave length (m).6).27(a)) can be expressed as RRSS (N x )cr = RRSS β cr π 2 D22 b2 (4. 2 2 D22 D22 (4. (4. the 126 .140 D22 + 272 D22 k R b + 17 k R b 2 .742 D11 D22 η1k L b 2 + η 2 D22 k Lb + 4η3 D22 η12 k L b 2 + η13 D22 k Lb + 36η14 D22 ( )} ) (4. the critical local buckling stress resultant. then summing according to Eq.92) where η1 = 2 2 2 2 76 D22 + 17 D22 k R b + k R b 2 1.140 D22 k R b + 76k R b 2 36 D22 + 13D22 k R b + k R b 2 η11 = .η 6 = . (N x )cr .94) In a same fashion. and after some numerical symbolic computation.8).η 4 = .116 D22 + 285 D22 k R b + 19k R b 2 36 D22 + 8 D22 k R b + k R b 2 η3 = . for orthotropic plates with the rotationally restrained-restrained along two unloaded edges and simply-supported along the two loaded edges (RRSS) condition (for the plate with the loading and boundary conditions shown in Fig.93) 2 2 2 2 51D22 + 13D22 k R b + k R b 2 152 D22 + 34 D22 k R b + 2k R b 2 η9 = . 4.

( N x )cr RFSS .local buckling coefficient for the RFSS plate with the loading and boundary conditions shown in Fig.95) By minimizing Eq. Finally. dβ / dγ = 0 ).27(b)) can be expressed as RFSS (N x )cr = RFSS β cr π 2 D22 b2 (4. RFSS RFSS the critical aspect ratio ( γ cr ) and critical local buckling coefficient ( β cr ) can be established for the RFSS long plate. 4.9133m⎨ ( ) 1 4 (4. (4. (4.96) RFSS β cr = 2 112 15 D 22 + 10 D 22 kb + 2 k 2 b 2 D 66 − 28 5 D 22 kb + k 2 b 2 D12 2 π 2 140 D 22 + 77 D 22 kb + 11k 2 b 2 D 22 ( ( ) ( ) ) + 2 π 2 D 22 (140 D 22 + 77 D 22 kb + 11k 2 b 2 ) 4 35 D11 kb (3 D 22 + kb ) (4.98) or explicitly in term of the rotational restraint stiffness (k).97) Noting that Eq. for orthotropic plates with the RFSS long condition (for the plate condition shown in Fig.e. 127 .95) with respect to the aspect ratio (γ = a/b) (i. the critical stress resultant.27(b) can be explicitly expressed as β RFSS = + m π 140D + 77D22 kb +11k b 2 4 2 π 2 (140D22 + 77D22kb +11k 2 b 2 )D22 2 11215D22 +10D22kb + 2k 2 b 2 D66 ( ( 140γ 2 3D22 kb + k 2 b 2 2 22 ( ) 2 2 ) ) + γ D22 π (140D + 77D22kb +11k 2 b 2 )D22 2 2 2 22 m2 D11 − 28 5D22 kb + k 2 b 2 D12 ( ) (4.. 4. respectively. as ⎧ 140 D + 77 D22 kb + 11k b D11 ⎫ ⎬ (3D22 + kb )kbD22 ⎩ ⎭ 2 22 2 2 RFSS γ cr = 0.97) is again independent of the number of buckling half-wavelength (m).

99) 4. and RFSS plates) (see Fig.28 Common plates with various unloaded edge conditions Based on the explicit formulas in Eqs. 4. RRSS. SFSS.5.98). CCSS.RFSS (N x )cr = 4 [− 7(5 D22 + kb )D12 kb b 140 D + 77 D 22 kb + 11k 2 b 2 2 ( 2 22 2 + 35( kb + 3 D 22 ) 140 D 22 + 77 D 22 kb + 11k 2 b 2 D11 D 22 kb 2 + 28 15 D 22 + 10 D 22 kb + 2 k 2 b 2 D66 ( ( ) ) ] ) (4. 4. CFSS.28).94) and (4. which have the same 128 .3 Design formulas for special orthotropic plates Simply supported (S) Simply supported (S) a Ncr b Ncr Ncr b a Ncr Simply supported (S) Free (F) (a) Case 1: SSSS plate Clamped (C) (d) Case 4: SFSS plate Clamped (C) a Ncr b Ncr Ncr b a Ncr Clamped (C) Free (F) (b) Case 2: CCSS plate Restrained (R) (e) Case 5: CFSS plate Restrained (R) a Ncr b k Restrained (R) k Ncr Ncr b a k Ncr Free (F) (c) Case 3: RRSS plate (f) Case 6: RFSS plate Fig. design formulas of critical local buckling load ( N cr ) for several common orthotropic plate cases of applications (SSSS. (4.

e.simply-supported boundary conditions along the two loaded edges (SS). 4. the explicit critical buckling load can be simplified as CCSS N cr = 24 {1. 4. the critical aspect ratio for the CCSS Plate is expressed as 129 . the two unloaded edges at y = 0 and b are clamped and the plate is subjected to uniformly distributed compressive load at simply supported edges of x = 0 and a) (Fig.. the four edges are simply-supported and the plate is subjected to an uniformly distributed compression load in x-direction) (Fig. (4.91) is given as γ SSSS cr ⎛ m 4 D11 ⎞ =⎜ ⎜ D ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 22 ⎠ 1/ 4 (4.100) is the same as Eq. (4. (4.28(a)) For the case of k L = k R = 0 (i.871 D11 D22 + ( D12 + 2 D66 )} b2 (4.28(b)). 4.100) Eq. 4.28(a)). and their corresponding critical aspect ratio ( γ cr ) are summarized as follows: Case 1: Plates with two simply-supported unloaded edges (SSSS) (Fig.. (4. the explicit critical local buckling load can be simplified as SSSS N cr = 2π 2 { D11 D22 + ( D12 + 2 D66 )} b2 (4. (4.100) is identical to Eq. The critical aspect ratio for the SSSS plate obtained from Eq.101) Similarly. (4.e.28(b)) For the case of k L = k R = ∞ (i. from Eq.91).32).102) Similarly. Eq. Case 2: Plates with two clamped unloaded edges (CCSS) (Fig.31b) when α = 0 and m =1.

τ 3 = 102 + 18 + 2 D22 D22 D22 D22 D22 D22 (4..663⎜ ⎜ D ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 22 ⎠ 1/ 4 (4. The resulting critical aspect ratio for the RRSS plate is thus given as 2 ⎧ m 4 (η1 k 2 b 2 + η 2 D22 kb + 4η 3 D22 )D11 ⎫ 4 = 0.663⎨ ⎬ 2 2 2 ⎩ (η12 k b + η13 D22 kb + 36η14 D22 )D22 ⎭ 1 RRSS γ cr (4. τ 2 = 24 + 14 + 2 .28(c)).e. 4.104) where the coefficients of τ1.28(c)) For the case of k L = k R = k (i. and the plate is simply-supported and subjected to the uniformly distributed compression load at the edges of x = 0 and x = a) (Fig. and τ3 are functions of the rotational restraint stiffness k and defined as τ 1 = 124 + 22 kb k 2 b 2 kb k 2 b 2 kb k 2 b 2 + 2 .103) Case 3: Plates with two equal rotational restraints along unloaded edges (RRSS) (Fig. τ2.γ CCSS cr ⎛ m 4 D11 ⎞ = 0. 4. the two unloaded edges at y = 0 and y = b are subjected to the same rotational restraints.106) where 130 .871 2 2 τ1 b D11 D22 + τ3 ( D12 + 2 D66 )} τ1 (4.105) and the rotational restraint stiffness k is provided later for the discrete plates in various FRP thin-walled structural profiles. the explicit critical local buckling load is given as RRSS N cr = τ 24 {1.

respectively. 4. 4.108) If a >> b. 2 2 D22 D22 2 2 1. 2 2 D22 D22 (4.108) can be further simplified to SFSS N cr = 12 D66 b2 (4.107) η13 = 2 2 396 D22 + 156 D22 kb + 13k 2 b 2 24 D22 + 11D22 kb + k 2 b 2 . as 131 . and the local buckling load can be obtained as N SFSS cr 12 D66 π 2 D11 = + b2 a2 (4. the boundary is related to clamped-supported at one unloaded edge and free at another unloaded edge (the CF condition) (Fig.28(d)).28(e)) For the case of k = ∞ . the simply-supported boundary at one unloaded edge is achieved.116 D22 + 285 D22 kb + 19k 2 b 2 36 D22 + 13D22 kb + k 2 b 2 η3 = . and the critical local buckling load and critical aspect ratio can be obtained. The problem corresponds to the plate under the uniformly distributed compression load at the simply-supported loaded edges and subjected to the SFSS boundary conditions (Fig. (4. η2 = .28(d)) For the case of k = 0 . η12 = .4.η14 = 2 2 D22 D22 Case 4: Plates with simply-supported and free unloaded edges (SFSS) (Fig.109) and Eq.28(e)).η1 = 2 2 76 D22 + 17 D22 kb + k 2 b 2 1.140 D22 + 272 D22 kb + 17 k 2 b 2 . 4. Eq.109) is the same as the formula (a >> b) given in Barbero (1999). Case 5: Plates with clamped and free unloaded edges (CFSS) (Fig. (4.

90) and (4.96) and (4.83) and (4.98). 4.90) and (4. respectively.90) and (4.110) γ ⎛D = 1. Since a numerical approach of the Ritz formulation is used to derive the explicit formulas for the RRSS and RFSS plates and the approximate displacement shape functions (see Eqs. respectively.28(f)) The formulas for the critical aspect ratio and critical local buckling load of the general case of elastically restrained at one unloaded edge and free at the other (RFSS) (Fig. (4.5.98) can be applied for the local buckling predictions of the RRSS and RFSS plates. 4. The numerical results based on the exact transcendental solutions for local buckling of orthotropic plates (Qiao et al. 2001) are used to compare with the predictions by Eqs.98). (4. The material properties of both the RRSS and RFSS plates are given as 132 .98)) for the RRSS and RFSS plates. The geometry of the plate is chosen as 45.CFSS N cr = − 28 D12 + 4 385 D11 D22 + 224 D66 11b 2 CFSS cr (4.. respectively) so that they can be used with confidence in design practice.28(f)) are given in Eqs.24 cm (width) × 0.4 Verification of RRSS and RFSS plates The explicit equations (4.72 cm (length) × 15.64 cm (thickness).e. it is necessary to validate the accuracy of the explicit equations (i.6633m⎜ 11 ⎜D ⎝ 22 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1/ 4 (4.111) Case 6: Plates with elastically retrained and free unloaded edges (RFSS) (Fig. (4. (4.86)) are employed to model the buckled shapes of the discrete plates. 4. Eqs.

44 1.911. (%) 0.5112×104 N-cm. Table 4.7 1.76 9.000 15.000 (Ncr)Present (N/cm) 7.7 1. and D66 = 1.00 10.165.077.5533×104 N-cm. 4.74 1.25 8.02 0.727. as the rotational restraint stiffnesses increase to infinity large.931.21 10.30). the CCSS and CFSS conditions) for both the RRSS and RFSS plates.034 0.857.782.000 2.000 10.895.14 8. 133 .000 5.7 (Ncr)Exact (N/cm) 7.548.94 RFSS plate (Ncr)Exact (N/cm) 1.77 1.2. the predictions of the present RRSS and RFSS plate formulas for the critical stress resultants are in excellent agreements with the numerical exact transcendental solutions with a maximum difference below 1.09 As shown in Table 4.548.1234×104 N-cm.304.29 and 4.17 Percent diff.892.e.09 1. (%) -0.48 1.796.30.302.26 -0.257.858. As shown in Figs.2 Comparisons of critical stress resultants for RRSS and RFSS plates RRSS plate k (N-cm/cm) 1.726.013 -0.248.follows: D11 = 7.18 Percent diff.84 8.1%.74 9. D12 = 1. 2001) thus validate the accuracy of the present solutions based on the Ritz formulation.13 1.014 0.29 and 4. The close correlation of the explicit equations to the exact transcendental solutions (Qiao et al. 4.144.01 8. D22 = 3..89 -0.068. the critical stress resultants approach asymptotically to the constants (i. The validity of the explicit equations is also shown for the whole range of the rotational restraint stiffness coefficient (k) from the simply-supported (k = 0) to the clamped condition (k = ∞) (Figs.72 0.04 1.014 (Ncr)Present (N/cm) 1.4138×104 N-cm.

4. 2001) Present Explicit Solution 500 0 10x103 20x103 30x103 40x103 50x103 Rotational restraint stiffness.and they can be used with confidence in the discrete plate analysis of FRP shapes as shown next.29 Critical buckling stress resultant Ncr of RRSS plate 2500 Local buckling stress resultant. Ncr (N/cm) 2000 1500 1000 Exact Transcendental Solution (Qiao et al. 14000 Local buckling stress resultant. k (N-cm/cm) Fig.30 Critical buckling stress resultant Ncr of RFSS plate 134 . Ncr (N/cm) 13000 12000 11000 10000 9000 Present Explicit Solution Exact Transcendental Solution (Qiao et al. k (N-cm/cm) Fig. 4. 2001) 8000 7000 0 50x103 100x103 150x103 200x103 Rotational restraint stiffness.

135 . or rotationally restrained (R)). the unique harmonic deformation shape function is first presented and used to obtain the explicit solution. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the influences of the loading ratio (α). and they shed light on better design for local buckling of composite plates with different restraining boundary conditions. CCSS.. and the flexural-orthotropy parameters (αOR and βOR) on the local buckling stress resultants of various rotationally-restrained plates. The solution for the plate rotationally restrained along the four edges is simplified to seven special cases (i.4. and subjected to uniform uniaxial compression are also derived. The explicit local buckling solutions of generic orthotropic plates with the rotationally restrained and free boundary conditions. CCRR.e. By considering the elastic restraining conditions along the four edges. SSRR. and RRCC plates) based on the different edge restraining conditions (e. simplysupported (S).. the rotational restraint stiffness (k). clamped (C).. RRSS. and they are valid with the exact transcendental solution. the first variational principle of the Ritz method is used to establish an eigenvalue problem for the local buckling behavior of composite plates elastically restrained along its four edges (the RRRR plate) and subjected to biaxial non-uniform loading.g.g. SSCC. and the explicit solutions in term of the rotational restraint stiffness (kx and ky) are presented. The applications of the explicit solutions to local buckling prediction of FRP composite structures (e. the aspect ratio (γ). the SSSS. respectively.6 Concluding remarks In this chapter. FRP structural shapes and sandwich cores) through a discrete plate analysis technique are introduced in the next chapter. CCCC.

136 . FRP structural shapes and honeycomb cores in sandwich panels) using the technique of discrete plate analysis (Qiao et al. box.e. the RRSS and RFSS plates in Section 4. T. I. The local buckling strength values of plates in short FRP box columns and core walls between the top and bottom face sheets of sandwich are predicted. and they are in excellent agreement with the numerical finite element solutions and experimental results. namely.. C.1 Introduction In this chapter.e. For the columns. The local buckling solution of orthotropic rectangular plates elastically restrained along four edges (see Section 4.CHAPTER FIVE LOCAL BUCKLING SOLUTION OF FRP COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 5.5) is applied to six commonly used pultruded FRP profiles. The rotational restrained stiffnesses (k) for the aforementioned six profiles are first determined and used in the local buckling load prediction. 2001). Z and L sections. A design guideline for explicit local buckling design of FRP structural shapes is correspondingly developed.2) is applied to predict the local buckling load of FRP short box columns and sandwich care structures. the solution of plates elastically restrained along two unloaded edges with different boundary conditions (i.. the explicit solutions for local buckling of FRP plates elastically restrained along four edges and plates elastically restrained along two unloaded edges with different boundary conditions are applied to predict the local buckling behaviors of FRP composite structures (i.

.1(a)).R. C and Z sections.5.S. x b Nx S.1 Plate elements in FRP shapes based on discrete plate analysis For the box.Simply Supported II II Fig.E k R L R.E a R R.S. the explicit formulas of local buckling of elastically restrained plates (i.5.S. Edge e dg .2 FRP structural shapes b Nx S. C. 5. 5.1(b)).e. Edge y z Nx S. Similarly. Edge y (a) RR unloaded edges I I I II II I II I II II (b) RF unloaded edges Note: R. Z. the web portions can be modeled as an orthotropic laminated plate element connected to the top and bottom flanges. and they are equivalent to a plate elastically restrained at two simply-supported unloaded edges (RR) and under uniformly distributed compression loading at two opposite edges (see Fig. Edge kR e dg . the flanges of I. x R.Rotationally Restrained S. 137 Pl ate II Pl ate I . T and L sections can be simulated as a plate element elastically restrained at one simply-supported unloaded edge and free at the other unloaded edge (RF) (see Fig..S. ge Ed R. k ge Ed a ee Fr z Nx S. I.S.. By considering the effect of elastic restraints at the flange-web joint connections of thin-walled sections in term of the rotational restraint stiffness (k).

4. 138 .28(c)). and L sections) can be simplified into two general cases of orthotropic plates subjected to uniform in-plane axial load along the simply supported edges. 5.2. I. the explicit expressions of the rotational restraint stiffness (k) for discrete orthotropic plates of different composite structural shapes are correspondingly developed.27(f)). T.the RRSS and RFSS plates) given in Section 4. 5.1 Determination of rotational restraint stiffness As shown in Chapter Four.1(b) or Fig.95)) are expressed in terms of the rotational restraint stiffness (k).1(a) or Fig. As shown in Fig. The critical buckling stress resultants Ncr for the above two types of plates are expressed in terms of the rotational restraint stiffness (k) (see Eqs. respectively). The predictions to local buckling of FRP sections are compared with available experimental data and finite element eigenvalue analyses. the critical buckling loads of the RRSS and RFSS plates (Eqs.1. Based on the derivations for the isotropic case (Bleich 1952). and the other is rotationally restrained-free (the RFSS plate.95) for the RRSS and RFSS plates. (4. 5. the rotational restraint stiffness must be determined. To compute the local buckling loads for general cases of elastically restrained plates and apply them in the discrete plate analysis to evaluate the local buckling of FRP thin-walled structures. see Plate I in Fig.89) and (4.89) and (4. One is rotationally restrained at two unloaded edges (the RRSS plate. 5. C. 4. see Plate II in Fig. Z.5 are then applied for prediction of local buckling strength of FRP structural shapes. (4. the local buckling of different FRP structural shapes (box.

Then the out-of-plane displacement function w of such a restraining plate under the action of My can be written in the general form as w = C1 sinh πy πy πy πy + C 2 cosh + C 3 y sinh + C 4 y cosh λ λ λ λ (5. When the four edges of the plate are simply supported.1) where C1 to C4 are the unknown constants and can be determined by the boundary conditions.(a) Box-sections When the cross section of a box beam distorts or buckles. each of the restraining plates of width c is acted upon by moments My per unit length. 5.2) c⎠ λ ⎛ πy ⎞ ⎪ sinh⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎝λ⎠ ⎭ 139 .2) (each panel with the same deformation direction and half wave length λ = a / n in the restraining element can be represented by a plate simply supported on four edges and loaded symmetrically on two opposite edges by My). My is proportional to sin( nπx / a ) . It is assumed that there are no compressive forces acting on the restraining plate along the x-axis. the function becomes ⎧ ⎪y cλ π ( y − c) ⎛ ⎪ + ⎜1 − w= ⎨ cosh λ ⎛ πy ⎞ ⎪ c ⎝ * 2πD22 sinh⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ λ ⎠⎩ π ( y − c) ⎫ ⎛ πy ⎞ sinh⎜ ⎟ + sinh y⎞ πy λ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝λ⎠ ⎟ cosh − ⎬M y (5. The restraining plate is bulged alternately upward and downward (see Fig. where a is the length of the plate and λ = a / n is the length of a half wave.

