COMMERCIAL LOAD

ESTIMATING

Load Estimating
Level 3:
Block and
Zone Loads

Technical Development Program

S. sell or apply HVAC equipment in commercial applications. NY CARRIER CORPORATION Carrier Parkway Syracuse. Block and zone load estimates provide the data necessary to select heating and cooling equipment that can condition the spaces within a building. . Along with psychrometrics. and followed by a TDP that reviews refinements required for preparing system-based design load estimates. without the express written permission of Carrier Corporation. load estimating establishes the foundation upon which HVAC system design and operation occur. © 2006 Carrier Corporation. It is preceded by overview and fundamentals topics. the HVAC system equipment selections can be made to complete the design. system design. electronic or mechanical. Carrier is not responsible for any uses made of this information and assumes no responsibility for the performance or desirability of any resulting system design. The modules within each group begin at an introductory level and progress to advanced levels. Although TDP topics have been developed as stand-alone modules. The information in this manual is offered as a general guide for the use of industry and consulting engineers in designing systems. equipment selection and application topics. Judgment is required for application of this information to specific installations and design applications. NY 13221.Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory. Level 3: Block and Zone Loads is the third in a four-part series on load estimating. The block and zone load portion of commercial load estimating takes the designer through the process of making a practical estimate of the amount of heating and/or cooling energy needed to condition a building. They are targeted at engineers and designers who wish to develop their knowledge in this field to effectively design. The breadth of this offering allows for customization into a complete HVAC curriculum – from a complete HVAC design course at an introductory-level or to an advancedlevel design course. All rights reserved. Advanced-level modules assume prerequisite knowledge and do not review basic concepts. Printed in Syracuse. for any purpose. U. The information in this publication is subject to change without notice. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means.A. specify. there are logical groupings of topics. Using the outputs for the building block and zone load estimates. Load Estimating.

..................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Fundamental Terminology ................................................................................................... 1616 Elevation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1414 Dew Point / Mean Coincident Dry Bulb and Humidity Ratio ............................................................................................... 33 Step 6 – Run Load Calculations................................................................. 33 Step 5 – Input HVAC System Parameters .............................................................................................................. 2626 ....................................................................................... 1818 Electric Equipment ............................. 1616 Thermostat Set Points ........................................................................ 1111 Usage Zoning Method ................................................................................ 2020 Internal Load Scheduling .......................................................................................................................................... 77 Example Building – Chicago Office Building ............ 2323 Step 4 – Control Zoning .....................................................................................................................................2323 Zoning for Comfort ........................................................... 1313 Sources ...................................................................... 2525 System Loads ........................................................................................2525 System Types ................................................................... 1515 Mean Daily Range ............................................................................................................................ 1515 Heating Dry Bulb ...................................................................................................................... 99 Step 2 – Preliminary Equipment Zoning .................................... 2121 Hourly Scheduling .......................................... 2222 Latent Sources......................... 1414 Wet Bulb / Mean Coincident Dry Bulb ....... 33 Step 2 – Preliminary Equipment Zoning ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Step 3 – Input Space Data ................................................................................................................................ 2020 Electric Motors ................................................................................................................................................... 2424 Step 5 – Input HVAC System Parameters ................................................................. 2222 Chicago Office Building Input Review . 1717 People...................................................................................................................................Table of Contents Introduction.............................................................................................. 1212 Step 3 –Input Space Data ...................................................................................................................................................... 1515 Humidity Ratio ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1010 Perimeter / Core Zoning Method ...................................................................................................... 2222 Thermostat Scheduling ............................................................................. 99 Building Take-Off............................................................................................................... 1010 Exposure Zoning Method ............... 2020 Partitions .......................................................... 1515 Latitude and Longitude .......1010 Zoning Methods ..................................................................... 33 Step 1 – Gather Building Information ..................... 11 Load Estimating Process Overview ..................................................................... 77 Building Take-Off...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2323 Balancing Comfort and Economics ................................................................................................................................. 1919 Plug Load Usage Diversity ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2121 Diversity Factors ....................... 44 Step 7 – Interpret Results..... 1515 Prevailing Wind Speed .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Step 1 – Gather Building Information................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1919 Load Factors ................................................... 1616 Lighting ....................... Revise if Necessary ........................................................................... 1414 Dry Bulb / Mean Coincident Wet Bulb ....... 33 Step 4 – Control Zoning.........................................................................................1212 Outdoor Design Conditions ......................................................................................................

