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1177/1069072703261545 DOCTYPE = ARTICLE
A Function-Centered Model of Interest Assessment for Business Careers
Timothy Butler Harvard University James Waldroop Peregrine Partners
The authors argue that an effective way to describe the manifestation of interest patterns within a particular work domain is through a nuanced description of interests in terms of the essential functional activities common to that domain. Focusing on the domain of business work and studying a large sample of business professionals over a 15-year period, the authors derived an eight-factor business core function model representing the way interest patterns are manifested in actual business work. This model is the basis for a business interest assessment instrument, the Business Career Interest Inventory (BCII), which has been used by more than 75,000 business professionals and business students and has become the career interest assessment tool of choice at more than 200 of the leading business schools around the world. This article describes the rationale for the core function model and presents basic psychometric information on the BCII. Keywords: psychometric method, interest assessment, business career assessment, function-centered model
The definition of interests as essentially purposive activity has been described as a functionalist approach, and Savickas (1999) traced the championing of this position to Dewey (1913), Thorndike (1935), Kitson (1925), and Strong (1943). The functionalist approach provides the background for the authors’ utilization of a function-centered model of interest assessment in the realm of business careers. A function-centered model would suggest that for the career decision maker, it is the activities that comprise a specific work role opportunity that have meaning in terms of a choice as to whether or not taking a particular employment opportunity is in the best interests of his or her career development. The construct of work role opportunity is deliberately chosen over the more traditional construct of job. Similar to environment, a job is in fact a rather abstract construct composed of clusters of activities that may change substantially over even shorter periods of time. In this sense, a job is often confused in the minds of career decision makers and researchers alike with a position title. An individual
JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT, Vol. 12 No. 3, August 2004 DOI: 10.1177/1069072703261545 © 2004 Sage Publications 270
Butler. or supervisor Enterprise control: exercising ultimate strategic and decision-making authority for complete operations Influence through language and ideas: exercising influence through the skillful use of written and spoken language. the use of engineering-like analysis to solve business problems Quantitative analysis: business problem solving that relies on mathematical analysis and in particular financial analysis Theory development and conceptual thinking: activities involving broadly conceptual approaches to business problems Creative production: the broad exercise of imagination in the early phase of a business project.. they have developed a working model of eight business core functions. not related exclusively to one vocational domain) interest theme and a measure of the expression of this theme in activities particular to the business domain. This congruence is expressed in terms of core work functions common to a specific vocational domain. For example. director. . Each of these dimensions expresses a basic interest theme expressed in terms of its functional manifestation in the business domain. using the acquisition of information and persuasion to affect business decisions hired as. The intent of the function-centered model is to portray the congruence that exists between the emerging interest patterns of an individual and the salient activities that characterize those patterns as they are expressed in a particular work role opportunity. product. These core functions are defined briefly in Table 1. and so on. mentoring.000 business professionals and business students. budget forecasting. let us say. the authors have been studying the core functions for the business domain. such as creating an idea. Based on an analysis of interviews and a battery of psychological inventories given to more than 650 business professionals over a 10-year period of time and working with an expanding database that now includes testing data on more than 75. For more than 15 years. the quantitative analysis dimension represents the interests in pragmatic numerical reasoning and analysis as they are expressed in the business activities such as data analysis. company valuation. such as coaching.e. Waldroop / A MODEL OF INTEREST ASSESSMENT 271 Table 1 Business Core Function Definitions Application of technology: the general use of technology to accomplish business objectives. general (i. an assistant brand manager in a consumer product company may retain the same title and job but be engaged in substantially different activities after being in the position for a year. and customer relationships Managing people and relationships: working directly and consistently with groups of people in the roles of manager. An individual’s score on a measure of the quantitative analysis dimension is thus simultaneously a measure of an underlying. training. or strategy where none existed before Counseling and mentoring: developing relationships as an integral part of business work. computer modeling.
