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General Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton ksci (Telugu: general and irrigation engineer. ) (15 May 1803 24 July 1899) was a British

Cotton devoted his life to the construction of irrigation and navigation canals throughout the
British Empire in India, however, his dream was only partially realized, but he is still honored in parts of rural Andhra Pradesh for his efforts. He entered the Madras Engineers in 1819, and fought in the First Burmese War. Cotton was knighted in 1861. An evangelist, he was the father of Elizabeth Hope.

Arthur Cotton was born on 15 May 1803 as tenth son to Mr. and Mrs. Henry Calvely Cotton. He was one of eleven brothers, who lived honorable lives through all the vicissitudes of their different careers. At the age of 15 i.e., in 1818 Cotton joined as a cadet for Military at Addiscombe where cadets for Artillery and Engineering Service of East India Company received training. He was appointed to the Royal Engineers as Second Lieutenant in 1819. Lieutenant Cotton started his career with Ordnance Survey in Wales in January 1820 where he received a high praises for his admirable reports. When he was 18 (i.e., 1821) he was appointed for service in India and attached to the Chief Engineer to Madras initially and later appointed as an Assistant Engineer to Superintending Engineer of Tank Department, Southern Division from 1822 to 1824. Cotton spent partly in the Irrigation Tank Department and partly in Military duties in Burma.

After return from Burma, Cotton has conducted marine survey of Pamban passage between India and Ceylon. Cotton was promoted to the rank of "Captain" in 1828 and was in charge of Investigation for Cauveri Scheme. The Cauveri Anicut( dam) was successful and paved the way for great projects on Godavari and Krishna Rivers. In 1844 Cotton recommended the construction of "Anicut( dam )" with Channels, Embankments, and roads of Godavari Delta, prepared plans for Visakhapatnam port. In 1847 the work on Godavari Anicut was started. In 1848 he proceeded to Australia due to ill health and handed over the charge to Captain Orr. In 1850 returned to India and promoted as Colonel. Cotton made best use of local materials, that he had in the shape of Hydraulic lime, good stone, and excellent teak available in the neighborhood. He succeeded in completing the magnificent project on Godavari river at Dowleswaram in 1852. In the same year work on Gannavaram Aqueduct was also commenced. After completing the Godavari Anicut Cotton shifted his attention to the construction of Aqueduct on Krishna River. The project was sanctioned in 1851 and completed by 1855. After completing the Krishna and Godavari Anicuts, Cotton envisaged of storages of Krishna and Godavari rivers In 1858 Cotton came up with still more ambitious proposals connecting almost all major rivers of India and suggested drought relief measures in Orissa and interlinking of canals and rivers. Arthur Cotton was retired from the service in 1860 and was knighted in 1861 and left India. In 1862 and 1863 visited India and offered advice on some river valley projects. His work in India was so much appreciated and honored with K.C.S.I (Knight Commander of Supreme India) in 1877. The Spiritual solace strengthened and comforted him until the very end of his earthly mission i.e. the 24th of July 1899 at the age of 96 years. He is a much revered figure in the state of Andhra Pradesh for his contribution in irrigating the area of land also known as Konaseema. In India due to his contributions the new barrage constructed across River Godavari Upstream side of the Anicut was also named after him and dedicated to the Nation by the Honorable Prime Minister of India in 1982. Cotton is laid to rest at Dorking Cemetery, Reigate Road, Dorking, Surrey, UK. His tombstone reads as follows: Waiting for the coming of our Lord In Loving Memory of Arthur Thomas Cotton K.C.S.I. General Madras Engineers. Who Entered Into Rest 24 July 1899, Our Savior Jesus Christ Hath Abolished Death And Brought Life and Immortality To Light Through the Gospel. 2 Tim: 1.10 Also of Elizabeth Cotton Wife Of The Above Who Died 5 December 1907 Great Peace Have They Which Love Thy Law. Cotton is revered in the Godavari District for making it the 'rice bowl' of Andhra Pradesh. Cotton is widely known as the 'Delta Architect' of the Godavari District because of his pioneering work in irrigation engineering through his construction of the anicut system. His efforts transformed the Godavari River system from a threatening and deadly natural force into a tame and fertile water resource. Throughout both East and West Godavari Districts, Cotton is often depicted on horseback.

Thomas Cotton went to attend an interview for the post of an engineer. There were three candidates, including himself. All that the selectors told them was to have a 'good sleep' and were provided three separate beds. The candidates did what they were told. While the other two candidates slept happily, poor Cotton could not get a wink of sleep. However, after some time, he slept happily.

