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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION UNDERSTANDING ADVOCACY Defining advocacy Benefits of advocacy Building foundations for advocacy PLANNING AN ADVOCACY INITIATIVE Advocacy Message Writing Identify purpose Identify readership/audiences Analyze the policy environment Outlining an advocacy strategy Select a message Select target audiences Structure the message

Finalizing an advocacy strategy Select roles Identify key messages Define advocacy activities



INTRODUCTION This Handbook is a training guide designed to familiarize program managers with key advocacy concepts and techniques. The Handbook suggests a framework for identifying policy goals, creating a plan of action, and effectively building your case for change. We have presented these concepts to you in a certain sequence. However, you may want to think of these ideas as building blocks that can be used as you find you need them. Advocacy rarely unfolds the same way twice and there is an element of unpredictability to advocacy that makes it both a challenging and an exciting approach to solving problems. Advocacy is essentially all about three things: Creating policies where they are needed when none exist. Reforming harmful or ineffective policies. Ensuring good policies are implemented and enforced.

Together, we refer to these concepts as policy change. Sometimes, it is inappropriate for development partners, governments or corporate to take a direct role in advocacy, but rather to play a supporting role, or to help bring parties together who have shared interests in creating policy change. This manual should also help you to think about what advocacy roles are best for your operating environment, and how to become a credible advocate for change. This handbook provides a step-by-step guide for planning advocacy initiatives, as well as advice for successful implementation. It is intended for program managers/officers and activists who wish to include advocacy in their programs. This handbook will help you to: Learn about advocacy concepts and advocacy vocabulary Analyze policies that lie at the root of poverty and discrimination See how advocacy can help you increase your impact Devise a strategy to achieve your advocacy aims Acquire essential skills to help you become an effective advocate

Advocacy frequently involves building constituencies groups of people and organizations who support a particular policy viewpoint. Since advocacy usually occurs in the public domain, you must be prepared to consider the views of many people, and understand how decisions are made in your particular context. The more you know about the advocacy issue you select, the community where you work, and how political institutions function, the more effective an advocate you can be. Advocacy is a strategy to influence policy makers when they make laws and regulations, distribute resources, and make other decisions that affect peoples


lives. The principal aims of advocacy are to create policies, reform policies, and ensure policies are implemented. Policy makers are typically government officials or those with formal political power, but they also can be leaders in the private sector whose decisions and behaviour affect communities. Several advocacy strategies can be used to influence the decisions of policy makers, such as discussing problems directly with them, delivering messages through the media, or strengthening the ability of local organizations to advocate. Advocacy is one more option in a wide range of program strategies for reducing poverty, and appropriate when you want to influence policies that are at the source of poverty and discrimination.


This section outlines the training dynamics essential for guiding the exercise. It explores participants expectations, group working norms and feedback strategies during the training. It also identifies the overall objectives for the training exercise. It also gives a rationale for the manual in terms of the training and capacity gaps in Kenya. Objectives The following objectives are envisaged for this session. The expectation should be that by the end of the session, participants will be able to: Discuss their expectations of the course
Reconcile their objectives with the objectives of the workshop


Name at least four group norms to respect during the workshop Demonstrate use of effective feedback

The following tools should come in handy in running this session. The trainers should however not limit themselves to these. They could also pull in other useful resources to enrich the learning experience. Flip charts Markers Masking tape Note pads Pens/Pencils Workshop folders Objectives of the workshop Workshop Programme/Agenda


Effective Feedback forms

Training session time line

Objectives Introductions Pair activity Course Expectations Course Objectives Rules of feedback

Time 30min s 30min s 20min s 10 min

Methods Facilitators notes/Plenary discussion Small group activity Presentation/Discussion Plenary discussion


Participants experiences Handout

Introductions Ask participants to pick numbers 1, 2, 3... if you intend to have them work in groups of threes or up to two, if the intention is to pair them. All the ones should form a group, same for the twos and the threes etc. The members of each group should then introduce themselves/one another and tell something /anything that they would like the group to know about them. This might include what name they would like to be called during the workshop. You could have the number ones for each group introduce the twos and vice versa.

Expectations of the Session

The best learning event is that which is modeled on the participants expectations. At this stage, participants can be led through an activity that should help generate useful pointers as to what their expectations of the training are, and how the learning sessions can be tailored towards realizing this.

Activity: Divide the participants into small groups of not more than five people. Ask each group to write their expectations of the course on a flip chart. In plenary, have each group present their expectations. Allow participants to seek clarification questions.



1. Show an understanding of advocacy as a concept. 2. Show an understanding of the practice of advocacy. 3. Show an understanding of the link between advocacy as a concept and advocacy in real life. 4. Identify and discuss the advocacy issues in their own organisations. 5. Discuss with greater sensitivity, the various advocacy concerns and how they affect the Disability Movement.

In this session, you will need the following tools among others in running the session. The trainers should however not limit themselves to these tools. They could also pull in other useful resources to enrich the learning experience. Flip charts Markers/Pens/Pencils Masking tape Note pads/Workshop folders


Effective Feedback forms

Training session time line

Objectives What advocacy?

Time is 30 min 20 min

Role of advocacy The concept advocacy

of 20 min

Advocacy issues 30 min at own organization


Methods Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer

Materials Instructors notes, participants experiences Instructors notes, participants experiences Instructors notes, participants experiences Instructors notes, participants experiences, sample story

WHAT IS ADVOCACY? WHY ADVOCATE? BUILDING A FOUNDATION a) WHAT IS ADVOCACY? This session reviews how most development partners definition of advocacy. You will become familiar with key concepts and learn how most development partners are defining advocacy as a programming strategy. First and foremost, advocacy is a strategy that is used around the world by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), activists, and even policy makers themselves, to influence policies. Advocacy is about creation or reform of policies, but also about effective implementation and enforcement of policies. A policy is a plan, course of action, or set of regulations adopted by government, business or an institution, designed to influence and determine decisions or procedures. Advocacy is a means to an end, another way to address the problems that we aim to solve through other programming strategies. At a recent workshop of Handicap International (HI) and United Disabled Persons of Kenya (UDPK) and its umbrella program managers drawn from more than 10 DPOs, the following working definition was developed: 1. ADVOCACY is the deliberate process of influencing those who make policy decisions.


There are several key ideas that guide this definition: First, advocacy is about influencing those who make policy decisions. Many people start with a preconception that advocacy is about being confrontational and "shouting at the government." One of the most important messages of this chapter, however, is that advocacy does not have to be confrontational. There is a wide range of advocacy approaches to choose from, e.g. a public vs. a private approach, engagement vs. confrontation, and working alone or in coalition with others. We will review each of these approaches in subsequent sessions. Second, advocacy is a deliberate process, involving intentional actions. Therefore, before implementing advocacy strategies it must be clear who you are trying to influence and what policy you wish to change. Third, policy makers can encompass many types of decision makers. UDPKs approach to advocacy is to focus on policy makers above the household level, and to improve the livelihood of significant numbers of persons with disabilities. At the same time, advocacy is not restricted to those policy makers who work for the government. There are policy makers who work for the private sector, and who wield enormous influence over poor communities. It is important to keep in mind that policy makers are always human beings, not institutions. Advocacy is used to influence the choices and actions of those who make laws and regulations, and those who distribute resources and make other decisions that affect the well being of many people.

Here are further definitions of advocacy

a) Advocacy is an umbrella term for organized activism related to a particular set of issues. b) It is an active promotion of a course and involves planned actions that lead to a selected course. c) Advocates plead in a favor of a course and often work in the face of opposition. d) It is expected to be non-deceptive and done in good faith it sometimes uses propaganda. e) Advocacy usually involves getting government, business, schools or some large institutions to correct unfair or harmful situations affecting people in the community. f) The said situation may be resolved through persuasion, by encouraging the aggressors to buckle under pressure, by compromise or through political or legal action. g) A group or special interests can either organize advocacy into or sometimes an individual may act as a lobbyist on their own account or on behalf of a community, corporation or sector.


WHAT ADVOCACY IS NOT The kind of advocacy that we are discussing in this Handbook relates to influencing the decisions of policy makers. When we talk about advocacy, we generally do not mean: Extension work. Encouraging households to change their agricultural or health practices is an important programming strategy used in many programs. However, extension work is designed to influence individual decisions made at the household level, not the behavior or decisions of policy makers that affect many households at once. Information, Education, and Communication. Advocacy is not about launching a public campaign to change specific practices such as social marketing encouraging people to use condoms. Rather, an advocacy campaign is intended to change public opinion about a policy issue. For example, an HIV&AIDS advocacy campaign might promote more funding for HIV&AIDS programs or more humane government policies toward people living with AIDS. Informing the government about certain Development Partner. While becoming an effective advocate requires you to establish your credibility with policy makers, advocacy is not just about informing the government about a certain development partners programs. In advocacy, information sharing is used as a deliberate strategy to influence specific decisions of policy makers. Still, building good relationships with policy makers is an important way to lay the foundation for advocacy. Raising public awareness about certain development partner and its programs. Most often, most development partners in Kenya disseminate information through the media to raise their profiles or visibilities. The same techniques can be used for advocacy, but the purposes are different. In advocacy, we use the media to deliver policy messages, to encourage people to take a certain view on an issue and, hopefully, to communicate their views with policy makers. (While promoting any development partners image is not the goal of advocacy, advocacy messages can have the beneficial effect of raising public awareness about the development partner and its work.) Fund-raising. The primary purpose of advocacy is not to increase any development partners budget. Some advocacy may involve asking policy makers to allocate more resources for relief and development priorities, and sometimes this may benefit certain development partner. More often, however, it involves trying to influence a governmental agenda, corporate behavior, a specific public policy, or the implementation of a policy. b) WHY ADVOCATE? In this section, we shall discuss reasons for including advocacy in our programs.