3) ρ1 ⎜ ⎟ M y D ⎝λ⎠ * 22 λ ⎛c⎞ ⎧ πc ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ πc ⎪ ⎪ ⎛c⎞ 1 * λ tanh 1+ where ρ1 ⎜ ⎟ = ⎬ .2 Illustration of deformation of the restraining plate in a box section ⎛ ∂w ⎞ Using ϕ = ⎜ ⎟ . and D22 is the transverse bending stiffness ⎨ 2λ ⎪ ⎛ πc ⎞ ⎝ λ ⎠ 2π sinh ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ λ ⎠⎪ ⎭ ⎩ of the restraining plate.My My x y c My My =a/n =a/n =a/n Fig. the angle of rotation ϕ can be expressed as the function of My as ⎜ ∂y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ y =c ⎧ πc ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ λ πc ⎪ ⎪ λ ϕ =− tanh 1+ ⎬M y ⎨ * 2λ ⎪ 2πD22 ⎛ πc ⎞ ⎪ sinh ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ λ ⎠⎪ ⎭ ⎩ =− (5. 140 . 5.

5.5) f where D22* is the transverse bending stiffness of the flange plate. the flange restrains the web and the restraining plate refers to the flange of the box-section (see Fig. 5. we assume that λ = b is independent of the degree of fixity at the edges of the web plate. if the web buckles first. Then Eq. M y = −kϕ then combining Eqs. The error in this assumption is small and lies on the safe side (Bleich 1952). b f is denoted as the width of the flange. approximate c Then we can λ = c .As approximated for the isotropic plates (Bleich 1952). For simplification.3).6) 141 . (5. Because the rotational restraint stiffness k at the web-flange connection is a factor or proportionality of the bending moment My and the distortion angle ϕ .4) In a box section (Fig. and Eq. the length λ of the half wave lies between 0.5) and (5.4) becomes ϕ =− ⎛ bf ⎞ bw ρ1 ⎜ ⎟ M y f* ⎜b ⎟ D22 ⎝ w⎠ (5.668b for the clamped edges and b for the simply supported edges where b is the width of the restrained plate.3) is thus simplified as b ϕ =− b ⎛c⎞ ρ1 ⎜ ⎟ M y * D22 ⎝ b ⎠ (5.6) gives (5.3(b)). and bw is the height of the web. (5. (5.

3 Geometry of different FRP shapes So far the effect of the longitudinal compressive stress resultant (Nx) on the restraining plate has been neglected.8) 142 .2) by a reduction factor (Bleich 1952. Qiao et al.k= f D22* ⎛ bf ⎞ bw ρ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ w⎠ (5. (5. 2001).7) b=b f b=b f c=bw c=bw c=bw c=bw c=bw b=bf b=b f b=b f b=b f b=b f c=b f (a) Flange buckles first c=b f b=bw b=bw b=bw b=bw b=bw c=bf c=b f c=bf c=b f c=b f (b)Web buckles first Fig. It is necessary to include this effect. 5. which can be done approximately by multiplying Eq. r = 1− restrained (N x )cr restrainin (N x )cr g (5.

(5.100) (the SS plate). (5.10) is the rotational restraint stiffness for a restrained discrete web plate in the box section and can be used in Eq. Eq. (4.3(a)). the restraining plate thus refers to the web of the boxsection (see Fig. If the flange buckles first.The web and flange in Eq.10) where Dij (i. Hence. respectively. 5. the factor for the box section with the web buckling first is modified as r = 1− b2 f 2 bw w w w w D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 f f f f D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 (5. By multiplying the factor r. (5. and the rotational restraint stiffness k thus becomes w ⎛ b2 D22* ⎜1 − w k= ⎛ b ⎞ ⎜ b2 f b f ρ1 ⎜ w ⎟ ⎝ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ f ⎠ f f f f D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎞ ⎟ w w w w ⎟ D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎠ (5.7) is expressed as k= 2 f D22* ⎛ b f ⎜1 − 2 ⎛ b f ⎞ ⎜ bw ⎝ bw ρ 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ w⎠ w w w w D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎞ ⎟ f f f f ⎟ D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎠ (5. and the explicit solution for the critical local buckling load is already given in Eq. 6) are the bending stiffness of laminated composite plates (Jones 1999). 2.8) can be treated as individual plates with four edges simply-supported and subjected to a uniform axial force at two opposite edges.90) to predict the local buckling of box sections.9) where the superscripts f and w represent the properties related to the flange and web plates. Eq.11) 143 . (4. j = 1.

The formula for the buckling stress resultant of the plate with simply-supported and free unloaded edges (the SF plate.3(a)).28(e)) is given in Eq.90) to evaluate the local buckling strength of box sections. (b) I-sections If the flange buckles first in an I-beam section. (5. (4. Fig. A conservative but simple result can be obtained by assuming the wavelength λ = ∞ . Eq.Again. The rotational restraint stiffness k is obtained in a similar way as in the box-section. the web will be considered as the restraining plate (see Fig. the half wavelength of the buckled flange now lies between 1. (4.5. 5. 4.108).11) represents the rotational restraint stiffness for a restrained discrete flange element in the box section and can be substituted into Eq. Using Eq. the flange will be considered as the restraining plate (see Fig.1) and with the same procedure as the box-section. However.12) If the web buckles first. There is also some difference in the reduction factor r because the flange is considered as rotationally restrained and free (RF) at unloaded edges. Then the rotational restraint stiffness k for the restrained flange of I-section becomes k= 2 w D22* ⎛ ⎜1 − 6bw bw ⎜ π 2 b 2 f ⎝ f D66 D D w 11 w 22 ⎞ ⎟ w w ⎟ + D12 + 2 D66 ⎠ (5.68 b f and the full length a of the plate (Bleich 1952).3(b)). the angle of rotation of the restraining flange is: 144 . (5.

the rotational restraint stiffness k can be obtained as k= 2 w 2 D22* ⎛ ⎜1 − 6bw bw ⎜ π 2 b 2 f ⎝ f D66 w w D11 D22 ⎞ ⎟ w w ⎟ + D12 + 2 D66 ⎠ (5. 5. similar to the flange of I-section (see Fig.15) (c) C.16) 145 .13) becomes.14) and the rotational restraint stiffness k for the restrained web of I-section including the reduction factor can be obtained as f ⎛ π 2b 2 D22* f ⎜1 − k= 2 6bw ⎛ bf ⎞ ⎜ bw ρ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ w⎠ w w w w D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎞ ⎟ f ⎟ D66 ⎠ (5. ϕ =− ⎛ bf ⎞ bw ρ 2 ⎜ ⎟M y f* ⎜b ⎟ D22 ⎝ w⎠ (5. (5. then Eq.and Z-sections If the flange of C.3(a)).or Z-section buckles first.13) ⎛ πc ⎞ ⎛ πc ⎞ 3 cosh ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + 1 ⎛c⎞ 1 ⎝λ⎠ ⎝λ⎠ where ρ 2 ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ λ ⎠ 4π πc + 3 sinh ⎛ πc ⎞ cosh⎛ πc ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ λ ⎝λ⎠ ⎝λ⎠ Assuming λ = bw as before.ϕ=− λ f 2 D22* ⎛ πc ⎞ ⎛ πc ⎞ 3 cosh ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ + 1 1 λ ⎛c⎞ ⎝λ⎠ ⎝λ⎠ M y = − f * ρ 2 ⎜ ⎟M y 2π πc D22 ⎛ πc ⎞ ⎛ πc ⎞ ⎝λ⎠ + 3 sinh ⎜ ⎟ cosh⎜ ⎟ λ ⎝λ⎠ ⎝λ⎠ 2 2 2 2 (5.

When the width of flange panel increases or decreases from the half of the height of web panel.9bw (5. and the critical buckling stress resultant (Ncr) reaches the largest value when the width of the flange (see in Fig. Using the regression technique. 5. (5. 5.3).5 ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 k= f D22* e 1. If the web height ( b = bw ) is larger than the width of flange panel ( c = b f ). 5.3) is a half of the height of the web.where b f refers to the length of flange. the web will buckle first (see Fig. the rotational restraint stiffness k is half of that given in Eq. this approximately proportional relation changes since the restraining effect becomes weaker.3(b)). respectively.17) 146 . When the width of flange panel is zero or equal to the height of web panel. (d) T-sections The web of T-section is a plate elastically restrained against rotation along one edge (at the web-flange connection) and free on the other one. the local buckling of the web is similar to the buckling of a plate with free-free or SF unloaded edges. and bw the height of the web as specified in Fig. If the web buckles first.3(b). the distribution of rotational restraint stiffness is approximately proportional to the moment of the connection joint when the width of flange panel is a half of the height of web panel (bf = bw/2 for T-section in Fig. Because the panels of T-section are all rotationally restrained at one edge and free at the other. 5.15). the rotational restraint stiffness k can be given as b ⎛ ⎜b − w 1⎜ f 2 − 2 ⎜ 4.

It can be obviously observed from Fig. 5.4 that the critical buckling stress resultant (Ncr) of the RFSS plate (Eq. (4.98)) based on the rotational restraint stiffness k in Eq. (5.17) is conservative when compared with the predictions from the finite element (FE) eigenvalue analysis of T-sections (with bw = 15.24 cm and t = 0.64 cm; use bf as a variable), and the error lies between 0.62% and 3.0%. As indicated in Fig. 5.4, when bf = bw/2 (i.e., bf = 7.62 cm), the maximum local buckling load is reached. Therefore, Eq. (5.17) is applicable for design purpose.

1400 FE Results Present - Eq.(26)

Critical buckling load Ncr (N/cm)

1200

1000

800

600 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Width of the flange panel of T-section (cm)

Fig. 5.4 Comparison of the RF plate solution with FE results for T-section

If the flange of T-section buckles first (see Fig. 5.3(a)), the rotational restraint stiffness k similarly becomes 147

k=

w D22* e 1.9b f

b ⎛ ⎜b − f 1 w 2 − ⎜ 2 ⎜ 4.5 ⎜ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

(5.18)

(e) L-sections

If both the legs in L-section have equal width, they will buckle simultaneously. Neither of the legs will restrain the other one, and the rotational restraint stiffness k is therefore zero, which is the case of simply-supported and free (SFSS) plate. The explicit formula of critical local buckling stress resultant is given in Eq. (4.108). In case of unequal angles, a certain restraining effect on the wider leg is exerted by the smaller one. The critical local buckling stress resultant depends on the ratio of the width of the two legs and the slenderness ratio b/t of the wider leg (Bleich 1952). As a conservative design, Eq. (4.108) which primarily corresponds to the L-section with equal leg width can be used. When the ratio of leg width approaches zero or infinite, a simple Euler buckling is assumed as N cr =

π 2 D11

a2

(5.19)

5.2.2 Summary for local buckling design of FRP shapes

Based on all the case studies presented for the discrete plate analysis (Section 4.5.3) and related restraining effect of web-flange connection, the explicit formulas for local buckling stress resultants (Ncr) and rotational restraint stiffness (k) are summarized in Table 5.1, and they can be used to predict the local buckling of several common FRP profiles as shown in Fig. 5.3. 148

**Table 5.1 Rotational restraint stiffness (k) and critical local buckling stress resultant ( N cr ) of different FRP profiles
**

FRP section Buckled plate [a] Critical local buckling stress resultant N cr

N cr

**Rotational restraint stiffness k
**

k=

w 2 D22* ⎛ bw ⎜1 − 2 ⎛ b ⎞ ⎜ bf b f ρ1 ⎜ w ⎟ ⎝ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ f⎠

2 f D22* ⎛ b f ⎜1 − 2 ⎛ b ⎞ ⎜ bw bw ρ1 ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ w⎠

Flange Box-section Web

τ 24 = 2 {1.871 2 τ1 bf

τ 24 = 2 {1.871 2 τ1 bw

[b] τ f f D D + 3 ( D12 + 2 D66 )} τ1

f 11 f 22

f f f f D11D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎞ ⎟ w w w w D11D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎟ ⎠

[c]

N cr

[b] τ w w w w D11 D 22 + 3 ( D12 + 2 D 66 )} τ1

k=

w w w w D11D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎞ [c] ⎟ f f f f D11D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎟ ⎠

N cr =

b 11k b + 77 D kb f + 140 D

2 f 2 2 f f 22 f 22 2 2 f

(

4

( ))

f 2 22 f 22 2

[− 7(kb

f

f f + 5D22 D12 kb f

)

Flange I-section

+ 35(kb f + 3D )(11k b + 77 D kb f + 140 D

f f f + 28(2k 2b 2 + 10 D22 kb f + 15 D22 ) D66 f

( )

w 22

]

( ) )D

f 2 22

f 11

D kb f

f 22

k=

2 w D22* ⎛ ⎜1 − 6bw bw ⎜ π 2b 2 f ⎝

**⎞ ⎟ w w w w D11D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎟ ⎠
**

f D66

w w w w D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎞ ⎟ f ⎟ D66 ⎠

Web

N cr

N cr =

τ 24 = 2 {1.871 2 τ1 bw

D D

w 11

[b] τ w w + 3 ( D12 + 2 D 66 )} τ1

k=

2 2 f D22* ⎛ π b f ⎜1 − 2 ⎛b ⎞ ⎜ 6bw bw ρ 2 ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ w⎠

[c]

f f b 2 11k 2b 2 + 77 D22 kb f + 140 D22 f f f 22 2 2 f

(

4

( ))

2 f 22 2

[− 7(kb

f

f f + 5D22 D12 kb f

)

Flange Channel and Z-section Web

+ 35(kb f + 3D )(11k b + 77 D kb f + 140 D

f f f + 28(2k 2b 2 + 10 D22 kb f + 15 D22 ) D66 f

( )

]

( ) )D

f 2 22

f 11

D kb f

f 22

k=

w 2 2 D22* ⎛ ⎜1 − 6bw 2 2 bw ⎜ π b f ⎝

**⎞ ⎟ w w w w D11D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎟ ⎠
**

f D66

N cr

τ 24 = 2 {1.871 2 τ1 bw

w w D11 D 22

[b] τ w w + 3 ( D12 + 2 D 66 )} τ1

k=

2 2 f D22* ⎛ π b f ⎜1 − 2 ⎛b ⎞ ⎜ 6bw bw ρ 2 ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ w⎠

[c] w w w w D11 D22 + D12 + 2 D66 ⎞ ⎟ f ⎟ D66 ⎠

149

N cr =

b 11k b + 77 D kb f + 140 D

2 f 2 2 f f 22

(

4

( ))

f 2 22 2

[− 7(kb

f

f f + 5D22 D12 kb f

)

Flange T-section Web

f f f f f + 35(kb f + 3D22 )(11k 2b 2 + 77 D22 kb f + 140 D22 ) D11 D22 kb f f f f f + 28(2k 2b 2 + 10 D22 kb f + 15 D22 ) D66 f

( )

]

( )

2

k=

w D22* e 1.9b f

b ⎛ ⎜b − f 1⎜ w 2 − 2 ⎜ 4.5 ⎜ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

N cr =

w w 2 2 bw 11k 2bw + 77 D22 kbw + 140 D22

(

4

( ))

2 2

[− 7(kb

w

w w + 5D22 D12 kbw

)

w w w w w 2 + 35(kbw + 3D22 )(11k 2bw + 77 D22 kbw + 140 D22 ) D11D22 kbw w w w 2 + 28(2k 2bw + 10 D22 kbw + 15 D22 ) D66

( )

]

( )

2

k=

f D22* e 1.9bw

b ⎛ ⎜b − w 1 f 2 − ⎜ 2 ⎜ 4.5 ⎜ ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

2

Flange L-section web

N cr = N cr =

f 12 D π D11 + 2 (b ) a f 66 f 2 2 w w 12 D66 π 2 D11 + (b w ) 2 a2

k = 0 [d]

k = 0 [d]

Note: a. Buckled plate refers to the first buckled discrete element (either flange or web) in the FRP shapes.

2 2 2 2 2 2 b. τ = 124 + 22 kbi + k bi , τ = 24 + 14 kbi + k bi , τ = 102 + 18 kbi + k bi , where i = f or w which refer to flange or web, respectively. 1 2 3 2 2 i i i i i i D22 (D22 ) D22 (D22 ) D22 (D22 )2

c.

⎧ πbi ⎪ ⎛ bi ⎞ 1 bj πbi ⎪ ρ1 ⎜ ⎟ = tanh ⎨1 + ⎜ b ⎟ 2π 2b j ⎪ ⎛ πbi ⎝ j⎠ ⎜ ⎪ sinh ⎜ b ⎝ j ⎩

⎫ ⎪, ⎛b ⎪ ⎬ ρ ⎜ i ⎞⎪ 2⎜ bj ⎝ ⎟ ⎟⎪ ⎠⎭

⎛ πb ⎞ ⎛ πb ⎞ 3 cosh 2 ⎜ i ⎟ + ⎜ i ⎟ + 1 , ⎜b ⎟ ⎜b ⎟ ⎞ 1 ⎝ j ⎠ ⎝ j ⎠ ⎟= ⎟ 4π πb ⎛ πb ⎞ ⎛ πb ⎞ ⎠ i + 3 sinh ⎜ i ⎟ cosh⎜ i ⎟ ⎜b ⎟ ⎜b ⎟ bj ⎝ j ⎠ ⎝ j ⎠

2

where bi or b j ( i, j = f or w ) is the width of flange or web, respectively.

d. In the L-section, only the case of equal flange and web legs is herein given. e. Dij (i, j = 1, 2, 6) are the bending stiffness per unit length and D22 is the transverse bending stiffness of a unit length.

*

150

5.2.3 Numerical verifications

To validate the methodology of applying the explicit plate formulas for local buckling predictions of Box-, I-, C-, Z-, T-, and L-sections, the numerical finite element (FE) eigenvalue analyses are conducted. The same material properties for both the flange and web are used and given as follows: D11 = 7.5112×104 N-cm, D12 = 1.4138×104 N-cm, D22 = 3.5533×104 N-cm and D66 = 1.1234×104 N-cm. The eigenvalue analyses are conducted using the commercial finite-element program ANSYS, and the shell layered element (SHELL 99) is used. The element size is 1.27 cm × 1.27 cm and the local buckling deformation contours of Box-, I-, C-, Z-, T-, and L-sections are shown in Fig. 5.5. For the I-section, the analytical and finite element results are also compared with the available experimental data (Barbero 1992) which is about 3,925 N/cm in this case, and the percent differences of the explicit design and finite element values versus the experimental data are about 4.0% and 3.8%, respectively. As shown in Table 5.2, excellent agreement between the proposed explicit analytical design and numerical eigenvalue analyses is achieved, with maximum difference of 4.7%.

151

(a) Box section (b) I-section (c) C-section (d) Z-section (e) T-section (f) L-section Fig.5 Local buckling deformation contours of FRP thin-walled sections 152 . 5.