The next day, all the three were asked if they slept happily by the selectors. While all the three nodded in the affirmative, Cotton added that he felt restless while on the bedbending down, he realised that one of the four legs of the bed was a little high. To his surprise he found apound beneath one of the legs, which he promptly removed. That was the catch set up by the selectors.

His works
The Godavari Canal System The Ganges Canal Dowleswaram Barrage An insight Sir Cotton was hated by his administrative superiorsthanks to his loving attitudes towards the people of India.[ At one point impeachment proceedings were initiated by his superiors for his dismissal. Going through the famine and cyclone-ravaged districts of Godavari, Cotton was distressed by the sight of famished people of the Godavari districts. It was then that he put in process his ambitious plans to harness the waters of the mighty Godavari for the betterment of the humanity. John Henry Morris in Godavari writes about the work of Sir Cotton thus: The Godavari anicut is, perhaps, the noblest feat of engineering skill which has yet been accomplished in British India. It is a gigantic barrier thrown across the river from island to island, in order to arrest the unprofitable progress of its waters to the sea, and to spread them over the surface of the country on either side, thus irrigating copiously land which has hitherto been dependent on tanks or on the fitful supply of water from the river. Large tracts of land, which had hitherto been left arid and desolate and waste, were thus reached and fertilized by innumerable streams and channels.

In 1878, Cotton had to appear before a House of Commons Committee to justify his proposal to build an anicut across the Godavari. A further hearing in the House of Commons followed by his letter to the then Secretary of State for India shows about his ambitiousness to built the anicut across the Godavari. His final sentence in that letter reads like this: My Lord, one day's flow in the Godavari river during high floods is equal to one whole years' flow in the Thames River of London. Cotton was almost despaired by the British Government's procrastination in taking along this project. That Government of India's plans to interlink rivers was long envisioned by Cotton is a fact. While at Rajahmundry, Arthur Cotton used to attend the Church of the Godavari Delta Mission.


Dummugudem is a tiny island near Bhadrachalam in the Godavari river. It is a mythological place. It is believed that Lord Rama killed 14,000 demons here and the place was built on the ashes of the demons. A bridge connects this island to the mainland which was built by Sir Arthur Cotton. The Muthyalamma Jathara festival is celebrated every two years at this place. This place is a beautiful spot to sooth your senses and has a relaxed vacation.

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, KCIE , (Kannada: ),

Bharat Ratna

other spellings

Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya KCIE

Diwan of the Mysore kingdom

In office 19121919


Krishna Raja Wadiyar IV

Preceded by

T. Ananda Rao

Succeeded by

M. Kantaraj Urs

Personal details


September 15, 1860 Muddenahalli, Chikballapur,Kingdom of Mysore (nowKarnataka) April 14, 1962 (aged 101) Bangalore Poona Civil Engineering College Engineer

Died Alma mater Profession

include Visvesvaraya, Visweswaraiah, Vishweshwaraiah, however, "Visvesvaraya" also known as Sir MV; 15 September 1860 14 April 1962) was a notable Indian engineer, scholar, statesman and the Diwan of Mysore during 1912 to 1919. He was a recipient of the Indian Republic's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. He was knighted as a Commander of the Indian Empire by King George V for his myriad contributions to the public good. Every year, 15 September is celebrated as Engineer's Day in India in his memory. He is held in high regard as the first and pre-eminent engineer of India. He was the chief designer of the flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad.
Religion Hindu

Early years
Visvesvaraya was born to Srinivasa Sastry and Venkatalakshamma, in Muddenahalli village, 40 miles from Bangalore, India. Visvesvaraya lost his father at the age of 15. The family was in Kurnool when this happened, and moved back to Muddenahalli there after. Sir M.V. attended primary school in Chikballapur and high school in Bangalore. He earned his B.A. from Madras University in 1881 and later studied civil engineering at the Government Science College, Pune which is presently known as College of Engineering, Pune.

