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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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CHAPTER OUTLINE

21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 21.10 Electric Current Resistance and Ohms Law Superconductors A Structural Model for Electrical Conduction Electric Energy and Power Sources of emf Resistors in Series and in Parallel Kirchhoffs Rules RC Circuits Context ConnectionThe Atmosphere as a Conductor

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Q21.1 Consider all of the eastbound lanes on a highway, taken together. Individual vehicles correspond to bits of charge. The number of vehicles that pass a certain milepost, divided by the time during which they go past, corresponds to the value of the current. Geometry and resistivity. In turn, the resistivity of the material depends on the temperature.

Q21.2

Q21.3 Q21.4

The radius of wire B is 3 times the radius of wire A, to make its crosssectional area 3 times larger.

In a normal metal, suppose that we could proceed to a limit of zero resistance by lengthening the average time between collisions. The classical model of conduction then suggests that a constant applied voltage would cause constant acceleration of the free electrons, and a current steadily increasing in time. On the other hand, we can actually switch to zero resistance by substituting a superconducting wire for the normal metal. In this case, the drift velocity of electrons is established by vibrations of atoms in the crystal lattice; the maximum current is limited; and it becomes impossible to establish a potential difference across the superconductor. The amplitude of atomic vibrations increases with temperature. Atoms can then scatter electrons more efficiently. A current will continue to exist in a superconductor without voltage because there is no resistance loss. Because there are so many electrons in a conductor (approximately 10 28 electrons m3 ) the average velocity of charges is very slow. When you connect a wire to a potential difference, you establish an electric field everywhere in the wire nearly instantaneously, to make electrons start drifting everywhere all at once.

Q21.5 Q21.6

Q21.7

Q21.8 Q21.9

The 25 W bulb has a higher resistance. The 100 W bulb carries more current. One amperehour is 3 600 coulombs. The amperehour rating is the quantity of charge that the battery can lift though its nominal potential difference.

577

In series, the current is the same through each resistor. Without knowing individual resistances, nothing can be determined about potential differences or power. In parallel, the potential difference is the same across each resistor. Without knowing individual resistances, nothing can be determined about current or power. A short circuit can develop when the last bit of insulation frays away between the two conductors in a lamp cord. Then the two conductors touch each other, opening a low-resistance branch in parallel with the lamp. The lamp will immediately go out, carrying no current and presenting no danger. A very large current exists in the power supply, the house wiring, and the rest of the lamp cord up to the contact point. Before it blows the fuse or pops the circuit breaker, the large current can quickly raise the temperature in the short-circuit path. The whole wire is very nearly at one uniform potential. There is essentially zero difference in potential between the birds feet. Then negligible current goes through the bird. The resistance through the birds body between its feet is much larger than the resistance through the wire between the same two points. A wire or cable in a transmission line is thick and made of material with very low resistivity. Only when its length is very large does its resistance become significant. To transmit power over a long distance it is most efficient to use low current at high voltage, minimizing the I 2 R power loss in the transmission line. Alternating current, as opposed to the direct current we study first, can be stepped up in voltage and then down again, with high-efficiency transformers at both ends of the power line. The bulb will light up for a while immediately after the switch is closed. As the capacitor charges, the bulb gets progressively dimmer. When the capacitor is fully charged the current in the circuit is zero and the bulb does not glow at all. If the value of RC is small, this whole process might occupy a very short time interval. Car headlights are in parallel. If they were in series, both would go out when the filament of one failed. An important safety factor would be lost. Kirchhoffs junction rule expresses conservation of electric charge. If the total current into a point were different from the total current out, then charge would be continuously created or annihilated at that point. Kirchhoffs loop rule expresses conservation of energy. For a single-loop circle with two resistors, the loop rule reads + IR1 IR 2 = 0 . This is algebraically equivalent to q = qIR1 + qIR2 , where q = It is the charge passing a point in the loop in the time interval t . The equivalent equation states that the power supply injects energy into the circuit equal in amount to that which the resistors degrade into internal energy. At their normal operating temperatures, from P =

Q21.13

Q21.14

Q21.15

Q21.16 Q21.17

Q21.18

V 2 , the bulbs present resistances R 2 2 2 120 V 120 V 120 V V 2 R= = = 240 , and = 190 , and = 72 . The nominal 60 W lamp P 60 W 75 W 200 W has greatest resistance. When they are connected in series, they all carry the same small current. Here the highest-resistance bulb glows most brightly and the one with lowest resistance is faintest. This is just the reverse of their order of intensity if they were connected in parallel, as they are designed to be.

Chapter 21 Q21.19

579

Answer their question with a challenge. If the student is just looking at a diagram, provide the materials to build the circuit. If you are looking at a circuit where the second bulb really is fainter, get the student to unscrew them both and interchange them. But check that the students understanding of potential has not been impaired: if you patch past the first bulb to short it out, the second gets brighter. The hospital maintenance worker is right. A hospital room is full of electrical grounds, including the bed frame. If your grandmother touched the faulty knob and the bed frame at the same time, she could receive quite a jolt, as there would be a potential difference of 120 V across her. If the 120 V is DC, the shock could send her into ventricular fibrillation, and the hospital staff could use the defibrillator you read about in Example 21.10. If the 120 V is AC, which is most likely, the current could produce external and internal burns along the path of conduction. Likely no one got a shock from the radio back at home because her bedroom contained no electrical groundsno conductors connected to zero volts. Just like the bird in Question 21.13, granny could touch the hot knob without getting a shock so long as there was no path to ground to supply a potential difference across her. A new appliance in the bedroom or a flood could make the radio lethal. Repair it or discard it. Enjoy the news from Lake Wobegon on the new plastic radio.