This is consistent with Holland’s (1973) view that specific work environments reflect the personalities and interests of the people that choose to work in those environments. In the investment banking sample. CP = creative production. Note. CS = counseling and mentoring. TD = theory development and conceptual thinking. AT = application of technology. Relative mean business core function profiles for professionals from four business career roles who report satisfaction with role choice. human resources management. MP = managing people and relationships. Characteristic core function patterns may be expected to emerge in specific career paths due to the fact that certain paths offer greater opportunity for the expression of some core functions and less of an opportunity for the expression of others. sales and sales management. QA = quantitative analysis.600). Scale scores are T scores based on a general business sample (N = 8. A strong contrast is found in the human resource management sample where counseling and mentoring and managing people and relationships are . and production and operations management who report significant satisfaction with those career areas. EC = enterprise control. quantitative analysis and enterprise control are dominant while managing people and relationships and application of technology have low mean scores. IN = influence through language and ideas. The first reference line is the mean of all business core functions for each sample group. Figure 1 represents the mean business core function profiles for samples of business professionals in investment banking.272 JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT / August 2004 Production and Operations N= 133 Human Resources Management/Corporate Training N=283 57 51 T Score T Score 51 45 AT QA TD CP CS MP EC IN 45 Business Core Function AT QA TD CP CS MP EC IN Business Core Function Sales and Sales Management Investment Banking N=249 N=304 59 51 T Score 52 45 AT QA TD CP CS MP EC IN 45 Business Core Function AT QA TD CP CS MP EC IN Business Core Function Figure 1.
Waldroop / A MODEL OF INTEREST ASSESSMENT 273 the dominant core functions and quantitative analysis has a very low mean score.400) used for BCII normative purposes was composed of individuals established in their careers (mean age = 38) from a broad spectrum of industries and functions. the authors collected a database of a broad range of standard psychological testing and interview data on a group of business professionals from a wide range of functions and industries.Butler. In the 8 years of research since the initial scale development. Neither was the standard taxonomy of business functions (sales. The individuals in this sample included clients from a large executive outplacement firm. production and operations. marketing. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BCII Model Building Over a period of 12 years. and executives from the authors’ organizational development work. The representation of career interest information in this fashion portrays the differences between these career areas in terms of the functional activities that are actually valued and pursued by individuals who derive satisfaction from that particular career area. business professionals in career transition seeking assessment assistance from the authors. The final general business sample (N ≈ 14. it did not provide the level of detail or nuance for describing the subtleties of the full array of business activities. including business professionals from corporations using the assessment. The sample was approximately two thirds men and one third women. At later stages in the research. John Holland’s (1973) model of career interest themes was a guiding heuristic in the investigation. The goal was to create a parsimonious model of business core functions that would represent the bedrock of business work activities. the database has grown to more than 75. The authors have developed the Business Career Interest Inventory (BCII) to measure an individual’s strength of interest in the eight business core functions. Testing and interview data were examined in the light of the authors’ extensive clinical experience in the business realm in an attempt to determine meaningful clusters of business core functions or fundamental activities of business work that allowed for expression of underlying interest patterns. MBA students from more than 200 MBA programs. banking. corporate finance. gender-specific norms were developed. It became clear that although Holland’s theory was comprehensive for careers broadly. etc. advertising. human resources. and individuals using the instrument for personal career development.000 business professionals. communications and public relations.) adequate to describe . data were also collected from employees of a large multinational corporation participating in a pilot study with the BCII and from the readers of a leading business professional journal.
Individuals who score high on this dimension enjoy positions of influence “at the boundary” of business organizations where interaction with customers or other organizations offers a “high interpersonal transaction” role. artistic. as mentioned earlier. military officers) were also represented in the managing people and relationships core function. represents not an interest in business endeavors generally but rather specific interests in strategic decision making and control of operations. a definite pattern of elevation in scores that included elements of both Holland’s artistic and enterprising themes was found among individuals who enjoyed roles in functions as diverse as public relations. marketing. The goal was to produce a model that would account for all observed businessspecific activity clusters that would also be comprehensive in that it addressed all business-relevant themes suggested by Holland’s (1973) global model. The influence through language and ideas business core function. Elements of a subregion of Holland’s realistic theme associated with action-oriented direct management (e. but three of the business core functions (applied technology.g. A number of the core functions have significant correlations with these two Holland themes as business is generally an action-oriented and highly pragmatic field. and social themes of Holland’s model.274 JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT / August 2004 basic business activities that were observed to exist across these standard functional categories. and conceptual thinking) would be theoretically subsumed as business-specific regions within Holland’s investigative theme. business development. regardless of their job title according to standard business nomenclature. and deal-intensive financial services. The counseling and mentoring business core function would be expected to have (and subsequently was found to have) a significant correlation with Holland’s social theme but represents a business-specific subrange of the interests covered by that theme. if mapped onto the Holland (1973) model. . For example. would straddle the border between the social and enterprising themes and once again represent a business-specific manifestation of interests common to that region. but otherwise the realistic and conventional themes are not uniquely represented in this core function paradigm that is defined as a model of professional business careers. The actual correlations between the eight BCII business core functions and Holland’s themes.. contains elements from the enterprising. Enterprise control. A direct analog is apparent in the business core function of creative production and Holland’s artistic theme. This discrete pattern of scores became the basis for the influence through language and ideas business core function. Managing people and relationships. quantitative analysis and theory development. as measured by the General Occupational Theme Scale scores from the Strong Interest Inventory are reported in Table 2. It is informative to compare Holland’s six occupational themes with the eight business core functions that emerged from the model building. although having a significant correlation with measures of Holland’s enterprising theme.