The section explains the benefits of trying to address policy causes of problems that impact the lives of many people. Advocacy can be a powerful tool. It complements any work via direct service delivery, capacity building, and technical assistance to support tangible improvements in the lives of people. A more holistic approach recognizes that various actors in the private and public arenas contribute to livelihood insecurity or violations of human rights, and that significant impact can only be achieved through changes in the policies and actions of powerful institutions, as well as individuals and households. Advocacy is therefore a logical extension of our work. Rather than taking policies as givens, advocacy attempts to change policies. The key point is that, as key stakeholders who bear responsibility for the needs and rights of the communities we serve, it is appropriate to target the actions of policy makers. Advocacy does not intend to replace existing program strategies; it rather expands the menu of effective strategies available. Sometimes it will be an appropriate strategy, other times it will not. This will depend on whether policies and their enforcement were identified as an important cause of a problem. A wider range of strategies will help to increase the depth and breadth of impact. Advocacy can be a means of convincing policy makers to fulfill their human responsibilities to others. c) BEFORE YOU BEGIN: BUILD FOUNDATIONS If you have read this far in the Handbook, you may already have in mind a programmatic area where you would like to begin using advocacy what we refer to as a policy theme. Or maybe you are starting to consider advocacy as a programming approach, without having anything specific in mind yet. Either way, several steps can ensure that the policy theme and advocacy strategies you choose have minimum risk and maximum potential for success. You should not think of these steps as a recipe, nor do you need to do all of them before you get started. Think of them rather as a list of options, each of which will put you further ahead once you are ready to begin advocating. Gathering policy and political information Assessing risk Building strategic relationships Establishing your credibility as an advocate Linking advocacy to current program area priorities Maintaining focus

These steps should increase your chances for success in several ways. First, they will give you more ideas about where to go for advice, how to find partners, and how important decisions are made. Second, they will help you understand and minimize risks. Third, they will increase the likelihood that your ideas fit well with community priorities. In general, the information you gather and the relationships you build may increase the number of strategic choices you have and can pay significant dividends during the implementation phase.



Gathering policy and political information: Before you begin any advocacy initiative, it is crucial to understand how key institutions work and to identify decision makers for the sectors you are interested in. You also need to find out who can help you influence those decision makers. The more you can determine how policies influence outcomes and distinguish between rhetoric and meaningful actions, the better. Conducting research and interviews are useful in learning about underlying policies. You can also gather information informally, through friends, colleagues, and publicly available resources. This paves the way for conducting a policy analysis and choosing a policy issue. Assessing risk: The more you understand the political environment you are working in, the more easily you can assess risk, and the less likely you are to make a mistake that will cause harm to anyone else. This is particularly important when advocacy is your strategy of choice. Before initiating advocacy, it is vital that you understand the policy concerns of the affected communities and whether there are appropriate advocacy roles you can play. As with other types of programming, the more your policy objectives emerge from participatory program design, the better. Above all, you should be sure that your involvement in advocacy would be welcomed, rather than resented, and will not put others at additional risk. Building strategic relationships: It is important to spend significant time and energy building relationships with government officials and other policy makers through the course of your regular work. Such relationships often cover a range of topics, i.e. contract management, operational questions related to service delivery, and how to work together more effectively in programming activities. It is easy to add another dimension related to policy dialogue and advocacy. Separate from policy makers, it is also important to form strategic relationships with allies who share your policy interests. NGO networks and coalitions provide excellent opportunities to discuss advocacy initiatives already underway and to find partners in advocacy. Establishing your credibility as an advocate: When you are recognized as an expert, or a respected spokesperson on behalf of others, your arguments will tend to carry more weight in advocacy and you will find it easier to prevail in policy debates. Advocacy requires that you have credibility both with policy makers and with the community affected by your proposed policies. Your knowledge from the field is a critical starting point for advocacy, and paves the way for your credibility in advocacy. Credibility alone should not determine whether you engage in advocacy. However, if you have serious doubts about your credibility as an advocate, you should either consider working on different issues or find ways to build up your credibility before you begin to interact with the public or key policy makers. Linking advocacy to current program area priorities: Without that link, advocacy can interfere with other work, and staff will lack the credibility they need to influence decision makers. When an organisation decides to focus its programming on specific sectors or regions, these priorities should inform and guide its work in the policy arena. Undertaking an advocacy initiative is almost always a



team effort. It is quite important to have strong internal consensus before devising policy and developing strategies for advocacy. Senior Program managers need to support advocacy efforts in overall, especially when relationships with high-level decision makers are involved that could impact other programming priorities. In addition, it is important to discuss and debate advocacy positions internally before facing skeptical policy makers or others outside your organisation. Finally, a consensus approach will help ensure that advocacy supports, and does not detract from, other programming priorities. Maintaining focus: In advocacy, consistency and focus usually pay off. You may begin by identifying various policy themes you want to tackle, but ultimately, it is important to narrow these down. At the national coordinators level, it is best to choose one or two areas to work on at a time, so that messages to senior policy makers are clear and not overlapping or contradictory. At the program level, there may be many policy issues that tie into project objectives. Still, you are more likely to succeed in advocacy if you focus on a limited number of policy issues at a time, than if you develop a long list of policy priorities. Tempting as it may be, there is a real danger of spreading yourself too thin, and not developing the depth of expertise to advocate effectively in any one area. You also risk returning to policy makers too often, appearing to be asking for too much.



SESSION THREE PLANNING ADVOCACY INITIATIVES ADVOCACY MESSAGE WRITING Session objectives 1. Show an understanding of effective advocacy writing skills. 2. Show an understanding of defining purpose. 3. Show an understanding of defining readership/audience. 4. Identify and discuss the advocacy issues in their own organisations. 5. Discuss with greater sensitivity, the various advocacy concerns and how they affect the Disability Movement.

In this session, you will need the following tools among others in running the session. The trainers should however not limit themselves to these tools. They could also pull in other useful resources to enrich the learning experience. Flip charts Markers/ Pens/Pencils Masking tape Note pads/ Workshop folders Effective Feedback forms
Training session time line

Objectives What is effective advocacy message writing? Defining purpose/readershi p of advocacy message The principles of effective advocacy message writing Effective advocacy message writing at own

Time 30 min

Methods Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer Presentation, Discussions, Question and Answer

Materials Instructors notes, participants experiences Instructors notes, participants experiences

20 min

20 min

Instructors notes, participants experiences Instructors notes, participants experiences, sample story

30 min




HAND OUT 2.1 FACILITATORS NOTES EFFECTIVE ADVOCACY MESSAGE WRITING INTRODUCTION Effective writing gets results. That's the most important idea in this manual. Many people assume that the main purpose of writing is to convey information. But effective writing does more than that. Behind the 'information' or 'facts', there is always something else that writers are trying to do. They are trying to:

Influence the way you see the world; Get you to believe something is true; Get you to do something, to make a decision; or Follow a set of procedures.

That 'something else' is what we call an idea or message.

Identify purpose
DEFINING YOUR PURPOSE What do you want your document to do? This is a very different question from asking: What's the document about? At work, we write to get results. This means that thinking about the document's subject is unhelpful. You could, after all, write huge amounts of material about any subject. You can only narrow the options by identifying the document's purpose: what you want it to do. Distinguish carefully between:

What you want to achieve; What you want the reader to do;

Identify readership/audiences



ANALYSING YOUR READERSHIP At work, many documents circulate to wide audiences. Different readers will have different expectations, priorities and levels of knowledge. Planning the document will be easier if you have some sense of who your readers are and what they expect. In this section we look at the readership in some detail. We'll think about:

Three types of readers; Managing the primary reader's expectations; Key persuasive factors that will help to convince the primary reader. What you want the document to do.

PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE WRITING Effective writing is built on the following principles.

Your document should have one governing idea. You should address a specific person or group. You should make your point, then support it. Support your governing idea with a limited number of other ideas, ordered logically. Make the document as easy to read as possible.

Effective writing: The above core skills guides somebody on how effective message writing is done. CREATING A MESSAGE Your document will be more persuasive if it has one governing idea. Let's call this governing idea the main message. You might give your message another name. You might, for example, call it a thesis, a proposal, a proposition or a summary. We like the word message because the word suggests a specific kind of idea.

It's aimed at a specific person or group. It has a practical purpose.