016 1.70 0.075 - Percent ( N cr )Present ( N cr )FEM difference (%) (Present versus FE) (N/cm) (N/cm) 7.585 1.587 7.022 0 1.610 3.073 4.220 3.824 3.24 2. the following step-by-step design procedures and commentary are recommended for local buckling analysis and resistance improvement of FRP structural shapes: 153 .747 4.170 4.4) Box-II (152×152×6.205 3.22 3.4) C(152×76×6.4) I(152×152×6.220 1.27 4.747 1.4) Z(152×76×6.083 4.28 Note: γcr = a/b.501 7.227 0 8.2.Table 5.27 3.4) L(152×152×6.4) k (N-cm/cm) γcr Flange m =1 1.4 Design guideline for local buckling of FRP shapes Based on the formulas of plate critical buckling stress resultant (Ncr) and rotational restraint stiffness (k) presented above.53 -1.25 3.131 877 1.506 4.117 897 8. where b is the width of buckled panel 5.2 Comparisons of critical stress resultants for different FRP sections Sections (mm) Box-I (152×102×6.01 4.4) T(152×76×6.599 4.

Step 1 Determination of first buckled discrete plate elements in FRP shapes: In the

analysis and design of local buckling of FRP shapes using discrete plate analysis technique, it is important to determine which plate element (either flange or web) will buckle first. Based on Eq. (5.8), the reduction factor r can be computed and used as an indicator for determining the first buckled plate element so that the appropriate design equations in Table 5.1 can be applied to compute the critical local buckling strength of FRP shapes. If r = 0, it indicates that the web and flange components buckle simultaneously; thus, the web-flange connection can be simulated as a simplysupported condition in the discrete plate analysis. If r is a negative value, it refers that the assumed first buckled plate element is not the restrained element rather than a restraining one.

Step 2 Determination of critical buckling stress resultants of first buckled plate element: Once the first buckled plate element is identified in Step 1, the related

critical buckling stress resultant of the plate element can be calculated using the formulas provided in Table 5.1.

Step 3. Determination of critical buckling load of FRP section: Using the critical

stress resultant (Ncr) of first buckled (control) plate element identified in Step 1 and computed in Step 2, the critical local buckling load (Pcr) of FRP sections can be obtained as ( Pcr ) axial = ( N x ) cr l where l is the contour perimeter of FRP cross sections (see Fig. 5.3). (5.20)

154

Step 4 Local buckling resistance improvement of FRP shapes: The explicit formulas

for the critical aspect ratio (γcr) obtained in this study (see Eqs. (4.96), (4.101), (4.103), (4.106), and (4.111) for various shapes) can be used to determine the locations of stiffeners or bracings so that the local buckling capacity of FRP shapes is improved.

Step 5 Placement of stiffeners or restraints: Use the critical aspect ratio identified in

Step 4 to obtain the locations of restraints or lateral bracings so that the local buckling resistance of FRP sections can be improved.

5.3 Short FRP columns

The following section is given to illustrate the applicability of using explicit plate solutions of the orthotropic rectangular plates rotationally restrained along four edges under uniform compression loading (Eq. (4.16)) to predict the local buckling of the short thin-walled FRP columns. For the box, I, C and Z sections of FRP shapes subjected to in-plane compression along the longitudinal direction, the web panels which are connected to the top and bottom flanges, can be modeled as an orthotropic laminated plate with the rotational restraint stiffness along the two unloaded edges (provided by the connected flange panels) and simply-supported along the other two loaded edges. Thus, this kind of web panels is the RRSS plate in this study, and its local buckling stress resultant can be obtained by Eq. (4.55). For a relatively short FRP compression member, the discrete plate usually fits into the criterion of only one generated half-wave along the loading 155

direction. It is necessary to obtain the local buckling load in this case and compare it with the material compression failure strength. Thus, a transition aspect ratio (γ*), which is obtained by equaling the material compression failure strength to the local buckling load, can be used to determine the failure mode of the structure. For a given plate, if the aspect ratio (γ) is larger than γ*, the local buckling will take place before the structure undergoes the material failure. In this study, a box section with dimension of 10.2×15.2×0.64 cm is used as an example, and the material properties are given as follows: D11 = 46,860 N-cm, D12 = 13,370 N-cm, D22 = 35,000 N-cm, and D66 = 10,740 N-cm. The rotational restraint stiffness (k) at the connections of flange and web panels is determined as 6,756 N-cm/cm (Qiao and Zou 2002), and the generic definition of the rotational restraint stiffness (k) and related formulas for various FRP sections are given in Qiao and Shan (2005). Three aspect ratios (γ = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.9) which are less than the critical value (γcr = 0.91) are chosen in the analysis. The finite element results are obtained by using the commercial software ANSYS, and the element SHELL63 is used. The local buckling stress resultants for the composite plates with three different aspect ratios obtained from explicit solution (Eq. (4.55)), finite element method, and exact transcendental solution are listed in Table 5.3. Due to the sensitivity of local buckling resultants to the rotational restraint stiffness (k), the explicit solution is much closer to the results obtained from the results of transcendental solution than those from the finite element method, since the first two solutions (explicit and numerical transcendental) adopt the same value of k; however, the finite element model may more closely simulate the true scenario. 156 A graphical

presentation of the comparisons is also presented in Fig. 5.6. Based on Table 5.3 and Fig. 5.6, it indicates that the proposed explicit solution of the rotationally restrained plates is effective and accurate in predicting the local buckling strength of short FRP columns.

Table 5.3 Comparisons of local buckling stress resultants of box sections

Explicit γ (N/cm) 0.2 0.5 0.9 52,899 11,698 7,805

Trans. (N/cm) 53,218 11,763 7,850

FEM (N/cm) 50,350 11,160 7,416

Percent diff. to Trans. (%) -0.60 0.55 -0.57

Percent diff. to FEM (%) 5.06 4.82 5.24

**Note: Trans. – transcendental solution; FEM – finite element method.
**

1200

Normalized local buckling stress resultant Nx*

1000

Explicit solution Exact transcendental solution Finite element

800

600

400

200

0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0

Aspect ratio γ

Fig. 5.6 Local buckling stress resultant of an FRP box section

157

5.4 Sandwich cores between the top and bottom face sheets

Due to the advantages of lightweight and structural efficiency, honeycomb sandwich structures are commonly used in aerospace engineering. Recently, sandwich structures with different shapes of large cellular core (e.g., sinusoidal, honeycomb and trapezoidal) have begun to take a role in civil construction, such as working as bridge deck panels and highway protecting barriers. When this kind of sandwich structures is subjected to an out of plane uniform compression on its face sheet, the local buckling of the core walls between the top and bottom face sheets becomes one of the easily happened failure modes. By using the discrete plate analysis technique, the flat core walls of sandwich structures can be modeled as an orthotropic plate (the SSRR plate) rotationally restrained along the two loaded edges (namely the top and bottom facesheets) and simply-supported along the other unloaded edges at the periodic lines of unit cell core (Fig. 5.7).

Fig. 5.7 Simulation of the sandwich core flat wall as an SSRR plate

158

5.4.16 cm Fig. (4. An excellent agreement of the present explicit local buckling solution of SSRR plate 159 .23 cm (Fig.Flat core wall Locations of periodic lines t = 0.5) were available in Chen (2004). and the local buckling stress resultants obtained from the finite element analysis and experiments for these three types of sandwich core (Table 5. B2 (Two-layer) and B3 (Three-layer) (Chen 2004) are used to assess the effect of the rotational restraint stiffness (k) (given by the facesheets) on the local buckling behavior. The explicit local buckling solutions calculated from Eq. The material properties of the core wall are given in Table 5.16 cm and the thickness of the flat wall is 0.5.23 cm 10. and they are compared with the numerical and experimental data. The rotational restraint stiffness (k) corresponding to the three different bonding layers (B1. 5. and the geometry of its unit cell is 10.8 Geometry of honeycomb sinusoidal unit cell The sandwich core used as an example in this section is a sinusoidal one (Qiao and Wang 2005). Three types of bonding layers B1 (One-layer).51) are listed in Table 5.16 cm Sinusoidal core wall 10.16×10.8). B2 and B3) were obtained from the experiment.

5 and Fig.402 ν23 0.08 3.28 -1.18×106 4.250 1.9).484 1.46 to Test (%) 0.530 1.43 -2.900 1. to FEM (%) 2.62 bonding layer (N-cm/cm) B1 B2 B3 657 1.566 1. Percent diff.18×106 E2 (N/cm2) G12 (N/cm2) 1. thus validating the applicability and accuracy of the present approach in the sandwich core local buckling analysis.38 Table 5.96 3. Table 5.707 * From Chen (2004) 160 .4 Material properties of honeycomb core E1 (N/cm2) Core 1.219 1.623 1.21×105 G23 (N/cm2) 2.679 1.96×105 ν12 0.using the discrete plate analysis technique with the finite element and experimental results is observed (see Table 5.5 Comparison of sandwich core local buckling loads Type of k Explicit (N/cm) FEM* (N/cm) Test* (N/cm) Percent diff. 5.350 1.255 1.

9 Local buckling stress resultant of flat core wall in the sandwich 5. The rotational restrained stiffnesses (k) for the six common FRP profiles (i.. I. Z and L sections) are first determined and applied in the local buckling load prediction of FRP structural shapes. T. which can be used to predict the local buckling strength and improve the buckling resistance of FRP structural 161 .2000 Local buckling stress resultant Nx (N/cm) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 0.0 0. 5. the thin-walled FRP composite shapes and honeycomb cores in sandwiches.5 Explicit solution of B1 Explicit solution of B2 Explicit solution of B3 FEM (Chen 2004) Test (Chen 2004) 2.0 2.e.5 1.e. the explicit local buckling solution of rotationally restrained plates developed in Chapter Four is adopted in the discrete plate analysis to predict the local buckling strength of two typical FRP composite structures. C.5 Aspect ratio γ Fig. i.. box. A guideline for explicit local buckling design is provided.5 Concluding remarks As an application.0 1.

and application of FRP structural shapes and honeycomb sandwich structures.shapes. optimization. experiment and numerical Finite Element analysis is obtained. In a similar fashion. Due to the excellent agreements with the numerical modeling and available experimental data. the present explicit formulas of rotationally restrained plates can be applied with confidence to predict the local buckling strength of different composite structures through the discrete plate analysis technique. and a close agreement among explicit prediction. thus facilitating design analysis. 162 . the explicit local buckling solution restrained plates is applied to predict local buckling strength of short FRP columns and cores between two face sheets on sandwiches.

1 Introduction Mechanics of bi-layer beam theories (conventional composite beam theory. is derived. and the influence of the interface compliance on the analytical results is conducted to compare the delamination buckling predictions based on three different joint deformation models. which is not particularly addressed in Qiao and Wang (2005). the rigid. semi-rigid. and flexible joint models) based on three corresponding bi-layer beam theories (Qiao and Wang 2005) are presented. Three joint deformation models (i. The parametric study of the delamination ratio. Numerical simulation is carried out to validate the accuracy of the formulas. and interface-deformable bi-layer beam theory) are first reviewed systematically to build the theoretical basis for derivation of the formulas for local delamination buckling of laminated composite beams in this chapter.2 Mechanics of bi-layer beam theories In this section. respectively. 163 . The symmetric case of bi-layer beams.e. and it will be later used in deriving the solution for local delamination buckling. sheardeformable bi-layer beam theory. 6.CHAPTER SIX DELAMINATION BUCKLING OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE BEAMS 6. the joint deformation models based on the corresponding bi-layer beam theories developed in Qiao and Wang (2005) are reviewed. The delamination buckling formulas are then derived based on the three joint deformation models.. The deformation field at crack (delamination) tip is emphasized. the shear effect.

a small element of a split beam. 6.z y x Delamination Fig. It is assumed that the lengths of cracked and 164 . respectively. orthotropic materials. This configuration essentially represents a crack tip element.1. The two sub-beams are made of homogenous. To simplify the analysis. where the cracked and uncracked portions join. a pre-existed crack of length a is along the straight interface of the top and bottom beams with the thickness of h1 and h2. When a cracked bi-layer beam is subjected to general loading (Fig. 6.1 A laminated composite beam with delamination area In a simplified laminated composite beam structure. on which the generic loads are applied as already determined by a global beam analysis. the concept of crack tip element proposed by Davidson et al.2). The length of the uncracked region L is relatively large compared to the thickness of the whole beam H = h1+h2 so that the effect of boundary conditions is negligible. (1995) is adopted in the study. with the orthotropy axes along the coordinate system. The delamination area lies in the center of the composite laminated beam. 6. the structure typically consists of different layers with different orientations as illustrated in Fig.

The constitutive equations are given as ⎛ N i (x ) ⎞ ⎛ Ci ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ M ( x )⎟ = ⎜ 0 ⎝ i ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ du i ( x ) ⎞ 0 ⎞⎜ dx ⎟ ⎟. z i ) = wi ( xi ) (6. 6. z N10. Q10 M10 M20 N20.1) (6. Q T NT Delamination Fig. 2 represents the top and bottom beams (Beam 1 and Beam 2) in Fig. Q2 M T. xi and zi are the local coordinates in beam i. Q1 Beam 1 Beam 2 M1 M2 N2. z i ) = u i ( xi ) + z i φ i ( xi ) Wi ( xi .2. 6. respectively. Q20 a h1 h2 z1 x1 z2 x2 x L N1.uncracked portions of the beam are relatively large compared to the bi-layer beam thickness. ⎟⎜ Di ⎟⎜ dφi ( x ) ⎟ ⎠⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dx ⎠ dw ( x ) ⎞ ⎛ Qi ( x ) = Bi ⎜ φi ( x ) + i ⎟ dx ⎠ ⎝ 165 (6.2) where the subscript i = 1. a beam theory can be used to model the behavior of the top and bottom layers.2 A crack tip element of bi-layer composite beam According to Timoshenko beam theory.3) . the deformation field of the two sub-beams (Beam 1 and Beam 2) is: U i ( x i . therefore.

respectively. Q2+ Q2 Fig. and Mi are. and they are expressed as (i C i = E11) bhi . 2) are the axial.where Ni.3) as dN 1 ( x ) = bτ ( x ). transverse shear. and bending moment per unit width of beam i. 6.5) 166 .4) (i (i where E11) and G13) (i = 1. 2) are the longitudinal Young’s modulus and transverse shear modulus of layer i. dx h dM 1 ( x ) = Q1 (x ) − 1 bτ ( x ). x N1+ N1. respectively. dx dQ1 ( x ) = bσ ( x ). dx dQ 2 ( x ) = −bσ ( x ). dx 2 dN 2 ( x ) = −bτ ( x ). Q2 h2 x M2 + M 2 N2+ N2. 6. Bi = 5 (i ) G13 bhi . Bi. 2 dx (6. Q1+ Q1 M1 + M 1 M2 N2. and Di (i = 1. transverse shear force. 6 (i Di = E11) bhi3 12 (6. the resulting axial force. Ci. N1. dx h dM 2 ( x ) = Q2 ( x ) − 2 bτ (x ).3 Free body diagram of a bi-layer composite beam system The equilibrium conditions can be established by a free body diagram analysis of the bi-layer beam system (Fig. Qi. respectively. and bending stiffness coefficients of layer i. Q1 M1 h1 x.

4 Rigid joint model based on conventional beam theory 167 . Q1 ( x ) + Q2 ( x ) = Q10 + Q20 = QT . 2 2 (6. Q 20 N 2C . 6. and MT are the resulting forces expressed by the right equality in the above equations. Qi0. M 1 (x ) + M 2 (x ) + N1 (x ) h1 + h2 h + h2 = M 10 + M 20 + N 10 1 + QT x = M T . respectively.2. M* M 20 N 20.1 Conventional composite beam theory and rigid joint model Beam 1 c Beam 2 2 Rigid Joint N 10. and Mi0 (i = 1. Q 2C M 2C Crack tip forces Fig.2).6) where Ni0. 6. Q 1C M 1C N. and acting at the neutral axis of the bottom beam (Beam 2) (see Fig.The overall equilibrium requires: N 1 ( x ) + N 2 ( x ) = N 10 + N 20 = N T . 2) are the external forces in top and bottom layers. 6. Q. Q 10 M 10 N 1C . QT. NT.

(6. φ1 ( x ) = φ 2 ( x ) Along the interface of two sub-layers. i. the governing equation of the composite beam based on conventional beam theory is obtained as ⎛⎛ 1 (h + h2 ) ξ ⎞ N (x ) = F (x ) 1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎟η + 1 + ⎜⎜ D D ⎟ ⎟ 2 D2 2 ⎠ ⎝⎝ 1 ⎠ 168 (6.11b) Differentiating Eq.8) (6.13) .6).12) into Eq.10) and considering Eq.3) and (6.7) with respect to x gives M 1 (x ) M 2 (x ) = D1 D2 (6.4).6) yield: ηN 1 ( x ) − ξM 1 ( x ) = where N T h2 M T + C2 2D2 (6. the displacement continuity is given as w1 ( x ) = w2 ( x ) u1 (x ) − h1 h φ1 ( x ) = u 2 ( x ) + 2 φ 2 ( x ) 2 2 (6. in which the cross-sections of two sub-layers are assumed to remain in the same plane after deformation.Conventional composite beam theory is used most widely in the literature to analyze bi-layer beam (Fig.9) with respect to x and considering Eqs. (6. (6.. (6. (6. (6.e. 6.11a) η= 1 1 (h1 + h2 )h2 + + C1 C 2 4 D2 (6.9) Differentiating Eq.7) (6.12) By substituting Eq.10) ξ= h1 h − 2 2 D1 2 D2 (6.

15c) (6. are required at the crack tip (Fig.15f) N 2C = N T − N 1C Q2C = QT − Q1C M 2C = M T − M 1C − h1 + h2 N 1C 2 The subscript C is used to refer to the conventional composite beam solution.16b) (6.15e) (6.15b) (6.where ⎛⎛ 1 ⎛ ⎞N 1 ⎞ h2 ξ ⎞ ⎟M T + ⎜ 1 + 1 ⎟ T ⎟ + + F (x ) = ⎜ ⎜ ⎜D D ⎟C ⎜ ⎜ D D ⎟ 2D ⎟ D2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ 2 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 1 ⎝⎝ 1 The resultant forces of the beam are thereby obtained as N1C = (6. Since the differential displacements and rotation at the crack tip of two sub-layers are not allowed in this model. which are not physically existent.14) (D1 + D2 )h2 + 2 D1 D2ξ M T 2(D1 + D2 )η + ξD1 (h1 + h2 ) D2 + 2(D1 + D2 ) NT 2(D1 + D2 )η + ξD1 (h1 + h2 ) C2 (6.15a) ⎛ η h ⎞ (D1 + D2 )h2 + D1 D2ξ Q1C = ⎜ + 1 ⎟ ⎜ ξ 2 ⎟ 2 D (D + D )η + ξ (h + h ) QT ⎝ ⎠ 2 1 2 1 2 M 1C = ⎞ h η 1⎛N N 1C − ⎜ T + 2 M T ⎟ ⎜C ⎟ ξ ξ ⎝ 2 2 D2 ⎠ (6. 6. three concentrated forces (N.16a) (6. Q. and M*).15d) (6.16c) 169 .4) by the equilibrium conditions and given by N = N 10 − N 1C (0) Q = Q10 − Q1C (0) M* = M − h1 N 2 (6.

