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The transient state is defined as the operating state of a power system which is characterized by sudden changes in load or in the circuit conditions. The disturbances may include faults, switching events as well as abrupt and significant changes in loading. Both the electrical system and the mechanical systems are in a a transient state characterized by variations in electrical power, voltage and so forth as well as variations in the rotor speed of the machine. The question to be answered by transient stability analysis is: “will any of the generators or groups of generators in an interconnected system lose synchronism as the result of a transient shock to the system?” This shock is most often assumed to be a fault which is cleared by removing the faulted equipment or circuits. The relay and circuit breaker characteristics dictate the duration of the fault as seen by the system and the breakers must open before a critical clearing time to remove the fault.
In general, the same assumptions are made for the analysis of transient stability as was made in the study of short circuits. (1) Only fundamental frequency currents and voltages will be considered. Hence, in the rotor frame of reference pψ qs = pψ ds = 0 (6.1)
(2) The effect of speed variations on the stator voltage will be neglected. This is accomplished by setting ωr /ωb to 1.0 in the two stator voltage equations. While the speed will still vary, since the torque angle delta must be permitted to vary, this variation is typically small over the period of time being analyzed. If this effect ever becomes large, synchronism has probably been lost anyway.
Power System Transient Stability
(3) The effect of the variation of speed on the electrical power will also be neglected. This is equivalent to assuming that in per unit
2 TE = PE + IS rS
where: TE = per unit electrical torque, PE = per unit terminal electrical power, rS = per unit stator resistance If the electrical power is measured behind the stator resistance, then it is equal to the air gap power PE which is therefore equal numerically to the electrical torque TE since speed variations are neglected. (4) Saturation effects will be neglected initially. This allows one to still use the complex vector diagram as the basic tool for analysis. (5) Amortisseur winding effects will be neglected. Although the amortisseur effects are significant in short circuit current studies, the principal period of interest in transient stability analysis is after about three cycles and most often less than 60 cycles. Therefore, the amortisseur effects in the initial period after a disturbance are not of real significance. Should the machine begin to slip poles, currents will begin to be induced into the amortisseur windings which cannot be neglected. This “induction motor” torque tends to help the machine regain or maintain synchronism by producing “damping torque” variations in rotor speed. This effect is almost always beneficial and, neglecting its existence is considered as conservative. (6) The mechanical torque input to the synchronous generator is assumed to be constant during the period being analyzed. This is equivalent to assuming that the time lags of the speed governor and the mechanical system are large enough so that the effects are not significant. Since any such effects should be beneficial to stability, this is again a conservative assumption. While it is possible to approximate these effects, the added complication and the increased time to make an analysis are great enough that it is very rarely attempted in by hand calculations. (7) Voltage regulator response is neglected (or idealized). Recall that the field voltage equation can be written as
Draft Date: September 1, 2005
x md dψ fr e x = x md i fr + ----------- ⎛ ----------⎞ ω b r fr ⎝ dt ⎠
As a result of any disturbance the field current will tend to be higher than its initial value. If ex is constant, then e q' = ( x md ⁄ x fr )ψ fr will clearly tend to decrease. However, this same current increase will tend to depress the terminal voltage. If an automatic voltage regulator is in service, the regulator will begin acting in order to increase ex in order to raise the terminal voltage. The voltage regulator will act to restore or raise the value of e q' . The net effect is that e q' will tend to remain constant for a fairly long period of time. For major disturbances (such as a three phase fault near the machine) which are cleared in about six cycles, the assumption is still reasonable. Less severe faults (unbalanced faults or remote faults) tend to make the assumption conservative. In addition to these assumptions, transient saliency is often neglected. This assumption needs a little more elaboration. It has already been mentioned that the field flux linkages tend to remain constant during a transient disturbance and that the voltage regulator tends to maintain e q' constant (and uniformly rotating). In many machines (particularly turbogenerators) the transient reactance x d' is not sufficiently different from xqs (or x q' ) so that during the transient, the machine appears to be a round rotor machine. In such cases it is useful to hold the voltage behind the reactance xd' constant. In per unit the voltage E S' is called the per unit voltage behind transient reactance. Note from the figure that E S' is nearly the same amplitude as E Q' so that this assumption is often satisfactory even when xD'≠ xQ'. It is typically a satisfactory assumption for over excited operation but may lead to sizable differences at high power factor or under excited operation, in which case the per unit value of E Q' may be much smaller than E S' . The use of the concept of constant voltage behind transient reactance permits the use of a simple round rotor equivalent circuit which is useful for purposes of illustration by may be used only with caution. The reader is referred to Figure 6.1 below. If E S' is used to represent behavior of the rotor flux linkages rather than E Q' then the machine representation is much simpler. In this case, assuming constant flux linkages, the machine is represented as shown below. The magnitude of E S' remains constant and equal to the magnitude E S' ( 0 ) , the value at the instant of the fault, t = 0. The angle variation will be discussed in a succeeding section.
