You are on page 1of 41

POWER STEERING

SHAILENDRA A
CDB0912004 Module Code: AEL 2515 Module Title: Control systems Engineering. Module Leader: K Vishwanath Reddy

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Marking
Head Technical Content Grasp and Understanding Delivery Technical and General Aspects Handling Questions Total Maximum 5 5 5 5 20 Score

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Introduction
It is the system used for directional change of an automobile It connects rotary motion of steering wheel into angular moment to turn vehicle into particular direction

This system is connected with front wheels of vehicles and


back wheels in some heavy vehicles making it 4 wheel steering

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Types of powered steering


Hydraulic powered steering Electronic powered steering

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Hydraulic powered steering


Hydraulic power steering (HPS) system uses high pressure fluids for assisting the steering movement which uses the

engine's power as a drive source

Figure 1 Hydraulic Power steering


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Electronic powered steering


Electronic powered steering uses an electric motor to drive

steering linkage directly.


The power steering mechanism is therefore independent of engine speed, resulting in significant energy saving.

Figure 2 Electronic powered steering


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Steering system components


Steering wheel- column and shaft - driver inputs Steering gear - changes direction - rotating steering motion into linear motion Steering linkage - connects steering gear to steering arms

Ball joints - allows movement of steering components and


suspension

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

HPS vs EPS

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Steering gear systems


Recirculating ball Rack and pinion

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

Recirculating ball type


Uses balls on a worm gear Has a pitman arm

Balls inside the gear ride inside guide paths


Uses a Parallelogram Linkage steering arm system Pitman arm moves steering tie rods

Figure 3 Recirculating ball


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

10

Rack and pinion


Fewer moving parts than the recirculating ball Smaller and more compact

Figure 4 Rack and Pinion


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

11

Steering ratio
Steering ratio is a measurement of how many turns that a steering wheel takes to go from a full lock to the other full lock Basically how many turns from all the way from left to right Also measured from the center (straight) to a full lock turn Fast ratio is 2-3 turns lock to lock Slow is about 4 or 5 times lock to lock

15:1 ratio wheels move 15deg for 1 degree of steering


wheel movement
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

12

Ackerman Steering Geometry


Basic layout for passenger cars, trucks, and ag tractors o = outer steering angle and i = inner steering angle R= turn radius L= wheelbase and t=distance between tires
o i

Center of Gravity

R i o

Turn Center

Figure 1.1. Pivoting Spindle

Figure 5 Ackerman Steering geometry


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

13

Block Diagram

CAN

Figure 6 Block Diagram


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

14

Components
MDPSCM(Motor Driven Power Steering Control module) Motor Steering Angle sensor Steering Torque sensor Steering Column Power source

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

15

Steering Column

Figure 7 Steering Shaft


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

16

Motor Specification
Nominal current - 78A Nominal Torque - 3.7NM

Nominal Speed 1000RPM


Type used : Brushless Motor

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

17

Working

Working of EPS
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

18

Working
Driver steers the steering wheel Torsion bar detects the distortion of tyre and steering column

Torque sensor detects the distortion of torsion bar


The light is radiated from the element through light gun on to the disks

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

19

Working

Working of EPS- Light detection


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

20

Working
The shadow generated by light transmitted is detected by linear array( receiving element) At this time the distorted amount of torsion bar makes the difference in the shadow on to the disks

The linear array detects the shadow to detect whether it is left


turn or right turn

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

21

Working- MDPSCM

Working of EPS- Data sharing


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

22

Averaging the detected values of the torque senor, the average is sent to the MDPSCM

MDPSCM controls the motor current based on the calculated


values

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

23

Calibration

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

24

Over heat mechanism/Advanced system

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

25

Type of region

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

26

Vehicle equipped with ABS

Vehicle speed from right wheel speed sensor


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

27

Vehicle without ABS

Vehicle speed from Engine ECM


M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

28

Diagnostic Codes

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

29

Mechanical system

Figure 7
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

30

Jh- assembly rotary inertia of steering wheel and input shaft Jm is the equivalent rotary inertia of power motor armature shaft

and reducer driving gear


Jr is the equivalent rotary inertia of steering mechanism and front tire h- Steering wheel angle p- steering pinion angle

m- power armature shaft angle


f-Front tyre angle

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

31

Th- Input torque of steering wheel Ts- Measured value of torque sensor

Tm- Input torque of power motor


Ta- Actual assisting torque Tr- Steering resistive torque equivalent to steering shaft Ks- Rigidity co efficient of twisting rod Ka- Motor electromagnetic torque coefficient

Bh- Damping coefficient of steering input shaft


Bm- Damping coefficient of motor armature shaft

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

32

Br- Equivalent damping coefficient of steering mechanism and front tyre G1- Reduction ratio from motor to steering shaft G2- Reduction ratio from steering pinion to front wheel

I- Motor current

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

33

EPS differential equations

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

34

EPS differential equations


The motor current is proportional to the measured value of
torque sensor. It is given by I = KTs = KKs (h - p) But taking into account the effects of the motor inertia, damping and friction, a compensatory current is added to

the motor current.


The compensated current is modeled as:

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

35

Transfer function
Under normal driving condition, the steering system keeps

transferring the impression of the contact conditions between


the tires and road to the hand wheel, then the driver feels the force feedback.

This is what called road feeling. It is considered to be a very

important factor because it acts directly on the drivers hands


and the driver determines his/her actions based on this force.
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

36

Transfer function
For studying the road feeling, we propose a method that a

steering wheel is set in a fixed mode


The mode corresponds to the actual driving conditions that the driver is holding the steering wheel tightly

When the wheel set with a fixed mode, the mathematical


model of the hand wheel as Th = Ts = - Ksp

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

37

Transfer function
From equation 7

The transfer function from the steering resistance torque to

the steering wheel torque can be obtained as

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

38

Conclusion
Hydraulic power steering is a primitive technology used for decades and has improved a lot with time.

Hydraulic power steering are speed sensitive and work


better than the older hydraulic power steering. Electric Power Steering gives better response at different speeds as compared to Hydraulic Power Steering Electric Power Steering is better than Hydraulic Power

steering in terms of maintenance, mileage and simplicity


and widely used nowadays in all automobiles based on applications
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

39

References
XueWu Ji, XiaoPing Ma, KuiYuan Chen, Experimental study on EPS system performance, Journal of Jiangsu University (National Science Edition), 25(2):116-119, 2004. http://www.csuohio.edu/engineering/ece/research/theses/2010/Kandula%20Pr asanth%20Babu.pdf http://am.delphi.com/pdf/techpapers/1999-01-0399.PDF http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5203081&url=http%3 A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5203 081

http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:23027
http://www.jofcis.com/publishedpapers/2012_8_1_65_72.pdf http://tos.pp.fi/koukku/892403.pdf
M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

40

Thank You

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies

41