Career as Engineer
Upon graduating as an engineer, Visvesvaraya took up a job with the Public Works Department (PWD) of Bombay (now known as Mumbai) and was later invited to join the Indian Irrigation Commission. He implemented an extremely intricate system of irrigation in the Deccan area. He also designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates that were first installed in 1903 at the Khadakvasla Reservoir near Pune. These gates were employed to raise the flood supply level of storage in the reservoir to the highest level likely to be attained by a flood without causing any damage to the dam. Based on the success of these gates, the same system was installed at the Tigra Dam inGwalior and the Krishnaraja Sagara (KRS) Dam in Mandya/ Mysore, Karnataka. In 1906-07, Government of India sent him to Eden,(Africa) to study water supply and drainage system and the project prepared by him was implemented in Eden successfully.

Visvesvaraya achieved celebrity status when he designed a flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad. He was instrumental in developing a system to protect Visakhapatnam port from sea erosion. Visvesvaraya supervised the construction of the KRS Dam across the Cauvery River from concept to inauguration. This dam created the biggest reservoir in Asia when it was built. He was rightly called the "Father of modern Mysore state" (now Karnataka): During his period of service with the Government of Mysore state, he was responsible for the founding of, (under the Patronage of Mysore Government), the Mysore Soap Factory, the Parasitoide Laboratory, the Mysore Iron & Steel Works (now known as Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited) inBhadravathi, the Sri Jayachamarajendra Polytechnic Institute, the Bangalore Agricultural University, the State Bank of Mysore, The Century Club, Mysore Chambers of Commerce and numerous other industrial ventures. He encouraged private investment in industry during his tenure as Diwan of Mysore. He was instrumental in charting out the plan for road construction between Tirumala and Tirupati. He was known for sincerity, time management and dedication to a cause.

Diwan of Mysore
After opting for voluntary retirement in 1908, he took a foreign tour to study industrialised nations and after, for a short period he worked for the Nizam of Hyderabad. He suggested flood relief measures for Hyderabad town, which was under constant threat of floods by Moosi river. Later, during November 1909, Visvesvaraya was appointed as Chief Engineer of Mysore State. Further, during the year, 1912, he was appointed as Diwan (First Minister) of the princely state of Mysore. He was Diwan for 7 years. With the support of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, Maharaja of Mysore, Visvesvaraya made an arguably unprecedented contribution as Diwan to the all-round development of the state. Not only the achievements listed above, but many other industries and public works owe their inception or active nurturing to him. He was instrumental in the founding of the Government Engineering College at Bangalore in 1917, one of the first engineering institutes in India. This institution was later named the University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering after its founder. It

remains one of the very most reputed institutes of engineering in Karnataka. He also commissioned several new railway lines in Mysore states. Visvesvaraya was Sir Mirza Ismail's mentor and in 1926 by way of recommendation to the King who supplemented Mirza Ismail by elevating him to the coveted position of the List of Diwans of Mysore

Awards and Honours

Visvesvaraya was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1911. In 1915, while he was the Diwan of Mysore, Visvesvaraya was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE) by the British for his myriad contributions to the public good. After India attained independence, Sir M. Visvesvaraya was given the nation's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955.

The Knight Commander of The Indian Empire medal

Sir M.V. was honoured with honorary membership of the international Institution of Civil Engineers (based in London) and a fellowship of the Indian Institute of Science (based inBangalore). He was awarded several honorary doctoral degrees like D.Sc., LL.D., D.Litt.from eight universities in India. He was president of the 1923 Session of the Indian Science Congress. Sir M.V. was awarded honorary Membership of London Institution of Civil Engineers for an unbroken 50 years. Every year September 15 is celebrated as World Engineers Day worldwide in honor of the great technocrat and visionary

The family temple at Muddenahalli

Sir M. V.'s mother, Venkatalakshamma discovered the stone sculpture near her house and figure of Hanuman was caraved on it and same is worshipped at Muddenahalli.

Memorial at Muddenahalli

There is a beautiful and very picturesque memorial of Sir M. V. located on the family-owned land at Muddenahalli, with the Nandi Hills as a backdrop.
Developments in Muddenahalli

In honor of Sir Visvesvarayya, a number of educational institutions are being constructed in theMuddenahalli-Kanivenarayanapura region. Among these is the Sathya Sai Baba University and School of Medicine, the elite Indian Institute of Technology Muddenahalli, as well as the 600 crore Visvesvaraya Institute of Advanced Technology. These developments will make the historical town of Muddenahalli the premier education hub in northern Bangalore.
Institutions named in his honour

Vishweshwarayya Polytechnic College Almala Tq Ausa Dist Latur Maharashtra State Tel-02383225600 The Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum, to which nearly all engineering colleges in Karnataka are now affiliated.