Draft Date: September 1, 2005
2005 (6.5) (6.4) Neglecting the stator resistance voltage drop IS rS. in steady state V DS = – V S sin δ V QS = V S cos δ (6.6) (6.3 Torque Angle Curves Neglecting resistance and variations in speed. and assuming that ωr /ωb = 1.7) (6. then Park’s stator equations become simply V DS = – ψ QS V QS = ψ DS where the stator fluxes are given by ψ QS = x QS I QS Draft Date: September 1. the amortisseur winding circuits. In per unit. results in the electrical torque becoming numerically equal to the terminal power. pψDS.1 Phasor diagram showing difference between E Q' and ES' (Generator operation). from the phasor diagram. 6.8) (6. the voltages pψQS.x ) DS DS QS jI x DS QS ~ E' Q ~ I S ~ E Q jI x QS QS q-axis ~ ~ E =E X I ~ E'S δ ~ V S ~ ~ jx ' I jx QS IS D S d-axis Figure 6.298 Power System Transient Stability jI (x . the electrical power is P E = v DS i DS + v QS i QS where.9) .
Note the similarity between this equation and the expression for torque in the steady-state.11) as E Q' = E I + ( x DS – x D' )I DS (6.8)). then substituting this result into the equation for vQS (Eq.15) Note that the power and torque are equal since it has been assumed that the per unit speed ωr /ωb is unity. V QS – E Q' I DS = ⎛ -----------------------⎞ ⎝ xD ′ ⎠ VDS I QS = -------x QS (6.12) Substituting the (6. Note also that the angle δ is the same quantity as used for the steady-state phasor diagram since both EQ and E Q' lie on the q-axis. and solving the two voltage equations for IQS and IDS one obtains eventually.10) (6. 2005 . in addition ψ FR = x FR I FR + x MD I DS (6. one can write Eq. (6.Mechanical Acceleration Equation in Per Unit 299 ψ DS = x DS I DS + x MD I FR = x DS I DS + E I and.13) (6. xD´ ≅ xQS) then this expression reduces to E Q'V S T E ≅ ------------. Eq. (6. E Q'V S 2 x D' – x QS P E = ------------.sin δ x D' (6. (see Chapter 5).e.4 Mechanical Acceleration Equation in Per Unit It can be recalled from Chapter 4 that the equation which describes the electromechanical motion of the synchronous machine (neglecting damping) is given by Draft Date: September 1.sin 2δ 2x D'x QS x D' (6. 6.12) into the expression for ψDS.11) Recall from Chapter 5 that if the field flux linkages are constant.16) where δ is now the angle between EQ' and VS.(6.14) Substituting these expressions for stator d–q voltages and currents into the power equation and rearranging.sin δ + VS --------------------.10). If transient saliency is neglected (i.
2005 (6.2 P ------------------------VA b (6.Jω bm 2 H = ---------------. Draft Date: September 1. (6.23) It is useful to realize that the quantity H is equal to the stored energy divided by the base time rate of change of energy and therefore has the units of seconds (joules per watt) In general.18) T e + T l = ----.( ω R ) P dt where the per unit speed ω R has been defined as ωr ω R = ----ωb (6.P dt If the angular speed is per unitized relative to base angular velocity.⎠ Jω b . Equation 6.19) A corresponding expression in per unit is obtained by dividing this expression by base torque Tb where VA b ( P ) ( VA b ) T b = --------.ω r . in terms of an equivalent electrical angular velocity.22) (6.21) and VAb denotes the power (or volt-ampere) base.20) (6.---.300 Power System Transient Stability dω rm T e + T l = J -----------dt or.= VA b 1 ⎛ 2⎞ 2 2 -.⎝ -. then 2Jω b d T e + T l = -----------. the torque angle delta is an equivalent electrical angle (as opposed to a physical mechanical angle) and is defined by δ = – ∫ ω r dt + δ o Hence.---.= Jω bm --------Tb dt whereupon it is convenient to again define 1 2 -.24) .17) 2J d (6.17 can now be written in the form Te + Tl 2 dω R --------------.= ----------------------2ω bm ω bm (6.
= ⎛ – -----------.= – ⎛ --------⎞ ( 2πf b ) ---.27) As given.Mechanical Acceleration Equation in Per Unit 301 dδ ----.= – -----------.= – ω r dt and dω r d 2δ -------. Eq. d 2δ d -------.⎞ -------⎝ 360f b⎠ dt 2 dt (6.2 Tb Tb 360f b dt 180f b dt 2 or. the accelerating torque becomes positive indicating a con- Draft Date: September 1.-------.= – ω b ---. 2005 . It is often useful to express δ in electrical degrees.22) results in Te Tl 2H d 2 δ H d2 δ ---. When T E is balanced by an equal and oppositly impressed torque T L the accelerating torque T A is zero.= – -----------.( ω R ) 2 dt dt (6.-------.29) (6.= – -----------.32) Since δ is considered as negative for generator action. the second derivative of the torque angle is expressed in terms of the derivative of per unit speed as d 2δ 180 d -------.( T E + T L ) H dt 2 (6.25) (6. (6.= – -------dt dt 2 In terms of per unit angular speed. If the torque T E suddenly drops as a result of a fault. 180f b d2δ -------. the torque angle δ is expressed in radians. In this case.31) (6. alternatively. (6.+ ---.26) (6. solving for ( dω r ) ⁄ ( dt ) .28) Upon substituting this result into the per unit expression for the equation of motion. dω R 1 d 2δ --------. Eq.( ω R ) 2 ⎝ π ⎠ dt dt or.16) verifies that T E is negative.30) The quantity TE + TL is called the accelerating torque and is formally defined as TA = TE + TL (6.