Q21.20

Q21.21

12 V = 2 A. 6 The potential difference across each lamp is 2 A 2 = 4 V . The power of each lamp is 2 A 4 V = 8 W , totaling 24 W for the circuit. Closing the switch makes the switch and the wires connected to it a zero-resistance branch. All of the current through A and B will go through the switch and (b) lamp C goes out, with zero voltage across it. With less total resistance, the (c) current 12 V = 3 A becomes larger than before and (a) lamps A and B get brighter. (d) The in the battery 4 voltage across each of A and B is 3 A 2 = 6 V , larger than before. Each converts power 3 A 6 V = 18 W , totaling 36 W, which is (e) an increase.

Suppose

= 12 V

and each lamp has R = 2 . Before the switch is closed the current is

a fa f

a fa f

a fa f

a fa f

Q21.22

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, Professor of Physics at Heidelberg and Berlin, was master of the obvious. A junction rule: The number of skiers coming into any junction must be equal to the number of skiers leaving, so that if we count the outward bound skiers as negative the net accumulation of skiers is zero. A loop rule: the total change in altitude must be zero for any skier completing a closed path.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

Section 21.1 Electric Current

P21.1

I=

Q t

ja

N=

580 P21.2

revolving charge is I =

q q = . 2 T

P21.3

Q t = Idt = I 0 1 e t

0

af

z

t

j

j a0.632fI

0

(a)

(b) (c)

P21.4

Q = I 0 1 e 1 =

af

Q 10 = I 0 1 e 10 =

a f af

j b0.999 95gI

0

Q = I 0 1 e = I 0

q = 4t 3 + 5t + 6 A = 2.00 cm 2

= 2.00 10 4 m 2

(a)

I 1.00 s =

dq dt

= 12t 2 + 5

t = 1.00 s

t =1.00 s

= 17.0 A

(b)

P21.5

J=

We use I = nqAv d . Here n is the number of charge carriers per unit volume, and is identical to the number of atoms per unit volume. We assume a contribution of 1 free electron per atom in the relationship above. For aluminum, which has a molar mass of 27, we know that Avogadros number of atoms, N A , has a mass of 27.0 g. Thus, the mass per atom is 27.0 g 27.0 g = = 4.49 10 23 g atom . 23 NA 6.02 10 Thus,

n=

Therefore, or,

vd =

je

je

v d = 0.130 mm s .

Chapter 21

581

P21.6 P21.7

I=

V = IR and

l R= : A

Il V = : A

F 1.00 m I = 6.00 10 A = a0.600 mmf G H 1 000 mmJK VA a0.900 V fe6.00 10 m j I= = l e5.60 10 mja1.50 mf

2 2 7 2 8

m2

I = 6.43 A

P21.8

(a)

Given we obtain:

M = d V = d Al

d mass density,

R=

A=

M . dl

MR =

rl

A

rl l2 = r d . M dl M

Thus,

l=

r d

3 8 3

l = 1.82 m .

(b)

V=

, M

or 1.00 10 3

r 2l =

Thus,

r=

dl

8.92 10 3 1.82

ja f

a f

r = 1.40 10 4 m .

diameter = 280 m .

P21.9

(a)

(b)

J=

E = 0.200 V m 3.15 10 8 m

2

g e

= 6.35 10 6 A m 2

(c)

F d I = 6.35 10 I = JA = J G H 4 JK e

L e1.00 10 A m jM MM 4 N

2

j OP = PP Q

2

49.9 mA

582

(d)

n=

= 6.02 10 28 electrons m 3

P21.10

RC = Rh =

V = R0 1 + TC T0 IC

where T0 = 20.0 C .

V V = = R0 1 + Th T0 . Ih 1A

3

Then

and

P21.11

C 3 C

For aluminum,

E = 3.90 10 3 C 1 = 24.0 10 6 C 1

R=

1.71

l

A

0 1 + E T l 1 + T

A 1 + T

ga

0 E

No problems in this section

P21.12

(a) (b)

n is unaffected

J =

I I A

so it doubles .

Chapter 21

583

(c)

J = nev d

so v d (d)

doubles . is unchanged as long as does not change due to a temperature change in the

m nq 2

conductor.