The Visvesvaraya Institute of Advanced Technology located in Muddenahalli-Kanivenarayanapura. The upcoming Indian Institute of Technology Muddenahalli is being built in Sir M.V.'s birthplace. The University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Bangalore popularly known as UVCE, is an engineering college, affiliated to the Bangalore University, established in 1917 by Sir M. Visvesvaraya. The college was renamed University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering from its earlier name University College of Engineering, Bangalore in honour of its illustrious founder. Sri Venkateshwara College of Engineering, Bangalore, Vidyanagar, Near Air Force Station, affiliated to VTU . Vishweshwarayya Polytechnic College Almala Tq Ausa Dist Latur Tel-02383225600 Sir M Visvesvaraya Institute Of Technology (popularly known as Sir M.V.I.T), Bangalore, is named after Sir M.V. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (V.N.I.T.), Nagpur (formerly Visvesvaraya Regional College of Engineering) was established in the early 1960s in his honour. The college is among the elite 19 National Institutes of Technology (formerly Regional Engineering Colleges) in India. Sir M Visvesvaraya Co-operative Bank Ltd,Bangalore - This is the second biggest Co-operative bank of Karnataka with a turnover of more than Rs. 400 crores The Visvesvaraya Industrial & Technological Museum, Bangalore, set up as part of his birth centenary celebrations Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Limited, a public sector undertaking, at Bhadravathi, the founding of which he was instrumental. He also supervised VISL and, under his supervsion, the loss-making factory started earning profit.

His alma mater, the College of Engineering, Pune (COEP), has erected a statue in his memory and honour on their campus in central Pune, immediately outside the historic COEP administration building. Institute of Technology - Banaras Hindu University, and R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore have hostels named after Sir M Visvesvaraya. State Bank of Mysore - Major bank in Karnataka Sir Visvesvaraya Memorial College of Engineering, Nashik, Maharashtra Karnataka Industrial Cooperative Bank Ltd NIT Rourkela named a hall of residence in his honour Visvesvarayya Group Of instituions in Ghaziabad

Sir M. Visvesvaraya (1860-1962) Bharata Ratna Sir M. Visvesvaraya, was without doubt one of the most influential makers of modern India. He was a rare combination of intellect, integrity, discipline,culture and vision who will continue to inspire young professionals, centuries after his time. His beginnings were humble he was born in 1861 to a Sanskrit scholar Srinivasa Sastry and his wife Venkachamma in Chikkaballapur. After completing his early education in Chikkaballapur, he came to Bangalore for higher education. This period was fraught with hardship as he lost his father at the age of 15. Finances were strained, and there was a time when his mother failed to dispatch the fees money in time for an exam. The young Visvesvaraya showed his resilience when he walked 55 kilometers to his hometown and somehow managed to get enough money. He then worked as a tutor to earn his way through college. The Engineer

On completing his BA in Central College, Bangalore, he moved to Pune to obtain an engineering degree from the College of Science (Now Government College of Engineering). He emerged in 1883 ranked first in L.C.E (equivalent to todays BE degree) and went on to become one of the finest Civil Engineers of his time. He devised innovative techniques that were well ahead of his time. One of his earliest contributions was the Block System of Irrigation designed to optimize, control and evenly distribute water supply to agricultural lands over a large number of villages. The supply was rotated within blocks in each village to curtail misuse and waterlogging. This system, devised in 1899, is still used in Deccan Canals. Another early innovation was the collector well that he implemented in Sukkur in Sindh province (present day Pakistan). The project had multiple challenges the area was hot and arid, and they had to manage with minimum funding. An initial plan to pump water from river Sindhu to a hill nearby, filter it and supply the water to the town through pipes had been adopted by the municipality. However they did not have enough money for the filters. Visveswaraya solved this ingeniously by digging wells in the river bed itself close to the river bank to obtain spring water through percolation. Thus filtering was achieved without having to install filters. To increase the supply of water, a tunnel was driven from the bottom of the well under the flowing river. This was a technique rarely seen in those days, but is now standard textbook material under the heading Collector Wells. Sir M Visvesvaraya, during early days

In the service of Bombay Presidency (1884) Most notably, he designed and later patented the Automated Floodgates, which permit flood water to enter a reservoir without the water level exceeding the full reservoir level, thereby reducing the risk of submerging surrounding land. The gates are automatic because they open and close at the rise and fall of water in the reservoir. This was the first time that thought was given to using reservoirs for flood control, not just irrigation and power generation. Visvesvaraya used 48 cast iron automated gates at the Krishnarjasagar Dam, incidentally manufactured at the Bhadravathi Iron and Steel Works, a factory that he established. Having established his credentials as the ablest of engineers, he went on to design water supply schemes for a number of towns in Bombay Presidency, Hyderabad and later as Chief Engineer of Mysore State.