... 3939 Load Estimate Outputs for Equipment Selection ............ 5151 Appendix D –Thermal Resistances of Plane Air Spaces ................ 3232 Design Check Figure Review ....... 5454 Appendix F – Table of Design Conditions .............................................. 2929 Select Reports for Viewing and Printing .............................................. 3838 Coil Process Line ................................................................ 6565 Appendix I – Chicago Office Building Load Estimate Inputs and Outputs ............................................................................................................................................................. 2929 Air System Sizing Summary .................................................................... 3535 Creeping Safety Factor................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4343 Work Session 1 Answers............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3232 Peak Load Times....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5858 Appendix G – HVAC Design Check Figures ............................................................................................................................................................ 2929 Review Inputs and File Take-Off Sheets .................................................................. 3131 Hourly Zone Loads ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4848 Appendix C – Carrier’s E-20A and E-10A Manual Estimating Forms .................................................................................................................................................................. 5353 Appendix E – Typical Thermal Properties of Common Building and Insulating Materials ........................................................................................................................ 3636 Plotting Outputs on the Psychrometric Chart ............................................................................. 3131 System Psychrometrics Table ................ 3737 State Points........................... 4040 Summary .......... 6868 References .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2727 Step 6 – Run Load Calculations ........... 4747 Appendix B – Carrier’s Block Load 4.............. 3434 System Load Sensitivity................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8080 .................................................................. 3131 Hourly Air System Loads ......................................................................................................... 3939 Gains and Losses Off of the RSHF Line......................................................................... 2727 Direct Exhaust ................................................................................................................................ 7979 Glossary ................................ 4040 Work Session 1 .................................................................... 3838 Room Sensible Heat Factor (RSHF) Line............................................................................0 Space Input Sheets ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3131 Ventilation Sizing Summary .............................................................................................................................................. 4646 Appendix A – Terms List ................................................................... 6262 Appendix G – HVAC Design Check Figures ............................................................................................................................. 4141 Work Session 2 ....................................... 3131 Step 7 – Interpret Results.... 4545 Work Session 2 Answers......................................... 3131 Archive Project to a Back-Up Location ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3030 System Psychrometric Graph ........................ 3535 Resulting Relative Humidity ........................... 3030 Zone Design Load Summary .................................... 3030 System Design Load Summary ........ 6363 Appendix H – Chicago Weather Reports ............................................................................................................ Revise If Needed ....Ventilation Versus Infiltration ...................................

LEVEL 3: BLOCK AND ZONE LOADS Introduction This Technical Development Program (TDP) training module is the third in a four-part series covering Commercial HVAC Load Estimating. This module focuses primarily on computer-based load estimating methods. this TDP concentrates on the actual steps necessary to perform a load estimate. is presented in detail in the System Design Manual. The manual method using Carrier’s Cooling Load Estimate Form E-20A and Heating Load Estimate Form E-10A. Figure 1 Manual Load Estimate Form Figure 2 shows inputs and outputs of a computer software load-estimating program.LOAD ESTIMATING. Whether you are using a software program or doing a quick manual load calculation. Figure 2 Load Estimating Software Inputs and Outputs Commercial Load Estimating 1 . T200-90. many of the preliminary steps are similar. While the first module mostly covered load components and theory. Figure 1 shows a portion of a manual load calculation form. Load Estimating Using Load Factors and Equivalent Temperatures. Book One and the supplemental User’s Guide.

A 20-story high-rise with 10. We will then interpret outputs from computerized load calculations. At the earlier schematic stage. This introduction section contains a brief overview of the load estimating process. One might ask. This TDP will explain the procedures and steps necessary to gather the data needed to calculate load estimates using computer software. The building design phases are shown in Figure 3. ventilation and air conditioning) systems from further consideration.000 sq ft per floor could be “ball-park” sized at 500 tons. Subsequent sections contain expanded details about each of the seven steps involved. the HVAC designer can begin to compile the detailed information necessary to perform a load estimate for equipment sizing and selection. and see how they affect equipment selection. along with appropriate examples to further explain the effort involved. This generally occurs during the design development (DD) phase of the project. Likewise. roof. but rather would use a rooftop unit or DX (direct expansion) split-system.Building Design Phases ment (plug loads).LOAD ESTIMATING. and internal load components such as Figure 3 lights. shading. wall. “Why are we thinking about system types now. people and electrical equip.000 sq ft single story office (10. 20 stories  10. when we have not even calculated detailed load estimates yet?” This is because system selection and load estimating are not done in a vacuum. rough loads are computed to help eliminate certain HVAC (heating. Commercial Load Estimating 2 . This information includes. but is not limited to: local design weather conditions. a chilled water system would be more appropriate for this application. Instead. We will discuss the different ways to zone a building that yield the sizing results needed to do proper equipment selections. which is divided into seven distinct steps. a 10. solar exposures. System Information Knowing what type of system is likely to go into the building helps determine system load components when running DD load estimates. Loads impact system selection and system types affect final load results.000ft 2 / floor  400ft 2 / ton  500 tons This means that it is unlikely that packaged equipment (rooftop units or split-systems) will be used.000  400 = 25 tons) would likely not utilize a chiller. due to the large installed capacity and distance to the roof equipment location. let’s use the well-established 400 ft2 per ton design check figure for an office building. For example. and glass material properties. LEVEL 3: BLOCK AND ZONE LOADS Once the building orientation and envelope design have been finalized by the architect.

