Gian Lorenzo Bernini

1

Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Self-Portrait of Bernini, c. 1623 Birth name Gian Lorenzo Bernini Born 7 December 1598 Naples, Kingdom of Naples, in present-day Italy 28 November 1680 (aged 81) Rome, Papal States, in present-day Italy

Died

Nationality Italian Field Movement Works Sculpture, painting, architecture Baroque style David, Apollo and Daphne, The Rape of Proserpina, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also spelled Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo) (Naples, 7 December 1598 – Rome, 28 November 1680) was an Italian artist and a prominent architect[1] who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture.[2] In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets. A student of classical sculpture, Bernini possessed the ability to capture, in marble, the essence of a narrative moment with a dramatic naturalistic realism which was almost shocking. This ensured that he effectively became the successor of Michelangelo, far outshining other sculptors of his generation, including his rival, Alessandro Algardi. His talent extended beyond the confines of his sculpture to consideration of the setting in which it would be situated; his ability to synthesise sculpture, painting and architecture into a coherent conceptual and visual whole has been termed by the art historian Irving Lavin the "unity of the visual arts".[3] A deeply religious man, working in Counter Reformation Rome, Bernini used light as an important metaphorical device in the perception of his religious settings, often using hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship,[4] or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative. Bernini was also a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture along with his contemporaries, the architect, Francesco Borromini and the painter and architect, Pietro da Cortona. Early in their careers they had all worked at the same time at the Palazzo Barberini, initially under Carlo Maderno and on his death, under Bernini. Later on, however, they were in competition for commissions and fierce rivalries developed, particularly between

It is only from the late 19th century that art historical scholarship. St. . most notably the hand of Pluto pushing into the soft flesh of Prosperina's leg. Urban VIII is reported to have said. the papal nephew. The sculpture is in a very Mannerist upwards spiral. as a boy. but ours is much greater to have Cavalier Bernini alive in our pontificate. he once again regained pre-eminent artistic domination and continued to be held in high regard by Clement IX. She bore him eleven children including youngest son Domenico Bernini who became his first biographer. where Pietro was involved in several high profile projects. the sixth of their thirteen children. By the time he was 22. he had completed the Bust of Pope Paul V. His design of the Piazza San Pietro in front of the Basilica is one of his most innovative and successful architectural designs. Aeneas flees the burning city of Troy.[11] There. with a series of masterpieces: • Aeneas. originally from Florence. "Your luck is great to see Cardinal Maffeo Barberini Pope. in an arranged marriage. Bernini and other artists fell from favour in later neoclassical criticism of the Baroque. and several allegorical busts such as the Damned Soul and Blessed Soul. Bernini received numerous important commissions. at the age of eight he accompanied his father to Rome. has come to recognise Bernini's achievements and restore his artistic reputation. many of which were associated with the papacy. he was knighted by Pope Gregory XV.[8][9] Bernini himself would not marry until May 1639. Cavaliere. Gianlorenzo's skill was soon noticed by the painter Annibale Carracci and by Pope Paul V. and Ascanius (1619) depicts three ages of man from various viewpoints. His father holds the household gods and his son holds the eternal flame. Peter's Basilica. meant he was able to secure the most important commission in the Rome of his day. Apollo and Daphne (1622–1625) • The Rape of Proserpina (1621–1622) recalls Giambologna's Mannerist Rape of the Sabine Women. His first works were inspired by antique Hellenistic sculpture. under Alexander VII. During his long career.[10] In 1606. particularly during the reigns of popes Urban VIII (1623–1644) and Alexander VII (1655–1665). Scipione's collection in situ at the Borghese gallery chronicles his secular sculptures. At an early age. in seeking an understanding of artistic output in the cultural context in which it was produced. he came to the attention of the papal nephew. Rise to master sculptor Under the patronage of the Cardinal Borghese. Aeneas is the founder of Latium. 2 Early life Bernini was born in Naples to a Mannerist sculptor. and Angelica Galante. and he soon gained the important patronage of Cardinal Scipione Borghese. Cardinal Scipione Borghese. at the age of only 23. Bernini's artistic pre-eminence. the young Bernini rapidly rose to prominence as a sculptor. Among the early works for the cardinal were decorative pieces for the garden of the Villa Borghese such as The Goat Amalthea with the Infant Zeus and a Faun. when he wed a twenty-two-year-old Roman girl. and the father of the Romans. In The Aeneid. borrowing from a figure in a Raphael fresco. a Neapolitan. Following his accession to the papacy. and displays wonderful skill in carving. at age forty-one. and in 1621.[5][6] Despite the arguably greater architectural inventiveness of Borromini and Cortona. carrying his father and his son at his heels. Anchises."[7] Although he did not fare so well during the reign of Innocent X. Caterina Tezio. Pietro Bernini.Gian Lorenzo Bernini Bernini and Borromini. later Italy.

