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January 19, 2013

IPPRD

One-day Workshop on Need Assessment and Delivery Mechanism in Tuition Centers in Kashmir

Venue: Dakbunglow Anantnag Organizer: Institute of Public Policy for Research and

Development

I P P R D

Need Assessment and Delivery Mechanism in Tuition Centers in Kashmir


Abstract:
Tuition may have beneficial dimensions but the scale on which it is being conducted in Kashmir- unregularised & unregulated, puts student community under tremendous pressure and motivate their parents to invest in it, primarily because their mainstream or subject teachers in schools emphasize the desirability of it and on the other hand their families consider tutoring force majeure for advancement in academics. Among the most problematic aspects are cases in which tuition becomes a substitute for the mainstream. Especially near the time of major external examinations, all most all the schools in the valley wear deserted looks- sans the students. Policymakers and planners in Kashmir must confront it in order to identify and arrive at appropriate regulations and proactive measures for the betterment of prevalent unregularised and unregulated informal education sector. The objective should not only be to control and steer: but to bring in quality.

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Key Words
CC = Coaching Centers CPP = Child Protection Policy, DCPAG = District Child Protection Advisory Group, Anantnag, DRTA = Directed Reading Thinking Activity INR = Indian Rupee, OSI = Open Society Institute, OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, PISA = Programme for International Student Assessment, TCs = Tuition Centers,

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Back ground:
Education is awakening the natural curiosity of young minds, which satisfies them in later stages of life. Its purpose is to identify ones talent and to propel it for precision. Besides, it transmits culture from one generation to another. The crux of the education is to make one bold and to inculcate the leadership quality within him/her. It plays an important role in the developmental tree of a child by widening his cognitive, physical and loco- motor domains, which are pivotal for the childs learning process; it sometimes triggers creativity, and gives flip to latent , imitative and insight learnings. Lack of clear-cut policy from government to have the access to the quality education and the dismal functioning of formal schools during the political unrest of early 90s of twentieth century led to the mushroom growth of Tuition Centers in Kashmir Valley. These centers tried to fill the lacunae in the formal education sector; however, using short-cuts spoon-fed the students with downloaded and abridged versions of reference books that were available in the internet-market. The students crammed these notes in order to pass the exams. Though the situation in the valley has improved over the years yet the TCs havent seen any ray of change for these still continue to use the old tutor centered pedagogies.

Unrest in early 1990s

TCs emerge in the Valley to fill the lacunae created due to the political unrest in the formal education system, but use short cut methods to achieve success.

The early 2000s saw a mushroom growth of Tuition centers -in big or small districts of Kashmir and a growing trend of students opting for Tuition classes apart from the regular curriculum. Once upon a time Tuition was a rare phenomenon, generally unheard of and only taken by those who were weak in their studies, normally treated as additional classes in a private fashion. But now it is a way of life for students, aggressively promoted by the teachers to which parents mostly become causality with a no choice left but to send their wards to those tuition centers. But does Tuition really help in scoring good marks in school or in competitive examinations? Is it advisable for the school students to opt for Tuitions? When is the right time to join Tuition? Does it take away time of self-study and make student dependent on Tuition center? Or does it give students career the right boost and direction? These are some of the questions which every student and their parents face.
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Some of the Govt School/College lecturers have their own coaching classes and they urge their students to join them, in maximum cases resort to blackmailing, saying to the students that if they dont join their tuition centers, they will be marked fail or less performers in practicals of science subjects.

The craze for Tuition has led to opening of Tuition centers in every by-lane of Valleys towns selling dreams of guaranteed success. One can see the newspapers; magazines or roads filled with advertisements like you can 'learn English in 30 days' or 'score 90% in Boards with our guidance' or 'clear CET/ with our package'. The subliminal language of advertisements makes the young minds to dream for the world which is normally unreal and idealistic. More and more students are flocking these centers as an alternative or supplement to school teaching. Many experts believe that education is a natural process of learning. For the regular and attentive students Tuition is not really required till class 12th. However, for professional courses like entrance examinations of CET & AIEE professional guidance is required in today's competitive world. A student has no background and idea of the examination he is appearing for. He or she needs proper study material and guidelines on the important topics, exam patterns, and short-cut methods of solving numerical and analytical questions. It is here, when the coaching centers, not the type of valleys Tuition centers, play an important role in helping students. They plan each topic methodically and time schedules to complete the modules. The students feel that the tutors know what the important and less important topics are. The minute details like the sections of question paper that needs to be solved first are explained by these teachers. A good number of Govt. Higher Secondary School / Govt. Degree College lecturers impart private tuition teachers as it is an easy channel for some extra income. Teachers in schools/colleges are not bothered about teaching. Tuitions are more helpful to them as the number of pupil in the tuition classes is far exceeding the set norms, often it is more than 100 students crouched in a small room, and more the students in a single class, better the dividends. Worrisome as this may seem, the student has some more discomforting. Some of the Govt School/College lecturers have their own coaching classes and they urge their students to join them, in maximum cases resort to blackmailing, saying to the students that if they dont join their tuition centers, they will be marked fail or less performers in practicals of science subjects; because most of the students at 11th , 12th level having science subjects prefer to go for tuitions, so teachers going for private tuition are having only motive to get as many students as they can. So fierce is the competition among the school/college lecturers to attract students to their tuition classes- rather than imparting quality education in schools/colleges, a few unscrupulous lecturers resort to unhealthy practice of awarding more marks in internals to the students that attend their tuitions than those who dont, thereby giving an edge to their students.
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The unholy nexus between lecturers and private tuition centers is not new, but it was never on a scale as large as this, say old timers in the education sector. Challenges- What mars our TCs? The tutors in TCs mainly focus on maintenance rehearsal ignoring the elaborative rehearsal part, which as per experts is the biggest challenge. To elaborate this lets take thinking, which is broadly stated as the cognitive process of rearrangement or manipulation of both information from environment and the symbols stored in long-term memory, simply speaking it is the mediation of stimulus and response. Symbolic features are events or items- the imagery created in the brain, which gives shape to words or language and a trigger to the concept, no doubt concept is emblematic form of language. The tragic part in TCs is that students taking tuitions are classically conditioned to autistic thinking and tutors pay no attention to Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) to conceptualize any move meant for learning. There is no implementation of Child Protection Policy (CPP) in all the TCs. UNICEFs Child Protection Strategy, lays out the strategic actions needed to build this protective environment. The Strategy is centered on: strengthening child protection systems, including the set of laws, policies, regulations and services needed across all social sectors especially social welfare, education, health, security and justice to support prevention and response to protection related risks; Promoting social change that is consistent with human rights principles; Strengthening child protection in emergencies; and Evidence building and convening and catalyzing a wide range or partners are priority cross-cutting areas. Violence against children. But in TCs of Kashmir no such mechanism exists as a rule.

