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Energy Conservation and Security in Wireless Ad Hoc (MANETs) Networks.

Priya J. Sardesai - A-17 Sherry Mathew - A-10

SIES, Nerul

ABSTRACT: security problem in ad hoc network. Distributed sleep scheduling protocol that can be used for implementing synchronous interface sleep for energy conservation in wireless Ad Hoc (MANETs Mobile Ad Hoc Network) networks. schedule among all nodes within a connected partition so that the nodes can turn can communicate during the wake section of the schedule. This case study presents a distributed sleep scheduling protocol and

Central idea of this protocol is to distribute a common sleep-awake cycle their interface off during the sleep section of the agreed upon schedule, and they The main assumption of the ad hoc routing protocols is that all

anticipating nodes do so in good faith and without maliciously disrupting the

operation of the protocol. But, the existence of malicious entities cannot be network the routing function can be disrupted by internal or external attackers.

disregarded in any system, especially in open ones like ad hoc networks. In ad hoc

INTRODUCTION: History:
Defence Forces, to comply with a military framework. The aim was to rapidly deploy a robust, mobile and reactive network, under any circumstances. These networks then proved useful in commercial and industrial fields, first aid operations and exploration missions. Ad hoc networks date back to the Seventies. They were developed by the

WHAT IS AD HOC NETWORK?


A wireless ad-hoc network is a decentralized type of wireless network. The network is ad hoc because it does not rely on a pre-existing infrastructure, such wireless networks. Instead, each node participates in routing by forwarding data dynamically based on the network connectivity. as routers in wired networks or access points in managed (infrastructure) for other nodes, and so the determination of which nodes forward data is made

An ad-hoc network is a self-configuring network of wireless links


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connecting mobile nodes. These nodes may be routers and/or hosts. The mobile nodes communicate directly with each other and without the aid of access points, and therefore have no fixed infrastructure. They form an arbitrary topology, where the routers are free to move randomly and arrange themselves as required.

MANETs: (i.e. Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks.) MANET is a self-configuring


infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless. Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router.

collection of large number of mobile nodes that form temporary network without participating in the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore is willing to forward to packets for other nodes. The characteristics of MANETs such

In simple terms - Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be defined as a

aid of any existing network infrastructure or central access point. Each node

as: dynamic topology, node mobility, provides large number of degree of freedom and self-organizing capability of that make it completely different from other network. Due to the nature of MANETs, to design and development of secure communication environments.

routing is challenging task for researcher in an open and distributed

communication infrastructure or the existing infrastructure is expensive or inconvenient to use. Ad hoc networking allows the devices to maintain connections to the network as well as easily adding and removing devices to and

Ad hoc networking can be applied anywhere where there is little or no

from the network. The set of applications for MANETs is diverse, ranging from large-scale, mobile, highly dynamic networks, to small, static networks that are constrained by power sources. Routing protocols between any pair of nodes within an ad hoc network can be difficult because the nodes can move randomly and can also join or leave the
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network. Most MANET routing protocols are vulnerable to attacks that can freeze the whole network. The main reasons for this difficulty are; "Shared broadcast radio channel, insecure operating environment, lack of central authority, lack of association among nodes, limited availability of resources, and physical vulnerability." The dynamic relationship between the nodes leaves very little opportunity for the nodes to form trust relationships with each other. In an ad-hoc network, nodes must act as both terminals and routers for other nodes. Because there are no dedicated nodes, a secure routing protocol is needed. go in order to be fully functional and commercial, as it has its defects such as security and routing which we will discuss further. a. Table Driven Protocols. b. On Demand Protocols. c. Hybrid Protocols. Ad-hoc Mobile Routing Protocols Existing ad-hoc network routing protocols fall into: Ad hoc networks, also called peer-to-peer networks, still have a long way to

A. Table Driven Routing Protocols, also known as Proactive Protocols, work out routes in the background independent of traffic demands. Each node uses routing

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information to store the location information of other nodes in the network and this information is then used to move data among different nodes in the network. This type of protocol is slow to converge and may be prone to routing loops. disadvantage as they may react to change in the network topology even if no overhead.