WRITING A MESSAGE SENTENCE An effective document delivers a single main message. The message is your document's governing idea. Everything else - the other ideas, the information to support them, how it is all ordered, how you present the material - depends on that message. Your message isn't a title or an explanation of what you are doing in the document. It is the single most important point you need to make to express your purpose. In this section we'll look at how to create an effective message. This involves:

Constructing the message Checking and improving the message

CHECKING YOUR MESSAGE Validating (checking) your message helps you to make sure that your message is appropriate: to you, to the reader and to the ideas that you are interested in putting across. You can validate the message by working out a story about how it came into being. This story may also be useful later as the core of an introduction - in a report, for example. ORGANISING YOUR IDEAS The natural way we think is by creating structures. In order to understand any one piece of information in more detail, we need to:

If you can perform those two operations on your message, you will create a structure that your reader's mind will find most natural to understand. That structure is made up of ideas. Because ideas can only be organized logically - and not in any other way - the structuring principle for your document must be logic of some kind. So your task is to break the message into pieces and present them in a logical sequence. This section takes you through the steps that will allow you to do just that. CREATING A STRUCTURE Creating the structure of your document is done in two stages:

Break it into pieces; See how those pieces fit together.

First-stage thinking: generating ideas; Second-stage thinking: organizing the ideas into a robust structure.



First-stage thinking is sometimes called 'divergent' or 'radiant' thinking. During this stage, we explore and gather anything and everything that we think we might be of interest or use. COLLECTING EVIDENCE Every lawyer knows that, to persuade effectively, you need sound evidence to support a convincing argument. To quote Rudolph Flesch, a key teacher in effective writing: 'You'll never convince anyone by logic alone.' You've worked out the pyramid of your ideas. Now you need the evidence to support them. Does it seem odd that we should think about collecting evidence after working out our ideas? Surely we must look at the evidence before coming to a conclusion. That seems to make sense. But, if you think about it, you cannot look for any evidence unless you know what it might be evidence for. And the only thing that evidence can support is an idea. WRITING AN OUTLINE Writing an outline is the final stage of planning your report. The outline translates your pyramid structure into a blueprint that you can use to prepare your first draft. Constructing the outline forces you to clarify your thinking. By organising your ideas into a numbered format, you can check that every idea is in the right place and well expressed. The outline isn't a first draft. It won't include all the information or evidence you want to give, but only the principle ideas. It includes only your message, key points, sub-points and minor points. FUNCTIONS OF PROSE Prose is any writing that is not organised into poetic form. This entire manual is about writing prose. Functional prose is prose that has a job to do. Many hundreds of years ago, the Greek philosopher Aristotle categorised the jobs that prose can do under four broad headings. Understanding these functions of prose helps us to write better: if we can identify what kind of writing we're doing at any point, we can do it better. So, what do you think prose can do? Make a list on your notebook of all the things you can think of that writing can do. What do you think prose can do? Here are some of the actions that you might have included in your list.



Advertise announce Argue clarify Compare discuss Explain options Identify notify Outline suggest Summarise urge

advise campaign confirm explore highlight justify propose tell

advocate categorise defend find out motivate research tell stories

analyse challenge describe give narrate submit update

In fact, prose on its own can only do some of these. The four functions of prose Prose can have one of four functions:

Description Explanation Reasoning Narration

If we take the list that we generated earlier, we can rearrange all the actions under one of these headings - and put to one side the actions that prose cannot carry out.



Using the four functions of prose What are the differences between these four kinds of writing? In this section, we'll find out. But first, a few important points. Generally, most of what we write is either explaining or reasoning. Try not to use narration too much. Most busy readers don't want stories. You should be able to identify a single overall function for any document. The best documents aim to do only one thing. You can use different functions of prose within the document. There are no real rules about how to do this. For example, you might decide that your report overall is intended to argue a case - to reason. And you might use various kinds of explanation in different sections of the report to support that reasoning. Those explanations might even, at some point, include a description of something. What prose cannot do For a start, there are certain things that prose cannot do. For example, prose can't think - you can, but your writing can't. So, in our list, these actions are actually impossible for prose to achieve.

Prose cannot Analyse explore research find out

Writing, by itself, cannot achieve any project or organisational objective. This is important: as objectives for you, the writer, these are of course quite legitimate. But don't confuse what you have to do with what you want your writing to do. EXPLANATION TECHNIQUES Page for page, you probably write more explanation than any other kind of writing. Instructions, examples, comparisons, accounts of how something caused something else - all are explanation. Even proposals will use explanation to support their advocacy at one point or another. Specifically, we can identify seven types of explanation.

Example Analogy Definition Categorisation Comparison and contrast 19


Cause and effect Process analysis

Let's look at each type. Example An example makes a general idea concrete by giving one or more specific instances. Lakes found on the floor of the Great Rift Valley are Lake Baringo, Lake Naivasha, Lake Elementaita, Lake Nakuru, Lake Bogoria, Lake Turkana. One of the most celebrated Kenya blind and low vision athletes is Anthony, who runs alongside his aide. The disability movement in Kenya faces a lot of challenges. The biggest population of persons living with vision impairment is found in Thika - central part of Kenya. Analogy An analogy is a specific kind of example: it explains something by comparing it to something else. You must be confident that the analogy will hold: that the parallel you are drawing is accurate. Consider: A computer without a floppy disk is like a car without an engine. This analogy fails because a floppy disk does not drive the computer. Can you find a better analogy here?

Often, writers use analogy in a more compressed form: metaphor. An analogy (or simile) states that one thing is like another; a metaphor says that it is the other. Metaphor is one of the most powerful explanation techniques. By using an image from a different part of experience to explain an idea, a writer can bring the idea itself alive in the reader's mind. We use metaphors all the time; indeed, they are embedded in the very language we speak (embedded is a metaphor).
Examples Here is an example of a successful analogy. Developing local awareness of dietary health issues is like setting out on a long journey. You need to start by taking a few simple steps. We can easily turn this into a metaphor. The long journey of making local people aware of dietary health issues starts with a few simple steps. We use metaphor so often that we may not even notice. In these examples, we've emphasized the metaphors. The database forms the foundation for future research in this area. Most institutions are suspended



along various stages of the innovation curve. In developing resource centres, it is extremely important to understand where services fit on the value chain of information. Definition A definition identifies something uniquely: an object, a procedure, a term or a concept. There are three types of definition. A short definition explains by means of a synonymous word or phase, often in brackets or between commas. A sentence definition is made up of two sections: the class to which the object belongs; and the features, which distinguish it from all other items in the class. A glossary is made up of sentence definitions. An extended definition can be as short as a paragraph or as long as a chapter. It may include a brief history of the term (the language it came from, its current use, how the use has changed). An extended definition should also include the object's function. Examples Simba-hut is small round, traditional grass thatched house mostly among western Kenyan communities. [Short definition] and periodicals. [Sentence definition] 'Multipurpose' means that the premises, people and technology of a telecentre can and will be used for many functions. In metropolitan areas certain activities normally occur in separate institutions - for example, education in schools or universities, healthcare in hospitals, investments in financial institutions. 'Multipurpose' in the context of integrated rural development implies that all such activities take place under one roof. [Extended definition] Categorisation The human mind seems to have a natural talent for sorting information into categories. Categories are created by dividing information into parts. Every item under consideration should fit into one of your categories. If you have odd items left over, add other categories or rework your existing categories. A telecentre is a community information service that includes telecommunications, multimedia computing functions, books



Categories should not overlap. Items should fit into only one category. If you cannot decide where to put something, ask yourself if it can be eliminated as irrelevant, or whether it needs a category to itself. Give each category a clear name. Sub-categories will come under larger categories with more general names. Example Any piece of writing that breaks its materials into sections is using categorisation. An outline is a classic example. Here is a summary of another piece of work that uses categorising to structure the material. Rural education centres are typically developed in three phases. Phase one: Project scoping. The research team will usually use informal NGO networks to gather project ideas. Members of the team identify and interview local 'ideas champions'. They will also usually identify preferred project locations and undertake extensive fieldwork in these areas. A sub-group of the team will explore the whole grant-funding community for possible partners and contributors.

Phase two: The proposal. The team draws up a draft proposal with national and local components. Local people begin to become aware of the potential of an education centre in their area as advocacy information circulates within the community. Phase three: Detailed planning phase. The grant-funding bodies that have showed an interest in the project make their initial commitment. Detailed technical, operational, service and evaluation plans are drawn up and a budget developed.
Comparison and contrast Comparisons display the similarities between things; contrasts show the differences. You can use them separately, or together: comparison before contrast. Establish the criteria by which you are comparing and contrasting. Have as many as possible: cost, convenience, prestige, size, security, safety and so on. Rank the criteria in priority order. This might be a controversial exercise, but unless the criteria are weighted you will not be able to contrast them effectively. Examples Nutritional measurements showed that the fermented olive dregs contained more protein than the original product. There was essentially no difference in mercury exposure levels between villagers living 100km downstream of the gold-mining area and those residing 300km upstream.



Some e-businesses are more suited to East Africa than others. Catalogue shopping, for example, might be impractical because of the costs involved in shipping goods from abroad. Electronic products such as newspapers, on the other hand, could easily reach the large market of East Africans living abroad. Cause and effect Cause and effect explains why something happened. The difficulty, of course, is in deciding which is cause and which is effect! A cause is so often the effect of another cause, which may be harder to determine or control. Look for the immediate cause; the underlying cause; and the ultimate cause. Cause and effect is a technique fraught with danger. Determine which type of cause you are searching for: immediate, underlying or ultimate. What is your purpose in identifying these causes? Be open-minded. Try not to rush to conclusions or to allocate blame 'politically'.