Objectives:
To arrive at measures for ascertaining presence of quality education in TCs of Kashmir. To seek implementation of Child Protection Policy. To move towards practical approach to studies than theoretical. To make fee structure affordable even to poor and needy students. To have Infrastructure, like waiting hall, library with wide range of books etc. at TCs. Segregation of sexes in TCs so as prevent incidence of sex-abuse. To press for Concrete policy/ regulation from government/ education department of Kashmir.

To stress for Teacher-Pupil ratio


as per NCF norms.

To press for need of services of


regular counseling Child/Developmental Psychologists in TCs.

from

Infrastructural Bottlenecks: Not even a single TC has a library, a waiting hall or a laboratory for practical exposure of students. Some even dont have lavatories. Rise in number of TC Players: In the year 2000 there were only two major TCs in Anantnag, namely Osmania CC & Brilliant CC (run by IMI Trust); however by 2012-13 this number has swooned up to twenty major TCs and numerous other lesser known TCs.
20 15 10 5 0

TCs

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Lack of Government Policy in the informal education sector: The government of Jammu and Kashmir has till date paid no heed to the informal education sector, particularly the TC segment. However the government woke up only after incidents like Romana Murder case .In 2010 department of education issued an order 435-Edu of 2010 dated 30-04-2010 calling upon all the TCs to get registered with Deptt. of Education, Govt. of Jammu & Kashmir, with some miniscule of regulations like dimensions of class room and 10% free admission for poor/orphan/ needy/ children of neglected section of society .

Recruitment of Tutors:
The TCs in valley have no tutor recruitment criterion. A persons job in secondary/ senior secondary school/ college in vicinity is the first and far most point in selection as a tutor. This is primarily due to the reason that the tutor is instrumental in bringing more pupils to the TC. TC- Tutor Nexus:

The case regarding quality material access in terms of tuition is in dismal.


In 2010 department of education issued an order 435-Edu of 2010 dated 3004-2010 calling upon all the TCs to get registered with Deptt. of Education, Govt. of Jammu & Kashmir, with some miniscule of regulations like dimensions of class room and 10% free admission for poor/orphan/ needy/ children of neglected section of society .

The teacher tutors adapt the general materials which they are given to them for delivering lectures in order to fit the average students needs. Such practice commonly develops good pupil records, good parental feedback, and the trust of students (just to keep them in illusion, otherwise the case regarding quality material access in terms of tuition is in dismal). Among the most problematic aspects are cases in which tuition becomes a substitute for the mainstream. Especially near the time of major external examinations, all most all the schools in the valley wear deserted looks- sans the students. Schools in valley, especially at higher secondary level, are perceived by pupils to be less able to cater for their specific needs because they have to serve a wide spectrum of demands and also have broader social and political goals. In certain areas of Anantnag, this has reached the extreme, for pupils enrolled in sciences pay to the faculty (of the school in they are enrolled) to secure attendances and practical notes to allow them to be absent from school. Especially during the 11 th/12th classes when pupil take long leaves from the schools to prepare for Medical/Engineering entrance exams, they concentrate on attending the private tuition centers and on their preparations at home rather than attending mainstream classes.

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Among the challenges is the conventional pedagogy of TC tutors which differs from that of trivial mainstream teachers. In mathematics, for example, pupils may learn in TCs to solve problems mechanically, rather than through understanding the mathematical principles concerned with the result that the tutoring services weaken the organizational capacity of schools to develop a coherent instructional program. Perhaps even more problematic are situations in which teachers neglect their mainstream classes because they know that pupil will receive tutoring in many cases delivered by those teachers themselves.

In mathematics, for example, pupils may learn in TCs to solve problems mechanically, rather than through understanding the mathematical principles concerned with the result that the tutoring services weaken the organizational capacity of schools to develop a coherent instructional program.
Meanwhile, it is useful to reproduce Poissons summary of possible impacts of TCs so as to gauge the relationships between private tutoring and mainstream education.

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Adverse Events: Tuitions may have beneficial dimensions but the scale on which it is being conducted here in the valley, unregularised & unregulated, as pupil are under pressure to invest in tutoring primarily because of the peer pressure, their mainstream/ subject teachers emphasize the desirability of it and because their families consider tutoring force majeure for advancement in academics, gives it a monstrous look. In the situations in which the main stream core-subject school teachers apply pressure on the pupil to enroll in their own tuition centers that provide the tuitions before and after the school hours; the learning becomes very long and boring. It often distracts the pupil from the studies. In most of the cases the teacher resorts to blackmail and in some cases sexploitation too. The teacher tutor often leaves a part of the curriculum during the mainstream school lessons (in order to expand the market for his tutoring after school hours) normally called as teaching avoidance in schools; this affects mostly the pupil from poor families who cant afford the tutoring and those who have enrolled for other tutor classes. In the present system of education in Kashmir is that the subject teachers award the internal assessment marks (primarily for practicals in science subjects) the parents are forced to send their wards to the particular subject teacher for tuitions. 9 Given that the market is not a perfect one, there are chances that a highly able child of the poor parents may end up scoring less as he/she is Development Institute of Public Policy for Research and not able to pay for tutoring. This causes inefficient allocation of talents. Besides it diverts the resources from more productive uses such as deliberate reduction in