These protocols keep a constant overview of the network and this can be a traffic is affected by the topology modification which could create unnecessary Even in a network with little data traffic, Table Driven Protocols will use

limited resources such as power and link bandwidth therefore they might not be Routing is an example of a Table Driven Protocol.

considered an effective routing solution for Ad-hoc Networks. Fisheye State B. On Demand Routing Protocols, also known as Reactive Protocols, establish routes between nodes only when they are required to route data packets. There is no updating of every possible route in the network instead it focuses on routes a destination for which it does not have route information, it starts a route

that are being used or being set up. When a route is required by a source node to discovery process which goes from one node to the other until it arrives at the protocols are generally considered efficient when the route discovery is less

destination or a node in-between has a route to the destination. On Demand frequent than the data transfer because the network traffic caused by the route

discovery step is low compared to the total communication bandwidth. This low mobility. An example of an On Demand Protocol is Dynamic Source Routing.

makes On Demand Protocols more suited to large networks with light traffic and C. Hybrid Routing Protocols combine Table Based Routing Protocols with On establish the best paths to destination networks, and report routing information only when there is a change in the topology of the network. Each node in the network has its own routing zone, the size of which is defined by a zone radius, which is defined by a metric such as the number of hops. Each

Demand Routing Protocols. They use distance-vectors for more precise metrics to

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node keeps a record of routing information for its own zone. Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is an example of a Hybrid routing protocol. For energy conservation we come across Distributed Sleep-synchronization

Protocol. The aim of this protocol is to reduce energy consumption due to idle listening.

which, upon deployment, cooperatively form an infrastructure-less network without any centralized control and service infrastructure. Since MANET nodes typically run from limited energy portable batteries, a critical design issue for

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a group of mobile wireless nodes

future wireless Ad-Hoc networks is the development of suitable communication increasing the operational lifespan of network enabled wireless devices. Energy conservation in a MANET node not only maximizes its own operational lifespan partitioning.

architectures, protocols and services that reduce power consumption, thereby

but it can also help maximize the network lifespan and defer network In addition to essential energy consumption due to transmissions and

receptions, there are three main sources of non-essential energy consumption. The second source is collision. Collisions result in retransmissions and hence an

The first source is overhearing where a node receives traffic not destined to it. increase in energy expenditure. The third source, which we highlighted here, is idle listening, which corresponds to energy consumption when a wireless interface is in an idle state that is neither transmitting nor receiving.

traffic. Interface hardwares, the power consumption during idle listening is quite significant and is often comparable to the consumption rate during reception. Protocol that reduces energy consumption due to idle listening by using a

Even in idle state an interface must be up and ready to receive possible

distributed sleep-synchronization algorithm for maintaining a common off during the sleep section of the synchronized schedule, and they can

network-wide sleep schedule. Once synchronized, nodes can turn their interface

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communicate during the wake section of the schedule. By turning the interface off, the nodes can avoid energy consumption due to idle listening. MANETs has shows distinct characteristics, such as: o Weaker in Security o Battery life o Device size limitation o Dynamic topology

o Bandwidth and slower data transfer rate MANETs has shows distinct security goals, such as: Authentication Integrity

Confidentiality

Non-Repudiation

Distributed Sleep-synchronization Protocol:


listening. This is achieved by making use of a concept of periodic sleep and wake The aim of this protocol is to reduce energy consumption due to idle

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cycles that are synchronized across each neighbor pairs in the network. To wake schedule so that their interfaces can sleep during the sleep period and they mechanism, it is expected that during low loading situations the idle listening typically has much lower power ratings.

explain it further, any pair of neighbor nodes will maintain asynchronies sleepcan execute protocol for data transaction during the wake period. With this consumption will be significantly slashed by putting interfaces to sleep states that The energy savings of this protocol depends on the wake-sleep duty cycle,

which can be defined as the wake duration normalized by the total cycle

duration. The wake-sleep duty cycle will also determine the sustainable loading their loading requirements. Higher duty cycles can handle higher loads at the cost of lower idle energy savings.