Michelangelo expressed David's inner strength. and the now-hidden Constantine. and taut grimace of Bernini's David epitomise the Baroque concern over movement and emotion over High Renaissance stasis and classical severity. . The twisted torso. in the Cornaro Chapel (see Bernini's Cornaro chapel: the complete work of art found in the Baroque section). Among his other well-known sculptures: the Ecstasy of St. Bernini captures the moment when he actually becomes a hero. with an emphasis on suggesting the movement of the characters and their integration as part of a narrative. the god of love. In the story.[12] 3 Mature sculptural output Bernini's sculptural output was immense and varied.Gian Lorenzo Bernini • Apollo and Daphne (1622–1625) has been widely admired since Bernini's time. He helped design the Ponte Sant'Angelo. marked a stylistic difference from Reniassance sculptural work. who portrayed David prior to his battle with Goliath. Eros wounded Apollo with a golden arrow that induced him to fall madly in love at the sight of Daphne. the god of light. had been struck by Eros with a lead arrow which caused her to harshly spurn Apollo's advances. he met Paul Fréart de Chantelou who kept a Journal of Bernini's visit. who. Santa Maria della Vittoria. to destroy her beauty and repel Apollo's advances by transforming her into a laurel tree. in other words. This statue succeeds at various levels: it depicts the event and also represents an elaborate conceit of sculpture. He soon lost favor at the French court as he praised the art and architecture of Italy over that of France. like the Apollo and Daphne. encouraged by Father Oliva. Apollo. • David (1623–1624). was a response to the repeated requests for his works by King Louis XIV. at the height of his fame and powers he travelled to Paris. Here Bernini presented some designs for the east Ecstasy of St. while the others were made by his pupils based on his designs.[13] Bernini's international popularity was such that on his walks in Paris the streets were lined with admiring crowds. in addition. where he remained until November. which were ultimately rejected. this sculpture narrates the opposite. This trip. The sculpture depicts the moment when Apollo finally captures Daphne. for playing with adult weapons. The most obvious contrast is Michelangelo. at the base of the Scala Regia (which he designed). Theresa (1647–1652) front of the Louvre. In retribution. furrowed forehead. general of the Jesuits. a water nymph sworn to perpetual virginity. which set the standard for royal portraiture for a century. along with the subsequent sculpture of David it represents the introduction of a new sculptural aesthetic. It depicts the most dramatic and dynamic moment in one of Ovid's stories in his Metamorphoses. while a sculptor's art is to change inanimate stone into animated narrative. scolded Eros. At the end of April 1665. He was given the commission for the Tomb of Pope Urban VIII in St Peters. The sole work remaining from his time in Paris is a bust of Louis XIV. implying the psychological strength necessary for the task at hand. the river god. Theresa. yet she has implored her father. soon replaced by copies by his own hand. the moment a woman becomes a tree. he said that a painting by Guido Reni was worth more than all of Paris. preparing for battle. sculpting two of the angels. This sculpture tracks the metamorphoses as a representation in stone of a person changing into lifeless vegetation.