Be as logical as you can. Eliminate coincidence. Take all factors into account. Is there more than one cause? Are there other effects that you have not considered? Trace all the links. Go as far back as necessary (or as is expedient) to the ultimate cause. One of the greatest problems of assessing cause and effect arises in scientific studies. There are many statistical tools used to explain the extent to which variations of one factor (a 'dependent variable') can be accounted for by variations in one or more other factors ('independent variables'). All that these statistical tools can do is give a measure of the degree of association. For example, they may show that the rate of growth of a seedling is positively associated with the presence of particular minerals in the soil. While association may be demonstrated, this is not the same as cause and effect. Consider whether a factor is sufficient to result in the effect, or whether it is only necessary, but not sufficient. Certain minerals in the soil may be necessary to promote plant growth. But they may not be sufficient on their own to do so.
Examples Land deforestation causes rain to wash topsoil from the tops of the banks into the river. Does deforestation cause the topsoil to wash away, or only allow it to do so? Indigenous peoples are becoming increasingly aware of the legal instruments that affect their use and control of natural resources. As a result, they are making great efforts to participate in the development of these instruments. Powdered groundnut cake is an effective way to destroy leafhoppers and locusts. Farmers spread the cake on the field and the insects consume it. This makes the insects feel so thirsty that they drink huge amounts from the ponds nearby. The next morning the farmers see large numbers of insects on the ground that have drunk themselves to death.



Process analysis A process analysis lists all the steps necessary to carry out an operation. It may take the form of a set of instructions (like a recipe), a quality procedure or a technical specification report. It proceeds step by step. The steps must occur in a particular order: if the order is wrong, the operation will fail. Process analysis usually tells the reader about a process or how to do it. Instructions tend to be far more detailed explanations.

A formal process analysis should include four sections. 1. Introduction 2. List of steps 3. Explanation of each step 4. Conclusion Because so many writers are now producing procedures, instructions and manuals, we'll examine this last explanation technique in some detail. Introduction Explain why the process analysis is being given. Include any definitions of terms that will be useful. Include a description of the equipment used. List of steps Provide a numbered list, running vertically down the page. The items in the list must be in correct order and include every step. Write the list in simple sentences: do not go into detail. Explanation of each step Explain in paragraphs how each step works and how you get from one to the next. You should have as many paragraphs as steps, with the transition from one paragraph to the next mirroring the transition from one procedural step to the next. Conclusion Show how this process relates to its context: to other procedures, to the overall strategy or scheme. If you are explaining more than about ten steps, group the steps into a smaller number of larger steps. Aim for a maximum of six or seven steps. Consider whether you are explaining more than one process.
Examples Any recipe is an example of process order. A set of technical instructions is a more detailed example of the same thing. Here is a simpler, more discursive example. The Health Hub's webpage includes a facility for online consultations. Users can click on an icon asking for a consultation and are presented with a form designed to extract all the information necessary for a simple diagnosis. The user fills in the form and e-mails it to a doctor who then diagnoses the patient's likely condition and suggests a course of remedial action. SUMMARY AND INTRODUCTION



Many writers confuse these two parts of a document. In this section, we clarify the difference between them and help you to write each well. Put simply, we can distinguish the summary and the introduction like this.

The summary of a document is a version of the whole document in miniature. An introduction is a part of the document that tells the story of how it came to be written. It may also include other elements.

NAVIGATION AIDS Professional documents should contain navigation aids to help the reader find their way around. The most important of these are the Summary and Introduction. Others include:

The paper you are writing may not include all of these. Larger reports will certainly contain many of them. RESOURCE MATERIALS Papers for academic or professional publication may include resource materials. This indicates the resources you have used in your own research. Your reader will want to see where your information comes from, whose work you've referred to, who has helped you and what you mean by special terms or abbreviations. The main elements of resource materials are:

Headings; Titles; Numbering systems.

Each has its own conventions. USING GRAPHICS Graphics (often called 'figures' in reports) make technical information clearer by presenting it visually. Some simple guidelines will help you to make the most of the power to create graphics, which computers now give to writers. Keep your graphics simple. They should illustrate only one idea - and the reader should be able to understand that idea immediately. Use very few words in graphics: title, labels, scales, numbers and essential information. Don't be tempted to add arrows or comments within the graphic. Place a graphic on the page where you refer to it. Make the point that you want the picture to illustrate; present the picture; add any discussion as appropriate.

References Bibliography Glossary Acknowledgements Appendices



ELEMENTS OF LAYOUT Good writing needs good layout. Until recently, writers could do little to control the way their writing looked on the page. Now computers offer us a bewildering array of layout techniques. Used sparingly, they can add to the impact and quality of your document. Of course, your circumstances may limit your options in this area. Where you can choose, this section will help you. EFFECTIVE EDITING The aim of editing is to make your first draft easier to read. The words on the page should never get in the way of your meaning. The reader should never have to stop at any point and wonder what you are saying. Language is like a window through which your reader can see what you mean. Editing is like polishing the window. It usually means taking away the words that you don't need. You should be aiming to make your language transparently clear. GENERAL PRINCIPLES Good editing means making wise choices. What words should you use? What order do you put them in? There is never a single correct answer. Before we look at editing in detail, here are some general principles.

Take a break before you start editing. Set your first draft aside and do something else before editing it. This will allow you to look at what you've written more objectively - as if you hadn't written it. Ask for a second opinion. Give your work to a colleague or friend whose opinion you respect. It's important that you retain the final editing choice. Edit on paper, not on screen. You can look at text on paper more objectively. Edit for clarity. That means using plain English. Edit systematically. The most efficient approach is to edit the text on three levels: paragraphs, sentences and words. Trying to improve your work word by word is time-consuming and tedious.

Editing systematically The approach to editing that we propose here is systematic. Edit on three levels.

Construct effective paragraphs. Improve long and complicated sentences. Choose words carefully.

In this way, you edit the largest units of meaning in your text first. Problems at the sentence and word level will tend to disappear as you edit paragraphs; other problems at the word level will fall away as you edit sentences. Editing systematically means that you get maximum benefit for minimum effort. CONSTRUCTING EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS



Paragraphs display the shape of your thinking. A paragraph highlights a key idea that you want to convey and groups sentences together to support it. Use a new paragraph for each new idea. Every time you take a step, say something new or change direction, you should start a new paragraph. You can edit paragraphs in a number of ways.

Using topic sentences Managing paragraph length Linking paragraphs together Using key words Laying out the paragraph Using bullet point lists

IMPROVING YOUR SENTENCES Sentences exist to express ideas.







straightforward. The reader can understand them easily, without having to reread them. Sentences become difficult to read for two main reasons.

The sentence is too long. If you use too many words to express an idea, the reader will get lost. Aim for an average sentence length of 15-20 words. The sentence is poorly constructed. Sentences are built up out of phrases: groups of words that express a single element of meaning. If the reader has to hold too many phrases in their mind at once, they will struggle. If phrases become knotted or over-complicated, reading will become more difficult.

CHOOSING YOUR WORDS English gives you a far greater choice of words than many other languages. The main reason for this huge choice is that English is, and always has been, a hybrid language. It emerged as a mixture of three languages - Anglo-Saxon, French and Latin - and it has continued to absorb words from other languages ever since: from Arabic, Greek, Turkish, Hindi, Chinese and Persian, to name only a few. So choosing the best word is an important part of writing well in English. Five techniques will help you to make wise choices:

Using plain English Activating passive verbs Using strong, clear, specific words Removing unnecessary words Using short words




Advocacy is persuading people to take action. It's about recommending, supporting, challenging or defending ideas. It should be supported with an effective writing: core skills is about writing to get results. It is about recommending, supporting, challenging or defending ideas in writing. We will be building on the skills you learned there. Here, we look at how to write effectively for non-specialist audiences. WHO YOU ARE WRITING FOR Non-specialist audiences might include:

'Lay members of the public; Your project's stakeholders; Government officials; Newspapers or magazines; Your allies in other organisations or institutions; Staff in your own organisation.

But WHAT TO WRITE FOR WHOM What kind of written material you produce for each type of audience depends on your knowledge of that audience, its expectations, and what you want them to do with the information. You have already taken important steps towards defining that. Let's develop further the example we used. Exercise: Call up the notepad in which you made your list of 'who needs to know' and 'what you want them to do'. Next to each, note down what you think might be the most appropriate form of written communication you might use to convey your message. Done? What to write for whom: example WHO Health ministry ACTIONS Adopt a policy to provide the new vaccine in hospitals & health Newspaper, radio, television Parents Parents centers Promote awareness with informative & interesting features for the public Be aware/informed about the benefits Demand health centers to provide the vaccine for Public their children Call for the adoption of Feature articles or press releases Leaflets, posters, pamphlets, public meetings Leaflets, posters, pamphlets, public meetings, newsletters Leaflets, posters, pamphlets, FORM OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Specially written professionals report(s)



Health Professional s Health scientists Teachers Local leaders

the new vaccine Support your cause

public meetings Pamphlets, newsletters, professional reports/publications Publications Pamphlets, newsletters, posters, leaflets Pamphlets, newsletters, posters, leaflets

Confirm your findings Educate students about the benefits Promote awareness through public meetings

Your response may be different from ours in many respects because your audience is probably different. In many cases, writing may not be the most appropriate way of communicating with a particular group. For example, if literacy levels are low, you would need to look at how visual images can be used to convey, without ambiguity, messages for that particular context. Even where there are high literacy levels (as in many developed countries), writing is not necessarily the most effective form of communicating ideas. (How to use other non-written forms of communication is a subject that falls outside the scope of this manual.)
Why write for them? Development workers and researchers often complain that their projects have little or no influence on policy. We often hear of project staff who diligently send off reports and scientific publications (perhaps with a covering letter) to the press, government officials and other stakeholders, in the hope that their wisdom will be heard. They express surprise when the response is just silence. But is that response surprising? A document written for one audience is not effective with another, even if your key message is the same. Expectations of each are different. What you may want one set of readers to do will be different from what you want another to do. Let's look at an example. Example Supposing your key message is that vaccine X is more effective in preventing measles than conventional vaccines. Who needs to know about it and what actions do you want them to take? Write down your ideas. Our thoughts on this are shown on the next page.





