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1815

1914

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2004

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1. 1815................................................4
2. .........6
2.1 ......................................................................6
2.2 .................................................................................................6
2.3 ........................................................................................................7
2.4 ...............................................................................................7
2.5 .................................................................................................................8
2.5.1 1820................................................................................................8
2.5.2 1830................................................................................................8
2.5.3 1848 - ...........................................................................................9
2.6 . .............................................................10
2.7 ...........................................................................10
2.8 1871-1890: . ....................................................10
2.9 .........................................................................................11

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(1500-2000 )

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1815 1914,
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1. 1815

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(1856) (1878)6.
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1 Bernstein Serge, Milza Pierre: - ,
1815-1919, , 1997, . 18-19
2 . . : 1789-1945
, , 2001, . 80
3 Dan Berindei: , , Maurice Aymard (.),
, , ( '), , 2003, . 224
4 . : : ,
, 1997, . 41
5 Berindei, . 227
6 , . 41-43
7 20 1815
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status quo8.
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of Europe)
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1818 , ,
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: : , 1789-1989,
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2.
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1815-1914
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2.1 .
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2.2 .

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12 Berindei, . 223
13 : , ' , , 1999, .
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15 E. J. Hobsbawm: 1789-1848, ...., 2000, . 147
16 , . 93-94
17 Bernstein-Milza, . 23
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2.3

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2.4 .
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18 Bernstein-Milza, . 32-33
19 Bernstein-Milza, . 30-31
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2.5 .
1820-1848
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2.5.2 1830
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20 Bernstein-Milza, . 32-37
21 Bernstein-Milza (Bernstein-Milza, . 47),
. Berindei
1848 (Berindei, 228).
22 Bernstein-Milza, . 32-37
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2.5.3 1848 - .
1848
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23
24
25
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, . 152
Berindei, . 228
Berindei, . 228
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, . 194
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2.6 .
, 1848,
1851 1852,
1815.

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28.

2.7 .
1871, :
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29,
30.
1871,
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31.

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32.

2.8 1871-1890: .
,
28
29
30
31
32

Bernstein-Milza, . 108-114, . 53-54


, . 271
, . 45
Bernstein-Milza, . 148-150
Bernstein-Milza, . 141
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.
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status quo,

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181537. ' ,
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2.9
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1890
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33 Gilbert Trausch: , , Maurice
Aymard (.), , , ( '), , 2003, . 275
34 Bernstein-Milza, . 150-151
35 , . 54
36 , . 346-348
37 , . 344
38 Trausch, . 276
39 Bernstein-Milza, . 247
40 Bernstein-Milza, . 249
41 Bernstein-Milza, . 249-262
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,
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42 Trausch, . 282-289
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1815 1914
status quo .
, status quo
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43,
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19 (
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44.
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43 , . 329
44 , . 360
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1. Bernstein Serge, Milza Pierre:


1815-1919, , 1997
2. : , ' , ,
1999
3. . . : 1789-1945
, , 2001
4. Dan Berindei: , , Maurice Aymard (.),
, , ( '), , 2003
5. . : : ,
, 1997
6. : : ,
1789-1989, , , 2000
7. E. J. Hobsbawm: 1789-1848, ...., 2000
8. Gilbert Trausch: , ,
Maurice Aymard (.), , , ( '),
, 2003

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