Exhumation of Richard III of England


Exhumation of Richard III of England
The exhumation of Richard III of England in September 2012 was the result of an archaeological excavation in the English city of Leicester by a team led by the University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS). The last king of the Plantagenet dynasty, Richard III was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. His body was brought to the house of the Greyfriars in Leicester where it was buried in a crude grave. In August 2012, a dig commissioned by the Richard III Society was carried out on the Greyfriars site by ULAS archaeologists, who uncovered a human skeleton on the first day of work. It soon became apparent that the body was that of a man in his thirties who had suffered multiple wounds from a variety of weapons and had been hurriedly buried in a grave that was too small. The skeleton had a number of unusual physical features, most notably a severe curvature of the back that caused the right shoulder to be higher than the left. Scientific analysis showed that the man had probably been killed either King Richard III, by unknown artist, late 16th century. The raised right shoulder was a visible by a blow from a large bladed weapon that cut off the back of his skull, sign of Richard's spinal deformity. or by a sword thrust that penetrated his brain. There were signs of other wounds on the body, which had probably been inflicted as "humiliation injuries" on a corpse that had been stripped of its armour. The bones' age at death matched the age at which Richard died; they were dated to approximately the period of his death and were mostly consistent with physical descriptions of him. DNA analysis also showed that mitochondrial DNA extracted from the bones matched that of two 17th-generation matrilineal descendants of Richard's niece Anne St Leger. On the basis of these points and other historical, scientific and archaeological evidence, the University of Leicester announced on 4 February 2013 that the skeleton had been positively identified as that of Richard III. Reburial in Leicester Cathedral is planned.

Death and burial
In the last major battle of the Wars of the Roses, Richard III fought Henry Tudor at Bosworth Field near Market Bosworth in Leicestershire. Although his army outnumbered that of Henry, he was defeated and killed in a cavalry charge when he was dismounted from his horse. According to the Burgundian chronicler Jean Molinet, writing in 1490, His horse leapt into a marsh from which it could not retrieve itself. One of the Welshmen then came after him, and struck him dead with a halberd, and another took his body and put it before An 1864 conception of Richard III in the Battle him on his horse and carried it, hair hanging as one would bear a of Bosworth Field sheep. And so he who miserably killed numerous people, ended his days iniquitously and filthily in the dirt and mire, and he who had despoiled churches was displayed to the people naked and without any clothing, and without any royal solemnity was buried at the entrance to a village church.[1] Polydore Vergil, Henry Tudor's official historian, described how Richard was buried:

Exhumation of Richard III of England The body of King Richard, naked of all clothing, and laid upon a horse's back, with the arms and legs hanging down on both sides, was brought to the abbey of Franciscan monks at Leicester, a miserable spectacle in good truth, but not unworthy for the man's life, and there was buried two days after without any pomp or solemn funeral.[2] The anonymous author of the Great Chronicle of London also described the undignified treatment of Richard's body: And Richard late king, his body despoiled to the skin and nought being left about him so much as would cover his privy member, was trussed behind a pursuivant [heraldic officer] called Norroy as a hog or other vile beast, and so, all bespattered with mire and filth, was brought to a church in Leicester for all men to wonder upon, and there lastly irreverently buried. And thus ended this man with dishonour as he that sought it.[3]


