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APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting

sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa. The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research. For additional examples and more detailed information about APA citation style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References. Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote. You can find more information on this in our Citation Management page.

Reference Citations in Text


In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.

Examples: Works by a single author


The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.
fo ter o buddrtoaiy(io,14) rm hoy n one ainlt Smn 95

If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information in parentheses.
Smn(95 pstdta io 14) oie ht

Works by multiple authors


When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&).
a hsbe son(etr&Msah 19) s a en hw Lie alc, 98

In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."

a Lie adMsah(98 dmntae s etr n alc 19) eosrtd

When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
Khea,Kesh adTae (91 fud anmn ntc, n hlr 19) on

In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.
Khea e a.(91 fud anmn t l 19) on

Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.


The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference.
(ainlIsiueo Mna Hat [IH,20) Ntoa nttt f etl elh NM] 07

When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty.
(IH 20) NM, 07

Works with no author


When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
o ciaecag (CiaeadWahr"19) n lmt hne "lmt n ete, 97 Giet Arclua Mtoooia Patcs(91 ud o giutrl eerlgcl rcie 18)

Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.
o ciaecag (nnmu,20) n lmt hne Aoyos 08

Specific parts of a source


To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation.

(tge &Ds 18,p 9) Sitr a, 91 . 6 D Wa (96 oesae tecs we h asre ta "ese t b e al 19) vrttd h ae hn e setd ht w em o e rahn ..fo tehnso pioohr"(.28. ecig . rm h ad f hlspes p 1)

If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and following paragraph.
(nc &Sirn,20,pr.9 Mnih peig 08 aa )

Reference List
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list. Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M. Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title. Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books. Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent". Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals. Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online. Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from. Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article, include the date that you retrieved the information. * The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication. For more detailed information on these publication standards, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, or consult with your instructors or editors to determine their style preferences. ** See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References for information on how to format URLs that take up more

than one line.

Examples: Articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers


References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers. Journal article, one author, accessed online
K,G (08.Lann t d-saae Teefcso rge i eclto o u . 20) erig o eeclt: h fet f ert n saain f cmimn.Ognztoa Bhvo adHmnDcso Poess 152, omtet raiainl eair n ua eiin rcse, 0() 2122 di1.06johp20.802 2-3. o:011/.bd.070.0

Journal article, two authors, accessed online


Snhz D,&Kn-oe,E (07.Adesn dsaiiscnutto ad ace, . igTlr . 20) drsig iprte oslain n otec srtge fruiest stig.Cnutn Pyhlg urah taeis o nvriy etns oslig scooy Junl Patc adRsac,5() 2625 di1.0716ora: rcie n eerh 94, 8-9. o:013/05 99.9426 235..8

Journal article, more than two authors, accessed online


VnVg,M,Hgn R,&Kie,R B (08.Laesi,floesi,ad a ut . oa, . asr . . 20) edrhp olwrhp n eouin Sm lsosfo teps.Aeia Pyhlgs,6() 12 vlto: oe esn rm h at mrcn scooit 33, 816 di1.0700-6X6..8 9. o:013/0306.3312

Article from an Internet-only journal


Hrl,P B (08 Jl-uut.Cprgtrnwl cprgtrsoain ite . . 20, uyAgs) oyih eea, oyih etrto, adtedfiut o dtriigcprgtsau.DLbMgzn, n h ifcly f eemnn oyih tts -i aaie 1(/) di1.05jl20-ite 478. o:014/uy08hrl

Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)


Cli,G (08 Jl 2) Ifrainwrhblin.Frue 182,7ovn . 20, uy 1. nomto ot ilos otn, 5() 3

7.Rtivdfo Bsns Suc Cmlt,ESO Rtivdfo 9 eree rm uies ore opee BC. eree rm ht:/erhesootcm tp/sac.bchs.o

Magazine article, in print


Kue,J (08 Jnay2) Wyw lv.Tm,114,5-0 lgr . 20, aur 8. h e oe ie 7() 46.

Newspaper article, no author, in print


A pie sre Taln pthsOE-tl rc cre.(08 My5.Te s rcs ug, hiad ice PCsye ie atl 20, a ) h Wl Sre Junl p A. al tet ora, . 9

Newspaper article, multiple authors, discontinuous pages, in print


Dlny K J,Krishi,M,&Gt,R A (08 My5.Mcooted eae, . . antcng . uh . . 20, a ) irsf ns pruto Yho rasse isoln otos TeWl Sre Junl usi f ao, esess t nie pin. h al tet ora, p.A,A2 p 1 1.

Books
References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. No Author or editor, in print
MrimWbtrscleit dcinr (1he..(03.Srnfed M: era-ese' olgae itoay 1t d) 20) pigil, A Mrim Wbtr era- ese.