P21.13

m nq 2

so

e je

j je

vd =

qE m

so Therefore,

7.84 10 4 =

e1.60 10 jEe2.47 10 j

19 14

9.11 10 31

P21.14

I=

P

V

and R =

P21.15

gb

P = I V

*P21.16

8.95 10 5 = I 2 000

I = 448 A

It puts out energy by electric transmission

a fa f

FG 3 600 s IJ = 469 J. H 1h K

(a) efficiency =

C s 2.4 h

FG 3 600 s IJ = 249 J. H 1h K

584

(b)

The only place for the missing energy to go is into internal energy: 469 J = 249 J + Eint Eint = 221 J

(c)

We imagine toasting the battery over a fire with 221 J of heat input: Q = mcT T =

2

221 J Q = mc 0.015 kg

2

kg C = 15.1 C 975 J

2

P21.17

V P = P0 V0

2 0 0 0 0

36.1%

*P21.18

P t = 11 J s 100 h

cost = 3.96 10 6

6 7

P t = 40 W 100 h

cost = 1.44 10 7

6

P21.19

Use the change in resistance to find the final operating temperature of the toaster. R = R0 1 + T T = 441 C

fa

Chapter 21 P21.20

585

e270 10

From e =

clocks 2.50

jFGH

Js clock

IJ FG 3 600 s IJ = 2.43 10 KH 1 h K

12

J h.

Wout , the power input to the generating plants must be: Qin Q in Wout t 2. 43 10 12 J h = = = 9.72 10 12 J h t 0.250 e

P21.21

6

You pay the electric company for energy transferred in the amount E = P t (a) 7d 1 fFGH 1 week IJK FGH 861400 s IJK FGH 1 WJ s IJK = 48.4 MJ d F 7 d IJ FG 24 h IJ FG k IJ = 13.4 kWh P t = 40 Wa 2 weeksfG H 1 week K H 1 d K H 1 000 K F 7 d IJ FG 24 h IJ FG k IJ FG 0.12 $ IJ = $1.61 P t = 40 Wa 2 weeksfG H 1 week K H 1 d K H 1 000 K H kWh K

P t = 40 W 2 weeks

(b)

(c)

*P21.22

h k .12 fFGH 601min IJK FGH 1 000 IJK FGH 0kWh$ IJK = $0.005 82 F 1 h IJ FG k IJ FG 0.12 $ IJ = $0.416 P t = 5 200 Wa 40 minfG H 60 min K H 1 000 K H kWh K

P t = 970 W 3 min

= 0.582

P=

i b

gb

ga

f FG 1 min IJ = 349 J s H 60 s K

P = V I =

2

a f aV faV f R aV f = b120 J Cg R=

P

349 J s

= 41.3

586

Then for a wire of circular cross section

R= l l l4 = = 2 A r d2

g e

a f

j 4dl

or

d 2 = 4.77 10 8 m l

One possible choice is l = 0.900 m and d = 2.07 10 4 m. If l and d are made too small, the surface area will be inadequate to transfer heat into the water fast enough to prevent overheating of the filament. To make the volume less than 0.5 cm3 , we want l and d less than those described by d2 4.77 10 8 m l 2 = 0.5 10 6 m3 , l = 0.5 10 6 m3 . Substituting d 2 = 4.77 10 8 m l gives 4 4 l = 3.65 m and d = 4.18 10 4 m. Thus our answer is: Any diameter d and length l related by d 2 = 4.77 10 8 m l would have the right resistance. One possibility is length 0.900 m and diameter

0.207 mm, but such a small wire might overheat rapidly if it were not surrounded by water. The volume can be less than 0.5 cm3 .

P21.23

(a)

P = I V

so I =

P

V =

= 2.50 10 3 s

(b)

t =

8.00 10 3 W

P21.24

ge

Consider a 400-W blow dryer used for ten minutes daily for a year. The energy transferred to the dryer is

gb

ga

6

We suppose that electrically transmitted energy costs on the order of ten cents per kilowatt-hour. Then the cost of using the dryer for a year is on the order of Cost 20 kWh $0.10 kWh = $2 ~ $1 .

fb

Chapter 21

587

P21.25

(a)

P=

aV f

R

becomes so (b)

V = IR

20.0 W =

a11.6 Vf

R

R = 6.73 .

FIG. P21.25

so and

f a f

= IR + Ir

so r = 1.97 .

P21.26

Rlamp = R rbatteries = 5.00 0.408 = 4.59 0.408 I 2 Pbatteries = = 0.081 6 = 8.16% Ptotal 5.00 I 2

a a

f f

FIG. P21.26

P21.27

(a)

Rp =

V = IR FIG. P21.27

34.0 V = I 17.1

I = 1.17 A for 7.00 resistor 8.18 V = I 10.0

so

so

588 P21.28

We assume that the metal wand makes low-resistance contact with the persons hand and that the resistance through the persons body is negligible compared to the resistance Rshoes of the shoe soles. The equivalent resistance seen by the power supply is 1.00 M + Rshoes . The current through both 50.0 V . The voltmeter displays resistors is 1.00 M + Rshoes

V = I 1.00 M =

(a)

We solve to obtain

(b)

With Rshoes 0 , the current through the persons body is 50.0 V = 50.0 A 1.00 M The current will never exceed 50 A .

P21.29

If we turn the given diagram on its side, we find that it is the same as figure (a). The 20.0 and 5.00 resistors are in series, so the first reduction is shown in (b). In addition, since the 10.0 , 5.00 , and 25.0 resistors are then in parallel, we can solve for their equivalent resistance as: Req =

1

1 10.0 1 + 5.00 + 1 25.0

h = 2.94 .