Site of the burial
Richard was buried in the small monastic community of Greyfriars, Leicester, which had been founded around 1255. In 1495, Henry VII paid £50 for a marble and alabaster monument to mark the grave.[4] The monument was destroyed when Greyfriars was demolished during the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the late 1530s under Henry VIII. According to tradition, Richard's body was said to have been "carried out of the city, and to have been contemptuously thrown over Bow Bridge" into the nearby River Soar. His coffin was reputed to have No 1, Grey Friars, County Offices for been given or sold to an innkeeper who used it as a drinking trough for Leicestershire County Council from 1936 to horses. Some local people, however, evidently believed that the king's 1965. It is on the site of the Herrick mansion body was still buried there. According to the antiquary Christopher Wren,[5] after the monastery was dissolved, the place where it stood was incorporated into the garden of a local houseowner and was subsequently purchased by Robert Herrick, the Mayor of Leicester. Herrick erected a monument on the site of the grave, in the form of a stone pillar three feet (1 m) high carved with the words "Here lies the body of Richard III, some time King of England." The pillar was visible in 1612 but had disappeared by 1844, no longer leaving any sign of where the grave had been.[6] The site was divided in two in 1740 and a new street – predictably called New Street – was built across the western part of the area where Greyfriars had once stood. Many burials were discovered when houses were laid out along the street. A banker named William Bentley built a house known as 17 Friar Lane on the eastern part of the site in 1759. In 1863 the Alderman Newton’s Boys’ School built a schoolhouse on the site. The Leicester Corporation purchased the rest of the property, including 17 Friar Lane, in 1866, and it was acquired by Leicestershire County Council in 1920. The council built offices on the site in 1936, which it used until 1965. Leicester City Council subsequently used the offices while the unbuilt land, where Herrick's garden had once been, was turned into a car park for council staff.[7]

Exhumation of Richard III of England


Greyfriars Project and excavations
In March 2011, the Richard III Society and the University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS) began an assessment of the site of Greyfriars to identify where the monastery had once stood and which land might be available for excavation. Three sites were identified: the staff car park of Leicester City Council Social Services, the disused playground of the former Alderman Newton’s School and a public car park on New Street. A survey was carried out in August 2011 using ground-penetrating radar. It was decided that two trenches would be opened in the Social Services car park, with an option for a third in the playground.[8]

The excavation was announced on 24 August 2012 at a press conference in Leicester. Philippa Langley of the Richard III Society commented, "so much dirt has been thrown at Richard; his burial represents one of the worst injustices of all time. The history of the time was written by the Tudors, who could say whatever they wanted. Whatever we find, it will tell us a huge amount about his true nature." The author Philippa Gregory noted that "finding Richard III’s body could be extremely important archeologically – I imagine there will be talk of a proper burial, perhaps in Westminster Abbey or Fotheringhay Castle, where he was born." However, Richard Buckley of ULAS admitted that the project was a long shot: "We don’t know precisely where the church is, let alone where the burial site is. It has the potential to be very exciting – Richard III is the only king of England whose burial place remains elusive."[9] Digging began the next day with the cutting of the first trench, measuring 1.6 metres (5.2 ft) wide by 30 metres (98 ft) long along a roughly north-south alignment. A layer of modern building debris had to be removed before the level of the former monastery was reached. Two parallel human leg bones were soon discovered about 5 metres (16 ft) from the north end of the trench at a depth of about 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) below the surface, indicating an undisturbed burial.[10] It was covered over temporarily to protect it while excavations continued further along the trench, and a second parallel trench was dug the following day to the south-west of the first.[11] Over the next few days a series of medieval walls and rooms was uncovered, allowing the archaeologists to pinpoint the area of the friary that had been found.[12] It became clear that the leg bones found on the first day lay inside the eastern part of the church, possibly the choir, where Richard III was said to have been buried.[13] On 31 August, ULAS applied for a licence from the Ministry of Justice to permit the exhumation of up to six sets of human remains. To narrow the search, it was planned that only the remains of men in their 30s, buried within the church, would be exhumed.[12] The leg bones found on 25 August were uncovered again on 4 September and the grave soil was dug back further over the next two days. The feet were missing; and the skull was found in an unusual propped position, resulting from the body's having been put into a grave that was slightly too small. No sign of a coffin was found; the body's posture suggested that it had not been put in a shroud, but had simply been hurriedly dumped into the grave and buried. The spine was curved into a S-shape. As it was lifted from the ground, a piece of rusted iron was found lying underneath the vertebrae.[14][15] The skeleton's hands were found to be in an unusual position, crossed over the right hip, suggesting that they were tied together at the time of burial, though this cannot be established definitively.[16] After the exhumation, further work was done in the trenches during the next week, before the site was covered again with soil to protect it from damage. It was re-surfaced to restore the car park and the playground to their former condition.[17]

Site of the Greyfriars Church, Leicester, shown in pink superimposed over a modern map of the area. The skeleton of Richard III was recovered in September 2012 from the centre of the choir, shown by a small black dot.