range, and it should be appropriately dimensioned based on the applications and

Sync Agent runs in each node and it handles all sleep-synchronization related
functions including distributed schedule maintenance and instructing the schedule. wireless interface hardware to sleep and wake up according to the converged An implicit assumption of our protocol is that all nodes within a network

The proposed distributed algorithm is implemented within a Sync Agent. A

are required to use the same wake-sleep cycle duration and duty cycle. The duty cycle should be chosen depending on the network loading conditions and the cycle duration should be dictated by the sleep-to-wakeup latency overhead of the wireless interface card. We assume that the cycle duration and duty cycle parameters are either manually configured or dynamically determined across the network using an offline mechanism.

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SECURITY PROBLEM WITH EXISTING AD HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS:


is that all anticipating nodes do so in good faith and without maliciously The main assumption of the previously presented ad hoc routing protocols

disrupting the operation of the protocol [19]. However, the existence of malicious entities cannot be disregarded in any system, especially in open ones like ad hoc networks. In ad hoc network the routing function can be disrupted by internal or

external attackers. An internal attacker can be any legitimate participant of the routing protocol. An external attacker is defined as any other entity. Cryptographic solutions can be employed to prevent the impact of external

attackers by mutual authentication of the participating nodes through digital signature schemes. However, the underlying protocols should also be considered since an attacker could manipulate a lower level protocol to interrupt a security mechanism in a higher level. Internal attackers having capability to complete access the communication link they are able to advertise false routing information at will and force arbitrary routing decisions on their peers.

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Security:

Security Goals:

Authentication Confidentially Integrity Low power consumption Availability

Non-repudiation Generally, when considering the security of a network, we examine it under the headings; availability, confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation. Availability refers to the fact that the network must remain operational at all times despite denial of service attacks.

Confidentiality ensures that certain information is never disclosed to

certain users. Authentication is the ability of a node to identify the node

with which it is communicating. Integrity guarantees that a message is never


corrupted when transferred. Non-repudiation states that the sender of the message cannot deny having sent it. An ad-hoc network has extra security relationship between the nodes in the network. requirements caused by its lack of proper infrastructure and the dynamic

determine as there is - no central authority which can be referenced when it comes to making trust decisions on other parties in the network."

Because of the lack of infrastructure, accountability is very difficult to

Denial of Service Attacks


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Vulnerability:
secure boundary in the mobile ad hoc network, which can be compared with the clear line of defence in the traditional wired network. The meaning of this vulnerability is self-evident: there is not such a clear

freedom to join, leave and move inside the network. Lack of secure boundaries makes the mobile ad hoc network susceptible to the attacks. Due to this mobile ad

This vulnerability originates from the nature of the mobile ad hoc network:

hoc network suffers from all-weather attacks, which can come from any node that is in the radio range of any node in the network, at any time, and target to attacks that can jeopardize the mobile ad hoc network, which make it even harder for the nodes in the network to resist the attacks. any other node(s) in the network. To make matters worse, there are various link

Active attacks

Current routing protocols are exposed to two types of attacks:


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Active Attacks

Passive attacks

SIES, Nerul

that bear some energy cost in order to perform the attacks. Active attacks involve Fabrication, Wormhole Attack, Modification, Denial of Service, Sinkholes etc.

Active attacks are the attacks that are performed by the malicious nodes

some modification of data stream or creation of false stream. E.g.: Spoofing,

Spoofing: Spoofing occurs when a malicious node misrepresents its identity in order to alter the vision of the network topology that a benign node can gather.

Assumed Route

A
Actual Route

Attacker Fabrication: The notation fabrication is used when referring to attacks performed by generating false routing messages. Such kind of attacks can be of fabricated routing error messages, which claim that a neighbor can no longer be contacted. difficult to identify as they come as valid routing constructs, especially in the case

Wormhole Attack: An attacker records packets at one location in the network and

tunnels them to another location. Routing can be disrupted when routing control messages are tunneled. This tunnel between two colluding attackers is referred as a wormhole. Wormhole attacks are severe threats to MANET routing protocols.