T A2 H2 δ 12 = δ 1 – δ 2 or p 2 δ 12 = p 2 δ 1 – p 2 δ 2 T A2 T A1 = 180f b ⎛ -------.⎛ ----------⎞ = 360f b ⎛ -------.36) (6.34) The angle between the quadrature axes of the two machines is (6.– --------⎞ dδ 12 ⎝ H2 H1 ⎠ (6.37) (6. ⎛ dδ 12⎞ ⎝ ----------⎠ dt 2 for machine #1 for machine #2 (6. For each of the two interconnected machines..35) (6.5 Equal Area Criterion for Transient Stability Now let two machines be interconnected through an intertie. 2005 .302 Power System Transient Stability sequent positively increasing speed change and a negatively increasing value of δ .40) T A2 T A1 = 360f b ∫ ⎛ -------.38) (6.T A1 H1 180f b p 2 δ 2 = – -----------.– --------⎞ ⎝ H2 H1 ⎠ Multiplying both sides by 2pδ12.39) (6.-----------dt dt 2 which is equal to d dδ 12 2 = ---. 6.41) Draft Date: September 1. dδ 12 d 2 δ 12 ( 2pδ 12 )p 2 δ 12 = 2 ---------. 180f b p 2 δ 1 = – -----------.⎛ ----------⎞ dt ⎝ dt ⎠ Hence. the electromechanical equation can be written as T A2 T A1 dδ 12 d dδ 12 2 ---.– --------⎞ ----------⎝ -⎠ ⎝ H2 H 1 ⎠ dt dt dt Upon integrating both sides with respect to time. one has. the acceleration equations may be written as.33) (6.
2 in which a generator is connected to a very large system compared to its own size. On the other hand.42) The need for the factor 360fb has been dropped since the integral has been set equal to zero. The total angle between E Q' and V∞ is defined as δ 12 = δ 1 – δ 2 The torque-angle equation for this condition is equal to EQ'V ∞ T E = --------------. 2005 . then the relative speed between the machines is equal to zero.45) The equation that was derived the previous section for stability is based on two interconnected machines but is also valid for one machine connected to an infinite bus. When dδ12/dt is equal to zero.43) The mechanical torque TL is assumed to be constant and equal to the value of TE at the instant prior to the disturbance or TL = –TE ( 0 ) (6. 0 = ∫ ⎛ -------. (6.– --------⎞ dδ12 ⎝ H2 H1 ⎠ T A2 T A1 (6.6 Transient Stability Analysis It is instructive to consider first the system shown in Figure 6.44) (6. when a disturbance occurs. In this case the inertia of the second machine can be assumed to be infinte in which case Eq. A constant voltage behind transient direct axis reactance model for the generator will be assumed as shown. Setting the right hand side of the above equation to zero forms an important condition called the equal area criterion. 6.Transient Stability Analysis 303 In general. then δ12 continues to increase and stability between the two machines is lost. Stability can only occur if the angle δ12 begins to get smaller. The angle δ12 will subsequently start decreasing and stability (at least for the first swing) is preserved. Otherwise the machine will begin to slip poles.sin δ 12 x D' + x E (6. if a condition whereby dδ12/dt = 0 cannot be found for a given disturbance.42) becomes Draft Date: September 1. the angle δ12 increases and therefore dδ12/dt is positive.
since H1 is a simple constant 0 = ∫ TA1 dδ 12 (6. During the fault period. Neglecting resistance and any other generator losses. or T A1 = T L (6.48) Draft Date: September 1. without the value of XE being affected.2 Simple single machine connected to an infinite bus via a transmission line represented by a lumped inductance and corresponding equivalent circuit.304 Power System Transient Stability G V S jX E jX'D E' δ 1 Q + jX E V€ δ 2 V∞ V S - Figure 6.3. T A1 --------dδ 12 ∫ H1 0 = (6.46) or. Assume that a solid three phase fault occurs at the generator terminals and is then removed at some time t = tc. the electrical torque TE during the fault is equal to zero. 2005 .47) The torque angle curve defined by the torque angle equation given above is shown below in Figure 6. the short circuit isolates the generator from the system.
then the term dδ12(0)/dt is equal to zero. the above expression may be solved for the time t as Draft Date: September 1. 2005 . this area is shown in Figure 6. and remains at zero until the fault is removed at a time corresponding to δ12(tc). During this period of time. dδ 12 180f b dδ 12 ( 0 ) ---------. The equal area criterion equation defines an area on the torque angle curve. For the period of the fault.50) (6.49) If the fault is applied when the system is initially in the steady-state. For this case. Upon integrating. 180f b T A1 dδ 12 ( 0 ) δ 12 = – --------------------.3 Torque-angle curve showing initial condition at instant of fault. the acceleration equation is d 2 δ 12 180f b -----------. Upon integrating a second time.t 2 + -----------------.t + δ 12 ( 0 ) 2H dt (6.= – -----------H dt 2 where TA1is constant and equal to TL.Transient Stability Analysis 305 -TE T L= -T E (0) δ 0 δ 12 -180 Degrees Figure 6.T A1 t + -----------------dt H dt where the last term represents an initial velocity of the torque angle.= – -----------.51) (6. At the instant the fault is applied (t = 0) the electrical torque becomes zero.4.
