This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
If you are waiting for the perfect conditions, ideas or plans to get started, you can sure that you can wait till eternity and still, you will never start. This is for the simpler reason that will never have ideal circumstances. The time to act is not only now, but you also need to work on yourself, for bettering yourself, all the time, irrespective of the fact, whether you are working for yourself or others. The most important thing, in building self confidence, is to grid up your loins and takes action. Working on something, and being on it, till it is done, is the greatest confidence builder. There is no short cut to action. Just sitting and mulling over anything, will not leads to its accomplishment. For getting anything done, we simply need to focus on it, to the exclusion of everything else. For succeeding in life, or in any other venture, we need confidence and the key to having confidence is the preparation. We have to face our fears. It is best to bear in mind, that everybody has some fear or the other in life. Let us bear in mind that neither being wrong nor failing, in any venture, would kill us. Each one of us has to face our own fears. We should review our own failures and deeply introspect, as to, what has led to same. Our effort should be, to learn from every such situation. Life is tough master as it gives experience first and lesson after wards. Ideally, we should learn from other people’s mistakes and failures. However, most people, like to make their own mistakes, before they correct their direction and path. To build up your confidence, you should know and utilize your own strengths. Confidence is built up on achievements. The more you succeed, the more confident, you would be. For succeeding, you have to be more productive. The world’s best and cheapest productivity tool is to say No to the things and people, who sap your confidence. Always be working towards your vision, goal and dream. The same is applicable for your occupation and calling, as well as your leisure pursuit and relaxation. One of the important inputs into the confidence building, is the way, the way, we walk, talk, the tone of our voice and how we interacts with others. It is not very important as to what we say to others, but how we say. These qualities show whether we are confident calm or casual. Our body language gives way, whether we are comfortable or we have anything to hide, or we are displeased with others and so do not want to talk to them. A simple or fidgeting or a sharp glance or a limp hand shake or hands in pockets, reveal more about us than most of us are inclined to believe. For showing our best and confident side, when talking to other persons, we should look in their eyes, but not stare awkwardly. We maintain our eye contact with others without being disrespectful. When talking to others, we should not stare at the ground or look side ways. We should radiate confidence, when we look at others. Our postures should be erect and not hunched back or stiff. A confident person is always cheerful and smiling. Smiling gives good feeling to the person, who smiles, as well as, to the person at whom the smile is directed. You do not have to grin all the time, but remember that a smile disarms even hostile
people. So, do not be afraid, to be liberal with it. A smile puts others at ease and makes a good impression on them. Frankly speaking, my own experience shows that a serious look put people off and immediately generates distance between the two sides. For developing your confidence, every move your make and every muscle you move, should be the result of a conscious decision and not caused by an instant whim. It is important to be always calm and relaxed. Cultivating clarity of mind and speech will enable you to make a good impression by your sensitivity and intelligence. Occasionally, all of us find ourselves into a situation where we feel out of place or unsure or ourselves. The first thing we must bear in mind that we are not alone in this type of predicament. In such circumstances, we should put a smile on our face and practice a positive attribute to discover as to how best we can tackle such a situation. In such state of affairs, not only you should tell yourself that you can handle such a situation but work on it as if it was impossible to fail. Use positive words about your competence and your ability, which reinforce your confidence rather than undetermined it. Whatever be your situation never twist or bow your head. Always hold it high and look the world in the face. We must always bear in mind that nothing builds our confidence more except the accomplishment of our goal. This is possible only by taking action. Facing fear is the only way to overcome it. Also study and then visualize as to how other confident person you know, would have handle any predicament or a crisis which you might be facing. You must treat yourself as your best friend and focus on the positive things about yourself. Compliment and praise yourself several times a day. Contributing to others with words and actions not only makes us feel good, but also enhances our self-esteem. Developing and maintaining a high self esteem, is pivotal to our self confidence and success in life. Whatever be the state of affairs, there is a silver lining even in the darkest of the clouds. Encourage and support yourself with positive self-talk whenever you face any problem or a stumbling block. We should be always be focusing on the good and positive and invariably except win situation in all conditions. All of us often waste a lot of our valuable time and energy worrying about what might happen, even if we have no control over the situation. Instead of wasting energy, we should focus on the things we can control. Apart from this, we should focus on the problems as they arise. It is wisely said that “He who grieves, before is necessary, grieves more than is necessary”.