One author, in print


Kde,T (91.Tesu o anwmcie Bso,M:Ltl,Bon& idr . 18) h ol f e ahn. otn A ite rw Cmay opn.

Two authors, in print

Fak R H,&Brak,B (07.Picpe o mcoeoois(r e.. rn, . . enne . 20) rnils f ar-cnmc 3d d) Bso,M:MGa-ilIwn otn A crwHl/ri.

Corporate author, author as publisher, accessed online


Asrla Bra o Saitc.(00.Tsainya bo 20 (o utain ueu f ttsis 20) amna er ok 00 N. 10.) Cner,Asrla CptlTrioy Ato.Rtivdfo 316. abra utain aia ertr: uhr eree rm ht:/w.usasasgva/usassbcie.s//A581068.. tp/wwastt.b.o.uastt/usrbrnf0C2670099. $ie10620.d Fl/31_00pf

Edited book
Gbs J T,&Hag L N (d..(01.Cide o clr Pyhlgcl ib, . . un, . . Es) 20) hlrn f oo: scooia itretoswt clual dvreyuh SnFacso C:Jsenevnin ih utrly ies ot. a rnic, A osy Bs. as

Dissertations
References for dissertations should include the following elements: author, date of publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number, include it at the end of the citation.

Dissertation, accessed online


Yug R F (07.Cosn budre i ubneooy Ptwy t on, . . 20) rsig onais n ra clg: ahas o ssanbecte (otrldsetto) Aalbefo Pous utial iis Dcoa israin. vial rm rQet Dsettos&Tee dtbs.(M N.378) israin hss aaae UI o 261

Essays or chapters in edited books


References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. One author

Lbj,J (03.Bd advie Tecntuto o gne i faec.I aao . 20) oy n oc: h osrcin f edr n lmno n T Mgii(d) Mscadgne:prpcie fo teMdtraen . arn E., ui n edr esetvs rm h eierna (p 6-6.Ciao I:Uiest o CiaoPes p. 78) hcg, L nvriy f hcg rs.

Two editors
Hmod K R,&Aemn L (96.Sine vle,adhmnjdmn.I amn, . . dla, . 18) cec, aus n ua uget n H R Aks&K R Hmod(d.,Jdeetaddcso mkn:A . . re . . amn Es) ugmn n eiin aig n itricpiayrae (p 1713.Cmrde Egad Cmrde nedsilnr edr p. 2-4) abig, nln: abig Uiest Pes nvriy rs.

Encyclopedias or dictionaries and entries in an encyclopedia


References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. For sources accessed online, include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time.

Encyclopedia set or dictionary


Sde S,&Trel J (d..(02.TenwGoedcinr o mscad ai, . yrl, . Es) 20) h e rv itoay f ui n mscas(n e. Vl.12) NwYr,N:Goe uiin 2d d, os -9. e ok Y rv.

Article from an online encyclopedia


Cnanrzto.(08.I Eccoi Bianc.RtivdMy6 20, otieiain 20) n nylpda rtnia eree a , 08 fo ht:/erhe.o rm tp/sac.bcm

Encyclopedia article
Kni T B (04.Dse,Wl (9116) Fudro teWl Dse in, . . 20) iny at 10-96: one f h at iny Cmay I Eccoei o Laesi (o.1 p.3539.Tosn opn. n nylpda f edrhp Vl , p 4-4) huad Ok,C:Sg Pbiain. as A ae ulctos

Research reports and papers


References to a report must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and name of publisher. If the issuing organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. If it was accessed online, include the URL.

Government report, accessed online


US Dprmn o Hat adHmnSrie.(05.Mdci du pie .. eatet f elh n ua evcs 20) eiad rg rc cmaios Aeaemnfcue piet pbihdpie (I oprsn: vrg auatrr rc o ulse rcs OG pbiainN.OI0-5 020.Wsigo,D:Ato.Rtivdfo ulcto o E-50- 04) ahntn C uhr eree rm ht:/w.i.h.o/e/eot/e-50-04.d tp/wwoghsgvoirprsoi0-5020pf

Government reports, GPO publisher, accessed online


CnrsinlBde Ofc.(08.Efcso gsln pie o diig ogesoa ugt fie 20) fet f aoie rcs n rvn bhvo advhcemres ACOsuy(B PbiainN.28) eair n eil akt: B td CO ulcto o 83. Wsigo,D:US Gvrmn Pitn Ofc.Rtivdfo ahntn C .. oenet rnig fie eree rm ht:/w.b.o/tdc/8xdc830-4GslnPie.d tp/wwcogvfpos8x/o89/11-aoiercspf