Actions wanted of different groups WHO Health ministry ACTIONS Adopt a policy to provide the new vaccine in hospitals & health Newspaper, radio, television Parents Parents centers Promote awareness with informative & interesting features for the public Be aware/informed about the benefits Demand health centers to provide the vaccine for Public Health Professionals Health scientists Teachers Local leaders their children Call for the adoption of the new vaccine Support your cause Confirm your findings Educate students about the benefits Promote awareness through public meetings

Your list, like ours, probably shows that there are many different people who need to know about your message. The actions you want them to take differ in each case. Their backgrounds, existing knowledge, education and literacy levels, apprehensions, concerns and prejudices will, in each case, be 30


different. Each group of people will expect you to communicate with them in a particular way. School students would probably appreciate a zany poster. The same poster might not go down well with the Minister of Health. While policy is ultimately approved by 'policy-makers' (parliaments, presidents, politicians, ministries, etc), making and implementing policy involves, as we saw in the example, a wide range of people. So, there is a wide range of people for whom you need to write if you want to be effective in advocacy. But what should you write for whom?
CONSTRUCTING A MESSAGE FOR ADVOCACY All the key criteria of effective messages that we explored in writing a message sentence apply here (see Effective writing: core skills). Can you remember the checklist that we drew up to improve the message? If you need to, go back to that section now to refresh your memory. So what's different about a message for advocacy?

The answers lie in the audience and the media. A powerful campaign message needs to: Focus exclusively on the action you want the audience to take; Appeal to hearts and minds. Look at the next section of the menu for more on hearts and minds.
APPEALING TO HEARTS AND MINDS You should, now, have clarity about the target audience, or range of audiences, that you must address in different parts of your campaign. But how do you get them to pay attention? Different audiences have different priorities. They have their own agendas, objectives and values. So they will be impressed by different things. A government committee may be impressed by pages of statistics, but such material is unlikely to win you support at the grassroots. PARADIGMS We are all persuaded by evidence that fits the paradigms governing our own behaviour. Paradigms (another name might be mindsets) are the deep values by which we live. They are the patterns through which we see reality and make sense of our lives. They might be:



Social political Economic





Paradigms often reveal themselves in what people say if you asked them what they think is 'true'. Imagining what your target audience might think about the 'truth' of your issue is a good way to start discovering their paradigms. Examples of Advocacy You can organize and agitate to a get a low housing for low-income earners, for persons with disabilities, disability and HIV&AIDS etc Children Bill, anti-rape, Repeal of section 2A, Creation of a Prime Minister with powers, Disability Bill, Prison Open door policy, Conjugal Rights among Prisoners etc HIs advocacy aims at creating widespread awareness and understanding of the plight of people with disabilities.

Does Advocacy Always Involve Confrontation? Advocacy can be confrontational, but conflict is usually bad place to start from. You must think ahead for there are always roadblocks and always avoid them. Tips for Advocacy Develop survival tactics - ensure to draw the attention of a number of people. Aim for maximum impact. Understand the situation well. Understand the issue - Have a pretty good idea of what is the problem and who has the power. Advocacy is about power - who can influence things. Community needs assessment, resources, problems, and root cause and identifies key change agents. Recognize allies - amidst the problem, there are some people who can bond together with you, give your cause bulk, visibility and clout. Identify Opponents and Resistance - although it is possible to advocate without opponent, be aware that most advocacy campaigns face resistance. Who are your opponents? Why are putting up the resistance? And what can you do about it?



Encourage the involvement of both potential as well as allies approach the identified groups especially those who you thought were opposed to you. Develop a plan for the advocacy -The situation (where are we now?), Objectives (What should happen?), Strategy (how?), Plans (What should be done/Action plan), Actions (Make it happen) and Evaluation (What are the results?)

STRATEGIES Use of Campaigns national and local (grassroots) Media Publications Lobbying Demonstrations to promote issues of Disability Participation in consultative forums in relation to policy and legislative processes Providing submissions at public hearings held by the governmentboundary reviews. Lobbying public officials responsible for the adoption and implementation of legislation-round table meetings, organizing factfinding missions. Letter writing, production of newsletters, brochures, posters, stickers, and promotional materials. Promoting public awareness on disability and human rights - Focused group discussions, Web site, capacity building of stakeholders. Media Work - International and local press conferences, speaking to the media through talk/radio shows, specialized stories and supplements. Networking among civil society organization and sharing of best practices - this allows comprehensive communication and information exchange. Monitoring and documentation of state action-through such they keep track of state actions in adherence to the needs of persons with disabilities.





In this section the trainer should pose a few queries and divide the participants into groups of five each. The participants should discuss the reasons for advocacy and what to advocate for persons with disabilities. This exercise should 30 minutes at the group level and 30 minutes in the plenary. The groups should identify the various Conventions that protect persons with disabilities and everyone. After the plenary discussion the trainer should then expose the participants to the issues below. By the end of the session, participants should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Know the difference between law and conventions. Cite a few conventions relevant to PWDs. Differentiate civil rights from political rights. Internalize the concerns of advocacy for the rights of PWDs.

Advocacy in Disability Deepening the understanding of Disability based Conventions and Acts, Guidelines What is Law? Law = Rules established to prevent the law of the strongest from applying.1 Characteristics of law: Punishes violations + Makes up for the loss sustained by the victim Example: an apple has been stolen The thief will be fined = sanction + The apple will be given back to its owner = reparation Domestic Law (2 types): E.g. Kenyan Law Of Anglo-Saxon origin ( common law system):

Written laws and regulations, The law stems from courts themselves (case law). International Law: Legally BINDING Treaties and international agreements (conventions, covenants, treaties). While agreeing on the text, a State party accepts to:



Change its own laws, Or create new ones

So that they would be in conformity with the international text. Example: Convention on the Rights of Child, the future convention on the rights of the disabled Not legally binding Guidelines that States parties undertake to respect No specific obligations Example: Standard Rules The main concern for Advocacy for PWDs is informed by the four core values of human rights are especially relevant in the context of disability: Civil Rights Protect people against abuses of power Examples : right to life, freedom of association, right to freedom Enable individuals to participate in public life, and to exercise democratic control over State power Examples: right to vote, freedom of expression... The main Human Rights categories Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Enable the individual to live a decent life and to fulfil his essential needs. Economic Rights: Right to work, right to fair wages 35 Dignity - respect of physical and moral integrity of the person... Autonomy capacity for self-directed action, decision and behaviour Equality prohibition of discrimination Solidarity - collaboration, support

The main Human Rights categories - Civil and political Rights

Political Rights


Social Rights: Right to health, right to education, right to healthy food at regular intervals, protection of the family... Cultural Rights: Right to cultural expression... General Human Rights treaties apply to everyone International Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (1966) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979) Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984) Convention on the Right of the Child (1989)

The role of the committees attached to international texts

Attached to some texts, there are monitoring committees = Composed of independent experts. Role: Receive periodical reports from States parties on the implementation of the convention in their country Receive alternative reports from NGOs to counterbalance the state reports, Receive individual and interstate complaints Produce recommendations, inquiries...

But: committees do not work efficiently, and do not consider the disability issue as a priority. there is a need for a specific protection of persons with disabilities Why we advocate for issues of PWDs

Dignity, autonomy and freedom of choice (Insure the physical and moral integrity of the person: by affirming the inherent right to life for all - by protecting the person against : Violence and abuses Inhuman and degrading treatments




Forced intervention or institutionalisation

Non-discrimination and respect for differences Equality of opportunities Accessibility Equality between men and women

By the end of the session, participants should be able to: 1. Explore challenges in advocacy 2. Suggest effective techniques for mounting successful advocacy strategies. 3. Suggest effective ways for integrating disability and advocacy issues into the media.
ARTICLES Articles are pieces of writing for publication in:

Newsletters; Newspapers; Magazines; Journals.