Exhumation of Richard III of England


Analysis of the discovery
On 12 September, the ULAS team announced that the human remains that they had found were a possible candidate for the body of Richard III. Speaking on behalf of the research team, Richard Taylor, deputy registrar of the University, emphasised the need for caution, noting that "we are not saying today that we have found Richard III," but highlighted a number of points that he felt were suggestive. The body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder higher than the other (to what extent would depend on the severity of the condition). Additionally, there was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were severe injuries to the skull.[18][19]

DNA evidence
The emphasis now shifted, as Richard Taylor said, "from the archaeological excavation to laboratory analysis."[19] There were ULAS archaeologists working in a trench in the several lines of enquiry. Some years earlier, the British historian John playground of the former Alderman Newton Ashdown-Hill had used genealogical research to track down School matrilineal descendants of Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, Richard's older sister, whose matrilineal line of descent is still extant, through her daughter Anne St. Leger, Richard's only sororal niece. A British-born woman who migrated to Canada after World War II, Joy Ibsen, was found to be a 16th-generation great-niece of the king.[20] Although Ibsen died in 2008, her son Michael gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team on 24 August 2012. His mitochondrial DNA passed down the direct maternal line was compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation site.[21] Analysts found a mitochondrial DNA match between the skeleton and that of Michael Ibsen and a second unnamed matrilineal descendant who share a relatively rare mitochondrial DNA sequence.[22][23][24]

Osteology was also employed to analyse the condition of the bones. They are generally in good condition and largely complete, apart from the missing feet, which appear to have been destroyed by Victorian building work. It was immediately apparent that the body had suffered major injuries, and further evidence of wounds was found as the skeleton was cleaned.[16] The skull shows signs of two lethal injuries; the base of the back of the skull had been completely cut away by a bladed weapon, exposing the brain, and another bladed weapon had been thrust through the right side of the skull to impact the inside of the left side through the brain.[25] Elsewhere on the skull, a blow from a pointed weapon had penetrated the crown of the head. Bladed weapons had also clipped the skull and sheared off layers of bone, without penetrating it.[26] The chin and cheek show injuries consistent with dagger wounds.[27] The body also bears marks of violence. One of the right ribs had been cut by a sharp implement, as had the pelvis.[28] The arms bear no sign of the later description of one of them being withered.[29] Taken together, the injuries appear to be a combination of battle wounds, which were probably the cause of death, followed by post-mortem "humiliation wounds" inflicted on the corpse. Notably, the skull wounds would have been prevented if the person had been wearing a helmet. It had clearly been lost by the time he received his head injuries. The body wounds indicate that the corpse had been stripped of its armour, as the stabbed torso would have been protected by a backplate while the pelvis would also have been protected by armour. The wounds were made from behind on the back and buttocks while they were exposed to the elements, consistent with the contemporary

Exhumation of Richard III of England descriptions of Richard's naked body being tied across a horse with the legs and arms dangling down on either side.[27][28] There may well have been further flesh wounds but these are not apparent from the bones.[29] The severe curvature of the spine was evident as the skeleton was being excavated. It has been attributed to adolescent onset scoliosis. Although it was probably quite visible in making one shoulder higher than the other and reducing the person's apparent height, it clearly did not preclude an active lifestyle.[30] The bones are those of a male aged in his late twenties to thirties, consistent with Richard III, who was 32 when he died.[29]