He lived at No. no doubt with the added political bonus that it been designed by a Frenchman. due to political reasons and miscalculations in his design of the bell-towers for St.[14] He made adjustments to existing buildings and designed new constructions. Colonnade of Piazza San Pietro When Bernini was invited to Paris in 1665 to prepare works for Louis XIV. Peter's with the Pope Alexander VII Chigi. Bernini then regained a major role in the decoration of St. Bernini. Peter's baldachin wholly without patronage. Amongst his most well known works are the Piazza San Pietro (1656–1667). the French absolutist monarchy now preferred the classicising monumental severity of Perrault's facade.[17] signalling the waning influence of Italian artistic hegemony in France. Further significant works by Bernini at the Vatican include the Scala Regia.Gian Lorenzo Bernini 4 Architecture Bernini's architectural works include sacred and secular buildings and sometimes their urban settings and interiors. Peter's. On this site he built himself a palace. and also the demolition of the chapel that he. Peter's. Borromini. and the Palazzo Chigi (now Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi) (started 1664). Peter's Basilica and the interior decoration of the Basilica. Domenico. However. rather his efforts were concentrated on pre-existing structures.[15] Never St.[16] Bernini also designed churches in Castelgandolfo (San Tommaso da Villanova. Amongst his secular works are a number of Roman palaces: following the death of Carlo Maderno. However. the Chair of Saint Peter. had designed . leading to his design of the piazza and colonnade in front of St. in the apse of St. He fulfilled three commissions for new churches. Peter's baldachin was complete. he presented designs for the east facade of the Louvre Palace but his projects were ultimately turned down in favour of the more stern and classic proposals of the French doctor and amateur architect Claude Perrault. Best known is the small oval baroque church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale. and in particular St. the Palazzo Bernini. of which only one was completed and then subsequently torn down. Bernini's projects were essentially rooted in the Italian Baroque urbanist tradition of relating public buildings to their settings. a work which Bernini's son. (1663–6) the monumental grand stairway entrance to the Vatican Palace and the Cathedra Petri. Urban VIII put him in charge of all the ongoing architectural works at St Peter's. the bronze columned canopy over the high altar of St. reports his father was very pleased with. the construction of the tower and dome of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte by his rival. however. Bernini bought property on the corner of the via Mercede and the via del Collegio di Propaganda Fide in Rome. often leading to innovative architectural expression in urban spaces like piazze or squares. The final version did. In 1629. and before St. Peter's baldachin (1624–1633). the Palazzo Ludovisi (now Palazzo Montecitorio)(started 1650). the piazza and colonnades in front of St. It has been noted how very galling it must have been for Bernini to witness through the windows of his dwelling. 1662–1664). include Bernini's feature of a flat roof behind a Palladian balustrade. In 1639. Peter's Basilica. by this time. His first architectural projects were the façade and refurbishment of the church of Santa Bibiana (1624–1626) and the St. Peter's. Peter's. 11 but this was extensively changed in the 19th century. at what are now Nos 11 and 12 via della Mercede. he took over the supervision of the building works at the Palazzo Barberini from 1630 on which he worked with Borromini. his stature allowed him the freedom to design the structure and decorate the interiors in a consistent manner. Bernini did not build many churches from scratch. 1658–1661) and Ariccia (Santa Maria Assunta. Bernini fell out of favor during the Pamphili papacy of Innocent X.

but a woman in a moment of Bust of Cardinal Armand de Richelieu disheveled privacy. for subjects such as Louis XIV. An oft-repeated. It does not portray divinity or royalty. His most famous portrait is that of Costanza Bonarelli (c. who was the (1640–1641) wife of one of Bernini's assistants. though Bernini preferred to produce portraits from life – the bust of Charles was lost in the Whitehall Palace fire of 1698 and that of Henrietta Maria was not undertaken due to the outbreak of the English Civil War. When Bernini suspected Costanza to be involved with his brother.[20] Bernini also gained royal commissions from outside Italy. leaning out of the frame. Marble portraiture Bernini also revolutionized marble busts. but less politically successful. His fountains include the Fountain of the Triton or Fontana del Tritone and the Barberini Fountain of the Bees. Bernini was also the artist of the statue of the Moor in La Fontana del Moro in Piazza Navona (1653). among Bernini's most gifted creations were his Roman fountains that were both public works and papal monuments. he badly beat him and ordered a servant to slash her face with a razor. of bust of Monsignor Pedro de Foix Montoya at Santa Maria di Monserrato. Starting with the immediate pose.[21][22] . The last two were produced in Italy from portraits made by Van Dyck (now in the royal collection). The once-gregarious Cardinal Scipione Borghese. the Fontana delle Api.[18] 5 Fountains in Rome True to the decorative dynamism of Baroque. the fountain was built several years before the façade of the church was completed. but false. Cardinal Richelieu.[19] The Fountain of the Four Rivers or Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in the Piazza Navona is a masterpiece of spectacle and political allegory. Pope Urban VIII intervened on his behalf and he was fined. However. Bernini had an affair with Costanza. anecdote tells that one of the Bernini's river gods defers his gaze in disapproval of the facade of Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi Sant'Agnese in Agone (designed by the talented. Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria. Francesco I d'Este. 1637). rival Francesco Borromini). lending glamorous dynamism and animation to the stony stillness of portraiture.Gian Lorenzo Bernini at the Collegio di Propaganda Fide to see it replaced by Borromini's chapel. Rome. in his bust is frozen in conversation.