The main distinguishing feature of an article is that it 'speaks' to its reader. Its language should be close to the kind of spoken language that its reader would use - or would like to use. It should flow. This is not always easy to achieve. Articles need to entertain. Your reader doesn't need to read any article you write; you have to 'hook' them quickly, as they browse through the publication. They may have paid for the newspaper or magazine and have a right to demand that we interest (if not also divert) them.
WHY WRITE AN ARTICLE? A good article entertains. It hooks the reader, carries them along effortlessly, and leaves them with a warm glow of satisfaction. You may want to explain the background to recent events, put a crisis in context or argue a case. But an article must also be fun to read. Writing an article is rather like marketing. You are 'selling' your ideas, making them attractive and easy to digest. How you do this, of course, depends on the reader's taste - which will be indicated by the editorial policy of the



magazine or newspaper in which you want to publish your article. An article should be written with an eye for style. It should have certain flair, certain elegance, a certain polish. In the old days this was called rhetoric and it was a central part of any good education. Rhetoric was the body of skills and techniques that people used to help them express themselves well. Nowadays, we tend to think of rhetoric as dishonest; but, if you are writing an article, you must 'dress' your ideas in elegant language. More about this is in the section writing an Article. PLANNING AN ARTICLE Planning your article means working out:

What kind of article you want to write; What you want to say; How you want to structure the material.

Your article may be a news story or a feature article (look at the section on Newsletters for more). It might discuss an area of concern or be polemical (intended to create controversy). But, whatever you say, you must be ready to say it in terms that are acceptable to the editor of the publication and to their readership. What do you want to say? You may not know exactly what you want to say until you've done some research. Ask people questions, visit places, read around, listen to rumours. Get as much information as you can. Look for examples, for real quotations from people and for stories to enliven your material. Many articles are constructed almost entirely around telephone conversations with interesting people. Always be guided by the famous list of journalists' questions:






These '5Ws' are the basic building blocks of any article.



How will you structure the material? The structure of your article will depend on what kind of article it is. If you are writing a news story, try to answer all the '5W' questions in the first paragraph. Use subsequent paragraphs to tell the same story in greater detail. As a general principle, the detail should become less and less vital to understanding as the story progresses. That way, if it must be cropped - if you lose a paragraph off the end to fit the article to a page - nothing critical is lost. If you are writing a feature article, you should aim for a conversational flow. Put your big idea - your message - into a summary paragraph at the beginning, and then organise the material into sections that connect together. You might do this by creating a pyramid (look at creating a structure for more help). But you might also aim for a more relaxed, linear structure that mimics the flow of conversation. This is actually harder to do well rather as a straight line is harder to draw freehand than with a ruler. WRITING AN ARTICLE Writing the article means dressing the structure of your ideas in elegant language. Rhetoric is the body of techniques that does this. (We've just used a rhetorical device: 'dressing up' is an example of metaphor.) The aim of rhetoric is to make your ideas more plausible, by bringing them alive. Keep the style of your article conversational. Read it out and listen to how it sounds. Wherever you can, bring your writing closer to speech. Your article will entertain more if the reader can 'hear' the rhythm and colour of speech as they read. Look at the style of articles in the publication you are aiming at. Obviously, different magazines have different target audiences, each with their own distinctive way of speaking and playing with ideas. Try to match your style to that of the publication in which you want to publish - and, of course, to find a magazine that matches your own style and concerns. Simple rhetorical devices Use these basic devices to help bring your writing alive.

Questions. Ask the reader a (rhetorical) question. You might decide to answer it in your article - or leave it for the reader to fill in the answer. Short statements in surprising places - in the middle of a paragraph, for example. 39


Topic sentences. Check that they flow well from one paragraph to the next. Keep them short. They will then 'bounce' the reader onto the next paragraph. Direct quotation. Putting what people have said into quotation marks ('...) emphasises the link to speech.

Not so simple rhetorical devices The main sources for devices of rhetoric are the ancient Greeks and Romans. They established a long list of them, each with more or less obscure names. Here is a (greatly reduced) list of the most common and useful. We've added an example of each. You'll see that we all use these devices - we may simply not be aware that we are using rhetoric.

Metaphor. A figure of speech in which one thing is pictured as another. We have discussed a number in this manual. Life's but a walking shadow. Developing a local resource centre is a long journey. Personification. A particular kind of metaphor in which an idea or thing is given the qualities of a person. The Titanic was advertised as unsinkable; but she still sank. Repetition. You could repeat words or whole phrases for greater effect. You might place them at the beginning of a sentence or passage, at the end, or pepper a whole paragraph with repeated words. The 'Rule of Three' is useful here. Try to limit your repetitions to no more than three at a time. We need leaders who can inspire. We need leaders who can enthuse. We need leaders who can lead. Contrast. Try putting opposing ideas close to each other for effect. Children in developed countries are now clamouring for their own computers. Yet most children globally have yet to use a telephone. Climax. Assemble a number of ideas together in increasing order of power. To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. Understatement. Make your point by saying less than you mean. Industrial pesticides may not be good for your health.

A feature article: example The following article is extracted from news brief, a concern by public health department in Thika in The Sunday Nation of June, 2008. We have altered it considerably, but its strengths as an article remain. Why is this a good article? Think about its structure and the way it uses language.




LANDLORDS ORDERED TO COVER PIT LATRINES The public health department in Thika has issued a 3-day notice to landlords to fill all uncovered pit latrines in their premises. Juja Division Public Health officer Samuel Kimani, said those who do not comply will be arrested and charged in court. He said plots with open pit latrines will also be declared unsafe for human occupation. The order comes a few days after a child fell into one of the open pit latrines. Leaving such latrines open was an offence punishable under cap 242 of the laws of Kenya, Mr. Kimani said. Community health workers have been told to enforce the order. Our thoughts on the article: Excellent use of summary paragraph; Excellent use of topic sentences. Look at the first sentence of each paragraph; The article has a linear structure. It leads the reader easily from one idea to the next.
PUBLISHING AN ARTICLE You must align your material and your style to the publication where you want it to appear.

Read the newspapers, magazines or journals that you want it to appear in. Get a feel for their style, their editorial policy, their position on key issues. Assess the likely 'newsworthiness' of your article. Try to fit your article into a slot that the publication recognises. You will have to sell the article to the editor. This will be easier if they can see how your article might fit into the magazine's structure. Aim for the right number of words. Editors often give guidance on this or publish guidelines in handbooks and other reference sources. Align your writing broadly to the style that the publication prefers. Not all newspapers or magazines will be interested in publishing your article, so you may need to negotiate or persuade.

Here is a sample letter to the editor-It was published in the SUNDAY NATION of June 1, 2008 We must protect our inventions That our countrys laws protecting intellectual property are either weak or obsolete in this era of globalization and technological revolutions is, indeed, regrettable.



Intellectual property is one of the most crucial and fundamental components of a countrys development. Most developed countries have jealously protected their intellectual property against exploitation by unscrupulous individuals and ensured home grown solutions to their problems. To realize Vision 2030, it is imperative for the government to develop laws that protect local inventions such as Kisii Soapstone, Akamba carvings and Akala shoes. The government should also educate the public about intellectual property. Enock Onsando, via email.

LEAFLETS Leaflets are for delivering useful, reusable information. They are normally created from a single sheet of paper, folded in half or in three. Most leaflets start life as sheets of A4 paper, but you could create one from A3 (twice the size of A4), folded as appropriate. The size and shape of the leaflet is a major factor in its success. A leaflet that people can't fit easily into a pocket or a bag will be thrown away. Leaflets may also not be suitable for audiences who don't read much. Of course, you could create a leaflet that uses mainly - or only - pictures.

WHY USE A LEAFLET? Leaflets are ideal for delivering useful information. They are portable and easily stored. Although they can carry more detailed information than posters, leaflets tend to be much shorter than reports and pamphlets. Use leaflets for information that your audience may want to use again and again. Most leaflets, almost by definition, are created from single sheets of paper. The leaflet's closest relative is probably the poster. Indeed, many leaflets are put together as half-size, replica versions of posters.

Always focus on having a single informational goal - one communication task. This may be to:



Raise awareness around your work by publicizing relevant events or services; Invite people to a meeting to find out more about your work; Explain how readers can achieve better results by working differently.

PLANNING A LEAFLET Think of your leaflet as having a few key elements:

If all this information is supporting a single message, the leaflet will be clear and useful. The more obvious the message, the less background detail is required for it to make sense, and the easier it will be for the leaflet to create an impact. How much detail to include? A leaflet should mean something even to those who only give it a cursory glance. This means good use and combinations of headlines and summary paragraphs. Look back at the sections on Titles and Summaries for more ideas. To decide how much to include in a leaflet, consider:

Headline; Short sentences or bulleted lists; Brief explanatory text; Pictures.

Most crucially, you need to strike a balance between keeping the leaflet uncluttered, easy to read and informative enough to make your message meaningful. DESIGNING A LEAFLET Laying out a leaflet can be a daunting task. It is also a crucial one, as it can make the difference between your precious content information being read or ignored. A good way to approach layout is to try and think about your leaflet in terms of its different components. These should include any or all of the following:

How literate your audience is; How much space there is on the size of paper used; How much supporting information you need.

