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Abstract This work proposes an assessment training tool

coupled to new paradigms of Web 2.0 or Social Web, which is being
marked by the development of collaborative networks and collective
intelligence, fed by greater interactivity and as a result has
transformed co-authors users and producers of Internet content.
The purpose of this assessment tool is monitoring dynamic
collaborative productions in textual production tools in virtual
environments of learning. Its specification and modeling based on
Learning Vectors methodology (LV) detailed, as well as their
interfaces and integration into Wiki LMS Moodle tool. Finally,
tests are performed to check their behavior and consistency.

Keywords Vector learning, collaborative learning
environment, Moodle, Wiki, evaluation, interaction.

The view of space with a well-defined position and time to
occur in an event has been replaced by the idea of cyberspace,
characterized by time and territory to its limits, the linearity,
the route, direction rise to webs, meshes, super textual,
networks and complexity, which, in the strict sense of the
word means what is woven together (LVY, 1999; MORIN,
The interaction and interactivity gives a new conception of
the Internet, the Web 2.0 or Social Web, which tools are
increasingly incorporated in the context of collaboration and
training communities, they are in social networking sites,
blogs, wikis, in virtual worlds and Web pages. The user wants
to actively participate; both contribute and interact directly in
the media. "Web 2.0, the user can also leave something. Not
only download, but also upload. (VALENTE and MATTAR,
An update school that innovates and undertakes with a
model focused on student learning and aligned to these new
directions. Must not be unrelated to use these tools and should
not leave the opportunity to make the knowledge production
spaces more appealing, motivator and collective knowledge

O termo Wiki derivado da expresso havaiana wiki-wiki, que significa
rpido ou veloz, foi criado por Ward Cunningham, autor do primeiro Wiki,
disponibilizado na rede Web em 1995 (Disponvel em: <http:/

Among other technologies that can be applied in education,
such as: discussion forum, chat, blogs, podcast, video,
simulations, search and Web browsing to access educational
content in general, etc. This work discusses the Wiki because
it is a tool that makes the information into socialization
process, interaction, and collective knowledge production and
thus can be applied in the management of learning. It is
intended to show that this tool can collaborate into teaching-
learning process to elapse continuously since the mediator
group that tracks what is being produced on a wiki page,
keeping constant feedback of interventions to regulate learning
underway, i.e. being continually evaluating.
In this case the formative evaluation must be used,
compared with its characteristic function of diagnosis and
regulatory of teaching-learning processes. (PERRENOUD,
Also required the application of appropriate instruments to
this evaluative process , for both, use Learning Vectors (LV),
proposed by Sales (2010), which integrates Virtual learning
environments (AVA), also known as Learning management
system (LMS), enables the regulatory action that a formative
assessment provides and collaborates to the learner to
continue learning.
In this article are presented the specification and modeling
Wiki LV tool. So, it is organized as in the following structure:
in Section 2 shows what is a wiki and its interface in LMS
Moodle, in Section 3 presents the LV tool, in Section 4 is the
specification and modeling Wiki LV, in Section 5 shows the
interfaces and application of assessment by LV in Wiki
Moodle and, finally, criticized the final considerations.

Wiki is an open work, collaborative, founded on the
freedom principle like free software, for sharing and editing
information, exchange ideas, building knowledge and content
dissemination that can be generated and managed by user.
It is a new way to express and communicate via Web based
on a collective intelligence or social intelligence. The Wiki is
a place to think together and to operate a "cooperative brain"
(LVY, 1998, p. 96). According to Deitel and Deitel, Wikis:
"are excellent examples of user-generated content and
collective intelligence" (2008, p. 11).
To Leuf and Cunningham (2001, p. 14), "[...] is a collection
of Web pages freely expandable interconnected in a hypertext
system to store and modify information - a database, where
Formative Assessment in Wiki LMS Moodle:
Applying Learning Vector tool (LV)
Gilvandenys L. Sales
, Pedro A. N. Prestes
, Giovanni Cordeiro Barroso
, Jos Marques Soares