Radiocarbon dating and other scientific analyses
Radiocarbon dating was used to determine the age of the bones. Analyses were carried out by the University of Glasgow's Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC) and University of Oxford's Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit. The results came out at between 1430–1460 (SUERC) and 1412–1449 (Oxford) – both far too early for Richard's death in 1485. However, mass spectrometry carried out on the bones found that their owner had eaten a good deal of seafood. This is known to distort the apparent age of a sample due to the fact that marine organisms absorb carbon-14 at a different rate to terrestrial creatures, skewing the dating of any terrestrial organism that consumes a significant proportion of seafood. A Bayesian analysis found that there was a 68.2% probability that the true date of the bones was between 1475 and 1530, rising to 95.4% for between 1450 and 1540. This does not prove by itself that the skeleton is that of Richard III, but it is consistent with the date of his death.[31] An X-ray analysis was carried out on the corroded piece of metal found under the vertebrae, which had been thought to have been an arrowhead. However, it was found that the object was a Roman nail which, by coincidence, had been in the ground immediately underneath the grave. It had nothing to do with the body.[29]

Identification of Richard III
On 4 February 2013, the University of Leicester confirmed that the skeleton was that of King Richard III. Richard Buckley of ULAS told a press conference: "It is the academic conclusion of the University of Leicester that beyond reasonable doubt, the individual exhumed at Grey Friars in September 2012 is indeed Richard III, the last Plantagenet King of England." Buckley's announcement was greeted with applause.[32] The wounds on the skull were consistent with the medieval chroniclers' description of Richard being killed by blows from a sword and a halberd. The identification was based on DNA evidence, soil analysis, and dental tests, as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance. Osteoarchaeologist Dr. Jo Appleby commented: "The skeleton has a number of unusual features: its slender build, the scoliosis, and the battle-related trauma. All of these are highly consistent with the information that we have about Richard III in life and about the circumstances of his death. Taken as a whole, the skeletal evidence provides a highly convincing case for identification as Richard III."[33] Professor Caroline Wilkinson, Professor of Craniofacial Identification at the University of Dundee, led the project to reconstruct the face.

Exhumation of Richard III of England


Plans for reinterment
The Mayor of Leicester, Sir Peter Soulsby, announced that the king's skeleton would be reinterred at Leicester Cathedral in early 2014 in a "Christian-led but ecumenical service". David Monteith, the Canon Chancellor of the cathedral, has said that it will not be a formal reburial but rather a service of remembrance, as the king would have already have had a funeral service at the time of burial. The choice of burial site has been somewhat controversial, as there have been proposals for Richard to be buried at Westminster Abbey alongside 17 other English and British kings, or in York Minster, which some claim was Richard's St Martin's Place, the former Alderman Newton's preferred burial site.[34] The Conservative MP and historian Chris Boys School, and projected Museum building. Skidmore proposed that a state funeral should be held for the deceased Trench 3 of the 2012 dig can be seen being king, while John Mann, the Labour MP for Bassetlaw, suggested that reinstated in the former playground. the body should be buried in Worksop in his constituency—halfway between York and Leicester. However, Sir Peter Soulsby has said: "Those bones leave Leicester over my dead body."[35] No will or other documentation of Richard's wishes survives, so the Ministry of Justice licence leaves the decision to Leicester City Council and Leicester University. The Richard III Society has previously suggested burying the body in York but its secretary, Sandra Wadley, says: "We thought it was worth putting a try in for York, but it was always an optimistic shout. As long as he receives a proper interment, Leicester is fine by us."[34]