28* .07 .08 . 275 .37* .07 –.05 .08 .11 .15 .08 .06 .63* .17 –.04 –.32* .50* .02 .07 .11 .16 .27* .22* .04 .15 .32* .09 .38* Conventional .31* .14 –.30* .40* .Table 2 Correlations of the Business Career Interest Inventory (BCII) Core Business Functions With the General Occupational Themes of the Strong Interest Inventory (N = 213) Realistic .68* .74* .60* .56* .39* .27* .12 Application of technology Quantitative analysis Theory development and conceptual thinking Creative production Counseling and mentoring Managing people Enterprise control Influence through language and ideas Note.26* .23* . Correlations significant at the p < .43* .01 level are indicated by an asterisk.08 .08 .26* .25* .34* Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising .28* .25* .
Correlational analyses then identified more subtle items. This was done to provide a base of less transparent items and to provide for items that would fill any holes in the initial theoretical mapping of the business activity domains. underlying interests expressed in nonbusiness arenas. banking. 1 = I would like this activity somewhat. The resulting scales contained from 19 (quantitative analysis) to 52 (managing people and relationships) items. with high correlations to the initial core scales. . The standard taxonomy of business functions mentioned earlier (sales. Each item required a response on a 4-interval (0 through 3) scale. with each interval labeled appropriately for the particular section of the inventory (e. Reliability Measures of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) for the eight business core function scales are reported in Table 4. marketing. subjects for study. advertising. Factor analysis was able to further differentiate the constructs of these two scales. and work activities. 2 = I would like this activity.g. Factor analysis of the entire item pool was used to both check for validity of the overall model and in the case of two scales (enterprise control and managing people and relationships) to further refine item content of the scales.276 JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT / August 2004 Item Selection and Scale Construction The authors. human resources. Within each functional area. The 280 items were classified and presented in the following four groupings: occupations. personality attributes. etc.000 business professionals and MBA students over a 12-year period and developed a range of items that represented the full range of activities that occur in business organizations.. These item pools were then reduced to (a) maximize internal consistency and (b) decrease interscale correlation. the intervals were labeled as follows: 0 = I would not like this activity. Some sample items are provided in Table 3. Measures of scale stability in terms of test-retest correlation coefficients over a 6-month period are reported in Table 5. To these business activity items were added general items not related to specific business activities that would represent a range of general.) was used heuristically to create a general frame for item generation. production and operations. and entrepreneurial environments. including both business-specific and nonbusiness items. and 3 = I would very much like this activity). and items were identified that enhanced this differentiation. less typical. Scales were constructed by identifying an initial core scale composed of items with high face validity to the identified business core function. interviewed more than 2. items were written that would cover the functional activities typically found in larger corporate settings and smaller. for the activities section. drawing on their experience as business consultants and psychologists at a business school. communications and public relations. corporate finance.
Logistical planner 82. Hansen. Extensive studies of predicted correlations with scales measuring interest patterns in thematically related areas on general career interest surveys were highly confirmatory of the business core function constructs. Artistic Subjects for study 137. Marketing brand manager Personal attributes 91. Lead the board of directors of a large charitable organization Validity Construct Validity Convergent and discriminant validation. Accounting 138. Negotiate a complex deal to acquire a business 222. A good team player 105. Perform a business loan credit analysis 189. Debate 143. Advertising account executive 64. Venture capitalist 66. Manage a regional sales team 202. Harmon. Poetry Activities 182. Give speeches to large audiences 192. Enjoy routine 131. Statistics 175. Develop an advertising campaign for a product 197. Methodical 114. Computer science 161. Analyze financial reports 221. Assertive 95. Borgen. Play strategy games 183. Manager at a manufacturing plant 31. Computer programmer 2. Waldroop / A MODEL OF INTEREST ASSESSMENT 277 Table 3 Business Career Interest Inventory Sample Items Occupations 1. Novelist 7.Butler. Examples of the highest positive and negative correlations between the business core function scales and thematically related scales on the Strong Interest Inventory (Campbell. 1971. & .