Technical and/or research reports, accessed online


Dmn,D,&Dnrk,S (08.Telnteigo cidod(BRWrig eig . yasi . 20) h eghnn f hlho NE okn Ppr114.Cmrde M:Ntoa Bra o Eooi Rsac. ae 42) abig, A ainl ueu f cnmc eerh RtivdJl 2,20,fo ht:/w.brogppr/114 eree uy 1 08 rm tp/wwne.r/aesw42

Document available on university program or department site


Vco,N M (08.Gzrm Gsgatudrsri.Rtivdfo Safr itr . . 20) apo: a in ne tan eree rm tnod Uiest,Pormo Eeg adSsanbeDvlpetWbst: nvriy rga n nry n utial eeomn e ie ht:/edsafr.d/ulctosgzrmgsgatudrsri/ tp/ps.tnodeupbiain/apo_a_in_ne_tan

Audio-visual media

References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If the medium is indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed. Videocassette/DVD
Aha,M (ietrPoue) Abt,J (ietr,Bkn J (rtr,& cbr . Drco/rdcr, bot . Drco) aa, . Wie) Smsn B (rdcr (04.Tecroain[V] Cnd:BgPcue ipo, . Poue) 20) h oprto DD. aaa i itr MdaCroain ei oprto.

Audio recording
Na Hn,T (pae) (98.Mnfllvn:acleto o tahnso ht ah . Sekr. 19) idu iig olcin f ecig n lv,mnfles admdtto [asteRcrig.Budr C: oe iduns, n eiain Cset eodn] ole, O Sud Tu Ado ons re ui.

Motion picture
Glet B (rdcr,&Hgis C (cenrtrDrco) (90.Nn t ibr, . Poue) ign, . Srewie/ietr. 18) ie o fv [oinPcue.Uie Sae:TetehCnuyFx ie Mto itr] ntd tts wnit etr o.

Television broadcast
Adro,R,&Mra,C (rdcr) (08 Jn 2) 6 Mnts nesn . ogn . Poues. 20, ue 0. 0 iue [eeiinbodat.Wsigo,D:CSNw. Tlvso racs] ahntn C B es

Television show from a series


Weo,J (ietrWie) (99 Dcme 1) Hs [eeiinsre hdn . Drco/rtr. 19, eebr 4. uh Tlvso eis eioe.I Weo,J,Bra,G,Gli,S,Kzi F,&Kzi K psd] n hdn . emn . aln . uu, . uu, . (xctv Poues,BfyteVmieSae.Brak C:Wre Eeuie rdcr) uf h apr lyr ubn, A anr Bo. rs.

Music recording

Jcsn M (92.Ba i.O Trle [D.NwYr,N:Sn Msc ako, . 18) et t n hilr C] e ok Y oy ui.

Undated Web site content, blogs, and data


For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers, books, and reports, keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. For electronic and online materials, include stable URL or database name. Include the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessed.

Blog entry
Arntn M (08 Ags 5.Tevrlvdogygt $ mlini rigo, . 20, uut ) h ia ie u es 1 ilo n fnig Msaepse t ht:/w.ehrnhcm udn. esg otd o tp/wwtccuc.o

Professional Web site


Ntoa RnwbeEeg Lbrtr.(08.Boul.RtivdMy6 20, ainl eeal nry aoaoy 20) ifes eree a , 08 fo ht:/w.rlgvlann/eboul.tl rm tp/wwne.o/erigr_ifeshm

Data set from a database


BomegLP (08.Rtr o cptlfrHwt Pcad1/19 t lobr .. 20) eun n aia o eit akr 23/0 o 0/00.RtivdDc 3 20,fo Bomegdtbs. 93/8 eree e. , 08 rm lobr aaae CnrlSaitc Ofc o teRpbi o Btwn.(08.Gosdmsi eta ttsis fie f h eulc f osaa 20) rs oetc poutprcpt 0/119 t 0/120 [ttsis.Aalbefo rdc e aia 60/94 o 60/08 saitc] vial rm CI Dt dtbs. EC aa aaae

Entire Web site When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site), no Reference List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper.
Wthrf I Erp adAeiai ast ta peet tefl tx o mn iccat n uoe n mrc s ie ht rsns h ul et f ay esnilwrsi teltrtr o wthrf addmnlg seta ok n h ieaue f iccat n eoooy (tp/wwwthrf.sei.o/. ht:/w.iccatpmdacm)

For more detailed information on APA citation style such as information on articles in press, journal special issues and supplements, translations, et cetera, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.

Other citation guides and useful Web sites: American Psychological Association's Web site Purdue University Online Writing Lab's APA Formatting and Style Guide Diana Hacker's Research and Documentation Online Landmark's Son of Citation Machine Prepared by Cornell University Library PSEC Documentation Committee November 2002; Revised April 2011 Send Feedback | CU Info | CU Home | Privacy | Text-only Search Box | Staff Login 2013 | Cornell University Library, Ithaca NY 14853 | 607-255-4144
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