This is shown in figure (c), which in turn reduces to the circuit shown in figure (d). V and Next, we work backwards through the diagrams applying I = R V = IR alternately to every resistor, real and equivalent. The 12.94 resistor is connected across 25.0 V, so the current through the battery in every diagram is 25.0 V V I= = = 1.93 A . 12.94 R In figure (c), this 1.93 A goes through the 2.94 equivalent resistor to give a potential difference of:

V = IR = 1.93 A 2.94 = 5.68 V .

fa

From figure (b), we see that this potential difference is the same across Vab , the 10 resistor, and the 5.00 resistor. (b) (a) Therefore, Vab = 5.68 V . Since the current through the 20.0 resistor is also the current through the 25.0 line ab, I=

Vab 5.68 V = = 0.227 A = 227 mA . 25.0 Rab FIG. P21.29

Chapter 21 P21.30

589

(a)

Since all the current in the circuit must pass through the series 100 resistor, P = I 2 R

2 Pmax = RI max

FIG. P21.30

so

I max =

P

R

1

R eq = 100 +

FG 1 + 1 IJ H 100 100 K fa

= 150

P2 = P3 = RI 2 = 100 0.250 A

Rp = Rs

fa

= 6.25 W

P21.31

1

I battery =

P = I 2R:

P2 = 2.67 A

f a2.00 f

2

V2 V4

2

in 4.00

Vp = 18.0 V V2 V4 = 2.00 V = V3 = V1

P3 = P1 =

*P21.32

bV g = a2.00 Vf

3 2

g

FIG. P21.31

bV g = a2.00 Vf

1

R3

3.00

2

R1

1.00

The resistors 2, 3, and 4 can be combined to a single 2R resistor. This is in series with resistor 1, with resistance R, so the equivalent resistance of the whole circuit is 3R. In series, 1 potential difference is shared in proportion to the resistance, so resistor 1 gets of the 3 2 battery voltage and the 2-3-4 parallel combination get of the battery voltage. This is the 3 1 potential difference across resistor 4, but resistors 2 and 3 must share this voltage. goes to 3 2 2 and to 3. The ranking by potential difference is V4 > V3 > V1 > V2 . 3 continued on next page (a)

590

(b)

, V

3

2 4 2 , V3 = , V4 = . 9 9 3

(c)

All the current goes through resistor 1, so it gets the most. The current then splits at the parallel combination. Resistor 4 gets more than half, because the resistance in that branch is less than in the other branch. Resistors 2 and 3 have equal currents because they are in series. The ranking by current is I 1 > I 4 > I 2 = I 3 . Resistor 1 has a current of I. Because the resistance of 2 and 3 in series is twice that of resistor 4, twice as much current goes through 4 as through 2 and 3. The current through 2I I . the resistors are I 1 = I , I 2 = I 3 = , I 4 = 3 3 Increasing resistor 3 increases the equivalent resistance of the entire circuit. The current in the circuit, which is the current through resistor 1, decreases. This decreases the potential difference across resistor 1, increasing the potential difference across the parallel combination. With a larger potential difference the current through resistor 4 is increased. With more current through 4, and less in the circuit to start with, the current through resistors 2 and 3 must decrease. To summarize, I 4 increases and I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 decrease . If resistor 3 has an infinite resistance it blocks any current from passing through that branch, and the circuit effectively is just resistor 1 and resistor 4 in series with the battery. The circuit 3 now has an equivalent resistance of 4R. The current in the circuit drops to of the original 4 4 current because the resistance has increased by . All this current passes through resistors 1 3 3I 3I . and 4, and none passes through 2 or 3. Therefore I 1 = , I 2 = I 3 = 0 , I 4 = 4 4 We find the resistance intrinsic to the vacuum cleaner:

(d)

(e)

(f)

*P21.33

(a)

P = IV =

2

aV f

R

R=

aV f = a120 V f

P

535 W

= 26.9

0.9 = r

FIG. P21.33

with the inexpensive cord, the equivalent resistance is 0.9 + 26.9 + 0.9 = 28.7 so the current throughout the circuit is I=

RTot

Chapter 21

591

Pcleaner = I V

In symbols, RTot = R + 2r , I =

a f

cleaner

= I 2 R = 4.18 A

f a26.9 f =

2

470 W . .

R + 2r

and Pcleaner = I 2 R =

12

a R + 2r f

2R

(b)

R + 2r = r=

FRI GH P JK

2 cleaner 12

12

= 120 V

FG 26.9 IJ H 525 W K

= 27.2

8

F 4l I d=G H r JK

(c)

F r=

12

= 1.60 mm or more

Unless the extension cord is a superconductor, it is impossible to attain cleaner power 535 W. To move from 525 W to 532 W will require a lot more copper, as we show here:

G 2 HP F 4l I d=G H r JK

Section 21.8 Kirchhoffs Rules

P21.34

R

12

cleaner

12

IJ K

8

FG H

12

12

+15.0 7.00 I 1 2.00 5.00 = 0 5.00 = 7.00 I 1 I 1 + I 2 2.00 A = 0 0.714 + I 2 = 2.00 so I 2 = 1.29 A