92 Table 5 Stability Over 6-Month Time Period for Business Core Function Scales (N = 39) Test-Retest Correlations Over a 6-Month Period Application of technology Quantitative analysis Theory development Creative production Counseling and mentoring Managing people Enterprise control Influence through language and ideas Mean test-retest correlation over 6-month period .300) Business Core Function Application of technology Quantitative analysis Theory development Creative production Counseling and mentoring Managing people Enterprise control Influence through language and ideas Cronbach’s Alpha .81 .88 . A full report on scale correlations with widely used general career interest inventories is available from the authors.90 .278 JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT / August 2004 Table 4 Measures of Internal Consistency for Business Core Function Scales (N = 5. 1994) are provided in Table 6.85 .93 .86 .) These studies were deliberately conducted on a post hoc rather than an a priori basis as the .90 . (Business activity items are those items that describe a specific activity that is unambiguously related to business.83 .93 .83 .79 Hammer.74 .88 . Factor Analysis Factor-analytic studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of all business activity items on the BCII.66 . The sample for this validity study was 213 MBA students who completed both the BCII and the Strong Interest Inventory.77 .82 .
49 Chamber of Commerce executive .35 Recreation leader .48 Agribusiness manager –.56 Insurance agent .30 Influence through language and ideas Public speaking BIS .60 Public administrator .60 YW/YMCA director .58 Quantitative analysis Math BIS .51 Accountant –.33 Law/politics BIS .Butler.46 Farmer –.36 Public speaking BIS .44 College professor .68 Medical technologist .42 Banker –.60 Special education teacher .56 School administrator .53 Musician .56 Agribusiness manager –.66 Elected public official . GOT = General Occupation Theme Scale.44 Recreation leader .56 Law/politics BIS .64 Engineer .63 R&D manager .43 Horticultural worker –.71 Music BIS .51 Army officer .56 Science teacher .42 Social GOT .63 Speech pathologist .57 Sociologist .74 Realistic GOT .34 Enterprise control Adventure BIS .40 Florist –.44 Systems analyst . BIS = Basic Interest Scale.56 Public relations director .47 School administrator .39 Mathematician –.49 English teacher .60 Science BIS .39 Public official .60 Photographer .27 Broadcaster –.30 Personnel director .39 Physicist –.68 Science BIS .29 Creative production Artistic GOT .40 Fine artist –.44 Writing BIS .62 Writing BIS .50 Conventional GOT .54 Realtor .42 Farmer –.38 Note.33 Military activities BIS .45 YMCA director .48 Commercial artist .31 Public relations director –.55 Lawyer .40 Personnel director .68 Systems analyst .50 Credit manager .20 Theory development and conceptual thinking Investigative GOT .37 Navy officer .48 Recreation leader .60 Guidance counselor .45 Nursing home administrator .68 Social GOT .33 Bus driver –.34 Enterprising GOT .45 Mathematician –.43 Accountant .64 Personnel director . test construction model was based on a reconciliation of an array of empirical data with a theoretical heuristic (Holland’s  model) rather than on a mathematical abstraction of factors.44 Executive housekeeper . The scree plot generated for a principle compo- .66 Navy officer .36 Chamber of Commerce executive .35 Buyer –.59 Geologist –.33 R&D manager –.32 Elected public official .001) and Selected Negative Correlations (p ≤ .001) Between Business Career Interest Inventory Core Function Scales and Strong Interest Inventory Scales (N = 213) Applied technology Mechanical activities BIS .74 Art BIS .35 Counseling and mentoring Social services BIS .30 Managing people and relationships Business management BIS . Waldroop / A MODEL OF INTEREST ASSESSMENT 279 Table 6 Highest Significant Positive Correlations (p ≤ .