Given that the market is not a perfect one, there are chances that a highly able child of the poor parents may end up scoring less as he/she is not able to pay for tutoring. This causes inefficient allocation of talents. Besides it diverts the resources from more productive uses such as deliberate reduction in commitment to their work (in order to increase demand for tuitions) by the core subject school lecturers/teachers. It restricts the leisure times of the children telling upon them psychologically and in most of the times adopts the approach of escape learning. In grave cases of negative reinforcement (high parental expectation to perform, expectations of the relatives and the peers) the pupils adopt delinquent methods. As TCs run informally they are beyond the reach of government tax collection. The non- payment of taxes by the tuition centers has led to creation of neo-riches in the society who in turn have demonized the society. Another adverse event pertains to the gender dimension. Almost all the Tuition Centers run by male teachers and employ male tutors. Less than 1% female staff is employed by the Tuition centers in Anantnag and that too for reception purposes. Apart from this, Kashmir being the Muslim dominated state having 68% population who follow Islam as a religion, it is socially less acceptable for women, especially young unmarried women to spend their afternoons outside home, to visit students or invite them to their own house. Female teachers are also more likely to be supported financially by their husbands or families and are thus not as dependent on an extra income as their male counterparts. Tuitions provide a welcome opportunity for students to meet friends especially those of opposite sex. In conversations with adolescents at Axis Academy Anantnag (Tuition Center) one of them perhaps a ring leader exhorted: I think about 50% of students attend lessons here, because they really want to learn something, the other 50% come in order to meet friends of opposite sex. There have been instances when auto rickshaw drivers have been found on the rolls of Tuition Centers. The size of tutoring groups varied significantly. The tuitions in valley are delivered through lectures in groups, some of which had as many as 200 pupils. In a group of 100 hundred pupils it is difficult reach to the proper pitch. The disturbing part is that the conceptualization of a particular topic becomes the first causality. Thereby, affecting the overall performance of pupil. It also enhances absenteeism of pupil from the tuition classes. In valley if you happen to witness any crowd of loitering adolescents; it surely gives you a classical indicator that a tuition center is in the vicinity. It is worth to mention here that a tutor, rather than the school or any other actor, would be credited with any gain that a child made if the child performed better in the end-of-year examinations. Very few tuition centers sampled or evaluated lessons, and very few were responsive to parental or civil society concerns.

There are chances that a highly able child of the poor parents may end up scoring less as he/she is not able to pay for tutoring.

50% of students attend lessons here, because they really want to learn something, the other 50% come in order to meet friends of opposite sex. There have been instances when auto rickshaw drivers have been found on the rolls of Tuition Centers.
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Methods (Design overview):


a)Demographics: The participants in this study were 20 TCs represented by
their Heads who were running the top notch Tuition Centers in Anantnag; 100 Teachers (Chosen as per their availability) 50 from formal schooling sector including both private school teachers as well as government school teachers who had been or were in one way or the other involved in tutoring; 100 student respondents- 50 of them being sent to us by the TCs & 50 others had received tuitions in past two decades of turmoil in the valley. Besides, 30 veteran educationists were interviewed for their views on tuition. 66% participants were male and 34 % were female. The sample of interviewees included both males as well as females particularly from the middle class and the poor sections of the society. Besides a few tutors from outside the valley imparting tuitions were interviewed and invited to one day workshop.

b) Stakeholders

Education department in Kashmir must revamp evaluation system, tune syllabus as per local needs, develop a mechanism wherein mathematics and other sciences are made applicable for daily life and shun rotememorization in schools.

Where possible, we also surveyed the executives, immediate supervisors or human resource representatives who had observed the tuition experience and could comment on its effectiveness. We refer to these individuals collectively as the stakeholders. Sixty of them including the District Development Commissioner Anantnag , Farooq Ahmad Shah and the Additional District Development Commissioner Anantnag, Nissar Ahmad were invited and participated in one-day consultation titled , need based assessment and delivery mechanism in TCs, which was held on 12 th Jan 2013. DDC ,Anantnag said that society in Kashmir has accepted tuition process , now there is a need to regulate them , for that matter government is very keen to bring in a strong but pro people regulations on TCs . However, Advocate Altaf Mehraj raised the query that teachers who teach in government run schools show poor performance and same teachers who take tuitions in TCs , how come claim for the better results ! Moreover, he suggested that a blanket ban should be imposed for using cell phones in TCs as a part of self-regulation which can be done only by the management of TCS .Another expert on language teaching , Malik Mohammad Younis recommended that education department in Kashmir must revamp evaluation system, tune syllabus as per local needs, develop a mechanism wherein mathematics and other sciences are made applicable for daily life and shun rot- memorization in schools, can help to give a check to private tuition .

c) Interviews
Two independent contractors were recruited and trained to gather the data. An interview protocol was developed to address the levels of impact outlined
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above. During a 25- 45 minute phone interview, executives rated their level of satisfaction with the Tuition process as a whole. In addition, they described their goals for Tuition, rated how effectively TCs had achieved/not achieved these goals, described the new behaviors that students had adopted as result of Tuitions, and identified factors that had contributed to the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the Tuition program. More important to this study, executives identified the tangible benefits/adverse effects to the education sector in particular and the society in general that resulted from the Tuition process. To put the Tuition in context, executives also identified factors other than the Tuition which could have contributed to their increased effectiveness and the consequent business results. Then they provided an estimate of the annual monetary value of the business results. Finally, they identified intangible benefits/adverse effects derived from the Tuition program. d) Tuition Process: Education system in valley comprise of regulated formal sub-system and unregulated informal sub-system. The Tuition and coaching comprise about 75% of the informal sub system. Tuition is meant for preparing the students for achievement of academic excellence in a manner of fixed variables, wherein results are known to come up as predicted, while as coaching to other students, although less in number than the former is applied in a mode of FAP (Fixed Action Pattern) just to crack the competitions held after passing of Plus II level examinations.