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Modification: The attacker performs such attacks is targeted to integrity of data, by altering packet or modifying packets.

Sinkholes: In a sinkhole attack, a compromised node tries to attract the data to it from all neighboring nodes. So, practically, the node eavesdrops on all the data that is being communicated between its neighboring nodes.

Passive Attacks

instead try to extract the valuable information like node hierarchy and network

In passive attacks the attacker does not perturb the routing protocol,

topology from it. Passive attack is in nature of monitoring transmission. The goal of opponent is to obtained information that is being transmitted. Passive attacks are very difficult to detect because they do not involve any alteration of data. E.g.: Eavesdropping, traffic analysis, monitoring etc.

SECURE AD HOC ROUTING:


protocol for mobile ad hoc network, in order to offer protection against the completely new stand-alone protocol or in some cases incorporation of security There exist several proposals that attempt to architect a secure routing

attacks. There are several solutions proposed by researcher they are either mechanism into existing one like DSDV and AODV. Cryptography is one of the solutions for analysis of problem and protection of confidentiality of messages i.e. Solution based on Symmetric cryptography, solution based on Asymmetric cryptography and Hybrid solution.

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The future of ad hoc networks


they're practical, versatile, simple, easy to use and inexpensive! We will be living connected anywhere we go. Mobile ad hoc networks are the future of wireless networks. Why? Because

in a world where our network instantly updates and reconfigures itself to keep us These networks provide a new approach for wireless communication and With the current trend of society's demand for information at our

by operating in a license free frequency band prove to be relatively inexpensive.

fingertips, we will see our future living environments requiring communication networks between the many devices we use in day to day living, allowing them to talk to each other.

being able to receive instant messages from a home device. Such as a refrigerator sending a message to a PDA to update its shopping list; notifying that it's run out finished or the chickens cooked. of milk. Or washing machines and ovens sending a report to say the clothes are Likewise, in education ad hoc networks may be deployed for student

For example devices like personal digital assistants and mobile phones

laptops interacting with the lecturer during classes. Also wireless public access

for dense urban areas (Nokia RoofTopT): A wireless broadband solution for diagram below

residential markets, based on a multi-hop Ad-Hoc (mesh) networking. [5] See

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Nokia Roof Top Wireless Routing

WAND (Wireless Ad hoc Network for Dublin)

Wireless Ad hoc Network for Dublin, is underway. WAND is a project that is

Closer to home, in Trinity College Dublin itself, the WAND venture,

currently in progress to aid research in the area of ad-hoc networks. The project is run by the Distributed Systems Group of Trinity College, in collaboration with Media Lab Europe.

and applications, covering a 2km route from Trinity to Media Lab Europe. See

WAND is arranged as a large scale test bed for ad-hoc networks protocols

diagram below.

PCs. Along this stretch, the embedded PCs will be placed in apartments, shops, on traffic lights and in phone booths providing a minimum level of connectivity. is constantly available and the embedded PCs can be configured to create a variety of network models. The PCs form a sparse population of wireless network nodes. This sparse coverage

This route will be routed with custom-built wireless-enabled embedded

via the implementation of mobile nodes.

Other devices with wireless connectivity may also connect to the network

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2km route from Trinity to MLE

future. Due to the network not requiring any base station makes them

Many factors lead us to believe that ad-hoc is the wireless network of the

indispensable in disaster relief situations or military war zones. Also energy issues have moved us from using a single long wireless link (as in cellular) to a mesh of short links (as in ad hoc networks). To sum up, ad-hoc networks will be the future of our wireless networks.

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Conclusion:
After researching Ad-hoc networks in depth, we believe that they will be the future of wireless networking. It is true that performance suffers as the and manage. However, much time is being devoted to achieving routing stability, number of devices grows and large ad-hoc networks become difficult to route and a few technical issues need to be solved before they become common place. The area of ad hoc networks is a very fast growing area, and due to the vast into a world of their own. research in them, we are seeing these problems disappear and they are coming

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