FIG. P21.34

a f a fa f

so

I 1 = 0.714 A

= 12.6 V

592 P21.35

We name currents I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 as shown. From Kirchhoffs current rule, I 3 I 1 I 2 = 0 . Applying Kirchhoffs voltage rule to the loop containing I 2 and I 3 , 12.0 V 4.00 I 3 6.00 I 2 4.00 V = 0

3 2

Applying Kirchhoffs voltage rule to the loop containing I 1 and I 2 , 6.00 I 2 4.00 V + 8.00 I 1 = 0

FIG. P21.35

a f

1

a f

a8.00fI

2

= 4.00 + 6.00 I 2 .

a f

Solving the above linear system, we proceed to the pair of simultaneous equations:

R8 = 4I + 4I S8I = 4 + 6 I T

1

2 2

+ 6I 2

or

R8 = 4I + 10 I SI = 1.33 I 0.667 T

1 2 1

and to the single equation 8 = 4 I 1 + 13.3 I 1 6.67 I1 = and 14.7 V = 0.846 A . 17.3 Then give I 2 = 1.33 0.846 A 0.667 I 1 = 846 mA, I 2 = 462 mA, I 3 = 1.31 A .

I 3 = I1 + I 2

All currents are in the directions indicated by the arrows in the circuit diagram.

P21.36

We use the results of Problem 21.35. (a) By the 4.00-V battery: By the 12.0-V battery: (b) By the 8.00- resistor: By the 5.00- resistor: By the 1.00- resistor: By the 3.00- resistor: By the 1.00- resistor:

I 2 Rt = 0.846 A

2 2 2

a f a8.00 f120 s = 687 J a0.462 Af a5.00 f120 s = 128 J . a0.462 Af a1.00 f120 s = 25.6 J . a1.31 Af a3.00 f120 s = 616 J . a1.31 Af a1.00 f120 s = 205 J .

2 2

Chapter 21

593

(c)

We can count the energy twice, like a child counting his lunch money at ten oclock and again at eleven. 222 J + 1.88 kJ = 1.66 kJ from chemical to electrically transmitted. 687 J + 128 J + 25.6 J + 616 J + 205 J = 1.66 kJ from electrically transmitted to internal.

*P21.38

(a)

The first equation represents Kirchhoffs loop theorem. We choose to think of it as describing a clockwise trip around the left-hand loop in a circuit, see Figure (a). For the righthand loop see Figure (b). The junctions must be between the 5.8 V and the 370 and between the 370 and the 150 . Then we have Figure (c). This is consistent with the third equation, I1 + I 3 I 2 = 0 I 2 = I1 + I 3

5.8 V

I2 370

I3

3.10 V

I3

150 3.10 V 370

(b)

We substitute: 220 I 1 + 5.8 370 I 1 370 I 3 = 0 +370 I 1 + 370 I 3 + 150 I 3 3.1 = 0 Next

I1

220

I2

Figure (c)

FIG. P21.38

5.8 590 I 1 370 520 370 I 1 + 5.8 590 I 1 3.1 = 0 370 370 I 1 + 8.15 829 I 1 3.1 = 0 I3 =

I1 = I3 =

11.0 mA in the 220- resistor and out of 5.05 V = the positive pole of the 5.8-V battery 459 5.8 590 0.011 0

370 The current is 1.87 mA in the 150- resistor and out of the negative pole of the 3.1-V battery

g = 1.87 mA

594 P21.39

Label the currents in the branches as shown in the first figure. Reduce the circuit by combining the two parallel resistors as shown in the second figure. Apply Kirchhoffs loop rule to both loops in Figure (b) to obtain:

and

1 1

2 2

With R = 1 000 , simultaneous solution of these equations yields: I 1 = 10.0 mA and From Figure (b), Thus, from Figure (a), I 2 = 130.0 mA . Vc Va = I 1 + I 2 1.71R = 240 V . I4 = Vc Va 240 V = = 60.0 mA . 4R 4 000 (b)

FIG. P21.39

ga

Finally, applying Kirchhoffs point rule at point a in Figure (a) gives: I 4 I1 I = 0 I = I 4 I 1 = 60.0 mA 10.0 mA = +50.0 mA or

P21.40

2 3

f a

FIG. P21.40

Solving simultaneously,

a fb

I 2 = 0.283 A downward in the dead battery and I 3 = 171 A downward in the starter.

The currents are forward in the live battery and in the starter, relative to normal starting operation. The current is backward in the dead battery, tending to charge it up.