Richard Buckley, who had previously said that he would "eat his hat" if Richard was discovered, fulfilled his promise by eating a hat-shaped cake baked by a colleague.[34] Leicester City Council has spent £850,000 to buy the freehold of St Martin's Place, formerly part of Leicester Grammar School, in Peacock Lane, across the road from the cathedral. The site adjoins the car park where the body was found, and overlies the chancel of the Greyfriars Friary Church. The council intends to convert the building into a Richard III museum.[35][36] In Norway, archaeologist Øystein Ekroll hoped that the interest after the discovery of the English king would spill over to Norway. In contrast to England where all the kings since the 11th century have now been discovered, in Norway around twenty-five medieval kings are buried in unmarked graves around the country. Ekroll proposed to start with Harald Hardrada, who most likely is buried anonymously in Trondheim, beneath what is today a public road. A previous attempt to exhume Harald in 2006 was blocked by the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage (Riksantikvaren).[37]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Bennett, p. 161. Hipshon, p. 25. Rhodes, p. 45 Bennett, pp. 21–22. Not to be confused with the later architect of the same name. Halsted, p. 401. "Previously at this address" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ history/ greyfriars. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . "Where we dug" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ wherewedug. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. .

[9] Rainey, Sarah (25 August 2012). "Digging for dirt on the Hunchback King" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ history/ 9497082/ Digging-for-dirt-on-the-Hunchback-King. html). The Daily Telegraph. . [10] "Saturday 25 August 2012" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ 25august. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [11] "Sunday 26 August 2012" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ 26august. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. .

Exhumation of Richard III of England
[12] "Monday 27 to Friday 31 August 2012" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ 27august. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [13] "1 September" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ 1september. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [14] "Wednesday 5 September 2012" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ 5september. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [15] "Wednesday 5 September 2012 (continued)" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ 5septembercont. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [16] "Osteology" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ osteology. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [17] "Saturday 8 to Friday 14 September 2012" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ archaeology/ 8september. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [18] "Richard III dig: Eyes of world on Leicester as Greyfriars skeleton find revealed" (http:/ / www. thisisleicestershire. co. uk/ FINAL-RESTING-PLACE-KING/ story-16893072-detail/ story. html). Leicester Mercury. 13 September 2012. . [19] Wainwright, Martin (13 September 2012). "Richard III: Could the skeleton under the car park be the king's?" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ science/ 2012/ sep/ 12/ richard-skeleton-king-remains-bosworth). The Guardian. . [20] "Family tree: Cecily Neville (1415–1495) Duchess of York" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ familytree. html). University of Leicester. . Retrieved 4 February 2013. [21] Randy Boswell (27 August 2012). "Canadian family holds genetic key to Richard III puzzle" (http:/ / www. canada. com/ technology/ Canadian+ family+ holds+ genetic+ Richard+ puzzle/ 7151179/ story. html). Postmedia News. . Retrieved 30 August 2012. [22] "Results of the DNA analysis" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ resultsofdna. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [23] "Geneticist Dr Turi King and genealogist Professor Kevin Schürer give key evidence on the DNA testing" (http:/ / www2. le. ac. uk/ offices/ press/ media-centre/ richard-iii/ press-conference-4-february/ presentations-by-speakers-at-the-press-conference-monday-4-february-1/ geneticist-dr-turi-king-and-genealogist-professor-kevin-schurer-give-key-evidence-on-the-dna-testing). University of Leicester. . Retrieved 5 February 2013. [24] Burns, John F (4 February 2013). "Bones Under Parking Lot Belonged to Richard III" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2013/ 02/ 05/ world/ europe/ richard-the-third-bones. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 6 February 2013. [25] "Injuries to the skull 1 – 2" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ osteologyskull. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [26] "Injuries to the skull 3 – 6" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ osteologyskull3. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [27] "Injuries to the skull 7 – 8" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ osteologyskull3. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [28] "Injuries to the body 9 – 10" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ osteologybody. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [29] "What the bones can and can’t tell us" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ whattheonesdontsay. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [30] "Spine" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ spine. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [31] "Radiocarbon dating and analysis" (http:/ / www. le. ac. uk/ richardiii/ science/ carbodating. html). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [32] "Richard III dig: DNA confirms bones are king's" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-england-leicestershire-21063882). BBC. 4 February 2013. . [33] "University of Leicester announces discovery of King Richard III" (http:/ / www2. le. ac. uk/ offices/ press/ press-releases/ 2013/ february/ university-of-leicester-announces-discovery-of-king-richard-iii). University of Leicester. 4 February 2013. . [34] Britten, Nick; Hough, Andrew (4 February 2013). "Richard III to be re-interred in major ceremony at Leicester Cathedral" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ science/ science-news/ 9847738/ Richard-III-to-be-re-interred-in-major-ceremony-at-Leicester-Cathedral. html). The Daily Telegraph. . [35] Brown, John Murray (3 February 2013). "Tug-of-war brews over 'king in car park'". Financial Times. [36] Warzynski, Peter (3 December 2012). "Leicester City Council buys the site of its Richard III centre for £850,000" (http:/ / www. thisisleicestershire. co. uk/ Leicester-City-Council-buys-site-Richard-III/ story-17477308-detail/ story. html). Leicester Mercury. . [37] Landrø, Juliet; Zahl, Hilde (5 February 2013). "Ønsker å grave opp de norske «asfaltkongene»" (http:/ / nrk. no/ vitenskap-og-teknologi/ 1. 10900296) (in Norwegian). NRK. .