How to improve your memory? Individuals differ in their abilities to memorize. Some have more impressionable mind than others. Therefore, the materials they learn get more easily and more effectively registered as a result of which they show better abilities for recall and recognition. Is it possible to improve one's memory? Yes, more specific aids to memory are available.
For example. a door is created by arranging books. and Communication. create the images of horse. Suppose you want to remember a seven-digit phone number. and retrieval capacities. and combine them to form words. you can take the first letter of each concept. Most of the mnemonic techniques link the newly learnt materials with the organized set of images and concepts in the long-term memory. sun. The contents of a college level course are far more complex. Ability to memorize . memory is far more complex a process and these techniques have limited applications. Education. you cannot rely on a single and simple method for improving your memory for the course. It is shown that more bizarre the images of the items to be remembered. Chunking Chunking refers to recoding information into a single meaningful unit. It helps in remembering a number of terms serially.m. The 'mnemonics' consist of a set of strategies. Suppose you want to remember the following five terms serially: house. Using letters as pegs follows a similar method. These firmly established LTM images serve as reminder cues for retrieval. tree. In this method. Suppose the items to-beremembered are tree. When children remember the seven colors of the rainbow in the form of' VIBGYOR'. In each case. and the pen is hidden in the bee hive. You need to go through the following three stages: (a) Visualize a series of places with which you are very familiar (for example. tree. Psychologists have developed mnemonics. By using the techniques described below. staff room. Several other additional factors and considerations are important. and the other consists of three digits. The madeup story might go as follows. shoe is in front of the door. Think of words that rhyme with numbers such as 1 with man. We remember the word through their abbreviations such as ICU for Intensive Care Unit. and toilet in that sequence). Chunking is a powerful and oft-used mnemonics to aid memory. which means the art or system of memory strategies. classroom with tree and so on). Suppose the first few items of the list are cake. The to-beremembered items are linked to the visual images formed with numbers. One can also use the same set of images for remembering an additional list of items. In this case. man. associate each term serially with the images of the numbers. For example. (b) Create a visual image of each term you have to remember (for example. but also help in recalling the 9 . and narratives. gate. chunking. associate horse with principal's room thinking that the room has a big photograph of a horse. and forest. 16 or 21 item. You can further aid your memory. you associate the number image with the items to be memorized. chair. He further helped me to associate the numbers with some knowledge in the following way: We are busy from 6 a. and pen. 3 with tree. "A crow on a tree needing water flew over the gate under the hot sun to the forest. The pegs act as mediators for remembering something long and complex. water. door. chair is hanging from a tree. These methods not only help in remembering the th th st items serially. Number and Letter Peg Systems Here the memory pegs are numbers or letters. when higher-order memory processes are involved. man. which includes the use of visual imagery. number and letter peg systems. Similarly you have to create your memory linkages. every day. The images of these words are linked to the items to be remembered. Any numbered item can be retrieved from memory. In fact seven units of information are reduced to two longer units called chunks. the easier it becomes to store and retrieve. then associate staff room with man." While recalling the items. a person told me to divide the number into two chunks. to 10 p. if you associate the numbers 2350 and 478 with some facts firmly established in your LTM. All the mnemonics discussed above provide useful techniques to improve one's memory. you may create a story using these words. the order of the words or concepts is important. These reminder cues are called pegs as though the to-be-remembered items are hung on these pegs. 5 with hive and so on. visualize five rooms in your educational institution like principal's room. But as you know. and book. water. The method of loci has proven to be helpful in remembering separate terms in an order. book. and book). though not meaningfully. water. one can improve one's encoding. and 478. in order to remember a phone number 610365. I have never forgotten that phone number. (c) Associate the terms one by one with the places in your imagery (for example. laboratory. In fact. Narratives In order to remember a list of unrelated words. 4 with door.m.Some of the general principles that you have learned in this chapter can be applied to improve your memory. storage. method of loci. let each letter stand for a word that starts with that letter. 610 and 365. You may create associations as follows: man is eating the cake. By doing this you automatically increase your working memory capacity. and UNICEF for United Nations Children's Emergency Fund. classroom. you may create a rhyming system for the numbers 1 to 20. 2350478. First-Letter Technique If you need to remember a set of concept names. Mnemonics The word 'mnemonics' comes from the Greek word for memory and refers to specific memory improvement techniques. the story would help you to retrieve the items from the LTM. The Method of Loci Its literal meaning is method of locations. One chunk consists of four digits. The memory pegs in this system are parts of your images of a scene or places. 2 with shoe. Now if you want to remember a list. they use this technique. it will be helpful if you break the number into two chunks such as 2350. IEC for Information. and for all the 365 days.