in sculpture. Stefano Speranza. was published in 1682 and a meticulous private journal. Ercole Ferrata and finished in 1667. Domenico. First biographies of Bernini The most important primary source for the life of Bernini is the biography written by his youngest son. For the same patron he also created a series of paintings with the battles of Louis XIV as subject. Alessandro Algardi. its great library and the rich art collection of the Counts of Ericeira. were destroyed along with most of central Lisbon as a result of the great earthquake of 1755. Innocent X. At the time of Innocent's death in 1655. and was buried in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. Andrea Bolgi. These works were lost as the palace. entitled Vita del Cavalier Gio. as a final salute and last word. painted by Giovanni Battista Gaulli Bernini worked along with Ercole Ferrata to create a much admired fountain for the Lisbon palace of the Portuguese nobleman. within several years. written by his eldest son. Bernini was the arbiter of public artistic taste in Rome. The Vita Brevis of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Giuliano Finelli. though first compiled in the last years of his father's life (c. is located in the Piazza della Minerva and in front of the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. His artistic ascendency continued under Alexander VII. Lorenzo Bernino. and Francois Duquesnoy.[24] Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1665. a Dominican friar. The grave of Bernini in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore He died in Rome in 1680. Pope Alexander VII decided that he wanted an ancient Egyptian obelisk to be erected in the piazza and in 1665 he commissioned Bernini to create a sculpture to support the obelisk. The death of his patron Urban VIII in 1644 and the election of the Pamphilj pope. The animal's rear is pointed directly at the office of Father Giuseppe Paglia. initially marked a downturn in Bernini's career and released a series of opportunities for Bernini's rivals. The sculpture of an elephant bearing the obelisk on its back was created by one of Bernini's students. An inscription on the base aligns the Egyptian goddess Isis and the Roman goddess Minerva with the Virgin Mary who the church is dedicated to. published in 1713. Giacomo Antonio Fancelli.[25] Filippo Baldinucci's Life of Bernini.[23] A popular anecdote concerns the elephant's smile. To find out why it is smiling. affectionately known as Bernini's Chick by the Roman people. the Count of Ericeira. Among the many who worked under his supervision were Luigi Bernini. Also there is a short biographical narrative. However. who was one of the main antagonists of Bernini and his artist friends. Francesco Baratta Nicodemus Tessin. was kept by the Frenchman Paul Fréart de Chantelou during the artist's four-month stay from June–October 1665 at the court of King Louis XIV. the Diary of the Cavaliere Bernini's Visit to France.Gian Lorenzo Bernini 6 Other works The Elephant and Obelisk. Innocent reinstated him at St Peter's to work on the extended nave and commissioned the Four Rivers fountain in the Piazza Navona. Monsignor Pietro Filippo . the viewer must head around to the rear end of the animal and to see that its muscles are tensed and its tail is shifted to the left as if it were defecating. 1675–80). Filippo Parodi. Among his rivals in architecture were Francesco Borromini and Pietro da Cortona. Lazzaro Morelli.