In addition to the dominant loading of influence through language and ideas on Factor 6.69 . This loading was unambiguous (clearly higher than all other core function loadings for that factor) for five factors. In addition to the dominant loading of creative production on Factor 4. suggesting a factor that represents the use of language and ideas with a bias toward power and control. there was a secondary loading (.60 . ideas. see the value of including a dimension that echoes in business terms the essence of Holland’s . the business core function name and attendant definition would be an accurate label for the pure factor itself.68 . Factor 6 (.500) Core Function Application of technology Quantitative analysis Theory development and conceptual thinking Creative production Counseling and mentoring Managing people and relationships Enterprise control Influence through language and ideas Factor 1 2 N/A 4 8 7 3 6 Factor Loading . suggesting that this more academic dimension of theory. and imagination is dispersed in the business world among functions that are more directly focused on finance. In all of these cases.280 JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT / August 2004 Table 7 Principle Loadings of the Eight Business Core Function Scales on Factors Derived From a Factor Analysis of All Business Activity Business Career Interest Inventory (BCII) Items With a Principle Components Extraction of Eight Factors and Varimax Rotation (N ≈ 7.27). A varimax rotation was used to identify independent dimensions (a promax rotation yielded highly similar results). that factor has a secondary loading (. and intellectual persuasion.84 . The theory development and conceptual thinking business core function did not have a dominant loading on any of the extracted factors. with their many years of business career counseling experience. suggesting that the pure factor represents that aspect of creativity in business that is linked with an attempt to influence the environment (rather than creativity for its own sake).35).43 . These loadings are reported in Table 7.79 N/A . The analysis revealed that seven of the eight business core functions had a dominant loading on seven of the extracted and rotated factors. Although this is the one factor that did not find corroboration in the abstract methodology of factor analysis. and Factor 1 (.52 nents extraction did indeed indicate that an eight-factor solution would be the most parsimonious.33) of the influence through language and ideas business core function. technology. It had modest loadings on Factor 2 (. the authors.32) of enterprise control.24).
Data on the business core function profiles for more than 20 different business career areas are available from the authors. N = 390). They as well were included in the sample only if they indicated enjoyment of role. Waldroop / A MODEL OF INTEREST ASSESSMENT 281 investigative theme and often finds realization in areas such as business teaching and research. The production and operations managers sample was composed of 133 individuals who had management responsibility in either manufacturing production environments or service operation environments who reported that they liked their work and had been in that role for a minimum of 3 years. the general business professional sample (this is the same sample. and human services (a sample of 577 administrators from educational settings.) mostly in large Wall Street investment banks. government agencies. government. The investment banking sample included 249 individuals employed or recently employed (some were investment bankers who had recently enrolled in an MBA program) in typical investment banking service areas (e.. For example. strategic planning. The human resources and corporate training sample was composed of 283 professionals who worked in human resources departments of corporations or worked as organizational development trainers either internally for a human resources department or with an organizational development consulting organization. Discriminant studies of predicted differences in general occupational samples. N ≈ 8. mergers and acquisitions. described earlier) has significantly higher mean scores on enterprise control and quantitative analysis compared to administrators in education. Studies of selected business core function differences between four general occupational samples (students from a leading business school.g.Butler. etc. a general business professional sample. administrators in education. and human services organizations) and the nonbusiness workers (secretarial and administrative support personnel.600. and nonbusiness workers) indicate significant differences in the predicted directions. and human services. government. Business core function profiles of highly experienced and satisfied individuals in specific business career areas discriminate in a predictable fashion between these occupational groups. and human services . and management consulting. They met the same criteria for length of time in role and enjoyment of their function as the production and operations managers. The sales and sales manager sample was composed of 304 individuals who were employed (for a minimum of 3 years) either as direct line sales representatives or as managers of sales teams from a variety of business organizations. They all met the criteria of minimum employment of 3 years and satisfaction with their functional roles. The administrators in education. Examples of these business career area profiles are given in Figure 1. sales and trading. government. Criterion Validity Discriminant studies of occupational groups. corporate finance.
Other career paths await analysis. Research Directions. Are individuals interest- . It was listed in the top three assessments used for any purpose by the more than 130 schools in its governing membership. corporate finance. and so on.282 JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT / August 2004 have a higher mean score on the counseling and mentoring business core function than either the general business professionals sample or the students from a leading business school (several thousand MBA students currently enrolled in the school). For example. municipal finance. All three administrative groups have significantly higher scores on enterprise control when compared to the nonbusiness worker sample. The utility of the model in its application to the vocational domain of business has proven to be significant. The students from a leading business school. Since its introduction in 1996. the Business Career Interest Inventory has been adopted by more than 200 business schools throughout the world. There is also a need to explore more specific career specialties within larger career areas. the Graduate Management Admissions Council found this instrument to be the leading career assessment tool (along with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) used by member schools. The enthusiasm with which it has been met can be explained by the business-specific relevance of its constructs and the conceptual accessibility of the core function model. have higher mean scores on the enterprise control and influence through language and ideas dimensions when compared to the general business professional sample. It would be informative to study differences such as those that probably exist between sales professionals in business-to-business sales roles and sales professionals in consumer-oriented sales roles. Business students and business professionals intuitively relate to the idea of a profile of business core functions that measure the specific business activities that have the potential to actualize underlying interest patterns. Problems. and Limitations The model in general and its specific application to the business domain provide an opportunity for further research. the authors have employed large databases to map the mean business core function profiles of more than 25 business career paths. the investment banking profile could be analyzed into constituent groups such as mergers and acquisitions. the intent of the function-centered model is to portray the congruence that exists between the emerging interest patterns of an individual and the salient activities that characterize those patterns as they are expressed in a particular work role opportunity. DISCUSSION As stated earlier. In a recent survey of assessments among its member schools. In terms of the business domain. known for launching the careers of top executives.