The oldest and simplest view of forgetting is that information entered into memory fades or decays with passage of time during which it is not used. This theory fits our commonsense understanding of forgetting and is consistent with our informal day . memory has three interrelated components. motivation and interest to learn are also important determinants influencing the nature of encoding. Forgetting may occur because of problems experienced at any one these stages. Although amount of retention cannot increase indefinitely as a function of the degree of over learning. In other words. Forgetting takes place because either the material is not properly stored in the LTM. Much of what we think we have forgotten does not really qualify as being forgotten. Motor learning is retained for a long period in comparison to verbal learning. such faulty remembering is not forgetting. materials may be lost at the level of encoding itself. the person must feel the need to improve his memory. rehearse the learnt material for proper storage. If the material is not properly encoded. Storage Failure Why do we forget things? Why do we forget? As you may know. Even after efficient encoding. or the storage is affected by interference or disuse. Massive forgetting occurs at the level of encoding.e. the information may not have been transformed from STM to LTM. the relevant aspects of what is to be remembered would not be stored. forgetting is a function of the passage of time. a person may forget because of encoding failure. If the encoding is not proper. because we want to forget those.day experience. Forgetting involves both verbal and nonverbal learning. The memory trace involves some sort of physical changes not processes prior to learning. The LTM storage may face problems because of several factors. If you are motivated to improve your memory. we think that we have forgotten because what we remember does not match with what actually occurred. Emotional shock such as failure in examination. and the methods of learning. some painful experiences may be repressed in the unconscious and not available to our consciousness. Speed of learning is conversely related to the degree of forgetting. the information reaching STM might have been knocked out.depends on the internal characteristics of the learner. Constructive processes distort what is stored in memory and we remember the distortions. the situation. He needs to have good physical and mental health. "when learning is rapid. because it was never encoded and stored in the first place. and stored. With the passage of time. over learning is preferable than under-learning. As you know. the learnt material may not be retrieved because of some interference. Due to inadequate encoding. suspension from job etc. (iii) method of learning. the normal metabolic process of the brain cause a fading or decay of the memory traces so that traces material once learned gradually disintegrate and eventually disappear. seriously interferes with encoding and leads to forgetting. The rate of forgetting varies from individual to individual. and the nature of the information to be remembered. they cannot be retrieved at the time of need. You know that the informational impact at the sensory register should be properly processed to be passed on to the STM. First of all. For instance. and from time to time engage in exercises of recall to assess the status of storage.. In order to be able to store the items and recall those later. in fact. and then to LTM. Does it mean that the memory traces of earlier learning are . Sometimes. Encoding Failure The process through which information is converted into a form that can be entered into memory is known as encoding. Attitude towards learning material. materials may be forgotten because of improper storage. you may consult the teachers of psychology in your college. use effective methods for learning the items. he must use efficient coding devices. Strictly speaking. Often information we acquired quite sometime ago is more difficult remember than information learned only recently. pace his rate of learning. i. we remember what was encoded. As a result. All these causes of forgetting are discussed below. the characteristics of the items. the memory storage is greatly disturbed. Without deep level processing. Besides all these. Some people easily learn and retain certain materials in comparison to others. forgetting will be slow and when learning is slow forgetting will be rapid. some information might not have reached STM because of lack of attention. According to the information theory. storage. This explanation assumes that learning leaves a trace in the brain. It is found that some forget sooner than others. and (iv) speed of learning. and retrieval. Even if the encoding is proper. Even if the storage is proper. because the STM has a limited storage capacity. encoding. and must be highly motivated to do so. (ii) nature of material. So. What are the different factors that influence the encoding of the materials? The factors operating at the time of encoding are (i) strength of original learning. materials have to be finally stored in the LTM to be retrieved at the time of need. if the materials are not properly stored in the LTM. take rest in between learning sessions. which is known as memory trace or engram. Meaningful and rhythmic materials decrease the rate of forgetting because of their associative value. we forget some painful experiences. Thus. we remember the gist or meaning of what we have read or heard in a conversation but not the time the information was encoded for storage or we encode only selected portions of the to-beremembered information. whether forgetting will be slow or fast depends upon the individuals. Thus. According to Underwood.