Tuition is meant for preparing the students for achievement of academic excellence in a manner of fixed variables, wherein results are known to come up as predicted, while as coaching to other students, although less in number than the former is applied in a mode of FAP (Fixed Action Pattern) just to crack the competitions held after passing of Plus II level examinations.

The Tuition and coaching


comprise

about 75% of the informal subsystem.

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In 2011 government had come out with circular imposing a ban on tutoring by Government Teachers/ Lecturers. Nonetheless, the ban has been ineffective, as government machinery seems partial in dealing with the situation.

Discussions:
Addressing the demand for TCs: What Should the Ministry of Education Do? The representatives of civil society in South Kashmir talked of need to dampening, rather than stimulating the demand for Tuitions. Most of the veteran educationists in one-day work shop advocated a total ban on private tutoring. They wanted the Government of Jammu & Kashmir to implement a blanket ban on the lines of state of West Bengal.* (Jalaluddin, 2007, p. 2) *. In 2011 government had come out with circular imposing a ban on tutoring by Government Teachers/Lecturers. Nonetheless, the ban has been ineffective, as government machinery seems partial in dealing the situation, first and the foremost thing before general public is that why there are long winter vocations? Government must immediately curtail them , one fails to understand , when teachers/ lecturers who teach in government schools/ higher secondary school , almost same lot takes tuitions privately , where there is no infrastructural facility, so long winter vacations in Kashmir is simply a bureaucratic policy(secretariat mentality), which gives leisure to their spouses and children at the cost of wards of poor people , this practice is simply wastage of time, said Prof. A.G Chairman South Kashmir Civil Society (SKCS). A strong case can be made for prohibition of private tuition by classroom teachers particularly by those in Govt. Sector, as these have responsibility for those pupils who are in their mainstream classes, which they unfortunately fail to shoulder considering the dismal performance of Govt. Schools in JKBOSE Examinations. But, this is different from a blanket ban on tutoring. As about 35% TCs are run by the unemployed educated youth. These youth while denouncing the Administrative interference in the TCs affairs said that the Govt. should first come out with a policy to accommodate them and then only think of closing. In general, therefore, a sheer policy is to focus on the demand for private tutoring which should address the root causes of the demand rather than the superficial symptoms. Many of these root causes cannot be addressed by education ministries alone since they concern culture and economics. Cultural factors include the extent to which educational achievement (mostly high scores in Boards exams) is socially respected and deserves sacrifice, and economic factors include the rates of return from higher levels of education and thus the extent to which publics consider tutoring is a worthwhile investment to achieve those higher levels of education. Action on these fronts might be needed by Ministries of Economic Development and Ministries of Family welfare, or their equivalents, as well as by Ministries of Education. Government authorities may also wish to collaborate with civil society bodies, including religious organizations and social welfare groups. I.

Long winter vacations in Kashmir are simply a bureaucratic policysecretariat mentality - gives leisure to their spouses and children at the cost of wards of poor people. Prof. A G Mir Chairman SKCS.

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The format of

II. Professional Assertiveness:


Nevertheless, professionals in Ministries of Education do commonly have some levers that they can pull to influence the size and nature of the tuition in informal education system. In particular, they should consider revamping: Examinations: The format of examinations Conducted by JKBOSE reward short-term cramming from tutoring as opposed to long-term fundamental understanding of the topics. Education authorities should therefore review the nature of their examinations. However, they should not naively think that reform of examinations is a simple matter. Many vested interests and balances may need to be considered. Enhancing General public confidence: Much tutoring is demanded because parents have limited confidence in the ability of mainstream education systems to cater for society in general and for their own children in particular. Schools may be recognized as necessary institutions for socialization and other functions, but may be regarded as needing supplementation. Ironically, in some settings this is because of expansion in order to reduce demand for tutoring by enlarging transition rates. Government must be aware; however, that most of the pressure for tutoring comes not from low achievers but from high achievers. Policymakers and planners may also usefully consider precisely what is being sought in different types of tutoring. Why are families willing to pay to send the children to join classes of 110 pupils when they would complain vigorously if class sizes exceeded 35 in the fee-free public system? What do parents feel their children gain from large-group tutoring that they cannot get in the normal mainstream school or through parental help with homework? And in what circumstances might inputs from an untrained university student who helps a secondary school student on a part-time basis be a useful investment alongside the work of trained professionals in the mainstream secondary school system? III. Addressing the supply of tutoring in TCs Here in valley, driven by the herd mentality settings, supply does create demand. Three circumstances are prevalent under this heading: School Teachers creating their own markets. As noted, in Kashmir it is a common for teachers to offer tuition lessons for the pupils whom they already teach in schools. In the most problematic cases, the teachers exert pressure on the pupils by covering only part of the curriculum during normal school-hours and by letting the pupils know that their progression to higher marks/ grades is at least partly controlled by the teachers themselves.
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examinations
Conducted by JKBOSE reward shortterm

cramming.

In the most problematic cases, the teachers exert pressure on the pupils by covering only part of the curriculum during normal school-hours and by letting the pupils know that their progression to higher marks/ grades is at least partly controlled by the teachers themselves.

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Pressure from peers. When everybody else seems to be receiving tuitions, both the students and their families may feel left out and neglectful if they do not do likewise. Advertising by tuition centers. TCs in a commercial environment operate like other businesses houses and seek to create demand for the services that they provide. Some advertise in the streets, in newspapers, radios and on public transport. The quality of their work may not have an empirical evidence base and, as in the mainstream, it may be possible to blame the pupil rather than the teacher when performance is poor.