Chapter 21

595

P21.41

(a) (b)

je

(c)

I (t ) =

e t RC = F

R

6 6

OP = h QP

4.06 A

FIG. P21.41

P21.42

(a)

I t = I 0 e t RC I0 =

af

(b)

ge j L 9.00 10 s OP I at f = a1.96 A f exp M MN b1 300 ge2.00 10 Fj PQ = 61.6 mA L 8.00 10 s OP qat f = Qe = b5.10 C g exp M MN a1 300 fe2.00 10 Fj PQ = 0.235 C

6 9 t RC 6 9

(c)

P21.43

The battery carries current The 100 k carries current of magnitude So the switch carries downward current 10.0 V = 200 A . 50.0 10 3 I = I 0 e t RC =

je

je

3 t 1.00 s

t 1.00 s

*P21.44

(a)

We model the persons body and street shoes as shown. For the discharge to reach 100 V, q t = Qe t RC = CV t = CV0 e t RC V = e t RC V0 t = RC ln

0

af

af

V0 = e + t RC V

6

V0 t = ln V RC

12

FG H

IJ K

FIG. P21.44(a)

FG V IJ = 5 000 10 e230 10 H V K e j

F ln

3.91 s

(b)

t = 1 10 6 V A 230 10 12 C V ln 30 = 782 s

596 P21.45

(a)

Call the potential at the left junction VL and at the right VR . After a long time, the capacitor is fully charged. VL = 8.00 V because of voltage divider:

Likewise, or

VR

10.0 V = 1.00 A 10.0

FIG. P21.45(a)

IR =

VR = 10.0 V 8.00 1.00 A = 2.00 V . Therefore, (b) Redraw the circuit V = VL VR = 8.00 2.00 = 6.00 V . R=

f a

fa

g b

RC = 3.60 10 6 s and so

P21.46

e t RC =

1 10

FIG. P21.45(b)

e

3.00 10 5 R

The potential difference across the capacitor Using 1 Farad = 1 s , Therefore, or Taking the natural logarithm of both sides, and

af

fLMN

3.00 s

f Re10.0 10

j O.

PQ

3 .00 10 5 R

= 0.600 .

3.00 10 5 = ln 0.600 R

R=

P21.47 J = E

so

Chapter 21 P21.48

597

(a)

A large electric generating station, fed by a trainload of coal each day, converts energy faster.

je

(b)

I=

P

A

P r2

e j e

Terrestrial solar power is immense compared to lightning and compared to all human energy conversions.

Additional Problems

P21.49

(a)

I= R=

V R

so

2 2

P = IV =

2

aV f

R

aV f = a120 Vf

P P

V =

25.0 W

= 576

and

R=

aV f = a120 Vf

P

100 W

= 144

(b)

I=

t =

The bulb takes in charge at high potential and puts out the same amount of charge at low potential. The charge in itself is identical. (c)

P = 25.0 W =

U 1.00 J = t t

t =

The bulb takes in energy by electrical transmission and puts out the same amount of energy by heat and light. (d) U = Pt = 25.0 J s 86 400 s d 30.0 d = 64.8 10 8 J The electric company sells energy .

gb

ga

FG $0.070 0 IJ FG k IJ FG W s IJ FG h IJ = $1.26 H kWh K H 1 000 K H J K H 3 600 s K $0.070 0 F Cost per joule = G kWh IJ = $1.94 10 J kWh H 3.60 10 J K

Cost = 64.8 10 6 J

6 8

P21.50

V A RA = l I l

a f

l (m) 0.540

1.028 1.543

R ( ) 10.4

( m)

21.1 31.8

598 P21.51

(a)

a a

f f

(b)

R=

l

A

8 4 2

0.637

(c) (d)

I=

r I 6.28 A J= $= i A 1.00 10 4 m

= 2.00 10 8 $ A m 2 = 200 $ MA m 2 i i

(e)

r dV x $ V$ E= i= i dx L

R=

je

P21.52

(a)

af

Note that the field is independent of the material and the area.

(b)

l

A

4 L

d2

(c)

I=

V d 2 V = 4 L R

r I V $ i i J= $= A L

Independent of area.

(e)

r V$ Independent of length and area. At each point within the material, i= E L vector field causes vector current density according to this relation. This is how an atom thinks of Ohms law.

J =

P21.53

(a)

P = IV :

So for the Heater, For the Toaster, And for the Grill,

I= I= I=

P

V

(b)

12.5 + 6.25 + 8.33 = 27.1 A The current draw is greater than 25.0 amps, so this circuit would not be sufficient.

Chapter 21

599

P21.54

(a)

A thin cylindrical shell of radius r, thickness dr, and length L contributes resistance

dR =

dl

A

F b g GH

dr dr = . 2 L r 2 r L

I JK

The resistance of the whole annulus is the series summation of the contributions of the thin shells:

R= r b dr ln b = 2 L r r 2 L ra

a

FG IJ H K

(b)

In this equation

r V ln b = 2 L I ra

FG IJ H K

we solve for =

*P21.55

2 LV I ln rb ra

The set of four batteries boosts the electric potential of each bit of charge that goes through them by 4 1.50 V = 6.00 V . The chemical energy they store is U = qV = 240 C 6.00 J C = 1 440 J . The radio draws current So, its power is

I=

fb

E : t

a f a

Q : t

fb

Then for the time the energy lasts, we have P = We could also compute this from I =

t = t =

P21.56

I=

R+r

, so P = I 2 R =

(R + r ) 2

2R

or

(R + r ) 2 =

FG IJ R . HPK

2

Let x

2

P

, then R + r

= xR or

R 2 + 2r x R r 2 = 0 .