Rome • Blessed Soul (1619) Palazzo di Spagna. 1613–1616) Marble. height 243 cm. Museo Sacro. Domenico's biography. London • Bust of Monsignor Pedro de Foix Montoya (c. represents the earlier and more important full-length biographical source of Bernini's life. 7 Selected works Sculpture • Bust of Giovanni Battista Santoni (c. Musei Vaticani. Galleria Borghese. Santa Maria di Monserrato. commissioned Filippo Baldinucci to write his biography which was published in Florence in 1682. Sebastian (1617–1618) Marble. Rome • Aeneas. Rome Blessed Ludovica Albertoni • David (1623–1624) Marble. Rome • Bust of Giovanni Vigevano (1618–1631) Marble tomb. Florence • St. Metropolitan Museum of Art.[27] However. height 295 cm. Vatican City . Victoria and Albert Museum. Galleria Borghese. height 170 cm. Rome Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi • Damned Soul (1619) Palazzo di Spagna. then living in Rome. New York • Martyrdom of St. height 220 cm. Galleria Borghese. Basilica di San Pietro.1 cm. Piazza Barberini. Rome • Neptune and Triton (1620) Marble. Vatican City • Fontana del Tritone (1624–1643) Travertine. it was generally believed that two years after Bernini's death. partly gilt. Pietro Filippo) who commissioned the biography from Baldinucci sometime in the late 1670s. This would imply that firstly. over life-size. height 39 cm. Vatican • Fontana della Barcaccia (1627–1628) Marble. Santa Prassede. Contini Bonacossi Collection.[26] Until the late 20th century. Galleria Borghese. Madrid • Bust of Pope Paul V (1618) Marble. Peter's Baldachin (1624) Bronze. Galleria degli Uffizi. Rome • Tomb of Pope Urban VIII (1627–1647) Golden bronze and marble. Rome • Bust of Antonio Cepparelli (1622) Marble. Rome • Apollo and Daphne (1622–1625) Marble. Galleria Borghese. Basilica di San Pietro. and Ascanius (1618–1619) Marble. Rome • St. figures larger than life-size. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum.2 cm. life-size. Queen Christina of Sweden. Rome • Charity with Four Children (1627–1628) Terracotta. evidenced by the large amount of text repeated verbatim. Rome • The Goat Amalthea with the Infant Jupiter and a Faun (1615) Marble.[28] In sum. even though it may idealize a number of facts. height 182. that the commission did not come from Queen Christina who would have merely lent her name as patron and secondly.Gian Lorenzo Bernini Bernini. 1621) Marble. Piazza di Spagna. Santa Maria sopra Minerva. height 132. in the mid-1670s. Rome • The Rape of Proserpina (1621–1622) Marble. Anchises. life-size. Museo di San Giovanni dei Fiorentini. Galleria Borghese. Lawrence (1617) Marble. with the intent of publishing it while their father was still alive. 66 x 108 cm. Rome • A Faun Teased by Children (1616–1617) Marble. that Baldinucci's narrative was largely derived from Domenico Bernini's biography of his father. though published later than Baldinucci's. Mons. recent research has suggested that it was in fact Bernini's sons (and specifically the eldest son.

59 x 76 cm. over life-size. Sant'Andrea delle Fratte. Cappella Chigi. height 41. Pietro. Stephen. Museo Nazionale del Bargello. 1650) Palazzo Doria Pamphilj. 1623) Oil on canvas. Treasury of San Pietro. height 107 cm. Basilica di San Pietro. Vatican City 8 Paintings Bernini's activity as a painter was a sideline which he did mainly in his youth. Despite this his work reveals a sure and brilliant hand. Santa Maria della Vittoria. Piazza Navona. height 105 cm. over life-size. over life-size.6 cm. salon de Diane. Cathedral of Zagreb Treasury. Scala Regia. King of Hungary Bronze. Scala Regia (1663–1670) Marble with painted stucco drapery. Rome Bust of Louis XIV (1665) White marble. Rome Bust of Pope Innocent X (c. Santa Maria della Vittoria. Rome Loggia of the Founders (1647–1652) Marble. San Francesco a Ripa. Musée du Louvre. Musei Vaticani. height 100 cm. over life-size.6 cm.Gian Lorenzo Bernini • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Saint Longinus (1631–1638) Marble. free from any trace of pedantry. London Bust of Cardinal Armand de Richelieu (1640–1641) Marble. Vatican City Altar Cross (1657–1661) Gilt bronze corpus on bronze cross. Galleria Borghese. Paris Truth (1645–1652) Marble. Florence Bust of Thomas Baker (1638) Marble. Museo Sacro. height 180 cm. Vatican City Saint Jerome (1661–1663) Marble. height 52 cm. height 280 cm. Rome Standing Angel with Scroll (1667–1668) Clay. Basilica di San Pietro. height 70 cm. white and golden stucco. height 41. height 78 cm. Santa Maria sopra Minerva. His work was immediately sought after by major collectors. Siena Constantine. Cappella Altieri-Albertoni. Vatican City Two Busts of Scipione Borghese (1632) Marble. Daniel and the Lion (1650) Marble. Victoria and Albert Museum. Cambridge Angel with the Crown of Thorns (1667–1669) Marble. Fogg Art Museum. National Gallery. Basilica di San Pietro. 1638) Oil on canvas.6 cm. Rome • Portrait of a Boy (c. Rome Memorial to Maria Raggi (1647–1653) Gilt bronze and coloured marble. height: 29. Rome Tomb of Pope Alexander VII (1671–1678) Marble and gilded bronze. Rome . Theresa (1647–1652) Marble.2 cm. Museo Sacro. Galleria Borghese. Rome Bust of Gabriele Fonseca (1668–1675) Marble. Vatican City Throne of Saint Peter (1657–1666) Marble. Galleria Borghese. Musei Vaticani. bronze. Cappella Cornaro. Vatican City Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (1648–1651) Travertine and marble. • Self-Portrait as a Young Man (c. 1635) Marble. Basilica di San Pietro. London • Self-Portrait as a Mature Man (1630–1635) Oil on canvas. Rome Herm of St. height 81. Rome Bust of Pope Urban VIII (1632–1633) Bronze. Rome Ecstasy of St. Piazza Navona. Modena Fountain of the Moor (1653–1654) Marble. Zagreb Blessed Ludovica Albertoni (1671–1674) Marble. Vatican Palace. height 76 cm. Rome Equestrian Statue of King Louis XIV (1669–1670) Terracotta. height: corpus 43 cm. terracotta. Cappella Cornaro. Duomo. Musei Vaticani. Vatican City Charity with Two Children (1634) Terracotta. Galleria Borghese. Rome Angel with the Superscription (1667–1669) Marble. Santa Maria del Popolo. Rome Corpus (1650) Bronze. 1627) Oil on canvas. height 450 cm. Musei Vaticani. Rome Statue of Saint Augustine (1657–1666) Bronze. San Lorenzo in Lucina. Piazza di Santa Maria sopra Minerva. and soon proved a precocious infant prodigy. Palazzi Pontifici. Rome The Vision of Constantine (1654–1670) Marble. Musée National de Versailles. Rome • Saint Andrew and Saint Thomas (c. Canada. Toronto. Vatican City Daniel and the Lion (1655) Terracotta. Vatican City Habakkuk and the Angel (1655) Terracotta. Sant'Andrea delle Fratte. Galleria Borghese. cross 185 cm. Versailles Elephant and Obelisk (erected 1667) Marble. Galleria Borghese. He studied in Rome under his father. Rome Francesco I d'Este (1650–1651) Marble. Art Gallery of Ontario. Basilica di San Pietro. Galleria Estense. Vatican City Bust of Costanza Bonarelli (c. Museo Sacro. Museo Sacro. Rome Bust of Urban VIII Marble.

pp. Howard (1965). Thames & Hudson (World of Art). Bernini and the Unity of the Visual Arts. [2] Boucher. Volume II. 2004. Bernini in France. . New York: Harper Perennial. com/ artchive/ B/ bernini. Peter's baldachin Ponte St. [11] Gianlorenzo Bernini (http:/ / www. artchive. 2002 [16] Magnuson Torgil. Bernini: His Life and His Rome (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (2005). [4] Hibbard. [3] Lavin. and a list of Bernini's children.Gian Lorenzo Bernini 9 Gallery St. Almqvist & Wiksell. Jake (2005). pp. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. Italian Baroque Sculpture. see Franco Mormando. Bernini and the Art of Architecture Abbeville Press. ISBN 0500203075. [6] Morrissey. 56–61. Gian Lorenzo Bernini Encyclopedia of World Biography. gallery. For list of Bernini's siblings. 1981 [14] See Marder. Howard (1965). Yale University Press. an episode in Seventeenth Century History. britannica.ca (http:/ / www. Rome in the Age of Bernini. Tod A. Bernini. New York: Penguin. 2011). Irving (1980). [13] See Gould. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corporation. London. Retrieved 2012-12-06. Borromini and the rivalry that transformed Rome. [7] Hibbard. pdf) [9] Gale. 134–42. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. Beyond Michelangelo: The deadly rivalry between Bernini and Borromini. Sarah. Bernini and the bell towers: architecture and politics at the Vatican. Cecil. 2–3. Peter's colonade St. 136. Peter's Square St. see Franco Mormando. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 62547/ Gian-Lorenzo-Bernini). p. 2011. Theresa Apollo and Daphne Bust of Antonio Cepparelli Bust of Pope Urban VIII Self-portrait References [1] "Gian Lorenzo Bernini" (http:/ / www. [8] Gallery. 1986: 202 . Encyclopædia Britannica. New York: Penguin. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Bernini. 68. Angelo angels Palazzo Montecitorio. ca/ files/ Bernini_Biography_ENG. Howard (1965). p. Genius in the Design: Bernini. the Italian Parliament Ecstasy of St. [5] Mileti. html) [12] Hibbard. Bernini: His Life and His Rome (University of Chicago Press. Stockholm. Bruce (1998). Nick J. Thomson. 109–116. [10] For Bernini's marriage to Caterina. 1998 [15] See McPhee. New York and London.

Translated from the Italian by Enggass. Milano: U. C. google. 10 Further reading • Avery. com/ books?id=Ay9zMlAZG9cC& pg=PA94).com/books?id=6ngyAQAAMAAJ&pg=PP3) at Google Books.uk/books?id=ROtAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR7) at Google Books. University of Pennsylvania Press. (2006). 2011. ISBN 9780140135985. Christina's extant financial records nowhere report the queen's having monetarily subsidized the publication Baldinucci's biography. see Franco Mormando. Bernini: una introduzione al gran teatro del barocco. which would have been her responsibility as patron. 1979.. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 237–41. • Bacchi. ISBN 978-0892369324. ISBN 978-8809761537. 7–11. [23] Heckscher. Ostrow. Filippo (1682). p. Paul Fréart de (1985). 17 [20] "Biographies – Gian Lorenzo Bernini" (http:/ / www. Maarten. Wellhausen Press. Vita del cavaliere Gio. Anthony Blunt. ed. asp?action=article& ID=671) [22] Lionel Cust (31 March 2007). University Park. [26] For a translation of The Vita Brevis. Domenico (1713). • Fagiolo Dell'Arco. pp. . London: Thames and Hudson. see Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini in Mormando. 155. In truth of fact. Bernini's Elephant and Obelisk. ISBN 978-0271730769. Roma: M. Copy (http://books. google. ed. The Life of Bernini. Bernini. Guide to Baroque Rome. The final design of that monument in fact owes much to Paglia's direct intervention. 94. Life of Bernini. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. • Bernini. Bernini's biographies: critical essays. 1953. la sua opera. 1713). ISBN 978-0847805099. ed. University Park: Penn State University Press. Jennifer Montagu. ed. as such. Andrea. [25] For a list and discussion of important sources for Bernini's life. • Fraschetti. 2011). Pelican History of Art. ed. • Delbeke. Il Bernini: La sua vita. • Bernini. Filippo (1966). and trans. Architecture in France 1500–1700. 1982. 2011). Steven F. • Hibbard.. XXIX. London: Penguin. p. ed. ISBN 9780271037486. Firenze: Giunti Gruppo. publ. Bulzoni. p. Milano: Rizzoli. Copy (http://books. ISBN 0500092710.Hoepli. W. ISBN 978-1248328897. Anthony. . (2009). The Life of Giano Lorenzo Bernini. • Borsi. 232 [18] Blunt. it is unlikely that Paglia would have allowed this supposed insult to him or his Dominican order: see Franco Mormando. 201 Appendix 1. Filippo. • Ferrari. 14–34. p. Anthony. Vita del Cavalier Gio. Lorenzo Bernino. Charles (1997). Cecil (1981). Bernini: Genius of the Baroque.google. Journal du voyage en France du cavalier Bernin." Blunt. Bernini. Art Bulletin. retrieved 29 October 2009 [21] Triple Portrait of Charles I (http:/ / www. royalcollection. I marmi vivi: Bernini e la nascita del ritratto barocco. Rome: Rocco Bernabò.co. • Gould. (2008). Giuseppe Paglia was director of the overall project to reconstruct the piazza in front of Santa Maria Minerva. and Evonne Levy. had supervisory authority over Bernini and the design of his Elephant and Obelisk monument. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. National Gallery of Canada. Firenze: Firenze musei. and Catherine Hess. Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini (University Park: Penn State University Press. ca/ bernini/ en/ bernini. org. 2006 [28] See Mormando. Franco (2005). n. . Bernini and the Birth of Baroque Portrait Sculpture. Granada. Paul Getty Museum. 33. "Borromini is documented as having carved the fountain in 1626. Belknap Harvard. Anthony. Bernini in France: An Episode in Seventeenth Century History. ISBN 978-0833705310. Princeton: Princeton University Press. • Chantelou. Oreste (1991). pp. Franco Mormando. 369. Stanislao (1900). p. ISBN 978-1-4067-7452-8. Los Angeles: J. Firenze: Stamperia di V. • Bacchi. Maurizio (1967). 1947. Van Dyck (http:/ / books. ISBN 978-0297779445. uk/ default. Fr. Domenico Bernini's Life of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Lorenzo Bernino. appointed by Pope Alexander VII and. and it has also been attributed—not very plausibly—to Bernini. 166 [19] This was dismantled in the nineteenth century and reassembled (incorrectly) in the twentieth in the Via Veneto. Howard (1990). Bernini. but it is not certain whether he made the design for it. gallery. ISBN 978-8809742369.Gian Lorenzo Bernini [17] Probably made in collaboration with Lebrun and Le Vau. orig. A second Fontana delle Api in the Vatican has sometimes been attributed to Bernini of which Blunt has written. Domenico (2011. [24] This anecdote regarding the Elephant and Obelisk monument (more formally. Borromini. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. • Baldinucci. • Baldinucci. it is a monument to Divine Wisdom) is one of the many undocumented popular legends circulating about Bernini. Vangelisti. Blunt. ed. Hence. Bernini: His Life and His Rome (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Andrea. [27] Baldinucci. il suo tempo. htm). pp.

francomormando. org/blog/63/berninis-ecstasy-of-st-theresa-cornaro-chapel-rome-c-1650/) • Virtual tour of Rome visiting Bernini's key works (http://www.fredcamper. Robert T. Rome (http://smarthistory.all-art. L'ultimo Bernini (1665–1680): nuovi argomenti. New York: Oxford University Press. Roma: Quasar. (1985).html) Simon Schama's The Power of Art • Photographs of Bernini's Santa Maria Assunta (http://www. Cornaro Chapel. ISBN 978-0801414305. ISBN 978-8871400952. Bernini and the Excesses of Art.witur.columbia. ATS Italia Editrice. Franco (2011).00. Bernini. Visible Spirit: The Art of Gianlorenzo Bernini. London: Routledge & K. • Mormando. I Percorsi Nell'arte.uk/features/story/0.mcah. html) • smARThistory: Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. documenti e immagini. (1970). ISBN 9780226538525. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ed.com/A/Accretions/AC001/index. • Lavin. Irving (1980). Gianlorenzo Bernini: New Aspects of his Art and Thought.com/bernini-updates-2/) . London: Phaidon Press. Bernini: His Life and His Rome. Florence: Maschietto editore. ISBN 978-0689705151. Paul. ISBN 978-0271003870.co. • Lavin.org/baroque/bernini1. Irving (2007). Robert T.com/italy/rome/es_bernini. htm) • Excerpts from The life of the Cavaliers Bernini (http://www. • Petersson. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.edu/arthumanities/pdfs/ arthum_bernini_reader.pdf) • Gian Lorenzo Bernini in the "A World History of Art" (http://www.guardian. 11 External links • Checklist of Bernini's architecture and sculpture in Rome (http://www. Bernini. • Wittkower.html) • Extract on Bernini from (http://arts.Gian Lorenzo Bernini • Lavin.slowtrav. ISBN 978-1899828395. ed. Daniel (2009). • Martinelli. (2002). Bernini and the Unity of the Visual Arts. • Petersson. ISBN 978-0195201840.1873400. Gian Lorenzo Bernini: The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque. London: Pindar Press. (1996). Irving. ISBN 978-8887700831. Valentino..com/?tour=205) • Constantly updated list and discussion of the most recent archival discoveries regarding Bernini's biography and works (http://www. • Pinton. Inglese. Rudolf (1955). Ediz. and Crashaw. Santa Maria della Vittoria. ISBN 978-8875717773. The Art of Ecstasy: Teresa.

Tango7174. Elfsareus.wikipedia. Pete Hobbs. Lutetia. SwishPan. Melesse. Diligent.wikipedia. Pe-Jo. Wetman. Cantons-de-l'Est. Bonifore. Focak. Gogo Dodo.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.wikipedia. Fgordillo.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3. PGWG.wikipedia._1622.org/w/index.0. Shakko Image:Berninigrave.0  Contributors: Rama File:Gianlorenzo Bernini by Giovanni Battista Gaulli (National Galleries of Scotland). Pedestrian65. Markus451._self-portrait.0/ . Howcheng. Mastrchf91.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3. Gugganij. Opus33. Rienzo.org/w/index. Modernist. Dj Capricorn.2.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index.wikipedia.php?title=File:Gianlorenzo_Bernini_by_Giovanni_Battista_Gaulli_(National_Galleries_of_Scotland).0 Unported  Contributors: sailko File:Gianlorenzo bernini.php?title=File:St.Allen. JorgeGG.php?title=File:Rome_Fontana_dei_Quattro_Fiume_10-01-2011_11-54-14.JPG  Source: http://en. M-le-mot-dit. CARAVAGGISTI. 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