In the global economy. Canada. the researcher has as an advantage with the ability to be more precise in terms of elucidating the actual activities that underlie a specific work role. This applicability at different levels of analysis is another strength of the model itself. and Western Europe. French. However. Clinical experience has shown that individuals from nations other than those most represented in the sample still find the model useful and the results meaningful. A challenge facing the developers and users of the BCII and any assessment instrument in the increasingly global world economy is the issue of cultural differences among test takers. (Separate Turkish norms have been developed and are already in use. to whom should non-American and nonEuropean business students be compared when evaluating how their interests apply to contemporary business career paths? Should the exceptional student from rural Taiwan who has been educated at leading schools in America and who is building her career in New York and London compare her interests to generally Western norms (the people who will largely be her peers for much of her career) or to the norms of Taiwanese professionals? One option of course is to make both normative comparisons available. The BCII database has now reached sufficient size to make available meaningful normative data for Latin American.) This project is high on the authors’ research priority list.400) sample of business professionals from a broad spectrum of industries and functions who work in many countries. The development of such norms however raises interesting issues for business interest assessment. For example. and Japanese business students. In this regard. This experiencenear aspect of the model is thus well adapted for providing clinically useful . and business practice norms originating largely in American and European countries and companies. the construct of vocational domain is a fluid and malleable concept that may be posited at greater or lesser levels of specificity. and this is the path that will most likely be chosen for future cross-cultural development of the BCII.Butler. but the field of business careers is both large and dynamic. which is dominated by models. it calls for further study and analysis. The function-centered approach as a general model of career interest assessment requires research to define the core work functions for any given vocational domain. Spanish. there is a strong case for developing and studying cultural differences on the eight business core functions. With this model. The general business sample used for BCII scale score comparisons is composed of a large (N ≈ 14. Waldroop / A MODEL OF INTEREST ASSESSMENT 283 ed in product development roles in high-technology industries different in terms of interests when compared to professionals in product development roles in lowtechnology companies? Is there a fundamental difference in the interests of general managers preferring small companies when compared to general managers in large corporate environments? The authors continue their investigations into questions of this nature. but the large majority of the sample is drawn from professionals working in the United States. managers. one could define the core functions of the teaching vocational domain as well as those of the engineering teaching domain. Chinese.
Handbook for the strong vocational interest blank. Holland. CA: Stanford University Press. FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. J.284 JOURNAL OF CAREER ASSESSMENT / August 2004 career assessment data that has a great deal of nuance. Palo Alto. Jr. Norwalk. (1973). D. E. L. Savickas & A. P. Savickas.). H. Odessa. L. CT: AppletonCentury-Crofts. . M. R. Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed. Hansen. Borgen.. The model has a particular advantage in career areas where work role definitions are characterized by a high degree of variability from setting to setting or are subject to ongoing redefinition as organizations restructure themselves to face the demands of accelerated technological or social change. Dewey. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. (1913). Stanford. Lippincott.. Strong Interest Inventory: Applications and technical guide. L.. L. Vocational interests (pp. 19-56). (1999). Philadelphia: J. Harmon. Strong. Interest and effort in education. J. CA: Davies-Black Publishing. J. (1994). and attitudes. K. H.. F. (1971). C. (1925). Kitson. E. L. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Stanford. interests. CA: Stanford University Press. B. Vocational interests of men and women. D. The psychology of vocational adjustment. W. (1935).). L. Thorndike. The psychology of wants. Palo Alto. In M. REFERENCES Campbell. The psychology of interests. (1943). & Hammer. A. Spokane (Eds.
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