(6. and Q form a group of self-equilibrium forces. Eq.17) physically presents a rigid joint deformation model (Fig. u1 (0) = u1C (0) .4). and ξ = 0 ). which are used often in the following of this study.19) Thus. (6.16d) Note that N.10)) of the composite beam based on conventional beam theory is simplified as η s N 1s ( x ) = where N T hM T + C 2D (6.17c) φ1 (0) = φ 2 (0) = φC (0) . u 2 (0 ) = u 2C (0) . h1 = h2 = h . 6. (6. the governing equation (Eq. C1 = C 2 = C . B1 = B2 = B .20) . the governing equation of symmetric composite beam model is obtained as 2η s s N1 (x ) = F s (x ) D where 170 (6. which prohibits relative deformation at the crack (deformation) tip.18) ηs = 2 h2 + C 2D (6.17b) (6.17a) (6. The deformation at the crack tip therefore can be written as w1 (0 ) = w2 (0) = wC (0) . Thus. M.where M = M 10 − M 1C (0) (6. For the symmetric bi-layer beam in which the two sub-beams have the same material properties and geometry ( D1 = D2 = D .

i. To account for this deformation. it is fairly approximate in nature since it neglects the local deformation at the crack (delamination) tip. in which the restraint on the rotations of the sub-layers in Eq.22f) N 2sC = N T − N 1sC Q2sC = QT − Q1sC M 2sC = M T − M 1sC − hN 1sC In Eqs (6.7) is released. 6.18) to (6.2 Shear deformable bi-layer beam theory and semi-rigid joint model Although the rigid joint model is widely used due to its simplicity.22b) M 1sC = − ⎛1 h2 ⎞ N T + ⎜ − s ⎟M T ⎜ 2 4η D ⎟ 2η s C ⎝ ⎠ (6. 6.F s (x ) = 2⎛ h 1 ⎞ M T + NT ⎟ ⎜ D ⎝ 2D C ⎠ (6.e. Such a shear deformable bi171 . each sub-layer in the virgin beam portion can rotate separately.21) The resultant forces of the beam are thereby obtained as N 1sC = 1 ⎛ h 1 ⎞ M T + NT ⎟ s ⎜ C η ⎝ 2D ⎠ (6. the superscript s represents the case of symmetric bi-layer beams. (6.. 2005a) is employed to build a novel semi-rigid joint model (Fig.2. 22a) Q1sC = h 1 QT 2 (6.5).22e) (6.22d) (6.22).22c) (6. a shear deformable bi-layer beam theory (Wang and Qiao 2004a.

2006). 6. the governing equation of the bi-layer system based on shear deformable beam theory is (Wang and Qiao.5). Beam 1 Beam 2 2 Semi-Rigid Joint N10. Q 2(0) Fig.layer beam theory has been extensively applied to study fracture of bi-material interface (Wang and Qiao 2004b.8) and (6. Q10 M 10 N1(0). (6.24a) 172 . Q20 Crack tip forces M 2(0) N2(0).23) (6.9).3) and considering the equilibrium condition of Eq. Q C M 20 N20. Q 1(0) M 1(0) N C.5 Semi-rigid joint model based on shear deformable beam theory By differentiating Eqs. substituting them in Eq. (6. 2004a) ⎛ 1 (h1 + h2 ) ⎞ h ξ ⎞ d 2 N1 (x ) ⎛ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ + ⎟⎜η + 1 ⎟ − ⎜⎜ 2 ⎜B B ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ D + D ⎟η + 2 D ξ ⎟ N 1 ( x ) = − F ( x ) 2 ⎠ dx 2 ⎠ 2 2 ⎠⎝ ⎝ 1 ⎝⎝ 1 ⎠ where N T = N 10 + N 20 (6. (6.

QT = Q10 + Q20

M T = M 10 + M 20 + h1 + h2 N 10 + QT x 2

(6.24b) (6.24c)

and N10, N20, Q10, Q20, and M10, M20 are the applied axial forces, transverse shear forces, and bending moments, respectively, at the crack tip (Fig. 6.5).

NT, QT, and MT,

respectively, are the total resultant applied axial force, transverse shear force, and bending moment of the bi-layer system about the neural axis of the bottom layer (Beam 2) (see Fig. 6.2). By solving Eq. (6.23), the axial force of the Beam 1 is given as

N 1 ( x ) = ce − kx + ce kx + N 1C

(6.25)

where k is the decay parameter which is determined by the geometry of the specimen and properties of the materials, and given as

k2 = B1 B2 (2(D1 + D2 )η + D1 (h1 + h2 )ξ ) D1 D2 (B1 + B2 )(2η + h1ξ )

(6.26)

Compared to the thickness of the beam, the length of uncracked portion (L) of the bilayer beam is relatively large; therefore, the second term in Eq. (6.25) can be neglected near the crack tip (x = 0). Thus, the solutions for the forces of the beams are obtained as

N 1 ( x ) = ce − kx + N 1C

(6.27a) (6.27b)

**⎛η h ⎞ Q1 ( x ) = −⎜ + 1 ⎟cke −kx + Q1C ⎜ξ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
**

M 1 (x ) =

η − kx ce + M 1C ξ

(6.27c)

173

N 2 ( x ) = −ce − kx + N 2C

(6.27d)

⎛η h ⎞ Q2 ( x ) = ⎜ + 1 ⎟cke −kx + Q2C ⎜ξ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ η h + h2 M 2 ( x ) = −⎜ + 1 ⎜ξ 2 ⎝ ⎞ − kx ⎟ce + M 2C ⎟ ⎠

(6.27e)

(6.27f)

where NiC , QiC , and MiC (i = 1; 2) are, respectively, the axial force, transverse shear force, and bending moment of layer i by modeling the uncracked portion as a single beam element (i.e., using the conventional composite beam theory). Hellan (1978) and Chatterjee et al. (1986) showed that there were two concentrated forces NC and QC (see Fig. 6.5) at the crack tip if shear deformable beam theory is used and the two sub-layer are modeled two separate beams. Considering the equilibrium conditions at the crack tip (Fig. 6.5), we have

N 10 = − N C + N 1 (0) Q10 = −QC + Q1 (0)

M 10 = h1 N C + M 1 (0 ) 2

(6.28a) (6.28b) (6.28c)

where NC and QC are, respectively, the concentrated horizontal and vertical forces acting at x = 0 (Fig. 6.5). By solving Eq. (6.28), the coefficient of the solution (Eq. (6.27a)) and the concentrated horizontal and vertical forces are given as

c=

(2M + h1 N )ξ

h1ξ + 2η

(6.29)

174

NC =

2(Mξ − Nη ) h1ξ + 2η

(6.30a)

hN⎞ ⎛ QC = −Q − k ⎜ M + 1 ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝

(6.30b)

where

N = N 10 − N 1C Q = Q10 − Q1C

x =0

(6.31a) (6.31b) (6.31c)

x =0

M = M 10 − M 1C

x =0

Obviously, M, N and Q can be treated as a self-equilibrated loading system applied at the crack (delamination) tip. Note that in this case, the restraint on the rotations of the sub-layers at the crack tip is released. As a result, the concentrated bending moment at the crack tip is unnecessary, and only two concentrated forces (NC and QC) are required by the equilibrium condition at the crack tip (see Fig. 6.5). By integrating Eq. (6.3), the rotation of the sub-layer is given as

∫

L

x

L M M 1C 2C dx = ∫ dx = φ C ( L ) − φ C ( x ) x D D1 2

(6.32)

At the far end of the bi-layer composite beam, the rotations follow the condition of

φ1 (L ) = φ 2 (L ) = φC (L )

(6.33)

where φC is the rotation angle of uncracked portion based on the conventional composite beam model, i.e., both the top and bottom beams have the same rotation. The rotations of

175

both beams can be obtained by integrating Eq. (6.3) with respect to x and in consideration of Eqs. (6.27c) and (6.27f):

φ1 ( x ) = −

ce − kx φ 2 (x ) = kD2

ce − kx η + φ1C ( x ) kD1 ξ

(6.34a)

⎛ η h1 + h2 ⎜ + ⎜ξ 2 ⎝

⎞ ⎟ + φ 2C ( x ) ⎟ ⎠

(6.34b)

Since L is relatively large, some small terms in φi (x ) can be neglected and are not shown in Eq. (6.34). By the similar way, the deformation field at the crack tip (at x = 0 in the given coordinate in Fig. 6.2) is given as

⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ u1 (0 ) ⎞ ⎛ u1C (0 ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ u 2 (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ u 2C (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ φ (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ φ (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ ξ ⎟− ⎜ 1 ⎟ = ⎜ 1C ×⎜ ⎜ φ 2 (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ φ 2C (0 ) ⎟ h1ξ + 2η ⎜ ⎜ w (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ w (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 1C ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ w (0 )⎟ ⎜ w (0 )⎟ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2C ⎠ ⎜ ⎜ 1 ⎜− ⎜ D k2 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ η ⎟ ⎟ D1 kξ ⎟ × (h1 1 ⎛ η h1 + h2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ + − ⎟ 2 ⎟ D2 k ⎜ ξ ⎠ ⎝ ⎟ 1 ⎛η h ⎞ η ⎟ − ⎜ + 1⎟ D1 k 2ξ B1 ⎜ ξ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ η h1 + h2 ⎞ 1 ⎛ η h1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ + ⎟⎟ ⎟+ ⎜ + ⎜ξ 2 ⎟ B2 ⎜ ξ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ 1 C1 k 1 − C2 k

⎛N⎞ 2 )⎜ ⎟ (6.35) ⎜M ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

The shear deformable bi-layer theory (Wang and Qiao 2004a) is primarily applied in this section to distinguish it from the conventional composite beam theory in the previous section and the interface deformable bi-layer beam theory introduced in the next section. This assumption still deviates from the actual deformation at the crack tip (Fig. 6.5), and it tends to underestimate the deformation along the interface (Qiao and Wang 2005). 176

Therefore, the deformation at the crack tip predicted by Eq. (6.35) is an improvement compared to the ones in the rigid joint model and thus referred as the semi-rigid joint model.

For the symmetric bi-layer beam in which the two sub-beams have the same material properties and geometry ( D1 = D2 = D , C1 = C 2 = C , B1 = B2 = B , h1 = h2 = h , and

**ξ = 0 ), differentiating Eq. (6.9) with respect to x gives:
**

s du1s h dφ1s du 2 h dφ 2s − = + dx 2 dx dx 2 dx

(6.36)

**Substituting Eq. (6.36) with Eq. (6.3) and Eq. (6.6) gives:
**

s N 1s h M 1s N 2s h M 2 N T − N 1s h M T − M 1s − N 1s h − = + = + C 2 D C 2 D C 2 D

(

)

(

)

(6.37)

**Thus, the axial force can be obtained directly from Eq. (6.37) due to the special symmetry properties as
**

N 1s = h 1⎛1 ⎞ MT ⎟ ⎜ NT + η ⎝C 2D ⎠

(6.38)

Note that the axial force of beam 1 in a bi-layer beam with the symmetric geometry and material properties is the same as the solution ( N 1sC ) obtained from the conventional composite beam theory. Differentiating Eq. (6.8) with respect to x gives:

dw1 dw2 = dx dx

(6.39)

Substituting Eq. (6.39) with Eq. (6.3) and differentiating it with respect to x gives: 177

44) where k = B D The shear force can be obtained by differentiating the third equation of Eq.42) and Eq. (6.5) and substituting it with Eq.41) (6.43) is M 1s = ce − kx + M 1sC (6.45) Similarly as non-symmetry case. (6.46) 178 . (6. the rotations of Beam 1 can be obtained by integrating Eq. (6.43) (6.s s 1 dQ1s ( x ) M 1s 1 dQ2 ( x ) M 2 − = − B dx D B dx D (6. (6.5) as: Q1s = dM 1s h dN 1s + = − kce − kx + Q1sC dx 2 dx (6. (6.5)). (6.3) with respect to x: φ1s (x ) = − ce − kx + φ1sC ( x ) kD (6. (6.6) gives: d 2 M 1s B s Bh s h d 2 N 1s B N1 − − M1 = − MT 2 2 D 2D 2 dx 2D dx The solution of Eq.42) Differentiating Eq.40) Based on the equilibrium conditions of the bi-layer beam system (Eq.40) can be simplified as: s 2 dQ1s (x ) M 1s M 2 = − B dx D D (6. the relation of the shear force of two sub-layer beams can be expressed as: dQ1s ( x ) dQ s ( x ) =− 2 dx dx Thus Eq.

(6. (6.50) where.47) Substituting Eq. By the similar way.50) again represents the case of symmetric bilayer beams. the concentrated horizontal forces acting at x = 0 (Eq. (6.31c)).Since L is relatively large.49) where M 10 − M 1sC x =0 = M (see Eq.48) Thus.46).28c) gives: M 10 = h (− N ) + M 2 1 (0 ) = − h N +c+ M 2 s 1C x=0 (6.2) is given as 0 ⎞ ⎛ u1s (0 ) ⎞ ⎛ u1sC (0 ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎜ s ⎟ ⎜ s ⎟ ⎜ u 2 (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ u 2C (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ s ( ) ⎟ ⎜ φ s (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ N ⎟ − ⎜ Dk ⎟ × ⎛ h 1⎞⎛ ⎞ ⎜ φ1 0 ⎟ = ⎜ 1C ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜M ⎟ s s ⎜ φ 2 (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ φ 2C (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ − 1 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎟ ⎜ s ⎟ ⎜ s Dk ⎜ w1 (0 )⎟ ⎜ w1C (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ w s (0 )⎟ ⎜ w s (0 )⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2C ⎠ ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ (6. 6.36) to (6. 179 . (6. the deformation field of a symmetric laminated bi-layer beam at the crack tip (at x = 0 in the given coordinate in Fig. the superscript s in Eqs.28a)) turns to be: s N C = N 1 (0) − N 10 = N 1C x =0 − N 10 = − N (6. the coefficient in Eq. some small terms in φi (x ) can be neglected and are not shown in Eq. (6. (6.47) into Eq. Due to the symmetry. (6.48) is obtained as: c= h N+M 2 (6.

6 Flexible joint model based on interface deformable bi-layer beam theory The continuity condition of deformation along the interface is defined as (Qiao and Wang 2004) 180 . An improved solution of a bi-layer beam model with crack tip deformation is recently presented by Qiao and Wang (2004). 6. Q2(0) Fig.3 Interface deformable bi-layer beam theory and flexible joint model To better describe the non-linear feature of the deformed cross-sections of sub-layers (Fig. a novel concept of adopting the interface compliances (Suhir 1986). Q20 Crack tip forces N2(0). u 1 Beam 1 w1 w2 2 Beam 2 u2 Flexible Joint N10.6). and its application to bilayer beam fracture is elaborated in Wang and Qiao (2005b).2. Q10 M10 N1(0). 6.6). a higher order beam theory is usually needed. Q1(0) M1(0) M2(0) M20 N20. which describe the deformation in the shear and normal directions along the interface under the shear and normal stresses. In this new theory. is introduced. Csi and Cni.6. and it inevitably complicates the solution process significantly. 6. respectively (Fig.

52) Eq. the new governing equation of the improved interface deformable bi-layer beam theory with deformable interface is thus established as (Qiao and Wang 2004) (h + h2 ) ⎞ ( ) ( ) d 6 N1 (x ) d 4 N1 (x ) d 2 N1 (x ) ⎛ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎟η + 1 a6 ξ ⎟ N 1 x = F x (6. 1 ⎛ 1 ⎛ ξh1 1 ⎞⎞ ⎞ 1 ⎛ 1 ⎜ + ⎟⎟ a4 = − ⎜ +η ⎟ + ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ b ⎜ Kn ⎝ 2 ⎠ K s ⎝ B1 B2 ⎠ ⎟ .51) implies that the interface between the two sub-layers is deformable under the interface stress. by differentiating Eq. C si = (i . and therefore. C n1 + C n 2 . it represents an improved bi-layer beam theory with deformable interface. (6.53) + a4 + a2 + ⎜⎜ + ⎜⎜ D D ⎟ ⎟ 2 D2 dx 6 dx 4 dx 2 2 ⎠ ⎝⎝ 1 ⎠ where Ks = 1 1 1 a6 = 2 Kn = C s1 + C s 2 .5).3) and considering the equilibrium condition of Eq. ⎝ ⎠ a2 = 1⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎛ ξh1 1 ⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ ⎜ B B ⎟⎜ 2 + η ⎟ + bK b⎝ 1 ⎠ 2 ⎠⎝ s ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ ⎜ D D ⎟. b KsKn .51).51b) where C ni = hi hi (i ) . Similarly. (6. 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1 (6. (6.w1 ( x ) − C n1σ = w2 ( x ) + C n 2σ u1 (x ) − h1 h φ1 ( x ) − C s1τ = u 2 (x ) + 2 φ 2 ( x ) + C s 2τ 2 2 (6. 10 E33 15G13) (6. substituting them in Eq.51a) (6.54) 181 . (6.

53) has three new terms compared to the governing equation of shear deformable bi-layer beam theory (Eq. Here R1. the length of uncracked portion of the bi-layer system is relatively large. . Eq.55) can be neglected.55) can be simplified as N 1 ( x ) = ∑ ci e − Ri x + N 1C i =1 3 (6. 2. (6.54b) M 1 ( x ) = ∑ ci S i e − Ri x + M 1C i =1 (6.53) with roots as: (a) ±R1. R2. Thus. (6. (6. and ±R3. (6. .54c) 182 . Therefore.55) where ci (i =1.53) is given as N 1 ( x ) = ∑ ci e − Ri x + ∑ ci e Ri x + N 1C i =1 i =4 3 6 (6. ±R2.Eq. . Compared to the thickness of the beam. and ±R3 The solution of Eq.54a) Similarly. The forces and bending moments of each sub-layer can be obtained by using the characteristic equation of Eq. (6. the terms with positive power in Eq. ±R2.53) considers the deformation along the interface and therefore gives an interface deformable bi-layer beam model. and they are resulted from the deformation of the interface under the interface normal and shear stresses. 6) are the unknown coefficients to be determined by the boundary and continuity conditions. . (6. Case (a) ±R1.23)). and R3 are three real numbers. or (b) ±R1 and ±R2 ± iR3. other force and moment components can be written as: Q1 ( x ) = ∑ ci Ti e − Ri x + Q1C i =1 3 3 (6. It can be observed that Eq. (6.

and 3) are obtained as ⎛ c1 ⎞ ⎛ c11 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ c 2 ⎟ = ⎜ c 21 ⎜c ⎟ ⎜c ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 31 c12 c 22 c32 c13 ⎞⎛ N ⎞ ⎛ S T − S 2T3 ⎟⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ 3 2 c 23 ⎟⎜ M ⎟ = ⎜ S1T3 − S 3T1 Y⎜ c33 ⎟⎜ Q ⎟ ⎝ S 2T1 − S1T2 ⎠⎝ ⎠ T3 − T2 T1 − T3 T2 − T1 S 2 − S 3 ⎞⎛ N ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ S 3 − S1 ⎟⎜ M ⎟ S1 − S 2 ⎟⎜ Q ⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ (6.54d) Q2 ( x ) = −∑ ci Ti e − Ri x + Q2C i =1 3 h + h2 ⎞ − Ri x ⎛ M 2 ( x ) = −∑ ⎜ S i + 1 + M 2C ⎟c i e 2 ⎠ i =1 ⎝ (6. (6. At the crack tip (x = 0): N 1 = N 10 .54f) where N1C. Eq. representing the local effect.54) shows that the resultant forces of sub-layers are composed of two parts: (1) the exponential terms. and Q1C are the internal forces of layer 1 based on the conventional composite beam theory (Suo and Hutchinson 1990).57a) 183 . Q1 = Q10 .55) The coefficients (ci. M 1 = M 10 . 2. which decay very fast.54e) (6. M1C or Q1C) from the conventional composite beam solution. and (2) the stable-state terms (i. the resultant forces can be obtained as N 1 = c1e − R1x + e − R2 x (c 2 cos(R3 x ) + c3 sin (R3 x )) + N 1C (6.e.N 2 ( x ) = −∑ ci e − Ri x + N 2C i =1 3 3 (6.56) where Y = S 2T1 − S 3T1 − S1T2 + S 3T2 + S1T3 − S 2T3 Case (b) ±R1 and ±R2 ± iR3 Similarly as case (a). M1C.. N1C. (6. i = 1.

and 3) are obtained as ⎛ c1 ⎞ ⎛ c11 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ c 2 ⎟ = ⎜ c 21 ⎜c ⎟ ⎜c ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 31 c12 c 22 c32 − T3 c13 ⎞⎛ N ⎞ ⎛ S T + S 2T3 ⎟⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ 3 2 c 23 ⎟⎜ M ⎟ = ⎜ − S1T3 − S 3T1 T3 Y⎜ c33 ⎟⎜ Q ⎟ ⎝ S 2T1 − S1T2 T2 − T1 ⎠⎝ ⎠ − S 3 ⎞⎛ N ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ S 3 ⎟⎜ M ⎟ S1 − S 2 ⎟⎜ Q ⎟ ⎠⎝ ⎠ (6. T3 = − R3 S 2 + R2 S3 − 1 R3 .2) and the above solutions of resultant forces of each layer. T2 = − R2 S 2 − R3 S 3 − 1 R2 .58) The coefficients (ci.M 1 = c1 S1e − R1x + e − R2 x (c 2 (S 2 cos(R3 x ) − S 3 sin (R3 x )) + c3 (S 3 cos(R3 x ) + S 2 sin (R3 x ))) + M 1C (6. As an illustration. ξbK s ξ ξbK s ξ ξbK s T1 = − R1 S1 − h1 h h R1 .60) φ1C (L ) − φ1C (0 ) = ∫ L 0 M 1C dx D1 (6. the rotation of beam 1 at the joint is calculated for Case (a) as: φ1 (L ) − φ1 (0) = ∫ where L 0 M1 1 ⎛ c1 S1 c 2 S 2 c3 S 3 ⎞ L M 1C ⎟+ ⎜ dx = dx + + D1 D1 ⎜ R1 R2 R3 ⎟ ∫0 D1 ⎠ ⎝ (6. (6. i = 1. S2 = − + .59) where Y = − S 3T1 + S 3T2 − S1T3 + S 2T3 The deformation at the joint can be obtained from the constitutive law in Eq.57c) where 2 R2 − R32 η 2 R2 R3 R12 η S1 = − + . 2 2 2 (6. S3 = .61) 184 . 2.57b) Q1 = c1T1e − R1x + e − R2 x (c 2 (T2 cos(R3 x ) + T3 sin (R3 x )) + c3 (T2 sin (R3 x ) − T3 cos(R3 x ))) + Q1C (6.