The torque available for braking the machine is shown below in Figure 6. 2005 .52) For a given switching time (time to interrupt the fault after the moment of the fault) the angle at the point of switching δ12(ts) can be calculated. A plot of the relative angle δ12 and the relative speed dδ12/dt is shown below in Figure 6. the accelerating torque is Draft Date: September 1. the shaded area in the previous figure represents energy which is converted from the prime mover to the inertia of the generating system. That is. This area represents the energy which will tend to cause loss of synchronism between the generator and the system. is a measure of the severity of the fault as far as stability is concerned.4 Showing area proportional to acceleration of synchronous machine assuming a bolted three phase fault and constant prime mover torque.7. The size of this area.306 Power System Transient Stability P e r U n it G e n e r a tin g T o r q u e T L δ 0 δ 1 2 (0) δ 1 2 (t s ) N e g a t iv e D e g re e s Figure 6. then. At the instant ts the fault is removed and the machine again develops torque as defined by the voltage behind transient reactance. In this case. it is energy which is accelerating the rotor angle. Since the electrical torque is greater (numerically) than the mechanical torque. the rotor speed is increasing since the accelerating torque is positive. t = [ δ 12 ( 0 ) – δ 12 ]H -------------------------------------90f b T A1 (6. In effect.6 for the period during the fault.
the result is shown in Figure 6. A1 + A2 = ∫ TA dδ12 (6. At the instant where these areas are equal one obtains the solution to the equation Draft Date: September 1. The sum of the two areas is the net solution to the integral.6 Generator torque angle and rate of change of torque angle for a bolted three phase fault.Transient Stability Analysis 307 (-) dδ12 dt or δ 12 δ12 δ (0) 12 dδ12 dt t (seconds) Figure 6. The integral representing the area A1 is positive and tends to produce instability and the integral represented by the area A2 tends to produce stability.53) When A2 is greater than A1 (and opposite in sign). the machine is transiently stable. 2005 .8 for the case where the shaded areas above and below TL are equal in magnitude. The electrical torque during this period is often referred to as the synchronizing torque. therefore negative and will attempt to decelerate or slow down the rotor speed as long as -TE is greater than TL. If the areas of the two previous figures are drawn on the same diagram. represents energy which tends to stabilize or synchronize the generator and system. The shaded area then. The condition shown in Figure 6.8.
9.8 Torque versus angle curve showing equal accelerating component (A1) and braking component (A2) of torque. therefore. .54) 0 = ∫ T A dδ 12 and at this point the velocity dδ12/dt between machines is zero. (6. At the same time.308 Power System Transient Stability -Te TL ? 0 δ 12 (t3) ? -180 δ Negative Degrees Figure 6. 2005 accelerating torque at this point. the electrical torque is larger in magnitude than the mechanical torque which results in a negative Draft Date: September 1. The angle δ12 will.7 Showing portion of generator torque acting to brake the generator after a bolted three phase fault. begin to decrease. The behavior of the speed and angle for this condition is shown in Figure 6. -T e A2 TL A1 0 δ 1 2 (t 3 ) -180 δ Neg a t iv e D eg r e es Figure 6.
Once past δ12(t1). From this observation comes a rule of thumb: if the relative angle between two machines reaches a peak in the region of 120 electrical degrees. 2005 .9 Progression of δ12 and dδ12/dt for a stable three phase fault condition. the angle δ12(max) is in the vicinity of 120 to 140 degrees. Draft Date: September 1.11. increasing the velocity dδ12/ dt still further. When the area A2 is less than A1 in magnitude. A2 is just equal and opposite to A1. Such characteristics are shown in Figure 6.10. the system is near the transient stability limit. The limiting case between being stable or unstable is a special case illustrated below. the machine becomes transiently unstable as shown below. The theoretical performance of this system is shown in Figure 6.Transient Stability Analysis 309 (-) δ12 (t s ) 0 δ12 dδ12 dt ts tm t (seconds) Figure 6. the mechanical torque is again greater than the electrical torque and the machine will accelerate. For this limiting case. The result is that the generator continuously has a velocity greater than the system and is therefore out of synchronism and unstable. At this point. When the angle δ12(t1) is reached the machine still has a velocity greater than zero and the angle δ12will continue to increase.
10 Showing an unstable condition in which A1 is greater than A2.11 Limiting case in which A2 is just equal to A1. 2005 .310 Power System Transient Stability (-) δ12 δ12 and dδ12 dt dδ12 dt ts t (seconds) Figure 6. Draft Date: September 1. (-) δ12 (max) δ12 or d δ12 dt δ12 dδ12 dt ts t (seconds) Figure 6.
55) (6. 2005 .12. [ HAG _ HAM] g m _ T T δ gm (0) A2 δ gm Negative Degrees A1 + Figure 6. Draft Date: September 1. i.– ------.⎞ dδ 12 ⎝ H 2 H 1-⎠ For a given angle between machines δ12(0).12 Integrand of stability equation. 6.e. T A2 T A1 0 = ∫ ⎛ -------. The resulting ratios are subtracted with the result plotted against the angle δgs as shown below in Figure 6.40 versus the torque angle δgm The areas A1 and A2 are again compared as was done previously in order to determine whether or not the system is transiently stable.Transient Stability of a Two Machine System 311 6.56) The ratio between accelerating torque and the machine inertia is calculated for each machine.7 Transient Stability of a Two Machine System For the more general case of a system having a finite inertia the more general expression involving two inertias must be utilized. Eq. the accelerating torque for each machine is calculated as T AG = T LG + T EG T AM = T LM + T EM (6.