. When you fail to recall the names of your high school classmates. The prefix 'retro' means 'backward acting'. The letter is still somewhere in his file but it has been buried among a host of other letters buried the clerk filed before and after this letter. it could be done quickly. The process is known saving. It seems that many memory failures are to poor encoding and inadequate retrieval cues rather than loss of memories. and retroactive interference. poor memory. when old memories displace or block out new memories. Another important source of influence for memory failure comes from interference. If our memory for persons and events has taken place in one context. verbal materials may be retained over long periods time. Proactive interference refers to a phenomenon. The theory of interference suggests that forgotten memory is either lost or damaged. in many instances. The experimental group learn the same list (List A). we may recall a poem learned in the XI standard and yet be unable to remember a part of a play we learned in XII standard. On the other hand. rests on the recovery of memory supposedly lost. Our inability to remember the names of our high school friends is similar to what happens a clerk fails to locate a letter that he received a year ago. Then both the groups are asked to recall List A). you are experiencing the phenomenon of retroactive interference. if you had difficulty recalling the names of your college friends because of your memories for close friends in your high school.) is retained for a long period of time with no intervening practice (Even in some cases. there are two groups known as the control group and the experimental group. A vast amount of experimental evidence as well as everyday experiences indicate the occurrence of both proactive and retroactive interferences. and then learns a second list (List B) during the period when the control group takes rest. The control group learns some materials such as a list of nonsense syllables (List A). the phenomenon is known as retroactive interference. you are experiencing what is called proactive interference. but not in long-term memory. which was previously learned. The memories for other Materials interfere with the retrieval of the one that is sought. the material cannot be retrieved when needed. Forgetting m simply is a matter of retrieval failure in that some other additional experience may interfere with the systems at the time of retrieval. Many of us fail to the names of our high school classmates. when we meet them later in the out of-school settings. The interference takes place in two different forms such as proactive interference. The modern theorists accept interference a major cause of forgetting. The learning of List B by the experiment. and stored in the LTM for some reason. which goes against the trace-decay theory. and is tested after a specified rest interval. There are several factors influencing retrieval from the LTM them is the context of memorization. Forgetting does not seem to happen in long-term memory because of disuse overtime. . learning (e. People approaching senility. Memory traces seem too permanent once they make it into long-term memory.completely wiped out? Considerable evidence suggests that decay is probably not the key mechanism in forgetting if the material is re-learnt. it is deemed to be forgotten. It appears that simple passage of time is a cause of forgetting both in the sensory register and short-term memory. but is only misplaced. and consequently. because you had so many friends in colleges. and we are asked to recall it another ext some amount of retrieval failure may take place. This means that we have lost social-context. Even when the material is properly coded. Suppose you want to demonstrate experimentally the retroactive interference that affects retrieval memory. Retroactive interference occurs when a new learning works backward and interferes with the previously learnt material. Retrieval Failure The failure of retrieval provides the most important explanation forgetting. often vividly recall events of their you Findings of the study by Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924) and Minami a Dallenbach (1964) argue against the suggestion that forgetting is primal the result of gradual decay of information over time. when new memories knock out the old memories. Hence.retrieval cues that we used while forming the initial memories of those classmates. Why should the decay process affect the second material and not the first? Evidence. group is an interpolated activity. motor skills like cycling driving etc.g. For example. Furthermore. Memory references are easily demonstrated in the experimental laboratory. the change of the memorization context leads to retrieval failure. On the other hand. Failure to call up memories cannot be taken as a positive proof that memory was not there. who can barely remember the events of the day. In a typical experiment.