2

5.76

= 9.20 V

R=

and

P = 12.8 W , x = 6.61 :

2

+4.21

a4.21f

2

5.76

= 3.84 or

0.375 .

600

(b)

For

= 9.20 V

R=

and

P = 21.2 W , x

2

2

P

= 3.99

+1.59

a1.59f

2

5.76

1.59 3.22 . 2

The equation for the load resistance yields a complex number, so there is no resistance that will extract 21.2 W from this battery. The maximum power output occurs when

R = r = 1.20 , and that maximum is: Pmax =

2

4r .

= 17.6 W .

P21.57

I=

R+r

(a)

R R+r

and

Vter as R .

I

(b)

R+r R (R + r ) 2

and

as R 0 .

FIG. P21.57

(c)

P = I2R = 2

dP 2 =0 2 2 R = + dR ( R + r ) 3 ( R + r ) 2

Then 2 R = R + r

P21.58

and

R=r . dE e 1 RC . = P = I = dt R

2

FG IJ H K t z dE = z R expFH RC IK dt

t =0

dE =

2 ( RC ) expF

R

z

0

t RC

IK FH dt IK = C expFH t IK RC RC

2

= 2 C 0 1 = 2C .

dE 2 2t = P = VR I = I 2 R = R 2 exp . RC dt R

F H

I K

z z

dE =

0 0

exp

FH

2t dt RC

IK

dE =

2 F RC I expF

R

Kz

0

2t RC

IK FH 2dt IK = C expFH 2t IK 2 RC RC

2

2C

2

0 1 =

2C .

2

2C = 1 2C + 1 2C

2 2

and resistor and capacitor share equally in the energy from the

Chapter 21

601

P21.59

(a)

q = CV 1 e t RC

j fLMN

10.0

q = 1.00 10 6 F 10.0 V 1 e dq V t RC = e dt R

6 5.00

ja

e 2.00 10 je1.00 10 j O =

6

PQ

9.93 C

(b)

I= I=

FG IJ H K

(c)

8 2 6 6 8

W = 334 nW

(d)

P21.60

2 V 3

R1 A Voltage controlled switch + V

Start at the point when the voltage has just reached and the switch has just closed. The voltage is

2 V and is 3 decaying towards 0 V with a time constant RBC 2 a f LMN 3 V OPQe . 1 We want to know when V at f will reach V . 3 1 L2 O V = M V P e Therefore, 3 N3 Q VC t =

t RBC

R2 B

C

V Vc

t RBC

or or

e t RBC =

1 2

t1 = RBC ln 2 .

FIG. P21.60

af af

LM 2 V OPe N3 Q

t R A + RB C

2 V 3 or and

e t b R A + RB gC = T = t1 + t 2 =

2 2 V = V Ve t b R A + RB gC 3 3 So

t 2 = R A + RB C ln 2

1 . 2

bR

+ 2 RB C ln 2 .

602

P21.61

(a)

With the switch closed, current exists in a simple series circuit as shown. The capacitors carry no current. For R 2 we have

P = I 2 R2

I=

P

R2

FIG. P21.61(a)

Q = C1 V = 3.00 10 6 C V 74.1 V = 222 C .

A 4 000 V A = 74.1 V .

jb

ja

The potential difference across R 2 and C 2 is V = IR 2 = 1.85 10 2 A 7 000 = 130 V . The charge on C 2 is

Q = C 2 V = 6.00 10 6 C V 130 V = 778 C .

jb

ja

IR eq = I R1 + R 2 = 1.85 10 2 A 4 000 + 7 000 V A = 204 V .

(b)

In equilibrium after the switch has been opened, no current exists. The potential difference across each resistor is zero. The full 204 V appears across both capacitors. The new charge on C 2 is

Q = C 2 V = 6.00 10 6 C V 204 V = 1 222 C

ja

FIG. P21.61(b)

P21.62

V = e t RC

so ln V be a straight line with slope equal 1 to . RC Using the given data values:

FIG. P21.62

Chapter 21

603

(a)

xi = 282 ,

xi yi = 244,

Slope =

xi2

= 1.86 10 ,

N=8

yi = 4.03 ,

i i i i 2 i 2 i

c x y h c x hc y h = 0.011 8 N e x j c x h e x jc y h c x hc x y h = 0.088 2 Intercept = N e x j c x h The equation of the best fit line is: lnF H IK = a0.011 8ft + 0.088 2

N

2 i i i i i 2 i 2 i

(b)

= RC =

C=

P21.63

An editorial in The Physics Teacher suggested the idea for this problem.

(a) The resistor with highest resistance is that carrying 4 mA. Doubling its resistance will reduce the current it carries to 2 mA. Then the total current is

FIG. P21.63

211 a150 + 45 + 14 + 2f mA = 211 mA, nearly the same as before. The ratio is 213 =

0.991 .