each page is easily edited by anyone with a browser.
Cole (2009) defines Wiki as an editable website that is
created, and incremented collaboratively by visitors, "using
the HTML1 language, are able to add and edit content via any
Web browser without prior programming knowledge" (p.
The best-known Wiki and accessed, found in multiple
languages is the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia2. Its
English version, the largest existing, receives since 2002
thousands of updates per day and have reached millions of
record sheets constructed (VALENTE and MATTAR, 2007).
On Wikipedia, even if, as a measure to prevent undesirable
modifications, it maintains a page of history that made
individually changes, the degree of reliability has decreased in
academic environment, since anyone can edit their pages.
Anyway, it has been one of the most libraries accessed by
students and curious, either for research or web pages
According to Wagner and Bolloju (2005) what characterizes
the Wiki technology is the speed and easy publication, the
representation and organization of knowledge, editing access
by groups and easy management of versions.
When it comes to virtual environments that already
incorporate Wiki educational technology to its pedagogical
practices, says LMS Moodle3.
The Moodle is based on social constructionist and part of
the principle that people learn better when engaged in a
collaboratively way of social knowledge construction process.
Increasing adherence to Moodle that is an open system,
gratuitous, free, with a users community contributing to the
development and improvement of its tools for synchronous
and asynchronous interaction.
The Wiki interface in Moodle, which is quite nice, intuitive
and not information overloaded , is presented in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Wiki Interface in LMS Moodle
This tool allows forming documents collaboratively,
permitting learners to work individually or in group building
activities that can be transformed into Web pages, simple and
easy to modify in its content. In both methods there is a power

Hyper Text Mark-up Language
of editing on the page built and you can configure it to become
visible or not at all, or only a specific group.
Among the features of Wiki Moodle: "Preview" allows
accessing the final product represented by text built. "History"
permits to see who made the contributions. When accessing
the group members are exposed and their inserts, being able to
monitoring and comparing previous editions and afterwards
collaborations to the text. This is the moment in which the
tutor can make a proper assessment of the work done.
Even the LMS Moodle provides a wide range of
performance indicators to support the evaluation, there's a
predominance of quantitative view of the process, although the
specificities of educational management courses supported by
digital technologies are generating enormous information
overload that brings overwork to the Tutor, especially in big
For this evaluation to become a continuous process,
occurring throughout the process and, at the same time, helps
to regulate the apprenticeships in progress, also collaborates
on automatic management of grades to the tutor, reducing his
workload, required a formative assessment tool online. Such
instrument can also be extremely necessary in the learner
development itself , being a very important factor on virtual
Therefore, to support the tutor in the assessment of learning
activities in virtual environments, both face-to-face or distance
courses, providing a quality-quantitative assessment, it is
necessary a specialized tool acting in favor of Tutor and
This way, it is proposed the application of Learning Vectors
(LV) in assessing the wiki in Moodle.
Learning Vectors (LV) are geometric vectors
representations designed to automate the process of evaluating
quality-quantitative in Virtual Learning Environments (AVA),
on online action methodology based on interaction ,
continuous assessment and training.
Characteristic of this tool:
Provide feedbacks in minimal time, providing
ongoing learner to monitor and verify its performance
in progress;
Reduce Tutor workload;
Alert on evasion , as being a tool which controls
Be grades management instrument and scholar
control by the educational institution.

In this tool construction process, there were many
contributions submitted. Sales, Barroso and Soares (2007a, b,
c) using Colored Petri nets in graphical modeling to assist the
behavioral understanding and dynamic system LV and
propose an assessment tool to AVA in which the use of
vectors and their characteristics (intensity and direction),
associated with icons (LV icons) that express emotion and
categorization of files/messaging, helps to establish qualitative
judgment in activities carried out in their interaction tools for
both suggest a indicator, non-linear qualitative learning titled
Factor .
Sales, Barroso and Soares (2008a, b) make the specification
of LV forums, chats and portfolios and perform the first
experimental applications of that assessment system to
monitor ongoing online learners.
Sales et al. (2008a, b) redrawing the LV icons, fix their
module into 10 units and create a new category of
classification of messages/files, called "Neutral", which
represents no aggregation of note to the message or file sent.
Apply the formative assessment tool LV in a discussion forum
in a tutor training class on Moodle and, in a period of 15
days, analyze and evaluate 137 messages. Sales et al. (2008c)
presents a new specification for the LV to be applied in
discussion forums.
Oliveira et al. (2008) redefine the LV tool specification in
chat and applies it in a chat session that aimed to evaluate a
theme previously sent to learners.
Sales et al. (2009) feature integration and configuration of
LV in Moodle virtual environment, apply and analyze a
questionnaire/survey of the degree of satisfaction of tutors and
learners about the use of the LV tool.
In 2009 the LV tool was presented in the First International
Meeting System of the Universidade Aberta of Brazil in a
technological solutions category promoted by CAPES
Such contributions help you to understand the following
conceptual constructs associated to LV tool.
- Pattern Step or Angle - The direction of LV
varies through steps defined in 7,5 or fraction.
- Likert scale of assessment/ Step Coefficient
(Table 1) used to express a value judgment in each
interaction associates a multiple angle (Step
Coefficient )to the words expressing satisfaction:
Likert Scale
Good Regular Weak
Step Coefficient (CP) 4 3 2 1 0 -

- Learning-Vector Tool that enables the learner to
consult at any time his performance and notes during
the learning process (Fig. 2)

College degree improvement coordinator (CAPES), institution attached to
Education Ministry of Brazil.
Fig. 2 Learning-Vector
- Message Categorization and LV icons (table 2)
classification of messages/files sent by interaction
level and reflection depth.
Source: Sales et al. (2008a, b)
- LV Icon Used by Tutor to facilitate mediation and
pedagogical interventions required throughout
teaching-learning process.

- Factor - Defined from horizontal and vertical
projections of vector LV corresponding to each
activity proposal in the virtual environment
associated with the qualitative dimension of
assessment, set primarily by the relationship between
the modules of vertical and horizontal components of
each vector LV, which relates the
Positivity/negativity of learner performance.

Then, specifies one more LV as interaction tools for virtual
environment .This time, they are applied in wikis.

Reported the development and implementation of Wiki tool
LV with opportunities to be applied to any other AVA that has
been developed with the same technology as Moodle
To build the LV Wiki vector, two forms of assessment: a
collective and another individual.
LV con

Very Good
Depth Reflections; Interactions/Posts via
"messages/attached files" that may present, in addition to
significant answers and comments, inquiries, or even,
summaries of ideas that arise in discussion/learning
theme, generating more interactions.

Good thoughts; Interactions/Posts via
"messages/attached files" that shows significant answers
and comments to discussion/learning theme proposed.

Reasonable reflections; Interactions/Posts via
"messages/files attached" still limited and superficial way
about the theme proposed for discussion/learning.

Empty content reflections; Interactions/Posts via
"messages/attached files" with little value
discussion/learning theme proposed.

Learner who assumes liability position;
Interactions/Posts via "messages/attached files" that do
not contribute to the discussion/learning theme proposed
confined to send messages or attached files without

Messages/attached files that do not aggregate notes
Attached files not related to the theme proposed.
Clarification messages, greetings, messages, thanks and
In collective evaluation, first to be executed is observed the
entire or final product (PF), which corresponds to the
document built collaboratively in this tool.
In individual assessment evaluates whether the contribution
of each participant, or Individual Contributions (CI), for the
construction of the final document, which sum cumulative
collective assessment document is built.
The LV Wiki vector module as its horizontal projection
shall be given by the Equation 1.


Wiki tool in the total angular Variation (In), in function of
n, follows the following criteria:
For n = 0 (Initial condition): I
= 0;
For n =1 (Final Product), equation 2:

, *o CP = A

Represents the angular variation related to evaluation of the
Final Product (PF).
For n 2, collaborative factor was created, which relates to
individual contributions (CI) of Learners, in this case the Total
Angular Variation (In) will be given by the Equation 4:

= + A
= +

. 4 3 , 2 , 1 ;
. 0 ; 0 , 1
ou CP se I
CP se I
o * *
CP = A
Represents the change in angular suffered by LV vector
Wiki determined by assessments made Individual
contributions (CI) sent to Wiki tool.
It said, the final product (PF) and the individual
contributions (CI) entered by learners LV vector Wiki varies
in its direction, as increments in Total Angular Variation
metric (In), according to the following distribution (Table 3):

Table 3 Step Coefficient and Angular variation of LV Wiki
Step Coefficient (CP) 4 3 2 1 0

Final Product (PF)
4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0
Individuals contributions (CI)
2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5
According the application of the equations above we realize
that the maximum score received by the final product (PF)
corresponds to CP = 4 but the value is 5.0. The
complementation to achieve maximum note 10.0 comes from
individual contributions (CI), and evaluations carried out by
Tutor may penalize with indenting vector: if it is assigned a
non-Satisfactory (CP = 0), or print progress at the same, if
choose any other item of Likert escale (CP = 1, 2, 3 or 4).
For new evaluations of the same final product (PF) and their
individual contributions (CI), use comparative auxiliary
variable LVWiki(i+1), before it set a new note. This auxiliary
variable ensures greater note obtained in activity (equation (6).

(i) Wiki 1) + (i Wiki (i) Wiki
(i) Wiki 1) + (i Wiki 1) + (i Wiki
1) + (i Wiki

A document generated in the Wiki tool can be the result of a
collective thinking, but can also be built individually and
subjected to collective review by other members of the class
or group.
The important thing is that in the end of the activity become
a product in the form of Web page content, which may contain
links, graphics and pictures.
However exposed modeling motivated the development of
something clearer criteria for evaluation of contributions in the
wiki LV (Table 4) associated with the use of Learning-Vector.

LV Wiki
Final Product (PF)
Contributions (CI)
points (+)
Recuo (-)













As an example, a group of learners that receives LV green
icon in the final product of the first submission activity Wiki
(Note 3.8).
Then receive individual contributions, a sequence of LV
icons: Blue (4 points), green (3 points), orange (1 point) and
yellow (2 points).
This way, the LV Wiki vector advances 14 points resulting
in a final note 9.66, which is the value expressed in Learning-
Vector by Fig.2.
In the following section is shown how to insert the LV
icons in the Wiki interface in LMS Moodle enabling
The Wiki interface in Moodle is good usability and allows
inserting in loco window that defines the parameters for the
assessment of LV.
Access to the final document produced by the learners, the
] ) 12 [( cos * 10
n Wiki
I LV + = o
0 1
I I + A =
Tutor makes its assessment and chooses one of the LV icons.
Then, you must click "save changes", "Cancel" or "save and
show the next" (Fig. 3), automatically a note is posted in the
report notes, learner per learner constituting a group or
individually. Learner interface appears only LV Icon selected
and the feedback provided to learning regulations.

Fig. 3 Interface Final Product assessment for the Tutor
Then opens the history of document produced and the
individual contributions posted (Fig. 4). In the case of a Wiki
set into groups5 (visible or separated), only members of that
group can view the LV Icons assigned to each insertion.

Fig. 4 Interface assessment of Individual contributions (CI)

As the CI are evaluated, the computer system, a new
increase in Learning-vector, which automatically can be
consulted by the learner, who thus can manage their learning
and income.
Can be considered a wiki as an extension of a temporal-
space in a classroom, either face-to-face or distance. Its a
implementation associated with dynamic formative assessment
tools, such as LV, can assist in learning shared group, taking
learners and tutors to discussions and reflections about
produced content, thus collaborating to a significant learning.

In Moodle an activity can be set into visible groups when everyone can
see what the other group is producing, or separate groups, when only elements
that group has access to what is being produced.
The use of the methodology and LV tool in Wiki proves a
quite able to any other form of manual grade control, which
reduces significantly the offline work of the tutors in
monitoring Learners.
Using the Wikis the Tutor must be an architect of a new
order of learners, where: collective minds, collaborative
learning and the establishment of social networks should be
the way to follow.
This way, a new Tutor profile emerges. The one who must:
weaving complexity of webs and non-linearity of routes, take
ownership of all digital technology and manage relationship
networks, open to new and plunge into the society of
knowledge, information and a relational and open world.
The interaction power and communication depends on
thinking minds much more than the technologies used
(KENSKY, 2003; MORAN, 2000).
Therefore, must use technology that brings from human
action and in this perspective, and fit into Learning Vectors
(LV), as a dynamic tool in the Wikis assessment.
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G. L. Sales was born in Fortaleza on 20 / 12 / 1961. He
attended elementary school and middle public
schools. He graduated in physics from Catholic
University of Pernambuco in 1987.Concluded in 2005
master's degree in computer science at the State
University of Ceara and is currently a doctoral student in
the Department of Engineering Teleinformtica Federal
University of Cear.
He teaches at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of
Cear and does business in the Management Undergraduate physics and
mathematics, besides working in Directorate of Distance Education and Open
University of Brazil.
MSc. Sales is a member of the Brazilian Physics Society and collaborates with
the Brazilian Computer Society with their articles and research. In Workshop
on Computers in Educao/2007 had an article written with co-authors,
chosen as the Best Event: Title - Application of Learning Objects in Duck
Quantum Calculation of Planck's constant,

Pedro A. N. Prestes was born in Belm, Brazil - Brazil
on 6/29/1965. Graduate (2004) and specialist (lato-
sensu) (2006) in Computing Technology in Education
and EAD, respectively. MSc qualified in Engineering
Teleinformtica Federal University of Cear - UFC.
Is Coordinator of Information of the Legislative Assembly of the State of
Amap and Representative Program Interlegis - Senate / BID in Amap.Atua
also as Professor of Technology in Computer Networks with emphasis on
wireless networks, converged networks, structured cabling, Internet / intranet
and data communication.

G. C. Barroso born Itapipoca-Ce on
26/12/1958. Graduated in Electrical Engineering from
Universidade Federal do Cear (1982), Masters in
Electrical Engineering from Pontificia Universidade
Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (1986) and Ph.D. in Electrical
Engineering from Universidade Federal da Paraba (1996)
and Postdoctoral Fellow at the Institut Teleinformtica
National des Tlcommunications - INT, Evry, France
He is currently Associate Professor at the Federal University of Cear. Has
experience in the areas of new technologies for distance education and
distributed systems modeling and discrete event systems.

J. M. Smith has degrees in Computer Science from the
University of Fortaleza (1997), Masters in Computer
Science from Universidade Federal do Cear (2001) and
doctorate in Teleinformtica by the Institut National des
Tlcommunications (2004), France. He is currently
assistant professor, Department of Engineering
Teleinformtica - Universidade Federal do Cear (UFC).
He has experience in computer science, with emphasis on Distributed Systems,
acting on the following topics: design and application development to support
the presence and distance education, collaborative environments inhabited by
humanoids and virtual recognition of human gestures for computer vision.