A main headline in large, bold text, that links directly with the leaflet's main message; Your organisation or campaign logo and/or motto, so you can develop an image that people associate with your work; The name of your organisation or campaign, so everyone knows who the leaflet is from; The main body content - either in pictures, words, or both. 43


Your next task is to find space for all of these components on your leaflet. Every element should complement the others. The whole effect should be to make the leaflet easy to understand. The most important thing is to find a way of thinking about all the information which needs to be displayed and the space available for it. Slotting components into boxes can make this a much more manageable task. Take a sheet of paper, which is the same size as the leaflet will be, and draw up a grid containing enough boxes to accommodate all the components in your list. Your grid may look like any of the following: Logo Headli ne Logo Logo


Body of

Cont ent

Log Headline o

Org . na me Your campaign name Logo

Your contact details

Main body of content

Headlin e

See the example leaflet. Note that the distinction between leaflets and newsletters, from the point of view of appearance (rather than function), can sometimes be blurred.

Example leaflets



Note how these could also be used as posters, depending on how large they are printed.

Why Bother Hiring A Lawyer When You Can Buy A Judge


Getting rid of corruption is like drinking from a bottle

Start at the top Finish at the bottom




PRODUCING A LEAFLET The best way to produce a leaflet is on a computer. A good word-processing or desktop publishing programme will produce excellent results with a little practice. Alternatively, you could take your work to an agency who will lay it out for you. This can be expensive, but you may be able to justify the cost against time or effort. As always, the true cost of using outside agents is that you and your colleagues don't develop your own skills. Printing your leaflet is also much simpler using a good computer printer. Although ink cartridges tend to be expensive, the cost of producing a run of leaflets on a fine laser or inkjet printer will almost certainly be less than taking the copy to a professional printer. Of course, commercial printers will be cheaper if you want to produce very large numbers - 1,000 or more.

Think creatively about who or what reaches your target audience most frequently. If your readers do not have post office boxes where mail is delivered, is there a visiting health or educational worker who has one, who could take your leaflets to the right people? Which buildings do your target audiences most often visit? Libraries, health centres, community centres? Can you organise for piles of leaflets to be passed around these places? Think creatively about who or what reaches your target audience most frequently. If your readers do not have post office boxes where mail is delivered, is there a visiting health or educational worker who has one, who could take your leaflets to the right people? Which buildings do your target audiences most often visit? Libraries, health centres, community centres? Can you organise for piles of leaflets to be passed around these places?
NEWSLETTERS Newsletters keep people in touch with what your organisation is doing. They communicate both to the members of the organisation and, often, to interested outsiders. In a newsletter, you'll find news about the organisation and about issues that are important, urgent or interesting. Newsletters are not as easy to produce as you might imagine. You can produce them quite cheaply, but many organisations have difficulty:

Meeting deadlines; Gathering enough material to fill a newsletter; Publishing the newsletter regularly; Maintaining interest in a regular publication.



Newsletters must appear regularly. This means allocating resources to producing them: people, time, budgets, equipment. The team producing the newsletter would benefit from experience in writing, editing and page layout. You could grow these skills from within your own organisation; you could ask (or pay) for help. The editorial team must also have the skills to drag material (usually called 'copy') out of busy people. Deciding to produce a newsletter is a big commitment. It's a strategic decision.

WHY USE A NEWSLETTER? Newsletters keep your readers in touch, regularly, with what you and your organisation are doing. You may decide to publish a newsletter because:

Your organisation employs or involves a large number of people; Your organisation is scattered geographically or multi-nationally; You have a membership of subscribers, individual or corporate. The emphasis here is on regularity. A newsletter helps to build your organisation's identity and promote current issues or campaigns, but only if it appears often. Most newsletters appear monthly, bi-monthly or quarterly. If the newsletter appears and only survives for a few issues, you may actually damage your reputation with your employees, volunteers or members. And, if the newsletter does appear regularly, you must keep it fresh so that its appearance continues to stimulate interest.

Key aims of a newsletter The aim of a newsletter is to strengthen your organisation by strengthening your links to your employees, your volunteers, your members and other friends of the organisation. It can do this by:

Keeping readers informed about organisational activity; Advertising important events; Educating people about issues that concern you; Building membership control of the organisation. Informed employees, volunteers and members are better placed to take on more responsibility.

Consider the following. How much do you know about your readership: your employees, volunteers, members? What do they like? What will they read? How might they use the newsletter? How can you use it to strengthen your bonds with them?



Setting up a newsletter: key questions Before deciding whether to produce a newsletter, ask these key questions.

Do you have a team that can work on a newsletter? Are they strong, committed, skilled? Do you have enough money to produce a newsletter? Do your members want a newsletter? Will your members help produce the newsletter? Do you have enough people to produce material for inclusion? How often can you realistically produce a newsletter? Can you guarantee to produce it regularly? How will you distribute it?

PLANNING A NEWSLETTER Once you've appointed your editorial team, they must decide how to plan each issue. You must consider these questions.

Who is your target audience? What sort of material do you want to include? What articles, in particular, do you want to see in the newsletter? Who will produce the material? What pictures do you want? What are the deadlines for writing, design, printing and distribution?

The most important area of concern must be the content of the newsletter. You cannot produce this just once; you must be able to rely on a constant flow of contributions. You, too, need to be able to come up with ideas for stimulating those contributions.
Ideas for content Be sure to work on varying the material in your newsletter. The main editorial distinction is between news articles (talking about what has happened) and feature articles (discussing issues). Newsletters normally contain information about:

The organisation's activities; Past events; Future or planned events; People in and around the organisation; Issues that concern the organisation.

You could also include: Articles voicing opinions; Editorial comment; Letters; 48



And a whole range of entertaining items: Crosswords, quizzes, stories ...

WRITING A NEWSLETTER The editorial group doesn't have to write everything itself. Nor should it. Always aim to involve as many writers as possible. The biggest problem here is motivating people to make contributions. You probably won't be able to pay people for writing, so how can you stimulate them to offer you copy? How can you keep up the impetus to attract material regularly? Articles for newsletters normally fall into three categories.

News stories Feature articles Editorials

We'll distinguish between them on the next page. For more detailed help on writing articles, go to the section on Articles. Different kinds of articles:

News stories tell you what happened. They explain who was involved, where and when the events took place and what the outcome was. News stories don't comment on the story; they just give the important facts. They are written in an interesting, direct style. The first paragraph should tell the whole story: what happened, why, when and where, and who was involved. Feature articles discuss issues. They may start from a news story and investigate its background: what happened before, how things have changed, the reasons and context of the events. Editorials comment on the news. They offer the official line on events: what the editorial team - and, by implication, the organisation - thinks about the news. An editorial establishes and develops the ideological position of the organisation. They may also suggest solutions, ways forward, strategies.

Other kinds of material You can include other kinds of material, as well as articles.

Information updates. Ask why and how readers will find them interesting and useful. Updates can often sound as if they come from 'on high' or from the centre and have little relevance to field workers or branch administrators. Regular sections. These might include a letters column, listings, classified advertisements, 'how to' articles... 49


Entertainment items. Crossword, games, cartoons, holiday stories... 'In next month's issue'. Always useful to encourage readership and stimulate interest in forthcoming issues. Surveys and questionnaires. Any kind of research activity in the organisation can use the newsletter as a channel of communication. Cross-promotion. Of books, services, other organisations, knowledge networks...

DESIGNING A NEWSLETTER Designing the newsletter means planning the way it looks. Newsletters normally maintain a constant design. They have a 'look' that helps to establish the tone and identity of the newsletter. You must decide some fundamental design issues such as how many pages you will create and the size of the pages. The size will probably remain constant from issue to issue; different issues may have different numbers of pages. Try not to start with a large issue and follow it with ever-smaller ones. The more complicated your design, the more expensive it will be to produce. Standard sizes of paper are cheaper than unusual sizes. Paper quality is a major cost factor. Design issues You must decide:

The name of the newsletter; Column width; Font size and design; Use of pictures.

The name of your newsletter could be the same as the organisation's name, or a special name that gives it character and allies it to the style of the organisation. It should look special and be easy to recognise. It acts like a logo - and you might include your logo on the 'masthead', where the newsletter's title appears. Most newsletters include some pages of two columns; it's unlikely that you'd use more. Pictures can cross columns. Make sure that your columns include plenty of space around the text. You can experiment with borders for the columns. It would be wise to establish a template for pages, which is used throughout the newsletter. As with any kind of writing, the font design makes an important contribution to readability. Choose one or two fonts and stick to them. Don't be tempted to make every part of a page look different. Try and establish a 'house-style' - a written set of guidelines and rules about what goes where, size of headings, position of text, use of captions



and rules for fonts. Break up dense text by using subheadings. You can also use shaded boxes in which key messages can be placed to highlight what the article is about. The pictures you choose should contribute clearly to the stories. Give photographs captions explaining what's happening and who is involved. Drawings and cartoons may not need captions. See the example newsletter. Note that the distinction between leaflets and newsletters, from the point of view of appearance (rather than function), can sometimes be blurred. Putting it together Once you have your name, your articles, your column design, your fonts, your pictures and everything else that you want to include, you need to put it all together. Assemble the newsletter page by page and give close thought to how the pages will look together. This is time-consuming, close work and needs considerable skill. But you can develop the skill yourself. Be guided by the following key principles.

Give each article a headline. Put important articles at the top of a page and give them bigger headlines. Don't crowd your pages. Use empty space and increase the size of pictures to balance the text. Number each page (except, perhaps, page 1). Put the name of the newsletter, the date and perhaps its issue number at the top or bottom of each page.

