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ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS Todays Objectives: a) Explain mechanics / statics b) Apply problem-solving strategies c) Discuss fundamental concepts d) Work

with two types of units

READING QUIZ 1. The subject of mechanics deals with what happens to a body when ______ is / are applied to it. A) a magnetic field D) neutrons B) heat E) lasers C) forces

2. 2 ________________ still remains the basis of most of today s todays engineering sciences. A) Newtonian Mechanics C) Greek Mechanics B) Relativistic Mechanics C) Euclidean Mechanics

WHAT IS MECHANICS? Study of what happens to a thing (the technical name is BODY) when FORCES are applied to it. BODY ) it Either the body or the forces can be large or small.

BRANCHES OF MECHANICS

Mechanics

Rigid Bodies (Things that do not change shape) ( g g p )

Deformable Bodies (Things that do change shape) ( g g p )

Fluids

Statics

Dynamics

Incompressible

Compressible

PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY IPE: A 3 Step Approach 1. Interpret: Read carefully and determine what is given and p y g what is to be found/ delivered. Ask, if not clear. If necessary, make assumptions and indicate them. 2. Plan: Think about major steps (or a road map) that you will take to solve a given problem. Think of alternative/creative solutions and choose the best one.

3. 3 Execute: Carry out your steps. Use appropriate diagrams and steps equations. Estimate your answers. Avoid simple calculation mistakes. Reflect on and then revise your work, if necessary. k

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Numbers and Calculations Must have dimensional homogeneity. Dimensions have to be the same on both sides of the equal sign, (e.g. distance = sign (e g speed time.) Use an appropriate number of significant figures (3 for answer, at least 4 for intermediate calculations). Be consistent when rounding off. - greater than 5, round up (3528 3530) g eate t a ou d (35 8 - smaller than 5, round down (0.03521 0.0352)

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Space: Our 3D universe Velocity: Rate of change in position (m/s) Acceleration: Rate of change in velocity (m/s2) Newton s Newtons Laws: First Law: Sum of forces acting on a particle = 0, Velocity is constant Newtons 2nd Law relates them: F = m * a We use this equation to develop systems of units. units Units are arbitrary names we give to the physical quantities. Third L Thi d Law: Two particles exert equal and opposite forces on T ti l t l d it f each other

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Newtonian Gravitation: F = Gm1m2/r2


Where, g p F= force of gravitation between two particles G= universal constant of gravitation m= mass of the particles r = distance between the particles

Weight = mg Where g is acceleration due to gravity at sea level. (9.81 m/s2 or 32.2 ft/s2)

UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Four fundamental physical quantities (or dimensions) L th Length Mass Time Force Newtons 2nd Law relates them: F = m * a We use this equation to develop systems of units Units are arbitrary names we give to the physical quantities

UNIT SYSTEMS Force, mass, time and acceleration are related by Newtons 2nd law. Three of these are assigned units (called base units) and th fourth unit is derived. Which one is derived varies by d the f th it i d i d Whi h i d i d i b the system of units. We will work with two unit systems in statics: International System (SI) U.S. Customary (USCS)

UNIT SYSTEMS

COMMON CONVERSION FACTORS Work problems in the units given unless otherwise instructed!

Can you convert a force value of 47 lb into SI units? y Answer is 209.06 N

CONCEPT QUIZ 1. Evaluate the situation in which mass (kg), force (N), and length (m) are the base units and recommend one of the following. A) A new system of units will have to be formulated. ) f i ill h b f l d B) Only the unit of time have to be changed from second to something else. C) No changes are required. D) The above situation is not feasible.

ATTENTION QUIZ 1. For a statics problem your calculations show the final answer as 12345.6 N. 12345 6 N What will you write as your final answer? A) 12345.6 N D) 12 3 kN 12.3 B) 12.3456 kN E) 123 kN C) 12 kN

2. In the three t 2 I th th step approach to problem solving called IPE, ht bl l i ll d IPE what does P stand for? A) Position D) Practical B) Plan E) Possible C) Problem