Step 4 – Control Zoning At this step. internal and external heat gains. Similarly. and roofs). Even at this early stage. additional system decisions may be made. the ventilation air design decisions are different than when using central systems using mixing boxes. LEVEL 3: BLOCK AND ZONE LOADS Load Estimating Process Overview The process of load estimating is not always linear. if you know that you are going to use zone-level equipment. the designer combines spaces into comfort control zones (areas with similar heating and cooling load characteristics). a high-rise building will likely utilize all-air or all-water central systems. occupancy. windows. Commercial Load Estimating 3 . like PTACs or unit ventilators. Each piece of equipment needs to be sized. occupancy counts.LOAD ESTIMATING. and usage schedules. This could include the use of either VAV (variable air volume) terminals or a damper control system like a VVT® (variable volume and temperature) system. For instance. For instance. you will eventually need to decide how to achieve zone-level control from a single packaged unit. Additional system decisions will be affected. Step 1 – Gather Building Information This step includes performing a building take-off and gathering all physical data about the building structure. These include all building envelope properties (walls. This allows proper identification of all load components and facilitates the sizing and layout of terminal units and ductwork. based on the demands of the zone heating and cooling loads. For instance. system selection decisions should be far enough along to permit meaningful load estimating input. the following steps are necessary to perform a load estimate. if you know that you are going to use a multiple-zone system served by packaged rooftop equipment. These early zones are rough areas that are mostly based on air handler coverage. function. while a small restaurant or retail store would likely use small packagedtype equipment. as a general rule. Step 2 – Preliminary Equipment Zoning The building floor plan is divided into individual areas or spaces for load analysis purposes. Step 3 – Input Space Data The space data is needed for the software to run the load estimating calculations. Step 5 – Input HVAC System Parameters During preliminary design. and operating schedules. however. there would be no ceiling plenum effects or duct heat transfer. layout.

For example. LEVEL 3: BLOCK AND ZONE LOADS Step 6 – Run Load Calculations Hopefully. internal space loads.LOAD ESTIMATING. Figure 4 Cooling Load Components Commercial Load Estimating 4 . and system loads. Each group has been covered in detail in TDP-301. System modeling concepts can help pin down these problems and help the user make necessary corrections. Appendix A contains a terms list for the abbreviations found in Figure 4. This includes a complete psychrometric analysis to identify all state points and performance lines in the air system. Fundamental Terminology Load estimates are the summation of heat transfer elements into (gains) or out of (losses) the spaces of a building. Load components represent sensible and latent heat transfers (in Btuh) from many different sources. they must be accurate and realistic. Taking the extra time required to write down the input values allows you to check and verify the data. Level 2: Fundamentals. It also offers the added advantage of creating a paper trail for others to follow should another designer have to pick up where you left off and complete the design. Consult TDP-303. Load Estimating. For this step. Each of these steps is covered in detail in the sections that follow. See Figure 4. blank input forms were used to compile your design load inputs. for details in this application area of load estimating. Each heat transfer element is called a load component. therefore. Load Estimating. Load estimate outputs are used to select most of the HVAC equipment. as part of Step 3. Revise if Necessary Using HVAC design check figures and rules-of-thumb sizing guidelines allow you to verify that calculation results are within a reasonable tolerance level. the run parameters are set and the computer is used to complete the run load calculations. Step 7 – Interpret Results. calculated results requiring very cold supply air or very warm return air temperatures are red flags indicating a possible humidity control problem or software input error. Level 4: HVAC System-Based Design. but first we will present fundamental terminology and zoning concepts. All load components can be assembled into one of three basic groups: external space loads.

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