simply 0 = ∫ TAG dδ gs (6. the angle δ(ts) at which the fault was removed is called the critical switching (or clearing) angle.8 Multi-Machine Transient Stability Analysis The equal area criterion cannot be used directly in systems where three or more machines exist and the assumption of an “infinite” system is either completely Draft Date: September 1. the stability equation becomes.63) The value of the two machine Equal Area Criterion for transient stability is in the ability to determine not only whether or not the machines are transiently stable.58) T AM ⎛ T AG – --------.59) (6.60) (6.+ ----Hg Hs (6.312 Power System Transient Stability A special case for a two machine analysis arises where there is no system resistance of any kind. 2005 . (6. 6.59) becomes 1 1 0 = ∫ T AG ⎛ ----.57) (6.61) or. The switching time ts corresponding to the critical switching angle is called the critical switching time. the electrical power (or torque) of the generator and the motor absorbing power are always equal and opposite in sign. When a system is at the transient stability limit.⎞ dδ --------∫ ⎝ Hg Hm-⎠ gm (6. T AM = – T AG in which case Eq.H ⎠ g m (6.62) This equation is the same as was used for a generator tied to an infinite bus. the apparent H of the equivalent generator is now. Hg Hs 1 H a = ------------------.+ -------⎞ dδ gm ⎝H. but also to determine stability limits either for power transfer or the time it takes to clear a fault. In this case. or T LM = – T LG T EM = – T EG Therefore. However. 0 = where.= -----------------1 Hg + Hs 1 -----.
4. analyze the system for transient stability. typically the terminal voltage of the main generator of concern.13 Phasor diagram for the internal voltages of three synchronous machines. Draft Date: September 1. Represent the lines.16. 3. When more than two machines are involved. of the system in accordance with the conventional circuit analysis approaches. the system behavior noted when analyzing two machines can be used to establish a criterion of stability of a system containing many machines. E 2' and E 3' are assumed proportional to field ~' E3 δ3 δ2 δ1 ~ E2 ' E1 ~' Reference Axis Figure 6. this reference axis can be chosen more or less arbitrarily. 2005 . However. Using step by step numerical methods. Previously. Again the voltages E 1' . 1. transformers etc. Three generators are shown in Figure 6. The method of analysis most commonly used is as follows. Using circuit analysis (or a computer) to establish a complete steady state operating condition for the system with all machine terminal conditions specified. Represent each generator in the manner shown previously and determine E q' for each machine (or E q' ). the assumptions was inherently made that the angle of E S' of each machine was equal to the angle between the quadrature axis of each machine and a reference axis. 2. This steady state condition is to be tested for stability.Multi-Machine Transient Stability Analysis 313 wrong or where more accurate system representation is desired.
⎞ ∆t ⎝ 2⎠ Substituting for ωrk(t1+∆t/2) from above 180f b T Ak ( t 1 ) δ k ( t 1 + ∆t ) = δk ( t 1 ) – ------------------------------. Therefore. (6. dω rk ∆ωrk ---------. By making ∆t sufficiently small. The acceleration of any machine is expressed relative to a synchronously rotating reference axis. one may write ∆ω rk ∆t t 1 + ---2 ∆t t 1 – ---2 180f b ∆t ∆t ∆t -⎠ -⎠ = ω rk ⎛ t 1 + ---.64) or dω rk 180f b ---------. the derivative is approximated by ∆ωrk/∆t. ∆δ k ω rk = – -------∆t and ∆t δ k ( t 1 + ∆t ) – δ k ( t 1 ) = – ω rk ⎛ t 1 + ---.⎞ + -----------.T Ak ( t 1 ) ⎝ ⎝ 2 2 Hk (6. Assuming specific values of time for the evaluation of this function.67) where TAk(t1) is the per unit value of the accelerating torque of machine k at t = t1.⎞ = ω rk ⎛ t 1 – ---. 180f b ∆t ∆t ω rk ⎛ t 1 + ---.69) (6.T Ak dt Hk Using the definition of a derivative.⋅ ( ∆t ) 2 Hk (6.66) (6.71) (6.= ----------dt ∆t (6. The acceleration equation is again.70) (6.⎞ – ω rk ⎛ t 1 – ---.= -----------.T Ak ( t 1 ) ( ∆t ) -⎠ -⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 2 Hk However. for any of the three machines.68) Draft Date: September 1.314 Power System Transient Stability flux linkages and transient saliency is neglected. 2005 .65) where ∆ωrk is a small change in ωrk during the period ∆t.⎞ = -----------------.