The issue of school teachers providing tuitions to their existing pupils may be viewed within the context of wider discussions on corruption (Hallak and Poisson, 2007; Poisson, 2007; Dawson, 2009). It suggests that teachers have greater opportunity and therefore likelihood of being corrupt when they have a monopoly over their pupils learning, when they have discretion over who passes or fails tests, and when they have little or no accountability to other parts of the system. The Govt. should therefore, take decisions to transfer those involved in private Tuition business out of the district premises after every two years, coupled with the decision to replace class teachers for every subject in Standards XI-XII in a particular Higher secondary school with those from other Higher Secondary (after every year) particularly for science subjects in-order to reduce the monopoly of those teachers. Other measures that seek to reduce discretion and increase accountability at the school and system level should also be implemented. Johnson (2008) in his work on private tuitions in Kyrgyzstan (p. 213) further glosses the concept that a corrupt teacher also needs corrupt clients. The implication for policymakers is that different variables need to be considered in different circumstances. One way to reduce the backwash effects of high-stakes examinations & thereby to dampen the supply and demand for tuitions is to make examinations only one component of evaluations alongside school-based assessments of various kinds. School-based assessments necessarily increase the role of teachers, and thus increase their discretionary power. A major question for policymakers is whether expanding school-based assessment would improve the system or create further problems. The answer will depend to a large extent on the professionalism of the teaching force and the extent of its self-regulation. If this is coupled with development of a code of ethics either for private tutoring itself or for tutoring as part of a more global teacher code (Poisson, 2007, p. 17). Teachers unions could be valuable partners if they can be persuaded to take a stand on the matter.

The Govt. should take decisions to transfer those involved in private Tuition business out of the district premises after every two years, coupled with the decision to replace class teachers for every subject in Standards XI-XII in a particular Higher secondary school with those from other Higher Secondary (after every year) particularly for science subjects, inorder to reduce the monopoly of those teachers. Other measures that seek to reduce discretion and increase accountability at the school and system level should also be implemented.

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Also deserving note is actively considering an examination for tutors certification on the Pattern of Englands Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) to provide tutors certificates to the unemployed trained youth so that they can work as tutors and run the TCs efficiently. Unqualified people should be strictly taken off the field .

Policymakers need to monitor all forms of education in their jurisdictions in order to identify the nature of planned and unplanned changes. In addition, evaluation mechanisms are especially needed to assess the impact of specific policy interventions.

IV. Monitoring and evaluation of TCs: The need of hour Policymakers need to monitor all forms of education in their jurisdictions in order to identify the nature of planned and unplanned changes. In addition, evaluation mechanisms are especially needed to assess the impact of specific policy interventions. The following sections present a range of experiences from the domain of private tutoring.

TC and Parent feedback loops: Though the collection of precise


data on the size and shape of private tuition industry is difficult as, tutors, students, and parents may be unwilling to reveal the amounts and types of tutoring that they provide, receive, or purchase. Also, tuition commonly varies in duration and intensity in different seasons; and the impact may be difficult to determine when there are many other variables. Nevertheless, the fact that tuition can be monitored and evaluated is evident from the many research studies published. Ireson remarked (2007a, p. 3) that students in educational institutions are commonly the best source of information, since it is relatively easy to administer questionnaires to them in class. Questionnaires can be supplemented with quantitative surveys with interviews and other qualitative investigations. The latter shall help to identify and classify the many types of tuition. It is a general trend in Kashmir valley that the students themselves make payments to the TCs and hence questions to students about the costs of tuition will yield reliable information because they know the details of payments made to the TCs. However, particular care is needed when designing self-report questions for younger children. Parents are an alternative source of information. They may be expected to be reliable sources of information about the incidence of private tuition as they are usually the ones who arrange tuition for their children and they know how much it costs. For this approaches like direct parental contact, household surveys, census type surveys, randomized telephone surveys can be employed. TCs, individual tutors, and tuition agencies are also valuable sources of information.

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Turning from monitoring to evaluation, (Taylor 2007, p. 11) the quality of teaching and learning should be evaluated through collecting samples of tuition sessions and tuition plans from TCs. All TCs should provide attainment data for pupils undertaking tuition at the beginning and end of the tuition periods. Judgments on levels of attainment at the end of tuition should be validated by the school/class teachers. Various tests and teacher assessment data need to be employed in order to continuously track pupils who receive tuition and to compare their progress with others. Also a consultancy firm can be contracted to evaluate and conduct such a pilot project in High and Higher secondary schools in some Municipal Areas (Pricewaterhouse Coopers, 2008).

V. Taking Sues from International benchmarking


There are several cross-national surveys with UNICEF & other bodies that can assist policymakers and planners to arrive at a benchmarking. Four existing surveys deserve particular attention. The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and its successor Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (also called TIMSS) were conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).(Mullis, Martin et al., 2005, pp. 3-4). The second regular survey is the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ). A third cross-national study to reference has already been conducted by the Open Society Institute (OSI). Nine countries were covered in 2004-2005 (Silova et al., 2006), and a further three countries using the same methods in 2005-2006 (Silova, 2009). The fourth major set of cross-national surveys to be mentioned is the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

VI. Schools to Learn from the TCs


Policymakers and planners should not take tutoring as a negative phenomenon a sort of weed which invades a tidy garden, said Riyaz Ahmad Sofi, who is a tutor and owner of London English Academy. Why government is not putting stringent regulations? And, shouldnt parents who are willing to invest considerable sums of money to supplement the fee-free schooling received from the mainstream ask for accountability. Why, indeed, do some parents want to pay for tuition classes which have 100 or even 1000 participants? What can mainstream
schools learn from the fact that at certain seasons their classrooms are empty because pupils have resorted to paying bribes to allow them to attend tuition centers instead? Also, K. A Malik- Owner Photon Educational Network Anantnag questioned on the performance of public school system!

Policymakers and planners should not take tutoring as a negative phenomenon a sort of weed which invades a tidy garden.
(Riyaz Ahmad Sofi, A Tutor)

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Government is committed to regulate TCs and even some regulations have been put in practice, since 2010 and by April 2013 none of the TCs will be allowed to operate without registration and compliance to the regulations which are likely to come with some more modi-fications, I hope .! DDC Anantnag.

To come out of this perplexing situation perhaps the only hope lies in making our schools more adventurous and client-oriented. Their operations should be more transparent, for example by giving more rapid and comprehensive feedback to the parents. They should imbibe the ability to do more individual care, care for not only students behaviour but also academic achievement. The individual caring of schools would be an important weapon to attract pupils and to make them rely on them. They should invest in technologies of preparing online quality lessons like on the pattern of IGNOU. The fact that pupils can skip or fast-forward parts of the downloaded lessons, and bookmark and repeat other parts, may give these pupils a flexibility that they would not have in face-to-face teaching. With ample of infrastructure now at the disposal of the schools there is perhaps no strong reason why schools themselves cannot be more accommodating to these needs. However , DDC, Anantnag , Farooq Ahmad reiterated that government is committed to regulate TCs and even some regulations have been put in practice , since 2010 and by April 2013 none of the TC will be allowed to operate without registration and compliance to the regulations which are likely to come with some more modifications , I hope .!

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Learning is the process which changes the behavior of an individual especially, when he/she is in adolescence, and is achieved experience through practice, while as cognitive domain is the synthesis of information learned by the mode of mind imagery. If the tutor of a TC has learned the subject perfectly then imagery is concrete(C) and if not, then it is abstract(A). But majority of the students in TCs learn in abstract mode and only 5% in concrete. When the pairing is done between tutor and student the results are overwhelmingly different. Both ways of learning are wrong said one of the experts on education in one-day workshop on 12th January 2013. In 90% of TCs, there is no follow up mechanism, no emphasis is laid on PSI (Personalized System Instruction) commonly known as unit accentuation for perfect learning. No matter , memory is systematic encoding, storage and retrieval of information but the tragic part in the tuition centers is the perquisite number of students , surely there is interference, now tutors in these congested TCs unintentionally focus on proactive mode in this mechanism learning of the students of before gets overlapped by after , which is never a perfect learning . However, in some cases the results are retroactive wherein the before information overlaps after one. Most of the tutors in TCs do not have a clear idea about semantic memory. Atkinsons and Siffrin Model on mind sensory information System.

Tuition A Global Phenomenon: Noting the trends


Private tuition has established deep roots in Kashmir; it has become a necessary evil. The forces promoting its growth are different and varied; the chief concern of policy makers should be to introduce the competitive nature in tutoring by investing in it and most importantly teachers in mainstream educational institutions and even in TCs must be forced to teach texts by means of a strong regulations rather than on normal trend of downloaded notes from internet and other sources , argued Ghulam Mohi-Ud-Din , an expert on secondary level teaching in mathematics .
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In the USA and England, private tutoring is to some extent a response to government initiatives to make schools more competitive as well as to raise the standards of low achievers. One irony about the decline of quality in education set up in Kashmir valley is that it results from government efforts to expand fee-free primary and lower secondary education. What then happens is that, at least at the official level, schooling in the public system is free of charge, but the mainstream system is underpinned by a hidden privatization which maintains social inequalities. Kitaev (2007, p. 3) first of all called attention to this irony. The growth and prevalence of private tuition, demonstrates that at least a sizeable chunk of parents can and do pay for education even in fee-free systems, and thereupon it raises questions about whether the fundamental ideology of fee-free education for all is still valid. The government should take this issue seriously, reintroducing fees at the secondary level on the grounds that at least some parents are able to pay and that resources for fee-free education can be targeted more productively to the sectors most in need (Makgothi, 2007). At the same time, the supply of tuition is increased not only by the fact that tuition has become more socially acceptable but also by the forces of globalization which allow for outsourcing (Ventura, 2008a). Tuition can now be provided via the Internet, as well as locally. Furthermore consumerism creates the constant urge among teachers to make money as a measure of professional success and favours the flowering of an entrepreneurial culture within the teaching profession (Obeegadoo). Indeed the culture of the teaching profession has greatly changed in Kashmir, either in immediate response to the mass exodus of pandit Community or under the influence of governments which wanted to make education systems more competitive or as teachers and families respond to market signals.
In such circumstances, private tuitions will not simply go away by putting a ban. States policymakers and planners have managed to ignore the phenomenon till date, but this is becoming less and less possible. Yet to advance from awareness of the issues to identification of specific policy measures is not easy. Tuition is a very complex phenomenon, driven by multiple ingredients which vary across cultures, economies, geographic locations, and social classes. There is underline desirability in general masses to mould the private tuition system while it is modest in size, rather than waiting for it to become deep-rooted before proposing policy measures. They also stress the need for caution in such circumstances as TCs employ a sizeable chunk of the unemployed educated & trained youth besides their advocacy for remedial tuitions for low achievers that could change the cultures of school systems in unintended ways. At one- day workshop at Anantnag on Saturday the 19 January 2013, many of the civil society members vehemently proposed that as far as possible the spread of tuition centers: should be prevented or preempted by addressing the perceived flaws and shortcomings within formal schooling, with a classical reference from B.A Andrabi, a TV artist.
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Private tuitions will not simply go away by putting a ban. States policymakers and planners have managed to ignore the phenomenon till date.

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Instructively, it is not necessarily the case that more state spending on education will reduce household spending on tuition. Indeed, rather to the contrary, the expansion of government work in the mainstream sector is likely to expand its size. Much therefore depends on the scale of family disposable incomes and, even more on the attitudes of families to education in general and private tuition in particular. Many families consider it desirable to use every possible channel to maximize their childrens life chances, and will do whatever it takes to achieve that goal. Where private tuition is already common, a general prohibition is not a viable and effective option. Blanket bans have not succeeded anywhere, though prohibition of mainstream teachers providing additional private tuition to their own pupils may be desirable. This is the most abusive and socially inequitable aspect of private tuitions and needs to be addressed by means of strict regulations. At the same time, government may itself have to get engaged in the sector by supporting tuition for low-achieving students provided that the wider consequences of such interventions for the cultures of school systems and the attitudes of parents, teachers and other actors is given a thought.

Should TCs be banned?


Govt. has laid down the rules that teachers/lecturers cannot indulge in private tuitions. Back in the 1970s/80s, lecturers did help out their own students in a few difficult subjects for a nominal fee. But private tuition centers were very rare. This practice has now become more commercial, which is definitely unethical. As the government lecturers/teachers instead of teaching at schools/colleges spend most of their time in their own TCs rather than attending to their duties. TCs Emphasize Rote /Theoretical Learning: Rather than emphasizing practical, concrete learning that happens in the classroom the TCs emphasize theoretical teaching thereby promoting rote learning. College/School Lecturers/ School Teachers double up as Tutors: Field observations/ Expert Views/ Data collected from the field (TCs) reveals that a good number of college/school lecturers/teachers double as private tuition teachers as it is an easy channel for some extra income. TCs- A Happy lot: Coaching centers too are happy to have their expertise. A physics teacher at one such center said that some of the fellow faculty members are sourced from their duties at the colleges. Acknowledging the presence of this practice, but sounding the warning bells for it, one of the founders of a TC said, This practice has to be stopped. If the teachers tend to ignore their responsibilities in colleges, there is a need to ponder over this issue. Herd mentality: A majority of students appearing for 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th examinations and CET enroll themselves for tuitions as part of a herd mentality.

Prohibition of mainstream teachers providing additional private tuition to their own pupils may be desirable.

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There is no need for such a phobia as students can prepare well for the examinations if the school/college faculty completes the syllabus and devote their full attention to the students in school/college. Students also should demand regular classes in the college from the lecturers instead of going to their tuitions. Tuitions- a necessity; Not attending TC creates a Feeling of Inferiority Present day students, also feels that the necessity for tuitions is mostly psychological. The notion that school/college teaching is bad is deep-rooted in students. Those who do not go to tuitions feel inferior and think they are missing out on something. It is a blind trend that is being aped. The malaise of tuitions is not restricted to 12th and CET. Even after joining professional colleges or leaving the formal education, a section of the students tends to continue with the practice. And the TCs often fleece such students. They prescribe books outside the university syllabus, which are cheap notes in the printed form, thus exploiting the students. However, coaching center representatives pointed out that the government cannot curb the growth of TCs were dependent on them during their critical years. It is a competitive world and students depend heavily on coaching centers for competitive exams. TCs are beneficial to the Students: The Tuition classes also help students prepare for interviews and face group discussions. For those who cannot attend regular classes, correspondence coaching is helpful. They are relatively cheaper also as they charge one- fifth of the regular courses. The students can benefit from the study material and model papers that are sent to them regularly. Factors considered in Choosing a TC: There are a number of factors that need to be taken into consideration before selecting a TC. The quality, experience and expertise of the teachers should be the top priority. One should also talk to other students before taking admission. The standard of coaching can best be analyzed by the success rate and academic performance of the students studying there. Whether to join a coaching or not is an individual's decision. If a student is sincere and hardworking with good grasping power he or she can prepare for competitive exams even at home. But if professional help is required then select the coaching center which offers the best options.

The malaise of tuitions is not restricted to 12th and CET. Even after joining professional colleges or leaving the formal education, a section of the students tends to continue with the practice.

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The TC Market
Education sector is the fastest growing sector in valley reporting a more than 5% annual growth over the past two decades. Like the rest of the Indian states Education system in Kashmir comprise of regulated formal network of K12 schools & professional and non-professional colleges- both in private as well as public ownership. Tuition (Centers) market, a sub- segment of the informal education sector is expected to grow at a whopping 20% CAGR over the years 2014-2025. The spurt in the demand has been primarily due to return of normalcy & secondarily owing to success of some Kashmiri Youth in Indian Civil Services.

TC Market- Drivers and Challenges:


Over the past decade the expenditure on education has increased. This has made the tuitions a lucrative business. Add to this there is rise in number of students opting for competitions like Civil Services, CET, AIEEE, etc. Moreover, the working parent with higher disposable income has increased the spending on education of Children. TCs market operates as a connecting link between academic standards in the main stream system and the competitive standard of competitive standard of entrance examination of different professional courses. It accounts for the 75% of the informal education market in the valley. The sector is considerably fragmented and regional in nature.

TCs accounts for the 75% of the informal education market in the valley.

TC Market- Drivers and Challenges:


Over the past decade the expenditure on education has increased. This has made the tuitions a lucrative business. Add to this there is rise in number of students opting for competitions like Civil Services, CET, AIEEE, etc. Moreover, the working parent with higher disposable income has increased the spending on education of Children.

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TCs market operates as a connecting link between academic standards in the main stream system and the competitive standard of competitive standard of entrance examination of different professional courses. It accounts for the majority of the informal education market in the valley. The sector is considerably fragmented and regional in nature.

Too many TC players

No Coaching but Poaching


No Specific Pupil- Teacher Ratio

.
Keeping the salaries to the tutors (60% of the revenues), rent paid for the hired premises (5%), & other miscellaneous expenses (5%) as expenses the net profit made by these TCs comes out at

Financial Snap Shot:


The financial position as reflected from the enrollments provided to us by the Seven TCs shows that these TCs Total Earnings over the past five years were INR 169412500. These were doled out mostly to the Tutors who happened to be runing these TCs. Keeping the salaries to the tutors (60% of the revenues), rent paid for the hired premises (5%), & other miscellaneous expenses (5%) as expenses the net profit made by these TCs comes out at INR 50823750. Since all TCs surveyed do not maintain proper financial records (except one TC) the state suffers a loss as no taxes are paid. All the TCs take refuge in absence structured regulations vis--vis private tuition in the state.

INR 50,823,750.

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Child Protection Policy (CPP):


A code of conduct has an important role in terms of ensuring that child protection mobilizers are aware of expected standards of behaviour and are clear on how to engage responsibly with children and communities in a positive and safe manner, especially schools and other informal sectors of education and TCs are one among them. CPP in Anantnag has been signed in one TC only ,however, five of the TCs were sensitized further seven more were informed of the policy among the 20 major players 7 didnt have time to listen to it. Although the District Education department in Anantnag has made an MoU with a voluntary organization which is working on protection of child rights in Anantnag , in 2012 , and the set policy has reached to all Zonal Resource Persons (ZRPs) of Educational Zones in Anantnag district , henceforth , supposed to reach all the schools at primary ,elementary and secondary level as a strong message. DCPAG at present is in a process to circulate CPP to all the coaching centers which are operational in Anantnag, which is actively supported by Save the Children and Yateem Trust.

Child Psychological Interventions:


The goal of child protection is to promote, safeguard and fulfill the right of children to protection from abuse, violence, exploitation and neglect. Provisions for protecting children are necessary to ensure that more children can live in a supportive and caring environment that promotes their development and the realization of their rights. Emergencies can pose particular challenges for child protection, especially when many of the family, social and community structures that normally help to protect children are disrupted, destroyed or seriously weakened , especially in a situation when children being exposed to new risks or an increase in the risks that they might usually confront, during protracted armed conflict ,and when the graph of armed resistance classically remains erratic . During emergencies, children are exposed to a range of extreme circumstances, some of which are beyond their capacity to cope. It is now accepted that in addition to meeting basic needs, such as food and shelter, it is essential to consider the emotional and development support of children. Being in a safe environment and supported by family and community helps children to recover more quickly from distressing experiences, when adolescents are caught up in cultural crossfire , intrapersonal conflict and unconscious drive to prove teenage identity , here the dire need of child or developmental psychologist arises and TCs dont have any mechanism of child psychological intervention even the whole educational department of Kashmir doesnt have such kind of trend put in practice .

The goal of child protection is to promote, safe-guard and fulfill the right of children to protection from abuse, violence, exploitation and neglect."

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Conclusions
Although, private tuition centers and tutoring is a global phenomenon, albeit with different characteristics in different countries, it has expanded substantially in Kashmir during last two decades of turmoil, and has increasingly become a system on its own . These facts demand a greater attention. Policymakers and planners in Kashmir must confront it in order to identify and arrive at appropriate regulations and take proactive measures for the betterment of prevalent unregularised and unregulated informal education sector. The objective should not only be to control and steer: but to bring in quality.

Acknowledgements: o o o o o o o o Private Tuition/ coaching centers. Deputy Commissioner Anantnag. Addl. Deputy Commissioner Anantnag. Chairman South Kashmir Civil Society. District Child Protection Advisory Group Academicians. Teachers both in Pvt. & Govt. Sector. Students and their Parents.

Thank You all for your time and views.

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Bibliography
Anderson, M.C., Anderson, D.L and Mayo, W.D. Team Coaching Creates Engagement and Strategic Change at Caterpillar, Global Business and Organizational Excellence, May/June, 2008. Anderson, M.C., Lynch, J., and Brill, P. The Business Impact of Leadership Coaching: Results from the Second Annual Bench Mark Survey of Leadership Coaching. International Journal of Coaching in Organizations, vol. 3, 2007. Anderson, M.C. and Anderson, D.L. Leaders Who Coach Create Coaching Cultures in Kirkpatrick, D. Improving Employee Performance Through Appraisal and Coaching, 2 nd Edition, New York, NY: AMACOM, 2006. Anderson, M.C. Utilization and Impact of Leadership Coaching. Presentation to the Best of Organization Development Summit sponsored by Linkage, Inc., Chicago, IL, May 2006. Anderson, M.C. and Anderson, D.L. Coaching That Counts, Boston, MA: ButterworthHeinemann, 2005. Anderson, M.C. Bottom-Line Organization Development, Boston, MA: ButterworthHeinemann, 2004. Field, A. Coaching your Teams Performance to the Next Level. Harvard Management Update. Nov., 2007. Frankovelgia, C. and Martineau, J. Team Coaching, in Ting, S. and Scisco, P. Eds. The CCL Handbook of Coaching, Jossey-Bass, 2006. Hernez-Broome, G., & Hughes, R. L. Leadership development: Past, present, and future. Human Resource Planning, 27 (1), 24-32., 2004. Hernez-Broome, G. In it for the long haul: Coaching is key to continued development. Leadership in Action, 22(1), 14 - 16, 2002.

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Appendices Interviews: Appendices/Activities


(Telephonic/one-to-one/Sittings with TC managers/ Counselors/Parents and pupil taking tuitions) 1. Did you attend a Tuition Center to take extra lessons in school subjects outside school hours during this school year? 2. Name the TCs and its Tutors? 3. In which school subjects did you take extra lessons outside school hours during this school year? 4. At what time during this school year did you take these extra lessons? 5. How often did you take these extra lessons during this school year? 6. How many children (including you) usually attended these extra lessons during this school year? 7. About how many hours did you spend on these extra lessons per week during this school year? 8. What did you do in these extra lessons during this school year? 9. Who gave you these extra lessons during this school year? 10. Where did you mostly take these extra lessons during this school year? 11. Who wanted you to take these extra lessons? 12. What was the main reason you took these extra lessons? 13. What did you think about the extra lessons that you took? 14. Was there any payment made to the person who gave you these extra lessons? Questionnaire Research on Measuring TC Effectiveness Which classes in the School education is the Tuition sector targeting? What are the typical kinds of development needs sought to be addressed by the TCs? Does the (School) education system have any need for viewing/measuring the Effectiveness of the TC intervention? If yes, what are they? What in your opinion are the different practices of measuring the effectiveness of the TC engagement to be adopted? Is there any need for any kind of mid-term tracking of the tuitions Effectiveness? Is there any need for any kind of mid-term tracking of the tuitions Effectiveness? Who according to shall be the people involved in the tracking / reviewing process? Who is expected to provide the inputs / feedback and to whom? What are the different aspects / elements that are to be tracked / reviewed? What do you think are the insights that would emerge from these Effectiveness reviews? What is the plan to do going forward with respect to measurement of Coaching Effectiveness? Do you wish to share any other information on this subject?
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Appendices/Activities

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Appendices Appendices/Activities

Total estimated Revenue of Osmania Coaching Center 23600000x3=70800000 (year 20092012) Total estimated Revenue of New Osmania 5600000x2=11200000(year 2012-2013 only)

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Appendices Aces/Activities

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Report Compiled By: Bashir A Ganie, & Rao Farman Ali