The Statesman
When it came to large scale engineering projects, Sir MV was known to think beyond engineering. He would take up these

projects only if he was convinced that it was feasible economically, and that it served a social purpose. As Dewan of Mysore State, he was instrumental in galvanizing the state into progress. He established a number of rural industries and set up basic education for small shop owners in the fields of bookkeeping and commerce. Agricultural schools were opened to help with modern agricultural practices that reduced farmers overdependence on rain and good luck. A number of industrial workshops and training institutes were set up. Public libraries were established. The Kannada Sahitya Parishat was formed, and many books on science were published in Kannada. The University College of Engineering (now known as University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering) and Maharanis College for Women .As Chief Engineer of Mysore State (1909-12) came into being. In fact, he established the Mysore University, as until then, all the colleges in Mysore State were under the Madras University. Interestingly, he had a tough fight on his hands to achieve this. His clinching argument was If Australia and Canada could have universities of their own for a population of less than a million, cannot Mysore with a population of not less than 6 million have a University of its own? Pandit Nehru was well aware of Visvesvarayas extraordinary abilities both as engineer and statesman. In fact, economist Vinod Vyasulu highlights the legacy that Nehru inherited from Visvesvaraya, comparing his achievements in the princely state of Mysore to those of Nehru on a larger canvas fifty years later. Nehru had keenly read Visvesvarayas proposals for nation building that the latter had

submitted to the Congress members of Bombay legislature in 1936. As President of the Indian Economic Association, and member of the Planning Commission, Visvesvarayas abilities were utilized towards nation building. He presided over the first session of the Indian Science Congress in 1923, and the Indian Economic Conference a year later. His 1934 book, Planned Economy for India talks about the importance of estimating national income and achieving a society with a minimum level education, healthcare and opportunities for productive work. And he saw Industrialization as a means to achieve this. The Visionary With Pandit Nehru (1955) Our country is such a bundle of contradictions that it is perhaps fitting that Gandhi and Visvesvaraya, two of the most profound builders of Modern India had such conflicting views on modernization, while holding each other in the highest regard. While Gandhis motto was Industrialize and Perish, Visvesvarayas was Industrialize or Perish. In a letter to Visveswaraya in the 1930s, Gandhi wrote, In spite of the strength of my conviction, I have great regard for your fine abilities and love for the country and

that shall be unabated whether I have the good fortune to secure your cooperation or face your honest opposition... I see that we hold perhaps diametrically opposite views. My conviction based upon extensive experiences of village life is that in India, at any rate for generations to come, we shall not be able to make much use of mechanical power for solving the problem of the ever growing poverty of the masses. To which Visvesvaraya replied, You say we hold perhaps diametrically opposite views. You are for developing village industries and I favour both heavy industries and village industries. To the extent that you propose to advance village industries, I am at one with you. I can never persuade myself to take up a hostile attitude towards any constructive work, from any quarter, least of all towards work attempted by one with your brilliant historic achievements in public life... I am in favour of heavy industries because heavy industries will save the money that is going out of the country in large sums every year; heavy industries are required to provide the local manufactures of machinery and equipment required by our railways and for defence forces and heavy industries are required also for supplying machinery and

tools for the village industries themselves. I recommend more extended use of mechanical power because it produces results for the country much more rapidly than human power. The object is to get food and commodities required by our people for a decent standard of living as speedily as possible ..." To this end, he established the Bhadravati Iron and Steel Works, The Sandal Oil Factory, the Soap Factory, the Metals Factory, the Chrome Tanning Factory. He was also associated with the Tata Group of companies, helping them in the management Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO). He stared the Bank of Mysore (Now State Bank of Mysore) and The Mysore Chamber of Commerce. He provided a list of 36 industries to be established in the country in industrial engineering and applied chemistry. A very noteworthy aspect of Sir MVs professional dedication is that he would go to great lengths to gain firsthand knowledge. In 1925, when the Bhadravati Iron factory was in danger of being shut down due to dismal performance, he toured Sweden, England, America and Germany, most times at his own cost, to understand the iron manufacturing process firsthand. He used the knowledge to modernize the plant, reorganize departments, and make their heads accountable. This led to steady