and determine the new angle δ for each machine.Multi-Machine Transient Stability Analysis 315 At the very first interval (t1=0) the equation for the speed change must be modified to include only one-half a time interval. for the sake of maintaining a reasonable degree of accuracy.⋅ T Ak ⎛ ---. Hold e Q' constant in magnitude.⎞ ---⎝ 4-⎠ 2Hk (6. The procedure for making this type of study is: 1.⎞ = δ k ( 0 ) – -----------.T Ak ⎛ ---.72) ∆ω rk 180f b ∆t ∆t = -----------.⎞ -------⎠ ⎝2 ⎝ 4-⎠ 2 Hk The value of ∆t should be chosen such that.74) (6. the system was considered transiently stable.⋅ T Ak ⎛ ---.⎞ ---. 2. This decision is usually based upon an examination of a plot of all the angles δ of the machines versus time (or the rotor slip dδ/dt versus time). If the angle magnitude continuously increases (and exceeds 180 degrees) the system was considered transiently unstable.⎞ = -----------. If the angle began to increase at an angular difference between machines of 120 to Draft Date: September 1. 5. Use the step by step equations. Holding e Q' of each machine constant in magnitude ( e Q' = EQ' and angle to the value which existed before the disturbance. Calculate the new electrical torques for each machine. This procedure is repeated until a decision can be reached as to whether the system is transiently stable. 3. the change in angular displacements between any two machines should not exceed approximately 5 degrees during a time interval. so that ∆ω rk 0 ∆t – ---2 ∆t ---2 0 = 0 (6. and change its angle to the new value δ'.+ ω k ( 0 ) -⎠ ⎝2 ⎝ 4-⎠ 2Hk 180f b ∆t ∆t ∆t 2 δ k ⎛ --. In the discussion of the two machine problem solved by the equal area criterion it was found that if the magnitude of the angle between machines decreased at some time after the disturbance.75) 180f b ∆t ∆t ∆t ω rk ⎛ --.73) (6. 2005 . Calculate the new electrical torques for each machine. 4.
316 Power System Transient Stability 140 degrees.14. The analysis. the following criteria is used to determine transient stability: “in order to be stable. the angular difference between all machines (including the machine with the slowest variations) must decrease after the final switching operation simulated. As applied to systems containing several machines. It should be emphasized that the criterion used both in the two machine (-) Machine #2 δ Machine #3 Machine #1 Machine #4 time (+) Figure 6. In both cases. analysis and the multi-machine system is based upon the examination of the first swing of the machine angles. 2005 . the system was shown to be near the stability limit. is called first swing transient stability analysis. if the machines satisfy the criterion on the first swing. it is assumed that. An example of a stable system and an unstable system is shown below in Figure 6. This curve is known as a “swing curve”. More rigorous and complete stability studies conducted upon Draft Date: September 1. it is the relative angle between machines which is important.14 Torque angle versus time curves for a stable four machine system. based upon this principal. This knowledge can be applied directly to the analysis of the angle δ versus time plot. While the angle between the machine’s rotor and a reference axis may be plotted. then the system is transiently stable.
computers indicate that the analysis of the first swing condition is sufficient except for a few cases.15 Torque angle versus time curves for an unstable four machine system. Draft Date: September 1.16.15 and Figure 6. Three Phase Fault 2. for such a situation is shown in Figure 6.9 Types of Faults and Effect on Stability The most severe fault from the viewpoint of transient stability is a solid three phase fault. This fault is the most severe since it reduces the voltage on all phases at the point of the fault to zero and eliminates any transfer of power past this point.Types of Faults and Effect on Stability 317 (-) δ Machine #2 Machine #3 Machine #1 Machine #4 (+) Figure 6. A swing curve. 6. In terms of decreasing severity on most power system. Line to Line Fault 4. 1. 2005 . Double Line to Ground Fault (Machine Neutral Grounded) 3. are the following fault conditions. Line to Ground Fault (Machine Neutral Grounded).
Therefore.318 Power System Transient Stability (-) δ Machine #1 Machine #2 time (+) Figure 6. To partly help answer this question the transient stability power limits versus switching time for a two machine system is shown below.17. Whatever the philosophy used. it is also the least likely to occur. and also to protect the system against instability for all types of faults. Draft Date: September 1. As the switching time gets smaller. Based on this reasoning. the difference between the severity of the faults also gets smaller and in the limit the condition that produces instability is the switching out of the line. The choice of the fault is principally a question of operating philosophy and is intimately associated with the economics of making additional expenditures for the purpose of making a system stable for a type fault which occurs only rarely.16 Swing curve of generator which is initially stable but then ultimately becomes unstable after several swings. and is definitely not the case for Canada or Europe. 2005 . it is a question to be resolved by individual utilities.S. A plot showing the critical clearing time for these four types of faults for a typical machine is shown in Figure 6. This is not true for all companies in the U. most companies in the United States seem to use the three phase fault for transient stability analysis. While the solid three phase fault is the most severe. there is always the question of which fault to use to analyze transient stability.
the subtransient reactance rather than the steady state synchronous reactances. the problem of accurately including the effects of saturation in machine analysis is a formidable one.10 Step by Step Solution Methods Including Saturation Because of the complexity of the magnetic structure of a turbogenerator. The methods which will be discussed here are fairly straightforward and can be readily used in conjunction with the “phasor” equations that have been developed. reactances which limit short circuit currents are definitely influenced by saturation as Draft Date: September 1. Because transient stability deals with situations in which the machine is disturbed rather than at rest (i. 2005 . each of these methods is intended for a specific type of problem.Step by Step Solution Methods Including Saturation 319 Plimit Ppo Line-to-Ground Fault Line-to-Line Fault Double Line-to-Ground Fault Three Phase Fault Switching Time (ts) Figure 6. Various methods of including the effects of saturation have been devised. Generally. the multiple circuits and the varying degrees of saturation which may be encountered in different portions of the machine. 6. in steady state) the saturation of concern deals with the transient reactance and to a lesser extend.e. However.17 Comparison of the power limit for different types of faults as a function of the switching time ts.