(6. the local deformation of the crack tip is thus established as (Qiao and Wang 2004) ⎛ u1 (0 ) ⎞ ⎛ u1C (0 ) ⎞ ⎛ S11 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ u 2 (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ u 2C (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ S 21 ⎜ φ (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ φ (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ S ⎟ − ⎜ 31 ⎜ 1 ⎟ = ⎜ 1C ⎜ φ 2 (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ φ 2C (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ S 41 ⎜ w (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ w (0 ) ⎟ ⎜ S ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 1C ⎟ ⎜ 51 ⎜ w (0)⎟ ⎜ w (0 )⎟ ⎜ S ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2C ⎠ ⎝ 61 S12 S 22 S 32 S 42 S 52 S 62 S13 ⎞ ⎟ S 23 ⎟ ⎛N⎞ S 33 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟×⎜M ⎟ S 43 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Q S 53 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ S 63 ⎟ ⎠ (6. The concept of crack tip deformation represented by Eq.65) where S = {Sij}6×3 is a matrix representing the local deformation compliance at the crack tip (see Appendix B). provides better prediction of the deformations at the crack tip.64) Following the same procedure. Compared to other two aforementioned joint models. When L is relatively large. 185 . we have: φ1 (L ) = φ1C (L ) Thus: (6.53) considers the deformation along the interface due to the interface normal and shear stresses.where φ1C is the rotation angle based on the conventional composite beam theory. Eq.65) is thus referred as a flexible joint model. and therefore. (6.63) (6.62) φ1C (0 ) − φ1 (0 ) = Δφ1 (0 ) = S 31 N + S 32 M + S 33 Q where ⎛⎛ S ⎛ S T ⎞ T S 3i = ⎜ ⎜ 1 2 + 1 ⎟c1i + ⎜ 2 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜D R ⎜⎜ D R ⎝ 1 2 B1 R2 ⎝ ⎝ 1 1 B1 R1 ⎠ ⎛ S ⎞ T ⎞ ⎞ ⎟c 2 i + ⎜ 3 2 + 3 ⎟ c 3 i ⎟ ⎟ ⎜D R ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 1 3 B1 R3 ⎠ ⎠ (6.

k1x + N 1sC (6.70) 186 .k2 x + c3 e .67) and (6. h1 = h2 = h . in which each sub-layer has the same geometry and material properties ( D1 = D2 = D . and ξ = 0 ).5) and substituting Eqs.k1x + M 1sC (6.3) and (6.5) and differentiating with respective to x gives: d 2 N 1s h ⎛N ⎞ − K s bηN 1s = − K s b⎜ T + MT ⎟ 2 dx ⎝ C 2D ⎠ (6. (6. (6. C1 = C 2 = C .5) and differentiating two more times with respect to x gives: d 4 M 1s h d 4 N 1s 2 K n b d 2 M 1s K n bh d 2 N 1s 2 K n b s K n bh s K n b M1 + N1 = + − − + M T (6.69) and the shear force can be obtained by differentiating Eq. (6.67) where k1 = K s bη .For the symmetric bi-layer beam.68) is: M 1s = c 2 e . substituting Eq.k3 x + Sc1e .3) and (6.66) can be obtained as: N 1s = c1e .66) The solution of Eq. (6.51a) into Eqs. (6. Substituting Eq.69) as: ⎛ Q1s = −c 2 k 2 e -k 2 x − c3 k 3 e -k3 x − ⎜ S + ⎝ where h⎞ -k x s ⎟c1 k1e 1 + Q1C 2⎠ (6. (6. (6.68) B B D D D 2 dx 4 dx 4 dx 2 dx 2 The solution of Eq.51b) into Eqs. (6. B1 = B2 = B .

3 Delamination buckling analysis based on three joint models Local delamination buckling is a common failure mode in the laminated composite structures (Fig.55) as: ⎛ ⎜ k 2 − k3 c13 ⎞⎛ N ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎜ h − (k1 − k 3 )S − k1 c 23 ⎟⎜ M ⎟ = 2 k 2 − k3 ⎜ c33 ⎟⎜ Q ⎟ ⎜ h ⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎜ (k1 − k 2 )S + k1 2 ⎝ 0 − k3 k2 ⎞ 0 ⎟⎛ N ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ − 1⎟⎜ M ⎟ (6. (6.70b) k3 = (6. 6.66) to (6.71) ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎝ Q ⎠ 1⎟ ⎠ ⎛ c1 ⎞ ⎛ c11 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ c 2 ⎟ = ⎜ c 21 ⎜c ⎟ ⎜c ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 31 c12 c 22 c32 The deformation at the crack tip can be expressed as Eq. Typical analytical solution of local delamination buckling ignores the local deformation at the delamination tips and assumes both the ends of the 187 . and the compliance matrix is given in Appendix B.70) refers the case of symmetric bi-layer beams.70a) k2 = K nb 2K nb ⎛ K b⎞ + ⎜ n ⎟ − B D ⎝ B ⎠ 2K nb K nb ⎛ K b⎞ − ⎜ n ⎟ − B D ⎝ B ⎠ 2 2 (6.7).65). 6. The buckling load is influenced by the local deformation at the tip of delamination area. Again. the superscript s in Eqs. (6. (6.2 3 K n bh 5 h 4 K n bk1 h k1 + − B D S= 2 2 K n b 2 k12 h 2 2 K n b k14 − + B D − (6.70c) The coefficients of integration ci are determined by the boundary condition (see Eq.

With the release of the local restraint at the end of delamination.delamination area are either simply supported or clamped. by assuming the simply-supported condition at the delamination tip. 6. The actual case should be within these two extreme scenarios. The solutions of the local delamination buckling based on the three joint models are derived and compared in this section. z z1 x1 a x (a) Sub-layer delamination buckling z z1 x1 x a (b) Symmetrical delamination buckling Fig. the clamped model is the same as the rigid joint model which prohibits the relative displacements and rotations of two sub-layers at the crack tip (delamination tip). and the validity of the solution is verified by the numerical finite element simulation using the commercial software ANSYS. While. a low bound of the local delamination buckling is obtained.7 Local delamination buckling of laminated composite beams 188 . The solution based on the rigid joint model gives the higher bound of the local delamination buckling. the solution is closer to the exact situation. From the joint deformation point view.

6.7). the delamination tip and a is the half-length of the delamination (Fig. 6. The governing equation for the top layer (Beam 1) is expressed as: d 4 w1 P1 d 2 w1 p1 + = D1 (1 − P1 / B1 ) dx 2 D1 dx 4 (6. the general solution of Eq. D1 (1 − P1 / B1 ) Due to the symmetry of the delamination area in the beam with respect to the center line (Fig.72) where P1 is the axial force which is applied to the top layer (Beam 1) of the bi-layer beam..74) and the rotation is r r ψ 1 ( x ) = −C 3 λ1 sin λ1 x (6.6. the shear deformation can be taken into account in a generalization of Timoshenko beam theory. When p1 = 0.1 Local delamination buckling based on rigid joint model For a laminated composite beam-type structure.73) P1 .e.7)) of the bi-layer composite beam based on the rigid joint model are: w1 (a ) = 0 (6. and the superscript r represents the rigid joint model.72) is given as: r r w1 ( x ) = C1 + C 2 x + C 3 cos λ1 x + C 4 sin λ1 x r where (λ1 ) = 2 (6.75) The boundary conditions at x = a (i.3. and p1 is the transverse distributed load. (6.76a) 189 . the solution can be simplified as r w1 ( x ) = C1 + C 3 cos λ1 x (6.

. the effective length ratio is μr = π r λ1 a = 1 (i. For the rigid joint model.75) to Eq.e. (6.79b) where aeff is the virtual effective length.78) ( λ1 a = nπ ) is obtained as r λ1 = π a (6.76b) (6.77) and after expanding.ψ 1 (a ) = 0 Substituting Eqs. it becomes: r sin λ1 a = 0 ( ) (6.79c) Thus.80) 1 B1 . the lowest value of the solution of Eq.79a) Dividing π/a by λ1 gives the effective length ratio as: μ= π a = aeff λ1 a (6.78) r When n = 1. (6. a r = a) eff (6.74) and (6.76) leads to a non-trivial solution as: r 1 cos λ1 a =0 r r 0 − λ1 sin λ1 a (6. the critical local delamination buckling load based on the rigid model is given as ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ D1 ⎝a⎠ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ D1 a 1+ ⎝ ⎠ B1 190 2 2 (P ) r 1 cr = (λ ) D = (λ ) D 1+ r 2 1 1 r 2 1 (6. (6.

83b) ψ (a ) = ψ a 191 .73). leading to the reduced local delamination load in comparison to the one by the rigid joint model. (6. (6. the local delamination buckling solution is derived in this section.3.83a) (6. due to the symmetry of the delamination to its center line. The boundary conditions at the end of delamination (x = a) of the bi-layer composite beam based on the semi-rigid joint model are: w(a ) = 0 (6.82a) (6.2 Local delamination buckling based on semi-rigid joint model The restraint of the rotation at the delamination tip is released for the semi-rigid model (Fig.80) with Pcr = π 2 D1 a2 = (i. By including the rotation at the end of delamination area. the displacement and rotation become: s w1 ( x ) = C1 + C 3 cos λ1 x (6.e.81) 1 B1 6. According to Eq. gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎛ π ⎞2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ D1 ⎟ a⎠ ⎟ 2⎜ μ r ⎜1 + ⎝ 2 μ r B1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (P ) r 1 cr = 1 ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ D1 a 1+ ⎝ ⎠ B1 2 (λ ) D 1+ r 2 1 = (6.5). 6. the solution of Euler buckling).82b) s s ψ 1 ( x ) = −C 3 λ1 sin λ1 x where the superscript s here represents the semi-rigid joint model.0 Normalizing Eq..

88) with P = 0 cr π 2 D1 a2 gives 192 .85) in Eq. (6. k (h1ξ + 2η ) The characteristic equation is obtained as s s tan λ1 a = χλ1 ( ) (6. the critical local delamination buckling load based on the semi-rigid joint model is given as (P ) = (λ ) D (λ ) D 1+ s 1 cr s 2 1 1 s 2 1 (6.82a). (6. Thus.84).82b) with respect to x dψ s = −C 3 λ1 dx ( ) 2 s cos λ1 x (6. (6.86) where χ = − 2η .85) and substituting Eqs.87).84) Differentiating Eq. it gives: s 1 cos λ1 a =0 s s s 2 s 0 λ1 sin λ1 a − χ (λ1 ) cos λ1 a (6.87) s By solving Eq. (6. the coefficient λ1 can be numerically computed.83). (6.88) 1 B1 Normalizing Eq.35)) as: ψa = − 2η 2η dψ M =− | x=a kD1 (h1ξ + 2η ) k (h1ξ + 2η ) dx (6.where ψ a is the rotation angle obtained from the shear deformable bi-layer beam theory (Eq. and (6. (6. (6.

and the joint is allowed to have horizontal and vertical displacements.90a) (6.79b) and is s larger than 1 for the semi-rigid joint model. (6. (6. (6.81).90b) ψ 1 ( x ) = −C 3 λ1f sin λ1f x 193 . s λ1 For the rigid joint model. which is similar to the conception of subbeam on elastic foundation.89) results in the same expression given in Eq. the displacement and rotation is: w1 (x ) = C1 + C 3 cos λ1f x (6.3 Local delamination buckling based on flexible joint model From the continuity condition of deformation along the interface (Eq. 6. the delamination considered in this study is symmetry to its center line. the local delamination buckling solution is derived based on the flexible joint model. the restraint of the local deformation at the crack tip is fully released.(P ) s 1 cr = π 2 (λ ) a = ⎛ (λ ) D ⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ s 2 1 2 1 ⎛ ⎛ π ⎞2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ D1 ⎟ ⎟ a⎠ 2⎜ μ s ⎜1 + ⎝ 2 μ s B1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ s 2 1 (6.89) 1 B1 ⎟ ⎠ where μ s = (π / a ) . μ s represents the effective length ratio (see Eq. To investigate the influence caused by the full release of the local deformation at delamination tip. indicating that the virtual effective aeff is r larger than aeff = a of the rigid joint model. 6. Thus. Similar to the semi-rigid model.51).3. Eq.

92a) ψ af = − S 32 M = − S 32 D1 where (6. ±R3 ⎛ S ⎛ S T T ⎞ S 32 = ⎜ 1 2 + 1 ⎟c12 + ⎜ 2 2 + 2 ⎜D R ⎟ ⎜D R ⎝ 1 2 B1 R2 ⎝ 1 1 B1 R1 ⎠ ⎛ S ⎞ T ⎞ ⎟c 22 + ⎜ 3 2 + 3 ⎟c32 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜D R ⎠ ⎝ 1 3 B1 R3 ⎠ ( ) (6.91) gives 1 − cos λ1f a − S 52 D1 λ1f 1 0 λ1f sin λ1f a + S 32 and the characteristic equation is obtained as ( ) cos λ a = 0 D (λ ) cos λ a 2 f 1 2 f 1 f 1 (6. (6. (6. ±R2. (6. and (6.93) Substituting Eqs.95) (6.91b) ψ (a ) = ψ af where waf and ψ af can be obtained from Eq.65) based on the interface deformable bilayer composite beam theory (Qiao and Wang 2004) waf = − S 52 M = − S 52 D1 dψ | x=a dx dψ | x =a dx (6.92b) 2 dψ = −C 3 λ1f cos λ1f x dx (6. (6.90).92). (6.where the superscript f represents the flexible joint model.91a) (6.94) tan λ1f a = − S 32 D1λ1f where for the characteristic equation of Eq.96a) 194 .93) into Eq. The boundary conditions at the delamination tip (x = a) of the bi-layer beam based on the flexible joint model are: w(a ) = waf (6.53) with roots of ±R1.

96b) ) ( ) Thus. (6..97) 1 B1 0 Normalizing Eq.97) with Pcr = π 2 D1 a2 gives 2 (P ) f 1 cr = π 2 (λ ) a = ⎛ (λ ) D ⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ f 2 1 1 ⎜ ⎝ f 2 1 1 B1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ ⎛ π ⎞2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ D1 ⎟ a⎠ ⎟ 2⎜ μ f ⎜1 + ⎝ 2 μ f B1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (6. by solving Eq.53) with roots of ±R1.81)). (6. Eq. the critical local delamination buckling load based on the flexible joint model is given as (P ) = (λ ) D (λ ) D 1+ f 1 cr f 1 2 1 f 1 2 (6. when the interface compliance Cni = Csi = 0) is the same as Eq. (6. and ±R2 ± iR3 ⎛ S R 2 − R 2 + 2R R S ⎛ S T R +T R T ⎞ 3 2 3 3 S 32 = ⎜ 1 2 + 1 ⎟c12 + ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 2 3 23 2 ⎟ ⎜D R 2 ⎜ B1 R2 + R3 D1 R2 + R32 ⎝ 1 1 B1 R1 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ S R 2 − R 2 + 2R R S T R +T R ⎞ 3 2 3 2 + 2 3 2 3 22 ⎟c32 +⎜ 3 2 2 2 ⎜ B1 R2 + R3 ⎟ D1 R2 + R32 ⎠ ⎝ ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ( ) ⎞ ⎟c ⎟ 22 ⎠ (6. 195 .98) where f (π / a ) = aeff μf = f λ1 a . and it is equal to or larger than the value of μ s which is always larger than 1. (6. (6. Again.98) with μ f = μ r = 1 leads to the same expression as the one by the rigid joint (Eq. μ f represents the ratio of effective length from the flexible joint model. Thus.89) by semi-rigid joint model.e. while Eq. (6.98) with μ f = μ s (i.for the characteristic equation of Eq.95) to obtain λ1f . (6.

3. and 15. and the results are listed in Table 6.8). 6. h1 = 0. respectively (Fig. A beam specimen with a sub-layer delamination area symmetric to its center line with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1. The beam is modeled with 8-node 3-D element SOLID45 with three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x. y. 6. leading to reduced critical local delamination buckling load.In summary.7)).4 Numerical validation To validate the accuracy of the solutions obtained based on the three joint deformation model. Basically.3. an equivalent concept of the effective length or effective length ratio is introduced. with inclusion of local delamination tip deformation by the joint models. the local delamination tip deformation increases the effective length. 196 . the numerical simulation is conducted using the commercial software ANSYS.2 and h2 = 2 is analyzed. υ1 = υ2 = 0. the larger the effective length becomes. f s r resulting in aeff ≥ aeff ≥ aeff = a or μ f ≥ μ s ≥ μ r = 1 . The more release of local deformation at the delamination tip. 6. The delamination ratio (a/h1) is chosen as 5. 10.1 (where a is the half length of the delamination (see Fig. and z directions.

As anticipated.8 Sub-layer delamination buckling of bi-layer beams in numerical simulation Compared with the analytical solutions based on the three joint models (Table 6. the solution obtained based on the rigid joint model gives the highest value since the boundary at the delamination tip is fully 197 . 6.1). the results obtained from the numerical simulation match well with the ones calculated based on the flexible joint model.(a) a/h1 = 5 (b) a/h1 = 10 (c) a/h1 = 15 Fig.