improvement in output and profits, and soon the Works became a national asset. Legend has it that when on tour on official business, Sir MV carried a set of candles bought with his personal money, and used them for personal work like reading etc in the night after he was finished with official work. This may or may not be true, but it indicates the high reputation he had for personal integrity. This is a very brief glimpse into the life and works of this extraordinary man. There are innumerable other ways in which he has shaped modern industrialized India, and no profile can fully chronicle the far reaching and lasting nature of his contributions. At the end of this reading if one is left with the feeling, Wow, One man did all this?, then the chroniclers mission is accomplished. As a tribute to his genius, not only as an engineer but as an administrator, statesman and planner, the Institution of Engineers (India) celebrates 15th September, his birthday, every year as Engineers Day. The Mysore centre of the Institution has even a Navaratri approach to the celebration by sponsoring technical lectures and other programmes over nine days leading up to his birthday.

M. Visvesvaraya Biography
Born: September 15, 1860 Died: April 14, 1962 Achievements: Architect of Krishnarajasagar Dam; devised steel doors to stop the wasteful flow of water in dams; honored with Bharat Ratna. Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was an eminent engineer and statesman and played a key role in building of modern India. Sir M. Visvesvaraya was born on September 15, 1860 in Muddenahalli village in the Kolar district of the erstwhile princely state of Mysore (present day Karnataka). His father Srinivasa Sastry was a Sanskrit scholar and Ayurvedic practitioner. His mother Venkachamma was a religious lady. He lost his father when he was only 15 years old. Visvesvaraya completed his early education in Chikkaballapur and then went to Bangalore for higher education. He cleared his B.A. Examination in 1881. He got some assistance from the Government of Mysore and joined the Science College in Poona to study Engineering. In 1883 he ranked first in the L.C.E. and the F.C.E. Examinations (equivalent to B.E. Examination of today). When Sir M. Visvesvaraya cleared his engineering, Government of Bombay offered him a job and appointed him Assistant Engineer at Nasik. As an engineer, he achieved some marvelous feats. He planned a way of supplying water from the river Sindhu to a town called Sukkur. He devised a new irrigation system called the Block System. He devised steel doors to stop the wasteful flow of water in dams. He was the architect of the Krishnaraja Sagara dam in Mysore. The list is endless. Sir M. Visvesvaraya lead a very simple life. He was a strict vegetarian and a teetotaler. He was known for his honesty and integrity. In 1912, Maharaja of Mysore appointed Visvesvaraya as his Dewan. Before accepting the position of Dewan of Mysore, he invited all his relatives for dinner. He told them very clearly that he would accept the prestigious office on the condition that none of them would approach him for favours. As Dewan of Mysore, he worked tirelessly for educational and industrial development of the state. When he was the Dewan many new industries came up. The Sandal Oil Factory, the Soap Factory, the Metals Factory, the Chrome Tanning Factory , were some of them. Of the many factories he started the most important is the Bhadravati Iron and Steel Works.

Sir M. Visvesvaraya voluntarily retired as Dewan of Mysore in 1918. He worked actively even after his retirement. Sir M. Visvesvaraya was honored with Bharat Ratna in 1955 for his invaluable contribution to the nation. When he reached the age of 100, the Government of India brought out a stamp in his honor. Sir Visvesvaraya passed away on April 14, 1962 at the age of 101. Some of the honours and laurels conferred on Sir M. Visvesvaraya

1904: Honorary Membership of London Institution of Civil Engineers for an unbroken period of 50 years 1906: "Kaisar-i-Hind" in recognition of his services 1911: C.I.E. (Companion of the Indian Empire) at the Delhi Darbar 1915: K.C.I.E. (Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire) 1921: D.Sc. - Calcutta University 1931: LLD - Bombay University 1937: D.Litt - Benaras Hindu University 1943: Elected as an Honorary Life Member of the Institution of Engineers (India) 1944: D.Sc. - Allahabad University 1948: Doctorate - LLD., Mysore University 1953: D.Litt - Andhra University 1953: Awarded the Honorary Fellowship of the Institute of Town Planners, India 1955: Conferred ' BHARATHA RATNA' 1958: 'Durga Prasad Khaitan Memorial Gold Medal' by the Royal Asiatic Society Council of Bengal 1959: Fellowship of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore

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