It can be seen from this figure that the values of x D' and x D'' vary continuously with the values of the fault current. The degree of saturation must also be specified.320 Power System Transient Stability well. and the fault applied. Because of the complex nature of the saturation effect these reactances are usually calculated and then must be verified by tests. 6.18). if the stator resistance is small. The transient current I D' is determined by the initial voltage and by the transient reactance x D' . The envelope of the fundamental frequency component of short circuit current due to a three phase fault applied at the terminals of an initially unloaded machine is shown in Figure 6. If these reactances are plotted as a function of the transient current I D' a curve similar to that shown below will be determined (Fig. saturation is an important variable. the apparent values of x D' and x D'' will change. x Di'' .18 Envelope of fundamental component of short circuit current resulting from a three phase fault. In fact. The correlation between calculation and test is often disturbingly poor. Consequently. and the rated voltage reacDraft Date: September 1. two specific values of reactance are commonly specified for industrial and utility machines: the rated current reactances x Di' .18. Therefore. As discussed in the previous section on faults. Envelope of ias Id'' Id' Sustained Value Ids time Figure 6. If the initial voltage is changed to a new value. the designation of “saturated” and “unsaturated” have no real meaning in terms of specifying the reactances. the subtransient value of current I Q'' is determined by the initial voltage and the subtransient reactance x D'' . in tests taken to determine these reactances. 2005 .
then for short circuit studies. 2005 . the reactances determined are called the rated voltage values. In addition. When the initial terminal voltage is equal to the rated terminal voltage of the machine. When the initial terminal voltage of the machine is adjusted so that the transient current ID" is equal to the rated current of the machine upon application of the fault. If both rated current and rated voltage reactances are available. the most appropriate reactances would approach the “rated voltage” values. in general. the most appropriate reactances generally would be the rated current reactances. saturated reactances and the usual assumption is that the degree of saturation does not change during this initial period or that the variaDraft Date: September 1. in fact. not very great for the salient pole type of machine. Consequently. tances x Dv' and x Dv'' . the inclusion of the effect of this type of saturation for salient pole machines is of secondary importance. The reactances so determined are designated the rated current values.Step by Step Solution Methods Including Saturation 321 xD ' xD'' 0 1. the quadrature axis substransient reactance x Q'' is also defined with the same two degrees of saturation so that there is calculated a rated current value of quadrature axis reactance x Q'' .0 1/xD' ID' Figure 6. The purpose of pointing out the existence of these definitions of reactance is to emphasize that these quantities are. For voltage rise and voltage dip problems.19 Variation of x D' and x D'' with the transient component of current I D' . The variation of these reactances from their “rated current” value to their “rated voltage” value is.
in terms of magnitudes E I = V S + x DS I S The terminal voltage in per unit is also equal to the per unit field current necessary to produce the same value of terminal voltage at no load measured on the air gap line. Recall that the Potier reactance is essentially equal to the stator leakage reactance. V S = E It Draft Date: September 1. Determination of the Potier reactance is obtained from short circuit current conditions corresponding to an equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 6. The Potier voltage Vp is identified in this dia~ ~ VP VS EI ~ jIDS xP ~ jIDS xDS ~ IS=IDS Figure 6.11 Machine Model Including Saturation In order to develop a technique for representing saturation. Potier voltage (air gap voltage) and excitation voltage. The per unit field excitation current EI is equal to ˜ ˜ E I = V S + jx Ds ˜ S I Since the vectors are co-linear.20 Phasor diagram showing terminal voltage. 6. 2005 .322 Power System Transient Stability tion of the degree of saturation does not change during this initial period or that the variation of the degree of saturation in these reactances is of only secondary importance.20. This is not necessarily a good assumption. gram. in per unit from the open circuit saturation curve. Or. the first step is to obtain the Potier reactance xP .
the actual per unit excitation current E I' necessary to produce EA under this condition. In terms of the synchronous machine phasor diagram and the no load saturation curve the procedure for construction is as follows: 1.77) The term EIs is the difference in field current due to the effect of saturation. From the no load saturation curve for a terminal voltage equal to VP.Machine Model Including Saturation 323 The per unit voltage drop IDSxDS is equal to the per unit excitation required to overcome this voltage drop with zero terminal voltage or. in terms of excitation current EI.21. it is necessary to assume that the MMF necessary to overcome saturation is proportional to EP and that this MMF exists only in the direct axis. 3. ˜Ax = E I DS Iz The per unit field current can be written E I = E Iz + E It Hence. The saturation principally associated with the quadrature axis Draft Date: September 1. the difference between the air gap excitation and the excitation including saturation effects is measured. 2005 (6. 2. and is equal to the difference between the air gap line excitation and the actual no load excitation at a value of per unit terminal voltage equal in magnitude to the voltage behind Potier reactance Vp. The voltage VP which is the voltage behind Potier reactance xP is also determined. E I' = E I + EIsat (6. Since both quadrature and direct axis quantities are used to calculate EP. as well as in the direct axis is recognized. the existence of saturation in the quadrature axis. This difference is equal to EIsat. Test results indicate that for the over excited operating range of a synchronous machine that this approach is entirely reasonable. The quantity EIsat is added directly to EI in order to determine the per unit field current including saturation effects E I' .76) . including saturation is equal to E I = EIz + E It + E Isat or. The quantity EIsat is identified in Figure 6. The quantities in the phasor diagram are determined as discussed previously. To extend this approach directly to power factors other than zero.