198 .3.9569 Flexible 0. and ξ = 0 ). since sub-layers at the delamination tip are allowed to rotate while prohibiting the displacement along the vertical and horizontal directions. in which each sub-layer has the same geometry and material properties ( D1 = D2 = D .8702 0.5.9).9205 0. A symmetric beam specimen with a symmetric delamination area at the center line with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1.9093 Load FEA Note: h1 = 0. 6. the results obtained from the semi-rigid joint model are lower than those of rigid joint model but are higher than the solution from the flexible joint model.1 Analytical and numerical simulation results of sub-layer delamination buckling Delamination length ratio a/h1 = 5 P1 a/h1 = 10 a/h1 = 15 Joint model Rigid 0. υ1 = υ2 = 0. the numerical simulation is conducted to validate the analytical results based on the three joint models. h2 = 2. h1 = h2 = h = 0. The delamination ratio (a/h) is chosen as 2.restrained (clamped). 5.9887 Semi-rigid 0. E1 = E2 = 1 For a symmetric bi-layer beam. C1 = C 2 = C .7613 0.4 is analyzed. and 7.9285 0. the results based on the flexible joint model match best with the numerical simulation. B1 = B2 = B .9069 0.8338 0. Table 6.8741 0.2. since it is much closer to the real situation compared to the other two joint models.7596 0. h1 = h2 = h .5 (Fig. finally. as assumed in the conventional composite beam theory.9750 0.

6.7638 0.8421 0.5165 0. the shear deformation.9 Symmetric delamination buckling in numerical simulation (a/h = 2. but still in an acceptable range.respectively. and interface compliance using the three joint deformation models is conducted in this section.5501 0.4.8220 Load FEA Note: h1 = h2 = h = 0.8755 Flexible 0.7089 0.5925 0. The results obtained from numerical simulation are a little bit lower than the ones calculated by the flexible joint model. Fig.8338 0.2.4 Parametric study A parametric study of the effects of delamination length ratio. 199 .7287 0.9564 Semi-rigid 0.5 P1 a/h = 5 a/h = 7.5 Joint model Rigid 0.9069 0.2 Analytical and numerical simulation results of symmetric delamination buckling Delamination length ratio a/h = 2. and the results are listed in Table 6.5) Table 6. E1 = E2 = 1 6.

e.5 to 30 for symmetric delamination buckling.3. the effect of local deformation is more pronounced. 6. h1 = h2 = h = 0.4. υ1 = υ2 = 0. The delamination length ratio (a/h1) is chosen from 1.11 for symmetric delamination buckling). As the length of the delamination increases (i.4 to study symmetric delamination buckling. and 1.6.5 to 50 for sub-layer delamination buckling. 200 . As a/h1 is smaller (within the range of a/h1 ≤ 20).1 Effect of delamination length ratio The effect of delamination length ratios (a/h1) on three joint models is implemented by comparing the solutions with the increase of the delamination length. υ1 = υ2 = 0. h1 = 0. Two beam specimen with a delamination length symmetric to its center line are analyzed in this section: one is the specimen with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1. and the other is with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1.2 and h2 = 2 to study the sub-layer delamination buckling. Fig.10 for sub-layer delamination buckling. the prediction by all the three joint models asymptotically converge to the same one (see Fig..3. 6. a/h1 → ∞).

8 (P1)cr 0.6 Rigid joint model Semi-rigid joint model Flexible joint model 0.10 Effect of delamination length ratios on sub-layer delamination buckling 1.6 Rigid joint model Semi-rigid joint model Flexible joint model 0.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 a/h1 Fig. 6.4 0.0 0. 6.0 0.11 Effect of delamination length ratios on symmetric delamination buckling 201 .8 (P1)cr 0.1.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 a/h1 Fig.

The effective length ratio μ (Eq.15 Rigid joint model Semi-rigid joint model Flexible joint model 1. 6. (79b)) represents the ratio of π / a over λ.. the effective length ratios obtained based on the semi-rigid joint model ( μ s ) and flexile joint model ( μ f ) are always larger than 1 (Fig.10 1.25 1.12 Effective length ratio vs. Since the effective length of the rigid r joint model is aeff = a leading to μ r = 1 . and it can be treated as the ratio of the effective length (aeff) obtained from the respective joint deformation model over the effective length (a).05 1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 a/h1 Fig. a/h1 → ∞). 6.20 μ 1. and Fig. With the increase of delamination length ratio (i.30 1. 1.12 for sub-layer delamination buckling. the predictions by all the semi-rigid and flexible joint models asymptotically decrease to μ r = 1 . 6. delamination length ratios (sub-layer delamination buckling) 202 .13 for symmetric delamination buckling).e.

The shear modulus of orthotropic material in the calculation is obtained by reducing the shear modulus of the isotropic materials by 10 times.4. h1 = h2 = h = 0. υ1 = υ2 = 0.15 show that the shear effect has the significant influence on the 203 .20 μ 1. 6.13 Effective length ratio vs. delamination length ratios (symmetric delamination buckling) 6.2 Effect of shear deformation The effect of shear deformation on the local delamination buckling by three joint models is implemented by comparing the solutions between isotropic and orthotropic materials. υ1 = υ2 = 0.14 and 6. 6.3.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 a/h1 Fig. h1 = 0.2 and h2 = 2 to study the sub-layer delamination buckling.10 1.05 1. Figs.1.30 1. Two beam specimen with a delamination length symmetric to its center line are analyzed in this section: one is the specimen with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1.25 1. and the other is with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1.3.15 Rigid joint model Semi-rigid joint model Flexible joint model 1.4 to study symmetric delamination buckling.

14 Shear effect on sub-layer delamination buckling 1.0 0.results when the beam is relatively short.6 0. 1.0 0.8 (P1)cr 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 a/h1 Fig.4 0.15 Shear effect on symmetric delamination buckling 204 . while the effect is reduced for the flexible model.6 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 a/h1 Fig. 6.2 Isotopic clamped joint model Isotopic semi-rigid joint model Isotopic flexible joint model Orthotropic clamped joint model Orthotropic semi-rigid joint model Orthotropic flexible joint model 0. the influence of the shear deformation on the delamination buckling by the rigid model is the most severe. 6.2 Isotopic clamped joint model Isotopic semi-rigid joint model Isotopic flexible joint model Orthotropic clamped joint model Orthotropic semi-rigid joint model Orthotropic flexible joint model 0.8 (P1)cr 0. Among the three joint models.4 0.

1. h1 = 0. the beam specimen with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1.8 (P1)cr 0.2 0.3. υ1 = υ2 = 0. 6.0 0.4 0. υ1 = υ2 = 0.6 0.0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Exx/Gxz Rigid joint model a/h1 = 30 Semi-rigid joint model a/h1 = 30 Flexible joint model a/h1 = 30 Rigid joint model a/h1 = 10 Semi-rigid joint model a/h1 = 10 Flexible joint model a/h1 = 10 Rigid joint model a/h1 = 3 Semi-rigid joint model a/h1 = 3 Flexible joint model a/h1 = 3 Fig. h1 = h2 = h = 0.2 and h2 = 2 for sub-layer delamination buckling and E1 = E2 = 1. The ratio of the longitudinal stiffness Exx to the shear modulus Gxz starts from isotropy ( G xz = E xx ) to orthotropy by reducing the shear 2(1 + ν xz ) 205 . 10 and 30) are analyzed.3.4 for symmetric delamination buckling with different delamination ratios (a/h1 = 3.16 Shear effect on sub-layer delamination buckling with different delamination length ratios To further investigate the shear effect on the solution of three joint deformation models.

peel and shear 206 . the two interface compliance coefficients Cni and Csi are introduced to account for the contribution of interface stresses (i. As shown in Figs.2 0.17. the shear effect is more pronounced for the beam with short delamination length than the one with long delamination length..6 0. 1.e.17 Shear effect on symmetric delamination buckling with different delamination length ratios 6.3 Influence of interface compliance In the flexible joint model.0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Exx/Gxz Rigid joint model a/h = 30 Semi-rigid joint model a/h = 30 Flexible joint model a/h = 30 Rigid joint model a/h = 10 Semi-rigid joint model a/h = 10 Flexible joint model a/h = 10 Rigid joint model a/h = 3 Semi-rigid joint model a/h = 3 Flexible joint model a/h = 3 Fig.4.0 0.16 and 6. 6.modulus of the isotropic materials step by step.8 (P1)cr 0.4 0. 6.

0 0. 1. The beam specimens with a delamination length symmetric to its center line with the material properties of E1 = E2 = 1.5 2. h1 = h2 = h = 0.6 0. 6.2 0.4 for symmetric delamination buckling are analyzed. 6.19 show the delamination buckling solution obtained based on the flexible joint model approaches to that of the semi-rigid joint model by reducing the two interface compliance coefficients Cni and Csi to zero. it converges to the semi-rigid model (Eq.3.5 1. υ1 = υ2 = 0.2 and h2 = 2 for sub-layer delamination buckling and E1 = E2 = 1.0 0.8 Semi-rigid joint model Flexible joint model (P1)cr 0. υ1 = υ2 = 0. h1 = 0.0 1.stresses) to the interface deformation.51)). When the interface compliance coefficients approach zero. interface compliance coefficients (sub-layer delamination buckling) 207 .18 and 6.4 0.0 ExC (Cni = Csi) Fig. Figs. (6.3. The delamination length ratio (a/h1) is 10.18 Delamination buckling load vs.

19 Delamination buckling load vs. The analytical solution for local delamination buckling is derived based on three distinct bi-layer beam theories (i. In the shear deformable bi-layer beam theory (Wang and Qiao 2004a). and interface deformable bi-layer beam theory) representing three improving degrees of accuracy by accounting for the local deformation at the delamination tip.1.. conventional composite beam theory. shear deformable bi-layer beam theory.5 Concluding remarks The local delamination buckling analysis of laminated composite beams is presented in this chapter.3 0.6 0. the relative rotation of two sub-layers at the delamination 208 .4 0.0 ExC (Cni = Csi) Fig.0 0. interface compliance coefficients (symmetric delamination buckling) 6. 6.9 0. In the conventional composite beam theory.5 1.e. the section at the delamination tip deforms as one composite section.5 2.5 0. leading to a rigid joint and thus an overestimated local delamination buckling load.0 0.0 1.7 0.8 Semi-rigid joint model Flexible joint model (P1)cr 0.

. is needed. 209 .tip is allowed. and with inclusion of the delamination tip deformation. A numerical finite element modeling is conducted to validate the analytical solution. and it more mimics the real scenario at the delamination tip in the laminated structures (e.g. fiber bridging effect). The improved solutions based on the semi-rigid and flexible joint models can be used to better predict the local delamination buckling of laminated composite structures and provide a viable and effective tool compared to numerical and other high-order beam/plate models. such as the flexible joint. It is also noted that the local deformation is more pronounced as the length of the delamination becomes shorter. The concept of the effective length is introduced as well. Finally. in the interface deformable bi-layer beam theory (Qiao and Wang 2004). resulting in a semi-rigid joint and an improved prediction of local delamination buckling load. and it demonstrates that the prediction of local delamination buckling load by the flexible joint model is closer to the finite element results. which is similar to the concept of sub-layer beam on an elastic foundation. the effective length of the buckled sub-layer is correspondingly increased. in which a more accurate model. the relatively horizontal and vertical displacements at the delamination tip are included by introducing the interface compliance coefficients.

Major findings and conclusions are presented in this chapter. structural shapes.and open channel section beams. local buckling. when a tip vertical load acts through the shear center (e. numerical and experimental study for the flexural-torsional buckling of pultruded FRP composite cantilever I.1. so that design analysis and optimization of such the structures can be greatly facilitated.g.. and delamination buckling) of FRP composite structures is presented.e. The stress resultants and displacement fields of flexural-torsional buckling for I.and open channel section beams is studied. double 210 ..and open channel section beams considering bending and torsion are provided. plates.1 Global (Flexural-torsional) buckling of thin-walled FRP beams A combined analytical. For the stress resultants of I. followed by recommendations for future work. and sandwich cores) is investigated by a combined analytical.CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The goal of this dissertation aims to develop explicit buckling formulas for fiberreinforced plastic (FRP) composite structures. global (flexural-torsional) buckling.1 Conclusions 7..e. The second variational problem and total potential energy of the thin-walled beams based on nonlinear plate theory is derived. A comprehensive study on stability analyses (i. numerical and experimental study. The stability of various FRP structures (i. and the shear effects and beam bending-twisting coupling are considered in the analysis. 7.

and the critical buckling loads for different span lengths are obtained. The explicit analytical formulations of global (flexural-torsional) buckling of FRP cantilever I.and open channel section beams shed light on the global buckling behavior and can be employed in optimal design of FRP beams.2 Local buckling of rotationally restrained plates and FRP structural shapes A variational formulation of the Ritz method is used to establish an eigenvalue problem for the local buckling behavior of composite plates rotationally restrained along 211 .section beams). An experimental study of four different geometries of FRP cantilever I.and open section beams. fiber orientation. from which the stress resultants consist of two parts: one is related to the bending effect of the vertical load P acting at the shear center.. and the other is the torsional effect caused by the torque of Pz on the cross-section. whereas for the tip load acting away from the shear center (e.symmetry I. A parametric study on the effects of the load location through the shear center across the height of the cross-section. both the torsion and bending of the beam are developed.1. experimental tests and numerical finite element predictions are obtained for both of I. only the bending of the beam occurs. using the transcendental function. 7.and open channel section beams are obtained. single symmetry open channel section beams). respectively. and fiber volume fraction on buckling behavior of the open channel section beams is presented.g. The analytical eigenvalue solutions for the cantilever I. Good agreements among the analytical solutions.section beams and three open channel beams is performed.

the aspect ratio (γ). the SSSS. and the explicit solutions in term of the rotational restraint stiffness (kx and ky) are presented.e. CCCC.its four edges (the RRRR plate) and subjected to general biaxial linear loading. and the flexuralorthotropy parameters (αOR and βOR) on the local buckling stress resultants of various rotationally-restrained plates. SSCC. CCSS. the novel displacement function provides a unique approach to derive the explicit solution and at the same time account for the elastic restraining effect along the edges.. SSRR. the rotational restraint stiffness (k). clamped (C). the unique combination of weighted sine and cosine functions is used to obtain the explicit solution of the orthotropic plates rotationally restrained along their four edges. The explicit equations of orthotropic plates in terms of the rotational restraint stiffness coefficient (k) can be applied to predict the local buckling strength of various FRP 212 . By properly choosing the weight constants ω1 and ω 2 . RRSS. and RRCC plates) based on the different edge restraining conditions (e.. The solutions for the plates rotationally restrained along the four edges under uniaxial longitudinal compression are also available by simplifying the loading condition. and they shed light on better design for local buckling of composite plates with different rotationally restrained boundary conditions. The explicit solution for the plate rotationally restrained along the four edges is simplified to seven special cases (i. The explicit local buckling solutions are validated with the exact transcendental solution for two special cases of the SSRR and RRSS plates.g. By considering the rotationally restrained conditions along the four edges. CCRR. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the influences of the loading ratio (α). or rotationally restrained (R)). simplysupported (S).

e.. the presented explicit formulas can be used with confidence to predict the local buckling strength of rotationally restrained plates and applied effectively in the discrete plate analysis to evaluate the local buckling of different composite structures.structural shapes. A guideline for explicit local buckling design and resistance improvement of FRP structural shapes is provided. and the predictions are in close agreement with the finite element and experimental results. thus further demonstrating the applicability and validity of the explicit solutions. i. conventional composite beam theory. the explicit local buckling solution of rotationally restrained plates is adopted in the discrete plate analysis of two typical composite structures. resulting in three improving accuracy of joint 213 . and interface deformable bi-layer beam theory). and the analytical solution is derived based on three different bi-layer beam theories (i. shear deformable bi-layer beam theory. the thin-walled FRP structural shapes and honeycomb cores in sandwiches. Due to the excellent agreements with the exact transcendental solution of the local buckling solution of orthotropic plates and the validity in applications to FRP shapes and honeycomb cores in sandwich structures.e..1. 7.3 Local delamination buckling of laminated composite beams The local delamination buckling analysis of laminated composite beams is conducted. The results indicate that the present plate solution could be effectively applied to predict the local buckling strength of FRP structural shapes and flat core walls between the face sheets in sandwich structures. As an application.

deformation models (i. semi-rigid joint model. The following recommendations are provided for future endeavors: 214 . and flexible joint model). there is still a need to develop more generic formulations for stability of FRP composite structures.e.. the fully deformable field) models at the delamination tips. the derived formulas by the shear deformable and interface deformable bi-layer beam theories provide improved solutions for local delamination buckling of laminated beams.e. Due to introduction of local deformation in the semi-rigid joint (i. the relative rotations between two sub-layers) and flexible joint (i.2 Recommendations for future work Though extensive study on global and local buckling for FRP structural shapes and local delamination buckling of laminated composite beams is presented.. The delamination buckling analysis obtained by the semi-rigid joint and flexible joint models provides better predictions than the rigid joint model. and both the length and material orthotropy show pronounced influence to the delamination buckling strength.. rigid joint model. 7. The delamination buckling analysis of the laminated composite beams using the improved semi-rigid and flexible deformation joint models achieves accurate predictions which are closer to the real scenarios and thus avoids the need of the numerical finite element modeling and other high order plate/beam theory in delamination buckling computation. in comparison the numerical finite element simulation. The effect of shear deformation to the local delamination buckling is evaluated.e.

Only the rotational restraint at the plate edges is considered in the study. The horizontal and vertical extensional restraints at the plate edges should be further integrated in the explicit solution. cantilever FPR I. shear) as well as their limitations should be investigated. 4. Only some special cases (e.1.g. A comprehensive study on local buckling of rotationally restrained orthotropic plates primarily under uniform bi-axial loading is provided.. and their explicit flexural-torsional buckling formulas are derived. Due to similar nature and analytical strategy between structural stability and dynamics.and channel sections) are studied. Local delamination buckling analysis of laminated composite beams using three joint deformation models is presented.. More detailed study on the explicit local buckling solution of restrained plates under linear and other types of loads (e. More generic solutions for various FRP structural shapes with different loading and boundary conditions should be further developed. dynamics of delaminated composite beams could be treated in a similar fashion using the three joint deformation models.g. 2. 215 . 3. 5. and their extension to delamination buckling of laminated composite plates should be explored.

International Journal of Solids and Structures 17:1069–83. Journal of Composite Materials 28(1):77–90. L..G. 1983. Bank.G. Thin-walled Structures 24: 83-96. 1995 Lateral buckling of pultruded GRP I-section cantilevers.J. Engineering Structures. Euler buckling of thin-walled composite columns.J. Bank. and Yin.. Bottega. One-dimensional modeling of failure in laminated plates by delamination buckling. J. C. W.F.J... (1992). Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. Inc. R. Local buckling of FRP beams and columns. Lateral and distortional buckling of pultruded I-beams. Buckling of multiply delaminated beams. ASCE 2: 73-87. and Raftoyiannis. 1993. T. 216 . S. McGraw-Hill Book Company.C. 14(5). 1994. A.B. Barbero.H. and Oyibo.. Brunelle.C. Thin-Walled Structures 17: 237-258. and Tomblin. W.. J. E. Barbero. Rizkalla. Delamination buckling and growth in laminates. 2002. E.J.C.A. and Turvey. 1952. A. Composite Structures 27(3): 261-268. Buckling of orthotropic plates with free and rotationally restrained unloaded edges. Journal of Applied Mechanics 50:184–9. A. Fiber reinforced polymer composites for construction–state-of-the-art review... Cosenza. Brooks.J.. L. Buckling of double symmetric cantilever with slender webs.D. Babcock. Brown. and Sheinman..S.. Bleich. J. 1994. Bradford. I.. G. and Maewal.BIBLIOGRAPHY Adan. Machida... V. New York.. 1996. C. J. AIAA Journal 21(8): 1150-1156. Composite Structures 32(1-4):203-15. ASCE 5(3): 339-355. J. 1981. M. NY. 1983. I. Generic buckling curves for specially orthotropic rectangular plates.. and Triantafillou. Bakis.. 327-334.. Davalos..... E. H. Journal of Composite for Construction. M. G.L. Chai. E. F. I. and Knauss.J.... Buckling strength of metal structures.. Lesko.J.E. E. 1993. and Raftoyiannis. Barbero.