Be very careful: all proofreading should be done before you start the layout. It is an endless source of frustration and delay if corrections are made once the layout has started.
PRODUCING AND PRINTING A NEWSLETTER Computers to the rescue! At least one member of your team should be able to operate a desktop publishing programme. Developing this skill is probably the best investment you can make in producing a newsletter. You could, of course, do it the old way, typing up the articles and physically pasting them onto pages. It worked for many years and it can work for you. You can use Letterset (letter transfers) for headlines.

Apart from editing articles themselves (which you should do before setting up the pages), give the newsletter a thorough check before printing. Look out for: Spelling mistakes; 51


Headlines with the wrong story; Missing or wrong captions for pictures. Make sure you include the name and address of your organisation somewhere.

DISTRIBUTING A NEWSLETTER You must be able to distribute your newsletter:

Quickly (before today's news becomes tomorrow's food wrapping); Efficiently; Cheaply

Distribution will probably involve many people. Involve them. If they aren't members of your organisation, they may decide to join. Give thought to lots of distribution methods. You could distribute by: Post; Personal means at meetings or other events; Inclusion in pay packets; Including the newsletter with other literature; Bundles to branch committees; Turning the newsletter into a website.
PAMPHLETS Pamphlets are usually booklets that argue a case. They are the means by which we explain the rationale behind a campaign, the values that lie behind it. You should be able to read a pamphlet in less than 30 minutes. It will usually contain one document - you might call it an essay - which develops a single, usually controversial, theme. Unlike a larger book, it will probably not contain chapters, though it will probably be broken into sections. Pamphlets are usually small - about the size of the User's guide accompanying this CDROM - and made up of a number of pages bound or stapled together. We can distinguish pamphlets from leaflets by saying that pamphlets usually contain more pages, more text, more argument. More importantly, a pamphlet is more likely to be arguing a case; a leaflet may do so, and may also be a source of useful information. In this section we look at pamphlets in terms of:

Why you might choose to produce a pamphlet Planning a pamphlet Writing the pamphlet Designing the pamphlet Producing the pamphlet



Distributing the pamphlet

PRESS RELEASES Press releases send newsworthy information to media editors. The aim of a press release is to give the editor something to work with or from. You should not aim to write the story or article for them. Sometimes organisations use press releases to inform other kinds of reader: subscribers, members, the public, other activists. When presented as a press release, the material can assume more power than a letter. On the other hand, a press release sent to an important official, minister or leader may not work as well as a personalised letter. Press releases must be accurate - but they must also sell the material. It's easier to sell one idea than many, so - as with any other kind of effective writing - focus on one idea. POSTERS Posters are fairly cheap and easy to produce. Use them to give people information about meetings, organisations, events and issues. Most posters are designed to be read quickly. They need to make their mark immediately. Others - intended for offices, libraries or other places where people have a little time to stand and read at a bus stop or railway station perhaps - can contain lots of information. Most posters mix writing, graphics and illustrations. You could consider using only one of these elements for added effect.



Annexes 1
Five More Advanced Steps to Mastering Advocacy Advocacy efforts are a major application of marketing strategy. The tools of marketing, public relations, publicity, promotion, and advertising are the tools of effective advocacy. Like marketing, advocacy tends to be cumulative in its effect. It's hard to point to individual turning points. It is more like an ongoing campaign. Building a Local Advocacy Base Advocacy is an ongoing process. In a marketing framework, it becomes clear that a strong public relations base is required to be effective. Getting to know local decision makers and being sure they are familiar with your activities is key. Then you will need to be prepared to monitor the policies and decisions that could affect you and to communicate your interests.



Understanding Advocacy Our political system is based on the assumption that laws and policies will change and develop over the years and that citizens will participate in the process. Elected and appointed officials make different decisions when they feel concerned citizens are watching them. Our government system relies on decision makers becoming informed on issues. Getting to the right people with facts and information about who will be affected, how they will be affected, and who cares can influence opinions, attitudes, decisions, and votes. The concept of advocacy embraces education efforts to provide information and promote understanding and lobbying action to support or oppose policies and legislation. Advocacy efforts geared at public education are fully appropriate for any organization, being careful not to exceed the limits of time and money dedicated to advocacy and lobbying outlined by the Internal Revenue Service. The advocacy activities of an organization should be distinguished from the personal political action of any individual member. Individual political involvement should be encouraged, since the contacts made through such involvement are likely to benefit the organization. While organizations cannot get involved in political campaigns, individuals can. Such activity should be separated from the activities of the organization so as not to jeopardize the legal status of a nonprofit organization. It would, of course, be desirable to have advocates as policy makers in positions of community and political leadership. Five Steps to Mastering Advocacy 1. Know the system(s). Find out which organizations, government units, and agencies that do set policies that could affect cultural development. Besides the city council and mayor or city manager, this might include the parks department and commission, the school board and department, the department of public works, and the planning 55


department. Learn how each works, how policies and decisions are made, and who or what influences decision makers. In some communities elected officials have more power than the city manager or other staff, while in other communities the professional staff might have a great deal of clout. 2. Develop allies. Develop personal contacts with key staff and officials. Be sure you put their names on your mailing list and schedule informal visits (monthly, annually or semiannually) so that they come to know you not only when you are asking or complaining about something. Ideally they will come to rely on you as a friend, trustworthy contact, or resource person on whom they can count. It is a good practice to publicly recognize officials and other decision makers for their support. Don't overlook key support staff. They can be allies or detractors depending on how they're handled, and they may have the ear of their boss. Establish communication with other organizations and coalitions that are working on related issues or toward compatible goals. 3. Establish a network. The ability to generate calls, letters and/or email to decision makers or the media is the backbone of most advocacy campaigns. An organization's political clout is often measured in relation to the number of constituents it can activate in a short amount of time. Everyone has heard stories of how officials count letters and calls to gauge constituent interest and opinion. The objective is to be sure that, within eight to twenty-four hours, you can mobilize supporters to make contact with decision makers. Email list serves and a phone tree are key elements of any good advocacy effort.



You should be organized to mobilize your board, members, and audiences. Keeping in regular communication with your advocates will make them feel connected with your cause and ready to act on your behalf. A local organization's advocacy network can be an asset when used to assist allies and elected officials in their own fundraising and advocacy efforts. TIP: Apply the ten commandments of networking Networking is an activity in which organizations and individuals come together to learn, share resources and experiences, and undertake joint activities and provide mutual support. TEN COMMANDMENTS 1. Blueprint Your Life! - No Purpose. No Goals. First, define your purpose. Know Purpose! Know Goals! Design your future by setting goals. Decide what you want. 2. Accept Responsibilities! - Be accountable to yourself for the choices you make and for the consequences of your actions. 3. Be Coachable! - Listen for and be open to new ideas and suggestions others in your network 4. Show Up! - Be places that count. Make an encounter. Be seen. Attend business and professional meetings. Networking opportunities are everywhere! Begin local, then expand nationally. 5. Be Yourself! - Demonstrate your own authenticity. Be unto others as you would have them be unto you. Be real. 6. Pay attention! - Look for opportunity! Talk 20% of the time! Listen 80% of the time! It is the province of knowledge to speak and the priviledge of knowledge to listen. offer. 57 Anonymous of support may


7. Contribute! - Be the solution! Networking is contribution; it's helping others help themselves! Allow others to contribute to you! 8. Ask For What You Want! - Tell people what you need. They can't read your mind. 9. Say "Thank You!" - Express appreciation. Acknowledge others for their contribution to you. Be creative with your gratitude! 10. Stay Connected! Be in touch! Network on the phone, by e-mail and frequent notes. Never forget the people in your network of support and never let them forget you! 4. Track issues. It is a good idea to designate the secretariat or board members as liaisons to key commissions and agencies. Monitoring such things as the budget development process or the availability of an underutilized funding may prepare you to act early and informally on your own behalf. It is important to be strategic about how and when you make the public aware of issues. Consider the general climate of the community when planning the launch of any kind of campaign. Be aware of events and activities happening on the local, national, regional and international front, and put this knowledge into play when making public announcements. For example, extreme care should be exercised if launching a capital campaign for issues with disability when the country is mourning the death of a leader; several other disability related events are taking place within the community etc. 5. Be Prepared to Tell Your Story. When you have something to say, you will need to deliver the message clearly and concisely as possible. Telling the right stories and substantiating with statistics can increase the impact of your case. Facts, not hype, are keys to establishing your credibility.



In disability advocacy it is particularly critical to connect with the relevant issues and concerns of the persons with disabilities. When you talk about the numbers of PWDs, would it not be good to tie this to the economic potential of this group. Social impact of the group or even the political impact? Try to always stay on a positive note. Keep your message focused on positive results and mutual benefits. For instance, use local statistics to show that the PWDs successfully educate children, attract tourists, stimulate business and generate local and regional partnerships all of which benefit the entire community. ANNEX 2 Supporting State and National Advocacy Efforts Since all politics are local/national, it makes sense that local/national advocacy is often needed to support state and national advocacy efforts. Following are some additional ways to advocate on state and national issues:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Join and support disability/disability friendly advocacy networks. Participate personally in specific advocacy campaigns. Stay informed about national issues. Visit your national legislative representatives and be sure they Activate your organization's network to support (national) groups. Regularly trumpet and define the role of PWDs to local activities.

regularly receive information from your group.

5. 6.