The use of Potier reactance. curve arises from saturation of the stator core and teeth. stator teeth. the use of Potier reactance xP is suggested. Unfortunately.324 Power System Transient Stability ~ EQ ~ EI ~ EI' ~ EIsat ~ VP ~ VS ~ jISxP jIQS(xDS-xQS) ~ IS EA VP EIsat EI Figure 6. provides an empirical correction of the saturation MMF obtained from the open circuit saturation curve to allow for load saturation. which is generally greater than the calculated leakage reactance. Most utilize load saturation curves in conjunction with calculations involving leakage reactance (xLS ≅ xP). The direct axis saturation is principally associated with the saturation of the stator core. Even with these methods. 2005 .21 Phasor diagram and saturation identifying the voltage EIsat. and the rotor pole piece. if the no load saturation curve is used. There are more elaborate techniques for representing the effects of saturation. with the correction for the effect of the saturation being applied in the direct axis. The method discussed here basically assumes that the saturation characteristics in both axes are the same. the Draft Date: September 1.
in view of the problems associated with even specifying the no load saturating characteristics at high temperatures. one approach would be to merely substitute x D' for xP in the method just discussed.78) Since the field flux is typically much larger than the stator flux. The choice of methods (Potier reactance or field flux linkages) is mostly a question of the type of machine and the data available. then the degree of saturation is proportional to the magnitude of the flux.21. EI' . The results of calculations using this method agrees quite reasonably with test results for salient pole generators. it can also be used to determine the degree of saturation in the machine. the additional complexity introduced by more elaborate methods.Machine Model Including Saturation 325 test data necessary to calculate Potier reactance is not always available. 2. The voltage proportional to the field flux linkages is E Q' since by definition. if the saturation effects are assumed to take place principally in the other paths taken by the flux linking the field circuit. The use of x D' instead of xLS (leakage reactance) is preferred when using the no load saturation curve.ψ FR x FR (6. To state this differently. x MD E Q' = --------. calculate the change in field current due to saturation EIsat based upon the magnitude of E Q' as shown in Fig. If all of the saturation is assumed to take place in the path of the flux linking the field winding. At any point in time. The method used is as follows: 1. but does not require any “special” reactances other than the usual short circuit reactances ( x D' specifically). and the type of saturation Draft Date: September 1. then the degree of saturation can be assumed to be proportional to the magnitude of the field flux linkages (proportional to E Q' ). In this situation. 2005 . In spite of the existence of the more elaborate techniques for representing the effects of saturation. 6. The quantity EIsat is added directly to EI in order to determine the per unit field current including saturation effects. or under any steady state condition of operation calculate E Q' . Another method for including saturation is very similar to the Potier reactance method. The approach appears to work well for turbine generators (solid pole round rotor machines). Using the no load saturation curve as shown below.
the equations to be solved are: v DS = – ψ QS + r S I DS v QS = ψ DS + r S I QS 1 pe Q' = ------.83) (6. Furthermore. 6.79) (6.326 Power System Transient Stability EA EQ' EIsat EI Figure 6.84) Draft Date: September 1.22 Saturation curve using E Q' to find EIsat characteristics required for their use makes their value questionable.12 Summary-Step-by-Step Method for Calculating Synchronous Machine Transients Neglecting the effects of the damper windings and the DC offset in the stator currents.82) (6.80) (6.81) (6.( E X – E I ) T d0 ψ DS = E I + x DS I DS ψ QS = x QS I QS e Q' = E I – ( x DS – x D' )I DS (6. 2005 . as mentioned previously. the results obtained using the methods discussed here agree reasonably well with test results.
step-by-step until the solution has been carried out far enough in time.Summary-Step-by-Step Method for Calculating Synchronous Machine Transients 327 In situations where e Q' is constant the derivative p e Q' can be set to zero and the equations solved simply as a set of algebraic equations. (6.( T E + T M ) H as described previously. The values of e Q' (0) are determined.86) Draft Date: September 1. These are the values at t = 0+. evaluate the system and machine voltages and currents. The value of EX for any point in time would either be based upon an arbitrary curve of EX versus time. 3. In addition to solving for these “electrical” equations the “mechanical” equations must also be solved requiring integration of the differential equations pδ = – ω r 180f b ∆t pω r = -----------------. 2. The entire process is then repeated. use the phasor equations (or diagrams) to determine the initial value of the system and machine voltages and currents. maintaining e Q' (0) constant. 1.85) (6. 4. The value EI (t=0) is calculated using the above set of equations. 2005 . Using the new values of e Q' at t = ∆t. Using phasor equations (or phasor diagrams) determine the initial conditions of the system prior to the disturbance. 5. including EI (∆t) for each machine. Applying the fault.62). If the effect of the change in e Q' is to taken into account one simply need integrate numerically the differential equation involving e Q' . A solution of a multi-machine problem with varying e Q' would proceed as follows. Evaluate e Q' (∆t) using EI (0) and EX (0) for each machine calculated in step (2). Calculate e Q' (2∆t) for the p e Q' differential equation (Eq. 6. or upon some function relating Ex to the terminal voltage.
328 Power System Transient Stability Draft Date: September 1. 2005 .
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