Two dimensional modeling of compressive failure in delaminated laminates. ASCE 1(1). Morgantown. 1997. CA. H. and Chang... California Institute of Technology. Chambers. 217 . J. H. Mixed mode delamination fracture in laminated composites. S. International Journal of Solids and Structures 34(2): 275-288. Chen. 1991.. and Wang. Chen.C. AIAA Journal 29(5):813–9.. Strength Evaluation of Honeycomb FRP Sandwich Panels with Sinusoidal Core Geometry.D. Composites for Infrastructure: A Guide for Civil Engineers.N. Journal of Composite Construction.. R. WV..P. 26–38. C.. H.H. The Growth of Impact Damage in Compressively Load Laminates. 1986. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University. 1998. Clark.. Delamination buckling analysis for unsymmetric composite laminates.W. Pasadena. Lateral buckling of beams. Transverse shear effects on buckling and postbuckling of laminated and delaminated plates. C. Proceeding of the 39th International SAMPE symposium: 2855–2867. West Virginia University. Shear deformation theory for compressive delamination buckling and growth... 1960.P. Journal of Composite Materials 19:67–98. S. Local buckling of delaminated sandwich beams using continuous analysis.P.. and Babcock.. Dissertation. Pipes. 2004.B.A. Chen.S. 1982. S. 1994. W. H. Chatterjee.N. R. Ray Publishing. Lin. 1997.. and Li.D. Ph. T. Chai. 1990.. Wheat Ridge.C.. Chen. 7: 89 – 98 (in Chinese). 1985...D. Proceedings of the ASCE: 175–196. H. A. 1993... Dissertation. and Hill. W. Cheng. AIAA Journal 31:163–169. S. and Dick. ASCE design standard for pultruded fiber reinforced-plastic structures. Composites Science Technology 25: 49-67. Ph. Colo. Chen. A study of two-dimensional delamination buckling in a symmetrical laminate. Journal of the Structural Division.E.Chai. H.

F. and Ashby. and Feo. P. and Barbero. 1996... and Qiao. Davalos. D. 1999. 1996.. E.F. and Kardomateas. J. 1998. L.. Cohesive layer model for predicting delamination growth and crack kinking in sandwich structures. Journal of Composites for Construction... Journal of Sound and Vibration 229(4): 755-773. Composites.. Buckling of Structures. S. Analytical and experimental study of lateral and distortional buckling of FRP wide-flange beams.. Gibson. Oxford. Lopez-Anido. Multiobjective material architecture optimization of pultruded FRP I-beams. Elastoplastic buckling of rectangular plates in biaxial compression/tension.A. 1997. P. Davalos. Gorman. Qiao.. Qiao. Amsterdam. P... E. Flexure-torsional buckling of pultruded fiber reinforced plastic composite I-beams: experimental and analytical evaluations. Composite Structures 38(1-4): 241-250.. Composite Part B 31: 141-158.Davalos. H. D.F. J. Cellular solids. and Sridharan.. International Journal of Fracture 117: 63-84. H. and Qiao.Z. H. and Zuckerman. J. Composite Structures 35: 271-281.. R. Davalos.. Salim. ASCE 1(4): 150-159. Analysis and design of pultruded FRP shapes under bending.F.J. Plastic buckling of rectangular plates under biaxial loading. Z. J. and Salim. and Barbero.. Computers and Structures 70(2): 169-183. Pergamon Press.. J. S.A.F. G. Durban.. International Journal of Solids and Structures 218 . International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 41: 751765. J. Durban. 1997. Haiying. Buckling of orthotropic beam plates with multiple central delaminations. F.. Part B: Engineering Journal 27(3-4): 295-305. P. El-Sayed. 2000. M. A computational approach for analysis and optimal design of FRP beams. Elsevier.. 2000.A. Davalos.L. 1988. P.F. Free vibration and buckling of in-plane loaded plates with rotational elastic edge support. Fraternali. 1988.Z. structure and properties. 1999.J. On a moderate rotation theory of thin-walled composite beams.. 2002.. J.. Qiao. D.

Inc. Tucson.. 1990. and Templeman. Distortional buckling of I-beams. Canada. low use stage of development.... 275-288 Jones. 1993.L.. Ltd. 1993. Hellan.. Lim. ASCE 107(2): 355-370.. Taylor & Francis. Head. R. Journal of Structure Division.J.Z. Quebec. 1998. Advanced composites in civil engineering .M. ed.T. Kabir. Hung. Hancock. K.. 219 . C. Johnson. 1999. Mechanics of Composite Materials. 73-93 Head.K.. Arizona. Timoshenko beam properties and steady motion. Hung. K.M..35(13):1355–62. ed. pp.. L. International Journal of Fracture 14: 91-101. Journal of Structure Division. M. Lateral-torsional buckling of post-local buckled fibrous composite beams. Composite Structures 26(3-4): 185-209.K. K. Boundary beam characteristics orthonormal polynomials in energy approach for vibration of symmetric laminates — I: Classical boundary conditions. Local. Proceedings of ACMBS. ASCE 124(7):754-64.. Hollaway. M. Hancock. and Liew. I. P. ASCE 104(11): 1787-1798. Liew. 3-15.R. pp.. K..J. M. Boundary beam characteristics orthonormal polynomials in energy approach for vibration of symmetric laminates — II: Elastically restrained boundaries.C..C. R. In the proceedings of the second international conference on composite in infrastructure (ICCI’1998). M. Lim..a critical overview at this high interest.B. 1978.. 1998. Thomas Telford. and Sherbourne.N. K. and Shield..R. Philadelphia. Lateral-torsional buckling of composite beams.K.. P. S. London. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. distortional. 1978.M. and lateral buckling of I-beams. G. Application of limit state design principles to composite structural systems.. E. G. 1981. Debond dynamics of an elastic strip. Composite Structures 26(3-4): 167-184. A. Polymers and Polymer Composites in Construction. 1996. and Leong. Montreal. El-Badry. PA.

E. Kutlu. 2002. 1995..W. and Chang. ASCE 129(9): 1202-1211. J. West Virginia University. 2001. Discussion: Local buckling of composite FRP shapes by discrete plate analysis by Qiao. Kim. International Journal of Solids and Structures 38: 7525-7541... 2002.. Delamination buckling of FRP layer in laminated wood beams.. pp. 1997. L. Journal of Structural Engineering.. and Schmueser. Effect of transverse shearing forces on buckling and post-buckling of delaminated composites under compressive loads.A.P. Z.. F. L. In: Proceedings of 28th Structures.. International Journal of Solids and Structures 38: 7543-7558. A Layer-wise Theory for Linear and Failure Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams. Kollar. California. 220 . D... Composite Structures 31:273–96.P. Barbero. G. Davalos.. Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference. Composite panels containing multiple through-thewidth delaminations and subjected to compression. Local bucking of FRP composite structural members with open and closed cross sections. Kollar. WV. Part I: analysis. Composite Structures 37(314): 311-320. Davalos and Wang (2001. and Chang.A. Morgantown.. Monterey. 1995.W. Kim. Kardomateas. ASCE 129(11): 15031513. Flexural-torsional vibration of open section composite columns with shear deformation. USA: AIAA/ASME/AHS/ASCE. Y. Buckling and postbuckling of delaminated composites under compressive loads including transverse shear effects.P. 337-343. Y.. D. Kollar. Kollar. Part II: experiments and verification. Composite Structures 31:297-314. AIAA Journal 26. G.. 1988. 2003. PhD dissertation.. 1987. Buckling of unidirectionally loaded composite plates with one free and one rotationally restrained unloaded edge. and Schumueser. L.J.. 2001. Kutlu. 757–765. L. Journal of Structural Engineering. Composite panels containing multiple through-thewidth delaminations and subjected to compression. (3).Kardomateas. Z.. Journal of Structural Engineering. ASCE 128(8): 1091-1093.K. 1995. F.K. 127(3): 245-255). Flexural-torsional buckling of open section composite columns with shear deformation. Kollar.P.E. L.P.

Some observations on the local instability of orthotropic structural sections. Lee. The use of fiber-reinforced plastics in thin-walled structures. Buckling and post-buckling of circular plates containing concentric penny-shaped delaminations. 221 . J. (2) 331338. The local buckling coefficient for orthotropic structural sections. 1978. T. 2001.K. Lateral buckling analysis of thin-walled laminated channelsection beams. 1979. 2002. 1993. and Lee.. Stanley. J. Thin-walled Structures 42(9): 1293-1305..M. 23-55.H. Lee.J.. 1990. 79: 987-995.. W. Computers and Structures. D. Lee.. J. S. and Hong. 1998. P. C. S... Stability Problems in Engineering Structures on Composites. Lee.J. Acta Mater. J. Applied Science Publishers. O.H.K.. C. and Griffin. Lee. and Kim. ALAA Journal 31. Li. Compos.. Kim.G. Flexural-torsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams. S. J. eds.Kyoung. Lee.. 2004. J.. Journal of Composite Materials 32(10):951–68. 1996.H. Jr. D. Lee. Mechanical behavior and failure process during compressive and shear deformation of honeycomb composite at elevated temperatures.. Lee. Lee. D... S.. Journal of Materials Science 379(6): 1265-1272. An experimental study of delamination buckling failure in a laminate with a single elliptic. and Kim. Y. Gurdal.. 2002..R.. S. Z. O. J. and Chen. or rectangular or triangular disbond. Composite Structures 56:391-399. H.. Modeling of composite laminates with multiple delaminations under compressive loading. Computers and Structures 58(5):1045–54.S.E. Aeronautical Journal 82: 313-320.. J. Flexure-torsional buckling of thin-walled I-section composites.. London. and Kim. and Griffin. Lee. and Hewson.. Sinica 7: 89–98 (in Chinese)..S. 1978. Z. Layer-wise approach for the bifurcation problem in laminated composites with delaminations. Aeronautical Journal 83: 110-114. Gurdal. Richards and P.

. Loughlan. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. G. Machado. Non-linear model for stability of thin-walled composite beams with shear deformation... Sol. 2005. Y. Z. 1995.. ASCE 123: 10121019.E.B. Stability of thin-walled pultruded structural members by finite element method. 2005. Lin. M.. Thin-walled Structures 24(1). 2004. S..H. 1-18.. M.. Buckling analysis of delaminated beam for the high-order shear deformation theory.D. A. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 52: 193–214. Composite Structures 32:13-31. I. and Zhou.. Acta Mech.. Malvern. Y. Buckle pattern of biaxially compressed simply supported orthotropic rectangular plates. Loughlan. The effects of shear on delamination in layered materials. and Cortinez.. 1996. Thin-walled Structures 26(2): 123-145. Li. 1997. M. M.. Li.. Thin-walled Structures 43(10):16151645. L. O.. The linearized buckling analysis of a composite beam with multiple delaminations. Wang.. and Ata. Composite Structures 38:609-22. Sinica 21: 225–233 (in Chinese). D. Liew. The restrained torsional response of open section carbon fiber composite beams. V.F. Journal of Composite Materials 17( 1): 45-48 Lim. and Shah. 2000. 1997.. Tang.. C.. K. and Kitipornchai. J. 222 . D. Englewood Cliffs. Y.. and Ata. J. International Journal of Solids and Structures 30(22):3085–99. J.. Lateral distortional buckling of monosymmetric Ibeams under distributed vertical load.Li. Zhou. The behavior of open and closed section carbon fiber composite beams subjected to constrained torsion. M. S. Vibration of laminated plates having elastic edge flexibilities. Ma. 1969. Buckling analysis of a plate with built-in rectangular delamination by strip distributed transfer function method. Acta Mechanica 176: 231–243... Xiang. and Parsons. and Lei. M..P. Libove. Polyzois. Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium.. and Thouless..D. 1992. and Hughes. D. J. J. 1996. S. NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1983..

G. Composites: Part B: Engineering 30: 503–511 Murakami. 1995. Composite Part B: Engineering 27B: 493-504. Q. 1996. Mottram.. 2005. F. Xie. Lateral-torsional buckling of a pultruded I-beam..A.T. Buckling analysis of laminated composite plates with arbitrary edge supports. ASCE 49(7): 321-330. Papka. J. In proceedings of the computer modeling and simulations in engineering. F. D.. Composites Engineering 5(3): 321-342. Pandey. 1971. H. and Kyriakides. Composites 32(2): 81-92. May 1997. Moradi. Effects of load height application and pre-buckling deflections on lateral buckling of thin-walled beams. G. K. 1238–1243.. Models for the elastic deformation of honeycombs.Masters.. Steel and Composite Structures 6(5): 401-415. and Taheri.... Application of the differential quadrature method to the analysis of delamination buckling of composite beam-plates. S.. Composites Part B: Engineering 35(1): 35-47. and Iwamoto. pp. 2006. 2006. and Evans. K.. M. Composite Structures 35: 403-422.. M.Z. J. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 42: 1499-1532... On approximate solutions for the deformation of plane anisotropic beams. 1999. M. 2004. and Chai. In-plane compressive response and crushing of honeycomb. J. and Rockey. Determination of critical load for flange buckling in concentrically loaded pultruded columns.D. 1997..B...C.. 1994. Composite Structures 69(2): 209-217. and Yamakawa. and Taheri. Nethercot. S. Mottram.. M. S. M. Analytical and numerical analyses of delamination buckling in layer beams delamination.E. Parlapalli. S. A unified approach to the elastic lateral buckling of beams. Moradi. International conference on computational engineering science.. and Sherbourne. Delamination buckling analysis of general laminated composite beams by differential quadrature method. Journal of Structure Engineering. 1996.. A.. Ni. D. Shu. Mohri. Flexural-torsional stability of thin-walled composite I-section beams.T.. 1992. I. Solid State Phenomena 111: 75–78 223 . F. Kabir. J.D. and Potier-Ferry.N...

and Troutman. P. Equations facilitate composite designs. and Zou. Qiao. P. P.. Qiao. J.. P. Qiao...F... Davalos.. L. P.. 2001. and Shan. ASCE 127(3): 245255. and Brown. P.L. WV. 1991.. Engineering 31(6-7): 593-609. P. P. D. 2002. Composites Part B. J.O. B. Local buckling of elastically restrained FRP plates and its application to box sections. Qiao. A systematic approach for analysis and design of single-span FRP deck/stringer bridges.. Qiao.P. 2002.P. 2007. and Davalos... Zou.Y. G. Composite Structures 60:205-217.Peck. 2003... and Springer. Composite Structures 70: 468-483.J. S. Qiao. and Shan. Morgantown.. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics. Flexural-torsional buckling of fiberreinforced plastic composite cantilever I-beams. J. in press. Qiao.. Journal of Structural Engineering. 1997. and Zou. L. J. ASCE 129(1): 125-129. 2000. G. Local Buckling of composite fiber-reinforced plastic wideflange sections. Qiao.. G. 2005.P.F. Dissertation. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 9(4):359-73. West Virginia University.Y. Qiao. Barbero. ASCE 128(12): 1324-1330. G. Qiao. The behavior of delaminations in composite platesanalytical and experimental results. Ph.... Davalos.S. Journal of Composite Materials 25:907–29. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. Free vibration analysis of the fiber-reinforced plastic composite cantilever I-beams. Explicit local buckling analysis and design of fiberreinforced plastic composite structural shapes. 1999. 2003. Journal of Structural Engineering.. G. and Wang.P.F... Explicit local buckling analysis of rotationally restrained composite plates under biaxial loading. 224 . Analysis and Design Optimization of Fiber-reinforced Plastic (FRP) Structural Shapes. J. Local buckling of composite FRP shapes by discrete plate analysis. Davalos.F.L... E. Model Plastics 76(11): 77-80.D.. and Zou. P. P.

Qiao. Roberts. New York.. Barbero. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 28: 2275-2292. ASCE 6(4):241248. ASCE 18:1(42-50). Blacksburg.. and Teply.N. In: Proceedings of the American Society of Composites.W.. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach for reinforced-plastic channel beam buckling. 1983.. Virginia. 1996. and Wang. T.J. 2005. Roberts. E. P. and Jhita. H. Shear center and elastic axis and their usefulness for composite thin-walled beams. Rehfield..R.. and Wang. Composites Part B: Engineering 27(3):361-369.L. Fourth Technical Conference. A. Prabhakaran.M... pp. 1989.. J.M. J. T.. L. Razzaq.. NY. 2002.L. Roberts. M. Thin-walled Structures 1(4): 289-308. Influence of shear deformation on buckling of pultruded fiber reinforced plastic profiles.Qiao. and Wang. International Journal of Solids and Structures 41(26): 74237444.S. Second order strains and instability of thin walled bars of open cross-section. Introduction to the Calculus of Variations. P.M. J. 1989. Journal of Composites for Construction. Novel joint deformation models and their application to delamination fracture analysis. 225 . T. Z. 2005.L. J. Journal of Aerospace Engineering. Reddy.M. Lateral local and distortional buckling of I-beams. 2003. 179–188.. J. 1969. P. Mechanics and fracture of crack-tip deformable bimaterial interface.. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 22(14):1305-1317.. and Sirjani.. A plate bending element based on a generalized laminate plate theory. 1981. 2004. McGraw-Hall Book Company. and Masri. Composites Science and Technology 65(11-12): 1826-1839. P.M. Sagan.. T.L.. International Journal of Mechanical Science 23(5): 297-306. Section properties and buckling behavior of pultruded FRP profiles. Mechanics of composite sinusoidal honeycomb cores. Qiao.. H.. R.. and Atlgan..M. Roberts.

L. Flexural-torsional buckling of fiber-reinforced plastic composite open channel beams.Y. and Parlapalli. Y. W. Composites Science and Technology 47:25–33. 1998. 2002. L. N. Composite Structures 68 (2): 211-224.. M. D. Engineering Structures. 1996. International Journal of Solids and Structures 39(11): 2939-2963.... 1995. International Journal of Solids and Structures 27(5): 639-646. Sallam. and Soffer... H.. L. M.. Journal of Composite Materials 34(7): 551–76. ASCE 121(5): 640-647 Shu. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 24(18):19211927. Shu. AIAA Journal:1437–44.A. P.. 226 . D. Stability of FRP beams under three-point loading and LRFD approach. Delamination buckling with bridging. 2000..Sapkas. A. Sherbourne..L. Explicit local buckling analysis of rotationally restrained composite plates under uniaxial compression. Post-buckling analysis of composite delaminated beam. Composite Structures 64: 501–509. Buckling analysis of bimaterial beams with single asymmetric delamination. Simitses.. D. I. 2005. and Kollar. Hu..N..B. and Mai.Y. and Qiao. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. M. D. 1991. and Fan.. and Qiao. Sirjani.. 2005..Z.. S. and Kabir. in press. Effect of delamination of axially loaded homogeneous laminated plates. M. A. 1993. Sheinman.. G. Lateral-torsional buckling of composite beams. H.. and Razzaq. Sekine. Composite: Part B: Engineering 27:79–84. Shu.. and Yin. 2007. Buckling of multiple delaminated beams. Shan. 1985. P. Z. Shear strain effects in lateral stability of thinwalled fibrous composite beams.. Shan. M... and Kouchakzadeh. Free vibration of bimaterial split beam. 2004.W. Shu.P.J. Buckling analysis of elliptically delaminated composite laminates with consideration of partial closure of delamination. International Journal of Solids and Structures 35(13):1451–65.