Exhumation of Richard III of England


References Bibliography
• Baldwin, David (1986). "King Richard's Grave in Leicester" (http://www.le.ac.uk/lahs/downloads/ BaldwinSmPagesfromvolumeLX-5.pdf). Transactions (Leicester: Leicester Archaeological and Historical Society) 60. Retrieved 18 April 2009. • Bennett, Michael John (1985). The Battle of Bosworth. Alan Sutton. ISBN 978-0-8629-9053-4. • Halsted, Caroline Amelia (1844). Richard III, as Duke of Gloucester and King of England. Volume 2. Carey and Hart. • Hipshon, David (2009). Richard III and the Death of Chivalry. History Press. ISBN 978-0750950749. • Penn, Thomas (2011). Winter King – Henry VII and The Dawn of Tudor England. Simon & Schuster. ISBN ISBN 978-1-4391-9156-9. • Rhodes, Neil (1997). English Renaissance Prose: history, language, and politics. Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies. ISBN 978-0-8669-8205-4.

External links
• Videos and links about the discovery of Richard III's body (http://www.le.ac.uk/richardiii/multimedialinks. html) (University of Leicester) • About the facial reconstruction (http://www.dundee.ac.uk/pressreleases/2013/february13/richard.htm) (University of Dundee)

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors
Exhumation of Richard III of England  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=536945244  Contributors: 220 of Borg, 83d40m, Aidepikiw20, Another Believer, Bill the Cat 7, Complainer, DJ-Joker16, Dave.Dunford, DemirBajraktarevic, Dextrase, Dr. Blofeld, Droodkin, Egeymi, Ericoides, FallingGravity, Funandtrvl, Gareth E Kegg, Gugganij, HandsomeFella, HelenOnline, Inglok, Kablammo, L1A1 FAL, LadyofShalott, Lugnuts, Nedrutland, Nwbeeson, Nyttend, Ohconfucius, Preslethe, Prioryman, Quothquhan, Richard Keatinge, RobinLeicester, Seaphoto, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Skizzik, SuperWahdi1234, Surtsicna, The ed17, Thhist, Trilobitealive, Truthanado, WesleyDodds, Y, 11 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:King Richard III.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:King_Richard_III.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dcoetzee, Jappalang, Shakko, 1 anonymous edits File:Battle of Bosworth by James Doyle.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Battle_of_Bosworth_by_James_Doyle.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Engraver File:Greyfriars, Leicestershire Council Offices building.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Greyfriars,_Leicestershire_Council_Offices_building.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:RobinLeicester File:Greyfriars, Leicester site.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Greyfriars,_Leicester_site.gif  License: unknown  Contributors: RobinLeicester, Soerfm File:Archaeologist working in Trench.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Archaeologist_working_in_Trench.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Sue Hutton File:Alderman Newton's Greyfriars School building, Leicester.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Alderman_Newton's_Greyfriars_School_building,_Leicester.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:RobinLeicester

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful