Meta-chemical Control of Brain and Behaviour

. V Sutanovac

Contents

Chapters I Sensitive periods in the development of brain and behaviour II Perceptual control| theory III Perceptual control| practice Examples

Ch. I

Sensitive period – point in one's existence when effect of experience on the brain is particularly strong during a limited period in development Critical period – point in one's existence when experience provides information essential for normal development, altering performance permanently
| 1

Sensitive periods in the development of Brain and Behaviour

actually property of neural circuits HYPOTHESIS . provides deeper insight into critical role experience plays in shaping development of brain and behavior Sensitivity.Ch. causing certain patterns of connectivity to become highly stable and energetically preferred Understanding at circuit level. what's it all about? | 2 .experience during a sensitive period modifies architecture of a circuit in fundamental ways. as well as relationship between circuit properties and behavior. I Although reflected in behavior.

special class of sensitive periods that result in irreversible changes in brain function experience must be of a particular kind and it must occur within a certain period if the behavior is to develop Sensitivity and initial learning | 3 . I Learning that occurs during sensitive periods lays the foundation for future learning and exerts longlasting influence on development of individual’s social and emotional behavior Critical periods .Ch.

I behavior results from information that has been processed through hierarchies of neural circuits to define sensitive periods and to explore why they occur and how they might be manipulated.Ch. must think about them at the level of circuits The circuitry of Behaviour | 4 .

molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex When a circuit can select from large range of potential patterns of connectivity effect of experience can have an enormous impact on its connectivity Conversely. effect of experience is correspondingly small Opening periods| of sensitive initial conditions | 5 . such as basolateral nucleus of the amygdala. I Not all circuits are shaped during sensitive periods Maintain high degree of plasticity throughout life. when range of potential patterns of connectivity is highly constrained by genetic influences.Ch.

I 1) information provided to circuit must be sufficiently reliable and precise to allow the circuit to carry out its function 2) circuit must contain adequate connectivity (both excitatory and inhibitory connections) to process the information 3) activated mechanisms that enable plasticity: a) capacity for altering axonal or dendritic morphologies b) making or eliminating synapses c) changing strengths of synaptic connections Sensitive period prerequisites | 6 .Ch.

Ch. I may be enabled by 1) progress of development 2) individual’s experience intense impulse activity (can result from experience) shown to trigger: 1) gene transcription and translation 2) activate existing molecular cascades for processes underlying plasticity Sensitive periods| timing of initiation | 7 .

Ch. therefore. genetically encoded 3) calibrates the circuits that process stereoscopic information and customizes circuits involved in processing speech sounds for the particular language(s) that will be spoken During a sensitive period| experience and sensperiod plasticity | 8 . I Experience → 1) customizes a developing neural circuit to the needs of the individual 2) provides precise information about the individual or about environment that often cannot be predicted and.

Reflections of the circuit | 9 .Ch. I predisposition of a circuit to be instructed by typical experience reflects: 1) selectivity of the circuit’s various inputs (may be shaped during sensitive periods) 2) innate connectivity of the circuit.

presynaptic element consistently anticipates (contributes to driving) the activity of a postsynaptic neuron. I 1) axon elaboration and synapse formation 2) axon and synapse elimination (shown to alter circuit architecture during sensitive periods) 3) synapse consolidation * Hebbian rule .activity of a tentative.Ch. that synapse is stabilized and strengthened Mechanisms of sensitive period plasticity distribution of stabilized synapses shapes growth patterns of axons and dendrites | 10 .

Ch. I Mechanisms of sensitive period plasticity | 11 .

Ch. because they have been consolidated by a particular kind of CAM | 12 . even if functional efficacy was to drop to zero Mechanisms of architectural change underlying Sensitive periods persistence suggests they become relatively invulnerable to elimination.experience during a sensitive period potentiates specific synapses which are structurally stabilized by the insertion of particular kinds of CAMs synapses become invulnerable to elimination. I *Hypothesis .

Ch. subsequent experience has the ability to cause further structural and functional changes as long as the sensitive period remains open Unique advantage of initial experience | 13 . I has a unique advantage in shaping the connectivity of a circuit Intense and repeated activation alters the circuit conditions dramatically Although may have a uniquely potent effect in shaping patterns of connectivity.

even though the pattern may be atypical | 14 . I Unique advantage of initial experience The pattern of connectivity instructed by experience becomes more sharply defined and highly preferred.Ch.

creating a new low point in the landscape Secondary experience humans are able to learn multiple languages with equal facility during a sensitive period (Doupe & Kuhl.Ch. extra energy must be expended to overcome the influences that stabilize the initial pattern Repeated experience that instructs new pattern of connectivity refines and stabilizes the new pattern. 1999) | 15 . I instructs a new pattern of connectivity.

I ‘‘stability landscape’’functional implications of the cellular and molecular events for the future performance of a circuit represents the range of possible connectivity patterns circuit might acquire and degree to which any particular pattern is preferred “Stability landscape” as a metaphor for sensitive period plasticity | 16 .Ch.

alternative patterns of connectivity are no longer possible due to the properties of the circuit’s stability landscape Ending of sensitive periods | 17 .Ch. I change may still occur (as long as not a critical period) but extra energy required for a circuit to maintain a less stable pattern of connectivity critical period ends .

stable patterns of connectivity during the sensitive period that end rapidly involve circuits with strong innate predispositions to be shaped by certain kinds of stimuli These circuits learn to respond to a particular stimulus . subsequent experience has little or no effect Ending of sensitive periods | 18 . I .Ch.(as a function of developmental stage) involve circuits that have the potential to learn multiple.once the circuit acquires selectivity for that stimulus.

essential to analyze behavior into elementary components that reflect specific levels of neural processing shaped by experience critical periods act at the level of specific neural circuits. behaviour | 19 . to avoid apparent contradictions essential to analyze a critical period in the circuit in which it occurs. I irreversible changes in neural circuit do not necessarily mean irreversible changes in complex behavior To minimize contradictions in the interpretation of behavioral observations. Critical circuits periods for vs.Ch.

I During sensitive period. particular kinds of experience shape the connectivity of a circuit in fundamental ways.a subset of sensitive periods for which the instructive influence of experience is essential for typical circuit performance (effects of experience on performance are irreversible) In Retrospect | 20 .Ch. causing certain patterns of connectivity to become energetically preferred or mechanistically specified Critical periods .

how goals relate to behavior. II ● William T. how perceptions define reality we live in and move and have our being | 21 .Ch. (Bill) Powers began in early 1950s by applying control engineering and natural science to the subject of psychology Control theory explains how organisms can control what happens to them ● ● Perceptual control| in theory explains what a goal is. how behavior affects perceptions.

Ch. in such a way as to preserve the higher-level pattern as each person desires to see it | 22 . II ● ● behavior IS orderly CONSEQUENCES of output forces are shaped by organism into highly regular and reliably repeatable states and patterns ● IMPORTANT: how much you know about the outcomes that are under control confusion is all in the eye of the beholder ● ● On the obvious Each person controls one contribution to the pattern that all perceive.

we should be able to go on and understand more general patterns ● ● We must explore all levels .what we find at each level makes sense only in the context of the others PCT: ● focuses on how we look at and experience things. II once we understood the orderliness of simple acts and their immediate consequences. and the way these perceptions are compared with experiences we want ● explains how thoughts become actions and feelings and why stimuli appear to cause responses ● On the obvious | 23 .Ch.

each a simple circuit of neurons which quickly and efficiently can perform the way we do Offers . II ● Proposes .explanation of how purposeful behavior works and what it accomplishes ● ● People as living things: The story Explains .nervous system is made up of large number of control systems in a hierarchical arrangement.Ch.behavior from inside perspective of controlling organism rather than from outside perspective of observer | 24 .

stimulus or disturbance to an object and observe the result or reaction ● ● People as living things: The story If a force/stimulus is applied to a variable that a living organism perceives and is controlling. II ● Control of input by means of output . the organism produces countervailing forces to maintain that variable in states that it prefers | 25 .to apply a force.defining characteristic distinguishing living things from inanimate objects Essence (of PCT method) .Ch.

II * a theory of human communication is an extension of our efforts to explain brain and behavior our beliefs about the brain should have direct implications for our characterization of language (vice versa) Hierarchical Perceptual Control Theory (HPCT) – one of theories addressing the brainlanguage connection is Language: control of perception | 26 .Ch.

allows for possibility of resolving disputes and conflicts without resorting to violence “higher” level variability in morphology and syntax may be crucial.Ch.Language forms the basis for most of our complex interactions. even life-threatening (What did you call me?!) Language: control of perception | 27 .. II Powers’ insight was to emphasize the role of behavior in perceptual control language is just as purposeful as other behaviors .

II HPCT offers a recast of important questions about individual linguistic behaviour . then the same principles may apply to language as well .Ch.If there is a hierarchy to perception in general. then linguistic behavior may be viewed as control of perception as well Language: control of perception | 28 .If behavior is the control of perception.

multiple critical or sensitive periods for: 1) configuration-related perceptual development 2) transition-related perceptual development etc. Perceptual control| in theory | 29 .Ch. II Any discussion of development also raises the question of critical periods: is there one or more such periods for human language? A true critical period for “language” would involve virtually the entire brain! Alternative .

Ch. II Linguistic behaviors result from the interplay of various contextual and neurological factors (in PCT terms. reference levels and disturbances to them) The semantics for objects or for concepts we use changes as we gain relevant experiences our [implicit] understanding of language grows and changes through our experiences These experiences form the basis for our decisions regarding such things as word choice (categories) or lexical ordering (sequence). Language and subjective perceptions | 30 .

” “volition. Bakhtin and Vygotsky) .whatever this guiding ” force may be. II . “will. .“purpose.. is ultimate dictator of the whole process of speech (Dunkel 1948) Language and subjective perceptions | 31 .. ” ” “motive.Ch.move beyond “wordmanipulation” to completely understand connection between language and behavior primary interest in effect we desire to produce upon the listener and so are usually not attentive to the processes by which we produce the effect” (Pillsbury and Meader.

2004) that represent a potential basis for modulation of early sensory processing within visual cortex ● Perceptual control| in practice | 32 .. evidence of auditory-driven responses within inferior parietal cortex of humans (Schroeder et al. 2004). early poststimulus time periods ● early onset of cortical responses in humans to auditory relative to visual stimulation makes it conceivable that auditory processes can impact feedforward visual processes within nominally visual cortices (Schroeder et al. III ● neural processing in low-level cortices can be modulated by interactions between senses at specific.Ch..

III ● auditory inputs particularly well poised to impact visual processing not only at the lowest cortical levels but potentially at poststimulus latencies (as short as 20 ms) E. occipital TMS has opposing effects on visual and auditory stimulus detection over identical time periods ● ● Perceptual control| in practice external auditory stimuli enhance visual cortex excitability as measured by induction via TMS | 33 .Ch.g.

III overall pattern of results indicates that there is a period during which behavioral consequences of occipital TMS depend on the sensory modality of external inputs ● ● Perceptual control| in practice results support the existence of early critical period for producing facilitative multisensory interactions and suggest auditory and visual inputs are converging within the occipital cortex | 34 .Ch.

(especially under occipital TMS) ● Perceptual control| in practice | 35 . III ● studies revealing visual suppression by occipital TMS (Amassian et al. 1998. Grosbras and Paus..Ch. 1989) ● showed that stimulation of a given area can induce opposing (disruptive or facilitative) effects depending on task or behavioral context (Walsh et al. 2003) results imply that visual perception and brain plasticity can be heavily influenced by a 'targeted' auditory stimulus.. 2002.

Thank'Y Very Muchly .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.