Bradford. P. NY.. International Journal of Fracture 43:1-18. Unilateral buckling of elastically restrained rectangular mild steel plates.. and Gere. G. 2004a... J. G. 1990. Buckling of rectangular orthotropic plates subjected to biaxial normal forces.. London..J. 1987. 1996. Stresses in bimetal thermostats. 2000..C. Composite Structures 17: 295-329. M. J. E. Effect of delamination on the flexural stiffness of composite laminates.A. and Surdenas. Effects of multiple delaminations on compressive buckling behaviors of composite panels. and Abramovich H. Composites 27B(1): 35–42.A.H. M. 227 .M. Thin-Walled Structures 6: 371-383.. I. Wang. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 52(4): 891-905. Suo. 1996. Buckling and Postbuckling of Composite Plates.T. 2001. Turvey. and Hutchinson. Buckling of Rectangular Orthotropic Plates under Biaxial Loading. 1995. Suemasu.W. Tracy..J.. L. T..J.. Suhir. Somers.L. 1988. Theory of Elastic Stability. T.. and Kollar. Lateral buckling test on rectangular cross-section pultruded GRP cantilever beams. I. Journal of Applied Mechanics 53:657660. S. Interface crack between two elastic layers. and Marshall. eds... H.Smith. G. S. Turvey. and Pardoen. Timoshenko. 1961.... Z. D. Journal of Composite Materials 21: 124–128..J. Journal of Composite Materials 35(7): 625-635. Computational Mechanics 26(4): 317-324. 1991. J. and Qiao.P. Effects of load position on the lateral buckling of pultruded GPR cantilevers-comparisons between theory and experiment. Influence of predetermined delaminations on buckling and postbuckling of composite sandwich beams. and Oehlers. 1993. Interface Crack between Two Shear Deformable Elastic Layers.J. Composite Structures 35(1):33-47. McGraw-Hall Book Company. Tung. J. Turvey... 1986.K. J. Veres.. New York..P. Journal of Composite Materials 27(12):1173–92. G. Chapman and Hall. Weller.

Journal of Applied Mechanics 72(5): 674682..L. and Qiao. P. and Kitipornchai. Whitney... 1958. C. K. Wang. Mechanics of bi-material interface: shear deformable split bi-layer beam theory and fracture. The effects of laminated structure on delamination buckling and growth. W. Lancaster. 1997.. Y.. International Journal of Solids and Structures 29(5):591–610. P. (6): 502-517.L. On the energy release rate and mode mix of delaminated shear deformable composite plates. Wang. Yin. 1992. M. 1992. 2004b. Wang. 2005. Yin.. Ultimate axial load capacity of a delaminated beam-plate. Journal of Composite Materials 22.N. C. K.L. ASCE 132(3): 306-316. Yin. and Qiao... W. Boca Raton. W.L. and Jane.N.M. Liew.. FL. 2005b. and Tan. Xiang. Buckling of elliptically delaminated composite plates. Refined buckling and postbuckling analysis of twodimensional delamination-II analysis and validation.J.. W..L..Wang.L. and Reddy. Sallam.C.L.. Wang. Journal of Composite Materials 28(1):36–52. J. AIAA Journal 24(1):123–8... Refined buckling and postbuckling analysis of twodimensional delamination-I analysis and validation..M. Wang. 2005a. J. Analysis of beam-type fracture specimens with crack-tip deformation. CRC Press. Journal of Engineering Mechanics.Y. J.. Yeh. C. 1994.. 228 . International Journal of Solids and Structures 41(9-10): 2757-2779. Journal of Sound and Vibration 204(1): 1-16.. PA. Fracture analysis of shear deformable bi-material interface.. G. 1986. Exact Solution for Buckling of Structural Members. J..M. K.. 1987. J. Yin.. P. 2006.C. S. Vibration analysis of rectangular Mindlin plates resting on elastic edge supports. and Jane. International Journal of Solids and Structures 29(5):611–639. S..M. Technomic. International Journal of Fracture 132(3): 223-248. J.L. Structural Analysis of Laminated Anisotropic Plates.K. and Qiao. and Simitses. and Qiao P..

Zhu. and Hutchinson.F. and Ashby. H. 1999. International Journal of Solids and Structures 37: 1931-1949.H.. 2000. Influence of substrate compliance on buckling delamination of thin films. 1992. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 34(6): 475-489. Zhang. 229 . 1799–1821. S. J.Yu.J. Out-of-plane properties of honeycombs. . X. N. and Mills. and Yu. H. International Journal of Solids and Structures 36. M. International Journal of Fracture 113(1): 39-55. Zhang. 2002.. J. The in-plane compression of regular honeycombs.... The growth simulation of circular buckling-driven delamination....W.

APPENDIX .

A.Appendix A.2 Shear flow in open channel section subjected to a torque Pz 231 . A. A.2). Shear stress resultant due to a torque in open channel section The shear flow of an open channel beam (see the sectional geometry in Fig.1 Geometric parameters of open channel section q1B q 1 B B z' A q 1 qBbw 2 B q2B B N xz tft z' A B z' A shear center q 1 + shear center q 2 N xy = shear center Pz wt C D C D C N bft xz D Fig. A.1) caused by a torque Pz can be calculated from the equilibrium equations (see Fig. y Pz e tf z shear centroid center tw bw bf Fig.

we separate the shear flow caused by torque in an open channel section into two parts q1 and q 2 (see Fig. In Fig. A.2 (b)) is added in order to maintain the equilibrium. A. the shear stress resultant in this study) can be obtained from q= Sy Iz Ay ∫ ydA (A. the shear flow (i.For the calculation convenience. 2 1 3Pz q B b f bw = Pz ⇒ q 1 = B 3 2b f bw Based on Eq. (A. A.2) = 0. thus q 2 (see Fig.2). the in-plane shear stress resultant is expressed as 2 ⎡ z' ⎛ z' ⎞ 2 ⎤ 3Pz ⎡ z ' ⎛ z ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢2 −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = −⎜ ⎟ ⎥ q = q ⎢2 ⎢ b f ⎜ b f ⎟ ⎥ 2b f bw ⎢ b f ⎜ b f ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ 1 1 B 0 ≤ z' ≤ b f (A.2) and considering the parabolic distribution of the shear flow in the top flange (Fig.1)). which is accumulated from q1 . a channel section under an equivalent vertical 232 .2 (b).e.(A. A.1) (A. the shear flow q1 (the constant flow on the web in Fig. The equilibrium equations of vertical loads and moment in part q1 are ∑F ∑M C y = q 1 bw ≠ 0 B (A. cannot be balanced in the vertical direction of the B equilibrium equation (see Eq. The in-plane shear stress tf w resultants (or shear flows) N xz in the top flange and N xy in the web are hereby derived as an example..2 (a)). A.2 (a)).4) Because in the web panel.3) For a thin-walled structure.

for the in-plane shear stress resultant in the web panel N xy .8) bf The value of the in-plane shear stress resultant N xz in the bottom flange is the same as that of the top flange. the in-plane shear stress resultants in the flange caused by the torque are obtained as (N ) N tft xz tft xz B 2 = q1 − q B = B 2 bw b f t f 3Pz (1 − ) 2b f bw 2I z at Point B (A.6) Applying the superposition principle. wt Similarly. B 2 qB = q 1 bw b B bf t f w 2 Iz q 1 bw b B z' t f w Iz 2 at Point B (A. 233 .5) q2 = 0 ≤ z' ≤ b f (A. but in the opposite direction. the shear flow of part q1 and part q 2 at an arbitrary point are. the shear flows caused by the balancing shear load q 1 bw are.2 (a).shear load of q 1 bw is studied.7) 3Pz =q −q = 2b f bw 1 2 ⎡ z' ⎛ z' ⎞ 2 b 2 z' t ⎢2 − ⎜ ⎟ − w f 2I z ⎢ bf ⎜ bf ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0 ≤ z' ≤ b f (A. At point B and generic local point z ' . respectively. and the applied shear load is used to balance the B unequilibrium shear flow on the web in Fig. A.

10) The total in-plane shear flow in the web panel caused by torque Pz then becomes wt w w N xy = N xy1 − N xy2 (A.11) N wt xy 3Pz 3Pz = − 2b f bw 4b f I z ⎧ ⎤⎫ ⎡⎛ bw ⎞ 2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎨bw b f t f + t w ⎢⎜ ⎟ − y ⎥ ⎬ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦⎭ ⎣ ⎩ (A.9) N w2 xy ⎡⎛ bw ⎞ 2 ⎤ 2 ⎢⎜ ⎟ − y ⎥ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 2 ⎤ q B bw b f t f q 1 bw t w ⎡⎛ bw ⎞ 2 2 = + B ⎢⎜ ⎟ − y ⎥ 2I z 2 I z ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎡⎛ b ⎞ ⎤⎫ 3Pz ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ = bw b f t f + t w ⎢⎜ w ⎟ − y 2 ⎥ ⎬ ⎨ 4b f I z ⎪ ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ q1 b t =q ＋ B w w 2I z 2 B (A.w N xy1 = 3Pz 2b f bw (A.12) 234 .

2 2 2 Case (b) ±R1 and ±R2 ± iR3 (Qiao and Wang 2004) 235 .1d) S 5i = − ⎛ c1i S1 c 2i S 2 c3i S 3 ⎞ h1 + h2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ R + R + R ⎟ − 2D 2 3 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 1 (B. ±R2. S3 = .1c) ⎛ c1i c 2i c3i ⎞ ⎟. 2 2 R2 R3 R2 − R32 η R12 η + . 3 . T2 = − R2 S 2 − R3 S 3 − 1 R2 . ⎜ + + D1 ⎜ R1 R2 R3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ (B.1b) ⎛⎛ S ⎛ S T ⎞ T S 3i = ⎜ ⎜ 1 2 + 1 ⎟c1i + ⎜ 2 2 + 2 ⎟ ⎜D R ⎜⎜ D R ⎝ 1 2 B1 R2 ⎝ ⎝ 1 1 B1 R1 ⎠ S 4i = 1 D2 1 C2 ⎛ S ⎞ T ⎞ ⎞ ⎟c 2i + ⎜ 3 2 + 3 ⎟c3i ⎟. and ±R3 (Qiao and Wang 2004) S1i = 1 ⎛ c1i c 2i c3i ⎞ ⎟.1a) S 2i = 1 ⎛ c1i S1 c 2i S 2 c3i S 3 ⎞ ⎟. Compliance matrix in f flexible joint model Case (a) ±R1. ⎜ + + ⎟ ⎜R ⎝ 1 R 2 R3 ⎠ ⎛ c1i c 2i c3i ⎞ ⎟. ⎟ ⎜D R ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 1 3 B1 R3 ⎠ ⎠ (B. ⎜ + + ⎟ ⎜R ⎝ 1 R2 R3 ⎠ (B. (B. S2 = − + . 2. S1 = − ξbK s ξ ξbK s ξ ξbK s T1 = − R1 S1 − h1 h h R1 . T3 = − R3 S 2 + R2 S3 − 1 R3 .Appendix B. ⎜ + + C1 ⎜ R1 R2 R3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ (B.1e) ⎞ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟c 3i ⎟.1f) ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎛ ⎛ h1 + h2 ⎞ ⎛ h1 + h2 ⎜⎜ + S1 + S2 ⎜ T1 ⎟ T ⎟c1i + ⎜ 2 S 6 i = −⎜ ⎜ 2 2 + + 2 2 ⎜⎜ ⎜ B 2 R1 ⎟ B2 R2 D 2 R1 D2 R2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝⎝ ⎞ ⎛ h1 + h2 + S3 ⎟ ⎜ T ⎟c 2 i + ⎜ 2 + 3 2 ⎟ ⎜ B 2 R3 D 2 R3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ where i = 1.

2b) ⎞ ⎟c ⎟ 2i ⎠ ⎛ S R 2 − R 2 + 2R R S ⎛ S T R +T R T ⎞ 3 2 3 3 S 3i = ⎜ 1 2 + 1 ⎟c1i + ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 2 3 23 2 ⎜D R ⎟ 2 ⎜ B1 R2 + R3 D1 R2 + R32 ⎝ 1 1 B1 R1 ⎠ ⎝ ( ( ) ) ( ) ⎛ S R 2 − R 2 + 2R R S T R +T R 3 2 3 2 +⎜ 3 2 + 2 3 2 3 22 2 2 ⎜ B1 R2 + R3 D1 R2 + R32 ⎝ ( ( ) ) ( ) ⎞ ⎟c .2d) ⎛ ⎛ h1 + h2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ h1 + h2 ⎞ ⎜⎜ + S 2 ⎟ R2 − R32 + 2 R2 R3 S 3 + S1 ⎜ ⎟ T R +T R T 2 ⎠ − 2 2 2 3 23 S 6i = −⎜ 2 2 + 1 ⎟c1i − ⎜ ⎝ ⎜ 2 2 2 B2 R1 ⎟ ⎜ D2 R1 B2 R2 + R3 D2 R2 + R3 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ h + h2 ⎞ 2 ⎜ S 3 R2 − R32 + 2 R2 R3 ⎜ 1 ⎟ + S2 ⎟ T2 R3 + T3 R2 ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠− ⎜ −⎜ c 3i .2a) S 2i = 1 ⎛ c1i S1 c 2i (R2 S 2 + R3 S 3 ) c3i (R2 S 3 + R3 S 2 ) ⎞ ⎟.S1i = c R c R 1 ⎛ c1i ⎜ + 2 2 i 2 2 + 2 3i 3 2 ⎜R C1 ⎝ 1 R2 + R3 R2 + R3 ⎞ ⎟. ⎜ + + 3 3 ⎟ D1 ⎜ R1 R2 + R32 R2 + R32 ⎠ ⎝ (B.2e) ⎠ ( ) ( ) ( ) 236 . ⎟ 3i ⎠ ⎞ ⎟. ⎟ ⎠ (B.2d) S 2i ⎛ ⎛ h1 + h 2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ h + h2 ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ c 1i ⎜ + S 2 ⎟ R 2 + R3 S 3 ⎟ + S1 ⎟ c 2i ⎜ ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠+ ⎠ ⎝⎝ 2 =− ⎜ 3 2 D2 ⎜ R1 R 2 + R3 ⎜ ⎝ ⎞⎞ ⎛ ⎛ h + h2 ⎞ c 3i ⎜ ⎜ 1 + S 2 ⎟ R3 + R 2 S 3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎠ .2c) S 4i = − 1 C2 ⎛ c1i c R c R ⎜ + 2 2 i 2 2 + 2 3i 3 2 ⎜R ⎝ 1 R2 + R3 R2 + R3 (B. ⎝⎝ 2 + ⎟ 3 2 R 2 + R3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (B. ⎟ ⎠ (B. 2 2 2 B2 R2 + R32 ⎟ D2 R2 + R32 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) ( ) ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟c ⎟ 2i ⎟ ⎟ (B.

h1 = h2 = h . k = K bη .Case (c) Symmetry case ( D1 = D2 = D . k = where S = 2 1 s 2 2 2 2 2 K n b k1 h 2K nb 4 + k1 − B D 2K nb K nb ⎛K b⎞ + ⎜ n ⎟ − . B1 = B2 = B .3b) S 3i = − c ⎞ ⎞ 1 ⎛c S c h⎞ 1 ⎛⎛ ⎜ ⎜ S + ⎟c1i + c 2i + c3i ⎟ − ⎜ 1i2 + 22i + 32i ⎟. + + S 5i = − D⎜ k1 k 2 k3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎛ ⎜ c ⎜S + ⎞ 1 ⎜ 1i ⎝ 1 ⎛⎛ h⎞ S 6i = ⎜ ⎜ S + ⎟c1i + c 2i + c3i ⎟ + ⎟ D⎜ 2⎠ B ⎜⎝ k12 ⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ h⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ ⎞ ⎟ c 2 i c 3i ⎟ + 2 + 2 .3f) 2 3 K n bh 5 h 4 K n bk1 h − k1 + − B D . ⎟ ⎠ (B. ⎜ + + D ⎜ k1 k 2 k3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ (B. k2 k3 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (B. B D ⎝ B ⎠ 2 and k 3 = 2K nb K nb ⎛K b⎞ − ⎜ n ⎟ − .3c) ⎞ ⎟.3a) S 2i = 1 ⎛ c1i S c 2i c3i ⎞ ⎟.3d) ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ h⎞ ⎟ ⎜ c1i ⎜ S + ⎟ 1⎜ ⎝ 2 ⎠ c 2 i c 3i ⎟ .3e) (B. B D ⎝ B ⎠ 2 237 . ⎜ ⎟ D⎜ k B ⎝⎝ 2⎠ k 2 k3 ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 1 S 4i = − 1 ⎛ c1i ⎜ C ⎜ k1 ⎝ (B. and ξ = 0) S1i = 1 ⎛ c1i ⎜ C ⎜ k1 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. ⎟ ⎠ (B. C1 = C 2 = C .

- Buckling analysis of cantilever pultruded I-sections using ????? ®by International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education
- FRP Channel Report Finalby Santanu Ghosh
- Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Lateral Buckling of FRP Composite Cantilever I Beamsby ersen06
- 2008 Strengthening Metallic Cylindrical Shells Against Elephant's Foot Buckling With FRPby vlad lupasteanu

- Acceptance Criteria for Concrete and Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Strengthening Using FRPby laurenjia
- Retrofitting 3rdby arunachelam
- Torsional Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened With FRP Compositesby Jiabin
- LatestFYP Topics Proposed by Faculty(Revised- April20-2015)(1)by Fahad Khan Niazi

- All Buckling
- Buckling Analysis
- Analysis of Plate Using MATLAB
- The Stability of Flat Plates - Bulson
- Buckling analysis of cantilever pultruded I-sections using ????? ®
- FRP Channel Report Final
- Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Lateral Buckling of FRP Composite Cantilever I Beams
- 2008 Strengthening Metallic Cylindrical Shells Against Elephant's Foot Buckling With FRP
- 01_643_Miyashita,Okuyama et al _UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION TEST OF STEEL.pdf
- SEI November 2010 Complete Issue
- 01_098_pecce,Barros Et Al_assessment of Non Linear Bond Laws for n
- cold form steel structures
- Acceptance Criteria for Concrete and Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry Strengthening Using FRP
- Retrofitting 3rd
- Torsional Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened With FRP Composites
- LatestFYP Topics Proposed by Faculty(Revised- April20-2015)(1)
- Basics of Concrete Repair and Structural Strengthening
- STEEL [Eng] Steel Code Check 14
- C05_1
- (ACI 440_3R-12) Guide Test Methods for Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete and Masonry Structures
- Design of Steel Structures
- AcceptanceCriteriaforConcreteandReinforcedandUnreinforcedMasonryStrengtheningusingFRP
- Athulan Masters
- Fiber in Circular Column
- EFFECTIVE LENGTH K-F ACTORS FOR FLEXURAL BUCKLING STRENGTHS OF WEB MEMBERS IN OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS
- Abu Talib CDS
- Analysis Guide 170 Enu
- Strengthening Runway Bridge Mumbai Airport Using FRP
- A micro–macro combined approach using FEM for modelling of machining of FRP composites Cutting forces analysis
- Investigation on Concrete Beams Reinforced With Basalt Rebars
- Buckling Thesis

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd