i. Acknowledgement ii. Epilogue iii.Sheets:

GROUP
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND STUDY LANDUSE AND MASTERPLAN STUDY HOUSING STUDY SOCIO ECONOMIC STUDY

GROUP NAME

SHEET NO.
1 to 5 6 to10 11 to 30 31 to 35

1

2

3

4

iv.Inferences

•We sincerely thank all the officilas of Khyah village Panchayat office for their kind support to carry out the survey in the village. •We are also gratefull to the people of khyah village for their kind cooperation and gracious hospitality

elevations .In that context we have choosen the Khyah village for the study under following parameters: 1.hydrology etc. We have surveyed the village for masterplan and interacted people to know the Historical background.orientation.climate.Architectural planning 2.Architectural design 3.Analysis of Topography.Architectural details We have studied the preparation of masterplan techniques that are traditionally used. The indivisual house units and public buildings are surveyed and plan.As part of the architectural design-IV studio we are required to Study the vernacular principles of architectural design . The objective of the case study is to learn the traditional building technology and vernacular principles Of architectural design and details . Sections .site plan are made. Then we have made the proposal for facilities which will be beneficial for the people of khyah village .

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TITLE 1 2 3 DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS MORPHOLOGY FACILITIES 4 5 .SHEET NO.

INTRODUCTION 1(i) .

INTRODUCTION 1(ii) .

•RIVER BEAS: (B) RIVER SATLUJ •BAKAR KHAD 1.SUKAR KHAD •MAN KHAD 2. . INDUS RIVER SYSTEM 2.GANGA RIVER SYSTEM •THE JHELUM THE YAMUNA •THE CHENAB THE BHAGIRATHI AND •THE RAVI ALAKNANDA •THE BEAS THE KALI •THE SATLUJ THE GHAGRA THE GANDAK THE KOSI •The area of hamirpur is drained by the Indus river system. •A number of perennial streams which are tributaries of either the beas or the Satluj run across the district. MUNDKHAR KHAD •PUNG KHAD •KUNHA KHAD •Pung khad is nearest to village khyah.INTRODUCTION 2(i) RIVER SYSTEM: •There are two main river system that drain northern India: 1.

•Some less concentrated areas of growth are located along the road to Sujanpur tira. •Raja Sansar chand ruled the region from 1775to 1823 Ad. . •The present town of hamirpur got this name from this ruler.people settled here as it was safe place. •Although settling in the existing town would have been a better idle but cheaper land was available as and where required in these remote areas and people chose to settle here in near vicinity of the main town.870F). that’s all one can see at the first glance. another tributary of the beas. of india. •The earlier constructions in the area started around year 19001910 due to World war-I . then the area came under Govt. comparatively speaking. •The area has an irregular terrain. for from the town where there was nothing in the name of facilities until some twenty years back.INTRODUCTION 2(ii) HISTORICAL BACKGROUND •The katoch dynasty ruled the area between the ravi and satluj rivers in olden days. kms. constituting of about 35 houses spread over an area of some 2 sq. •Khyah is one such village located at a distance of around 10 km. from the main city of hamirpur. ikm with a population of nearly 200 people (964 M. •The lack of facilities and the geographical constrains have probably limited the growth to a small area of some 6 sq. but there are some sporadic settlements in the inferiors. The settlement is mainly concentrated around the main city or in near vicinity of it. thin Sikhs till 1846 and after. it became predominant during the period of Hamirchand who ruled from 1700 AD to 1740 AD. some about 500 m from the pung khad. it became part of british empire till 1947.

HAMIRPUR 2. NADAUN •NADAUN •SUJANPUR •HAMIRPUR SUB-DIVISION (B) BARSAR SUBCOMPRISES OF TEHSILS: DIVISION COMPRISES: •HAMIRPUR 1.INTRODUCTION 2(iii) ADMINSTRATIVE DIVISIONS: •FIVE TEHSILS: (B) THREE REVENUE SUB-DIVISIONS: •HAMIRPUR 1.HAMIRPUR •BARSAR 2. BHORANJ 4. NADAUN 6. BARSAR •BHORANJ 2.BARSAR •BHORANJ 3. BIJHARI 3. SUB-TEHSIL AT •NADAUN AT DHATWAL (A)NADAUN SUB-DIVISION (B) SIX DELEPMENT COMPRISES OF: BLOCKS: •NADAUN (ONLY ONE) 1.BAMSAN •PANCHAYATS : 209 •VILLAGES : 1617 •MAJOR TOWNS : 5 •BARSAR •HAMIRPUR •NADAUN •BIJHARI •SUJANPUR . SUJANPUR 5.

•It has population of 1844 people. •It constitutes of houses both “KACHHA” & “PUKKA”. •There are 172 people living in these houses. m. •It is located on hill. . •Of these 964 are male & 870 female. •These houses are spread over an area of around 20000 sq. 3 KHYAH •Khyah is village spread over an estimated area of 2 sq.DEMOGRAPHIC DETAIL KHYAH BRAHMANA •It is the area for the upper caste people and hence the more dominant in the village. km. •The people belong to various castle & economic statuses.

•Gradually buildings began to appear on the side of the road. bamboo.MORPHOLOGY 4 •There are numerous stories about how n who settled first of all and exactly when •One story says that Mr. •In 80’s And 90’s the growth pattern shifted closer to the road. •This area was referred to as Abaadi. rain shelter. primary health care centre. • Stone walls used rarely. another local material. Kinha s/o Mr. •2 temples. •Growth was concentrated around this hub till 1960. •First the population was concentrated on a small platform about 100 m away from the road. •This oldest house stands today in pathetic condition unlike some others that have been renovated. Suresh kumar (56) probably settled in area around 100 years back. . adobe blocks. four shops and some other public buildings have been built with in the last 10 years. cement mortar and rcc. •Buildings built after 1990 have generally used kiln burnt bricks. Teka Ram from Amb immigrated here some hundred years back and laid the foundation of the village and today half of the residences are his blood. •Stone was used up to plinth level in constructions dating from 60’s to 70’s. panchayat house. •Another belief is that Mr. •Constructions prior to 1950 exhibit the use of solid mud walls. Dewan chand (82) o/f Mr.

FACILITIES 5 .

SHEET NO. LANDUSE MASTERPLAN SECTION TITLE 6 7 8 9 EVOLUTION OF HOUSES SECTIONAL VIEW 10 .

LANDUSE 6 .

MASTERPLAN 7 .

SECTION 8(i) .

SECTION 8(ii) .

EVOLUTION OF HOUSES 9 .

TO HAMIRPUR PUBLIC BUILDINGS Public buildings are at the edge of the village. A few of houses are connected by sub pathway some of the houses are scattered. The houses are linearly arranged along the main pathway some of the houses are scattered.SECTIONAL VIEW TO KANGRI 10(i) ROAD NETWORK AND PATHWAYS Road passes though the central port of the village. It connect the village to Hamirpur town which is at a distance of eighth km. The pathway is along the east west direction. These buildings are constructed during the last 15 year. and due to easy approach from the road all the buildings are near the road. SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE VILLAGE .

there is on chances of flood in the area due to sloppy terrain.As rain water doesn’t get settled at top of hill. hence cultivation is not possible there.SECTIONAL VIEW 10(i) SETTLEMENT BEFORE ROAD CONSTRUCTION SETTLEMENT The settlement is on one side of the hill at almost middle of the Land. That is why graze land is the top of hill and the cultivated land is either centre or lower part of the hill. But land may occurs in the rainy season. NATURAL DRAINAGE: The terrain is hilly therefore there is no scope of rain water storage. the SETTLEMENT AFTER ROAD deity has given the top most.As God is above of all. The water flows down the hill and then along with nalah. WATER FLOWS ALONG THE SLOPE . moves to the khad . position in the village i. the hill top.e.

27 28 29.12 13 14 15.18 19.25 HOUSE NO.SHEET NO.19 HOUSE NO.23 24.24 HOUSE NO.16 17.11 HOUSE NO.20 HOUSE NO.21 COWSHEAD 21 FINDINGS TITLE 11.28 HOUSE NO.30 .15 HOUSE NO.17 HOUSE NO.25 26.20 21 22. HOUSE NO.13 HOUSE NO.

25 H.11 H.24 .19 H.20 H.21 H.21 H.17 H.28 H.13 C.H.15 H.

YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION : 1918 . Diwan Chand NO.17 OWNER : Sh.Under 10th Children .-17 11(i) HOUSE NO: H.Studying RELIGION : Hindu CASTE : Brahmin EMPLOYMENT : •One male member daily wage earner.2 Female .2 Children . OF RESIDENTS: Male .3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Owner .HOUSE NO.

•There is no toilet in the house and neither was it planned initially.HOUSE NO. DRINKING WATER : Tap water SANITARY CONDITION : Poor sanitation with no proper toilet planned in the house. PLANNING CONSTRUCTION: •The house follows the ancient system of courtyard planning. •The house has been build in phases. •It has a poor drainage system in which drain water flows into the open. .-17 11(ii) CONDITION OF HOUSE : The house is a kutcha house but the house had phases of construction therefore some portions are pucca. DRAINAGE : Poor with drain water flowing into open.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL: Flooring : Mud. Foundation: Stone and mud mortar. Roofing : Bamboo. . slates. •There are no interesting features in the house. mud.HOUSE NO. cow dung. bamboo. Walling : Sun dried adobe blocks. •The elevation otherwise are also not very attracting due to lack of maintainance. cow dung Plaster.-17 12(i) ELEVATIONAL FEATURES: •The house has two blocks built in two phases. •The house has predominance of white color with very little green and red color. leaves.

•The kitchen is used for cooking. •Visitors and the guests are received in the verandah. •Blocks B was added still further around 1950.-17 12(ii) PHASES OF CONSTRUCTION: •Initially the block of the house was built with no staircase access to the top floor in 1918. . •Staircase of this block was added some years later. ACTIVITIES: •The courtyard of the house is used for house hold chores like drying of grains and washing of clothes and drying. •After this the staircase was added.HOUSE NO. •The verandah of the house is extensively used for activities related to the house as shown in the picture. •The store rooms are used for storing of grains and other house hold items. storage and for bathing.

1 Female . Romi Das NO. OF RESIDENTS: Male .HOUSE NO.-20 13(i) HOUSE NO: H.Under 10th RELIGION : Hindu CASTE : Brahmin EMPLOYMENT :Male member works as a daily wage earner YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION : 1918 .1 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Male .10th Female .20 OWNER : Sh.

. ELEVATIONAL FEATURES •The elevations of the house is not so appearing with most of the portion of the cowshed in rains.-20 13(ii) CONDITION OF HOUSE : Pucca DRAINAGE : Good Drainage.HOUSE NO. PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS •The house was the portion which is cowshed now but due to a recent pucca portion constructed the initial house has been converted. water goes into safe tank DRINKING WATER : Tap water SANITARY CONDITION : Sanitation is good with a separate toilet and bath.

DRAINAGE: Drain water flows in the open DRINKING WATER: Tap water SANITARY CONDITION: Poor sanitary condition with no proper toilet.19 OWNER : Smt.2 Children .1 Female .HOUSE NO. OF RESIDENTS: Male . CONDITION OF HOUSE: Kutcha house.-19 14(i) HOUSE NO: H.3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: 2 Member: 10 th Children: Studying EMPLOYMENT: The only male member works as a worker in a factory. . Bisroo Devi NO. RELIGION : Hindu CASTE: Brahmin YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: 1943.

•The color has predominance of blue & green. .HOUSE NO. •The house doesn’t have any interesting feature. •There is no proper drainage.-19 14(ii) PLANNING CONSIDERATION: •The house has a nuclear plan. •The cowshed is at a distance of about 100 m from the house.

2 Children -3 These are the residents of this house but originally the owner has four sons who do not live in the village but have other houses in the village. Prem Devi NO.13 OWNER : Smt. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Owner .studying RELIGION : Hindu CASTE : Brahmin EMPLOYMENT : Self employed YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION : 1943 CONDITION OF HOUSE : Kutcha DRAINAGE : Drain water flows into the fields DRINKING WATER : Tap water SANITARY CONDITION : Poor sanitation with no proper toilets. OF RESIDENTS: Male .Under 10th Children .1 Female .-13 15(i) HOUSE NO: H.HOUSE NO. .

. •No toilets were planned initially neither has been built till date. •Cowshed is nearby at a distance of 10 m.-13 15(ii) PLANNING CONSIDERATION: •The plan of the house is linear. •The courtyard of the house is used for carrying household chores & keeping of animals.HOUSE NO. ACTIVITIES: •Kitchen of the house is located in the top floor where cooking is carried out. •The stone is used for storage of grains & other household items. •There is no proper drainage planned. •Living & verandah are used for sitting purposes & for receiving guests. •Bedroom is used for resting purpose & for sleeping.

HOUSE NO.-13

16(i)

ELEVATIONAL FEATURES: •The house shows predominance of green & white color. •The elevation of the house bears a worn cut look to due to lack of maintenance. •The supporting pillars show the use of pointing. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS: Flooring : Mud, cow dung, leaves, bamboo Walling : Sun dried adobe mud blocks, mud plaster Foundation : Stone, Mud plaster Roofing : Bamboo, Slate.

HOUSE NO.-13

16(ii)

HOUSE NO.-24

17(i)

HOUSE NO: H- 24 OWNER : Owned by 3 families. •Family – 1 OWNER : Mauzi Ram sharma. NO. OF RESIDENTS: Male - 2 Female - 2 Children -2 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Under 10 - 1 10th - Rest (2+1) •Family – 2 OWNER : Satish kumar sharma. NO. OF RESIDENTS: Male - 1 Female - 1 Children -2

2 Female . NO.2 Children -2 + 2 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: 4 members: 10th pass Children: studying RELIGION : Hindu CASTE : Brahmin .HOUSE NO. Rajesh Kumar sharma.-24 17(ii) EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: 2 members: 10th pass Children: Studying • Family – 3 OWNER : Sh. OF RESIDENTS: Male .

•All the three families have their cowsheds nearby. •The house does not have proper drainage system. PLANNING CONSIDERATION: •The house has a linear plan with a recent attachment in pucca. ELEVATIONAL FEATURES: •The house has predominance of yellow & brown.HOUSE NO. •The toilets built are new & were not planned initially.-24 18 YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: 1963 CONDITION OF HOUSE: Semi Pucca DRAINAGE: Poor DRINKING WATER: Tap water SANITARY CONDITION: Sanitation was good all the three families have their own toilets. . •The house has good appearance.

YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: 1965.2 Children .3 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Males : 10th passed Children: Studying RELIGION : Hindu CASTE: Brahmin EMPLOYMENT: •Agriculture •One male member working as peon.2 Female . Urvi Devi NO.HOUSE NO.-11 19(i) HOUSE NO: H. OF RESIDENTS: Two families occupy the house Male . .11 OWNER : Smt.

. DRAINAGE: Drain water flows in the open DRINKING WATER: Tap water SANITARY CONDITION: Not Good (Do not have a personal toilet) PLANNING CONSIDERATION: •The house has nucleated planning with a single block. •The house has no verandah or balcony. •Cowshed far from house at a distance of 50 m. PHASES OF CONSTRUCTION: •The kutcha portion was built around 43 years back ie is in 1965.-11 19(ii) CONDITION OF HOUSE: The house is kutcha initially with a new two room construction which is pucca. •The pucca portion being added around 10 years back in 1998. •No proper drainage. •No toilet planned.HOUSE NO.

household items & clothes etc. cow dung.HOUSE NO. •The elevation is simple with no interesting elemet. •Store rooms are used for storage of grains. •The pucca portion is nicely embedded in the kutcha portion & is not separate. leaves & bamboo. cow dung plaster. mortar of mud. adobe blocks. •Guests are received in the pucca portion of the house. mud. •The kitchen is used for cooking purpose and for washing of utensils & bathing by ladies. Foundation: Stone. •The balcony and the verandah which make the elevation interesting in the other houses is missing here so it appears to be flail elevation with no ornamentation either. INFERENCE: •The house due to lack of verandah and the balcony does not have a very pleasing appearance. Walling: Sun dried. •Bedrooms are used for resting & sleeping purpose. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS: Flooring: Mud. mud. . ACTIVITIES: •The roof of the pucca portion is used for drying of grains & clothes. •The pucca construction added recently also does not any. Roofing: Bamboo. slate.-11 20 ELEVATIONAL FEATURES: •The elevation shows predominance of white color with brown windows & door.

2 Female . Ratan Chand NO. OF RESIDENTS: Male .10th pass RELIGION : Hindu CASTE : Brahmin EMPLOYMENT: One male member in Army Agriculture YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION : 1965 CONDITION OF HOUSE : Semi Pucca (Floor plastered) DRAINAGE : Drain water flows in the open DRINKING WATER : Tap water SANITARY CONDITION : Toilet added later PLANNING CONSIDERATION : •Nuclear plannings •No Proper Drainage and toilets added later. •Cowshed has been planned within the house With entry from name side.Under 10 th One Male .2 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Owner .-25 21(i) HOUSE NO: H.HOUSE NO.1 Children .25 OWNER : Sh. .

HOUSE NO.Though this is convenient but not hygienic as • animals attract Insects and harmful microorganism . .-25 21(ii) ELEVATIONAL FEATURES : •The house has predominance of yellow and lime color •The interesting element are the pillars in the verandah INFERENCES : •In this house cowshed is within the house and animals are neared •adjacent to the house .

Laxman Das NO.Studying RELIGION : Hindu CASTE : Brahmin EMPLOYMENT : Owner peon is P.1 Children .-15 22(i) HOUSE NO: H.1 Female .10+2 passed Children .15 OWNER : Sh.D YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION : 1968(40 yrs old) CONDITION OF HOUSE : Semi Pucca (Walls of stone upto lintel level and floors plastered) DRAINAGE : Drain water flows in the open DRINKING WATER : Tap water SANITARY CONDITION : Good (Have their own toilet recently constructed) .W.2 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Owner .HOUSE NO. OF RESIDENTS: Male .

•The Kitchen servers the purpose of cooking. •No toilets planned initially . . PLANNING CONSTRUCTION : •Linear planning along centre courtyard. •Stone room servers for storing of food grains and house hold items and also daily use items. Men usually use the courtyard for bathing.-15 22(ii) ACTIVITIES : •The courtyard of the house is used for house hold chores. •Guests and visitors are received in the Living Room. •No proper drainage. •The verandah as such is not extensively used and balcony above it used as circulation area. •Store used till lintel level.5 M.HOUSE NO. washing utensils and for bathing by ladies. •Cowshed near to the house approximately 7.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL : Flooring : Cement. mud. •Windows decorated with use of arches. •Floor decorated with floral pattern in white cement. Walling : Stone (ashlars). leaves and bamboo. slate Foundation : Stone. •Supporting pillars show false exposed brick work with simple base and capital .-15 23(i) ELEVATIONAL FEATURES : •Use of exposed stone masonry in the walls of ground floor. sun dried adobe blocks. mud mortar . Roofing : Bamboo.HOUSE NO. mud and cow dung plaster. cow dung.

. •Intelligent use of arches provide interesting appearance apart from structural strength to the structure.-15 23(ii) INFERENCE : •The use of stone in the walls has reduced the investment both in terms of cost and labour for maintainance .HOUSE NO.

-28 24(i) HOUSE NO: H.Graduates RELIGION : Hindu CASTE : Brahmin EMPLOYMENT : •Both sons govt.1+2 (Do not live here) Male .HOUSE NO.Gita Devi NO. OF RESIDENTS: Female .28 OWNER : Smt. employers •Agriculture YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION : 1971 CONDITION OF HOUSE : Kutcha with pucca Kitchen DRAINAGE : Drain water flows in the open DRINKING WATER : Tap water SANITARY CONDITION : Newly constructed toilet in the pucca house constructed in 1990 .2 (Do not live here) EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: Owner .Under 10th Male .

Tha only room used by the occupant are the kitchen and living room. Initially it was kutcha but but has been rebuilt in brick and concrete. . •The courtyard is used for other household chores. •The living room has also built recently.-28 24(ii) PLANNING CONSIDERATION : •The house has a linear plan along the courtyard. •The kitchen of the house is external. •The living room is used for receiving guests and for resting purpose. •The staircase to top floor is external and the excess is from courtyard. ACTIVITIES: •Since the house is occupied by a single occupant it is not much used. •The cowshed is about 10M from the house. initially it was kutcha room like the other part.HOUSE NO.

and bamboo. •The house has external steep staircase without any external support. INFERENCE: The house has interesting capital which is carved and has flower pots attached or built with the base of piller. Walling: sundried adobe blocks. . •Sloping roof at different levels make it more interesting. leaves. cow dung plaster. mud. Foundation: slate and bamboo.-28 25(i) ELEVATION: •The house has predominance of yellow cotour with little amount of green cotour.HOUSE NO. mud. •The appearance is interesting but is not kept well. CONSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL: Flooring: concrete.

HOUSE NO. •BAMBOOS EMBEDDED IN THE SLAB TO PROVIDE SUPPORT TO THE CANTILEVERED LANDING OF THE STAIRCASE.-28 25(ii) •AN INTERESTING FEATURE SHOWING FLOWER BED WITH THE COLUMN •THE WOODEN PILLAR USED TO PROVIDE SUPPORT TO THE SLAB ABOVE. .

-21 26(i) HOUSE NO : H-21 OWNER : Two families occupy the house. of residents: Male:2 Female: 3 Children: 3 Educational background: Male members: 10th passed One female member: graduate Employment:1.HOUSE NO. Agriculture •Family-2 Owner: sh .own the shop 2.Kanshi Ram No. •Family-1 Owner: smt Vidya Devi No. of residents: Male:4 Female:4 Children:5 .

-21 26(ii) Educational Qualification: 10th pass : all except 2 Children : studying Employment: •Self Employed •Agriculture. Family-2 have built the toilet recently.HOUSE NO. YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: family-1 : 1948 Family-2 :1978 CONDITION OF HOUSE: Sema pucca DRINKING WATER: Tap water DRAINAGE: Poor with drain water flowing in the open SANITARY CONDITION: Family one does not have a toilet. .

.HOUSE NO.-21 27(i) PLANING CONSIDERATION: •The house has a L-shaped planning. mud . CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL: Flooring: cow dung . •The supporting pillars of the house are interesting. •The overall appearance of the house is good with is well maintained. •There is no proper drainage with drain water flowing in the open. Leaves.mud & cow dung plaster. •The cowshed of one family is at a distance of 300M. bamboo Walling : mud . while one family does not have any cowshed ELEVATIONAL FEATURES: •The elevation has predominance of blew and white color. sun dried mud adobe blocks. •There was no initially planning for toilet but now one family has a newly built toilet but the other does not.

Activities in courtyard: A lady member washing clothes and an elderly woman resting in the sun. mud.-21 27(ii) Foundation : stone. A detailed picture showing the resting of roof on the outer cover of the balcony . The interior view of the washing area of the kitchen. mud mortar.HOUSE NO. .

OF ANIMALS: Buffalo:1 Ox: 2 Goat: 1 YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION: 1989(19 years old) CONDITION OF COWSHED: Good and well kept. Kanshi Ram NO.-21 28(i) Cowshed no : C-21 OWNER : Sh. •Outside in the courtyard space is provided for water storage and cow dung treatment.COWSHEAD NO. PLANNING CONCIDERATIONS: •The cow shed has two rooms one in which all the animals are kept. . •On the first floor in both the rooms fodder for animals is kept. •In the other room fodder and agricultural equipments are kept. DRAINAGE: Drain water flows in to the field.

•a internal view showning storge space. PICTURE CAPTIONS: •a external view showing doors and windows.COWSHEAD NO. •Ladder is used to access the top floor as no staircase is present. •The best feature is scope has been provided for extension in future. .-21 28(ii) INFERENCE: •The cow shed is sufficient to contain all the animals.

if still no hard surface is found. the earth is dug up till a hard strata is found below the surface of earth. . the use of stone for the foundation goes till plinth level after which mud walls start.FINDINGS 29(i) After the complete study of all the houses of the village it was found that all the houses have the same constructional details which may differ at some places like the use of materials but they have almost the same details which are as follows: FOUNDATION while lying the foundation of house. on this hard surface then the foundation surface is laid using mud brick mortar. the digging for search of hard strata can go to the depth of 9 feet or 3m approximately but ranges between 6 ffet to 20 feet.the surface is made hard by use of stones.

•the mud plaster is madeup of mud. •the adobe blocks are made in moulds of wood and after they have been cast thay are left in tha sun for drying. cow dung and use of reinforcing material. •to support this slab usually girders are provided which may be of iron or wood. •on these sheets of bamboo are laid and on these sheets further khajoor leaves are kept and on this mud cow dung mortar (in the ratio 3:1) is put. cow dung paste is applied on top. . •additional support is provided with the help of wooden and stone pillars. cow dung. •after it is leveled. •the wall thickness is 500mm and the adobe blocks used for their construction and are laid using mud plaster. some reinforcing material like hay or jute and pebbles. first wooden usually bamboo rafters are laid which embed into the wall. •cuming to slab. slab: •the slab on the ground floor is usually 4’’ that is 162mm thick.FINDINGS 29(ii) WALL •the walls of these houses are made up of adobe blocks of mud which have a nominal size of 8”x4”(32x16x16mm) •these adobe blocks are made up of mud. •cupboard for storage are set in the three walls with a depth of 300mm.

. •For laying of roof a grid of bamboo is made the spacing between the members of the grid varies from 400-500 mm. •The horizontal and vertical members of the grid are nailed together and then the grid is rested upon the walls. •To this grid the slates are then nailed.FINDINGS 30(i) ROOF •The roof found in all the houses is made up of slate and bamboo (may be replaced by other kind of wood).

FINDINGS 30(ii) .

SHEET NO. TITLE SOCIAL STUDY OF VILLAGE SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PUBLIC BUILDINGS PUBLIC BUILDINGS 31 32 33 34 35 .

SOCIAL STUDY OF VILLAGE 31 .

SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE 32(i) .

SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE 32(ii) .

SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE 32(iii) .

SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE 32(iv) .

PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE 33 .

PUBLIC BUILDINGS 34 .

PUBLIC BUILDINGS 35 .

. artifacts etc. wool etc. scientific biological methods should be used to increase the crop output and to refrain pollution at the same time. employment can be provided at their door steps itself in the form of cottage industries for homemade products like cloths . meat . Economic opportunities : •Bio animal husbandry : to increase the output of animal products like milk. confectionary . •Cottage industry: Because the women are unemployed due to lack of education and social limitations. modern scientific concepts should be used.Regarding demography: Future prospectus: because of its natural scenic beauty and plentiful land available. jewelery. •Eco farming: Because the soil is not very good for cultivation. khyah can be developed as an important outskirt to the town of Hamirpur.

. • Separate buildings for anganwadi should be provided and motivation towards it is needed. •Covered drainage system should be provided.Regarding infrastructure Facilities needed: Facilities available: A middle school A dispensary A small panchayat house A temple for community gathering A local market Community centre Secondary school Health centre Food stall Parking space. Physical infrastructure : •Roads should be repaired and road width should be increased to 3. •Recreation facilities for school children should be provided •Secondary school building and up gradation of primary school is required. •A play ground must be provided for school children. •Also drainage along roads should not alter it and level should be made to maintain hygienic •Pipe lines running on the roads should be kept underground •One more water tank can be added to fulfill the water needs Social Infrastructure: •Health centre should be enlarged with more medical facilities.5 m minimum.

•Cultivation is being done in steps farming prevents the soil erosion.toilets with in the building. •Proper planning of the houses should be done which includes the kitchen.Regarding Master plan: From the studies and observations we have concluded the following points which should be taken in to consideration in future planning. building construction can be done in steps. •As there is negligible space between the houses whereas it should be about 2 to 3 m. •As site has got slope. •Proper path way should be given to the public building to make the building easily approachable. . •Offsets of the building from the main road should be about 1m from main road. •The houses should not be more than 2 stories.

These jaalis also provide covering for the balcony space thus enabling it for more intimate activity. Mud blocks: it is used for making walls. . Iron jaali is provided in most of the houses to cover their balcony façade. Thus it remains the cool during the daytime and remains the heat during the night time.this checks the heat transfer through it as some air gets trapped. A very typical feature of village is that kitchen of most of the houses are located on the first floor. These blocks are very thick and have some embedded leaves in them thus they check the transfer of heat and provide a comfortable atmosphere with in the house. Considering the climatic condition these planning allow for proper sunlight during winters and enough ventilation for summers to all rooms.Regarding housing: Considering the climatic condition traditional building materials acts perfectly in providing comfort within the house. These jaalis act as screening for the balcony space thus enabling the sun light to get through in winter and providing proper shadings in summers. This location of kitchen on the first floor helps in keeping the rooms beneath it warm. Kitchen on the first floor also gives easy way for smoke to get out. 3 basic plannings are prevalent in this village: Linear Courtyard L – shape These planning provide easy accessibility t all the rooms. Slab: it is used as roofing material . Between its layers. In courtyard planning the open space within the house also acts as area for female member of the house.

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