(b)

The resistor with least resistance carries 150 mA. Doubling its resistance changes this current to 75 mA and changes the total to

This problem is precisely analogous. As a battery maintained a potential difference in parts (a) and (b), a furnace maintains a temperature difference here. Energy flow by heat is analogous to current and takes place through thermal resistances in parallel. Each resistance can have its R-value increased by adding insulation. Doubling the thermal resistance of the attic door will produce only a negligible (0.9%) saving in fuel. Doubling the thermal resistance of the ceiling will produce a much larger saving. The ceiling originally has the smallest thermal resistance.

604

*P21.64

(a)

For the first measurement, the equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 1. R ab = R1 = R y + Ry = 2 R y so Ry = 1 R1 . 2 (1)

a Ry

R1 c Rx Figure 1 R2

b Ry

For the second measurement, the equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2. Thus, R ac = R2 = 1 Ry + Rx . 2 (2)

Ry

c Rx

Ry

FG H

IJ K

Figure 2

FIG. P21.64

If R1 = 13.0 and R 2 = 6.00 , then R x = 2.75 . The antenna is inadequately grounded since this exceeds the limit of 2.00 .

P21.2 P21.4 P21.6 P21.8 P21.10 P21.12 P21.14 P21.16 P21.18 P21.20 P21.22

q 2 (a) 17.0 A ; (b) 85.0 kA m 2 500 mA (a) 1.82 m; (b) 280 m 1.98 A (a) no change; (b) doubles; (c) doubles; (d) no change 5.00 A; 24.0 (a) 0.530; (b) 221 J; (c) 15.1C $0.232 295 metric ton/h Any diameter d and length l related by d 2 = 4.77 10 8 m l , such as length

~$1 (a) 4.59 ; (b) 8.16% (a) see the solution; (b) no (a) 75.0 V; (b) 25.0 W, 6.25 W, and 6.25 W; 37.5 W (a) V4 > V3 > V1 > V2 ; 2 4 , V3 = , (b) V1 = , V2 = 3 9 9 2 V4 = ; 3 (c) I 1 > I 4 > I 2 = I 3 ; I 2I (d) I 1 = I , I 2 = I 3 = , I 4 = ; 3 3 (e) I 4 increases while I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 decrease; 3I 3I (f) I 1 = , I 2 = I 3 = 0 , I 4 = 4 4 0.714 A, 1.29 A, 12.6 V see the solution

P21.34 P21.36

Chapter 21

605

P21.38

(a) see the solution; (b) The current in the 220- resistor and the 5.80-V battery is 11.0 mA out of the positive battery pole. The current in the 370- resistor is 9.13 mA. The current in the 150- resistor and the 3.10-V battery is 1.87 mA out of the negative battery pole. starter 171 A; battery 0.283 A (a) 61.6 mA; (b) 0.235 C ; (c) 1.96 A (a) 3.91 s; (b) 0.782 ms 587 k (a) 300 MW; (b) 175 PW Experimental resistivity = 1.47 m 4%, in agreement with 1.50 m V d 2 V$ 4L V $ ; (d) i ; (b) i; ; (c) 2 4 L L L d (e) see the solution (a)

P21.54

(a) R =

2 LV r ln b ; (b) = r ra 2 L I ln rb a

FG IJ H K

ej

P21.64

A

bR

+ 2 RB C ln 2

P21.52

CC6.1

The resistance of the spherical shell of air carrying radial electric current is R=

13 L 2 10 m 4 000 m = = 157 . 2 A 4 6.37 10 6 m

jb

The time constant for discharge is RC = 157 V A 0.8 C V = 126 s . (a) q = Q e t RC describes the discharge q = e t RC Q e + t RC = Q q

gb

t Q = ln RC q

4 4

87.0 s

(b)

(c)

F F 4 10 GH GH 5 10 F F 4 10 t = 126 sG lnG H H 0

t = 126 s ln I= Q t

4 3

C C

I I = 261 s JK JK C II JK JK

CC6.2

(a)

t =

(b)

CC6.3

number = 1 d

FG 86 400 s IJ FG 1 IJ H 1 d K H 1.25 10 s K

2

7 10 6

(a)

For radial currents, the two layers of the atmosphere are resistors in series, presenting equivalent resistance

3 3 13 13 1 L 2 L 2 10 m 2.5 10 m 0.2 10 m 2.5 10 m + = + = 108 . 2 2 A A 4 6.37 10 6 m 4 6.37 10 6 m

RC = 0.9 F 108 = 97.1 s .

According to the argument of the context conclusion, we consider six time constants as the time for 2 10 4 lightning strikes. Then the number in a day is 2 10 4 2 10 4 = 6 RC 6 97.1 s

FG 86 400 s IJ = fH 1 d K

2

3 10 6 .

(b)

For radial currents through the atmosphere, the air in the two hemispheres presents resistances in parallel, with equivalent resistance

F 2 e6.37 10 mj I 2 e6.37 10 mj 1 GG J R = = + FG L IJ + FG L IJ H 2 10 me5 10 mj 0.2 10 me5 10 mj JK HAK H AK 2 10 2 10 FG 86 400 s IJ = 9 10 number of daily strokes = = 6 RC 6a35.7 fa0.9 F f H 1 d K

6 6 2 eq 1

1

13

13

= 35.7

CC6.2

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