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ABDUL LATIF BIN MOHAMED MIRPUR OCTOBER 22, 2008
Global airspace architecture has been redesigned to cater for the rapid growth of civilian air traffic. The new architecture of this Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) utilizes emerging digital technology and automation in all aspect of its Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) elements. This paper attempts to investigate the implication of GATM on military air mobility operation. Due to the scarcity of published book regarding GATM, the relevant facts and information for this purpose are extensively researched through the documents and journals available within the various formal websites. Interpretation of the information and its likely impact on air mobility operation are largely based on the personal experience of the writer as instructor on airforce transport aircrafts. It is suggested that airforces of the world may undertake necessary upgradation of her transport fleet and trained her aircrew accordingly in order to meet the CNS/ATM requirement.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Title page …………………………………………………………………….i Abstract ..…………………………………………...………………………. ii Table of Contents ……………………………………………………….... .iii List of Abbreviation ………………………………………………………. . v INTRODUCTION…………………………………….………………………1 AIM …………………………………………….…………………………......3 ARCHITECTURE OF GATM ……………………………………………... 3 General …………………………………………………………….......3 Communication ………………………..……………………………... 3 Navigation ……………………………………...……………………... 5 Surveillance …………………………………………………………....11 Air Traffic Management ……...……………………………………….13 IMPLICATION ON RMAF AIR MOBILITY PLATFORMS ……………...14 Analysis ………………………………………………….……………..14 Feasible Solution ……………………………………………...……....15 Factors to be Considered ………………………………………….....16 iii
• • • • • • •
IMPLICATION ON RMAF PILOT TRAINING ………………………….16 Compatibility of the Present Training Scheme ……………………16 Training for the CNS/ATM Environment …………………………. 17 CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………….20 RECOMMENDATION ………………….…………………………………21 Endnotes …………………………………………..……………………... 22 Bibliography ………………………………………………………………. 24
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
ACAS ADS-B ADS-C AMSS ANSP ARINC ATC ATFM ATM ATN ATPL ATS BRNAV CAS CDTI CFIT CNS/ATM Management CONUS
Airborne Collision Avoidance System Autonomous Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast Autonomous Dependant Surveillance-Contract Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Service Air Navigation Service Provider Aeronautical Radio Incorporated Air Traffic Controller Air Traffic Flow Management Air Traffic Management Air Traffic Network Air Transport Pilot License Air Traffic Services Basic RNAV Crew Alerting System Cockpit Display of Traffic Information Controlled Flight Into Terrain Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic
Continental United States v
CPDLC CRM D-ATIS DCA EFIS EGPWS FAA FANS FIS-B FMS FMC GALILEO GATM GLONASS GNSS GPS GPWS HFDL ICAO ILS INS
Controller-Pilot Data Link Communication Crew Resource Management Digital Automatic Terminal Information Service Department of Civil Aviation Electronic Flight Instrumentation System Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System Federal Aviation Administration Future Air Navigation System Flight Information System-Broadcast Flight Management System Flight Management Computer European Global Navigation Satellite System Global Air Traffic Management Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System Global Navigation Satellite System Global Positioning System Ground Proximity Warning System High Frequency Data Link International Civil Aviation Organization Instrument Landing System Inertial Navigation System vi
IRU ITU LCC MFD NAVAIDS NDB NMS PBN PMS PRNAV RA RNAV RNP RVSM SAAAR SACC SID STAR TEM TIS-B TSE
Inertial Reference Unit International Telecommunication Union Low Cost Carrier Multi-Function Display Navigation Aids Non Directional Beacon Navigation Management System Performance Based Navigation Performance Management System Precision RNAV Resolution Advisory Radio Navigation/Area Navigation Required Navigation Performance Reduced Vertical Separation Minima Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required Senior Aircraft Commander Course Standard Instrument Departure Standard Instrument Arrival Threat and Error Management Traffic Information System-Broadcast Total Navigation System Error vii
VDL VOR VHF WARC
VHF Data Link VHF Omni-directional Range Very High Frequency World Administration Radio Conference
1. The phenomenal growth of civil aviation traffic in the late twentieth century had caused unbearable strain on the conventional air navigation systems in many places. This was especially pertinent within the European, North America and Asia/ Pacific regions. Many flights were delayed, detoured from its original route or cancelled when the available capacity exceeded the limits. Forecasting a worsen situation when the trajectory of the aviation growth continue to rise up, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) had set up a Special Committee to examine and make recommendation for the future development of air navigation systems. This committee known as Future Air Navigation Systems (FANS) Committee, had developed a new concept on Communications, Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) systems for the twenty first century. The essence of this system is the provision of air traffic management through the usage of emerging digital technology on CNS/ATM to make effective utilization of airspace, while maintaining secure and safe air navigation at the national, regional and global levels. The ultimate goal of this FANS concept is to have an integrated and seamless global air traffic management (GATM) for the aviation community.
Conceptually GATM will provide the aircrew with more freedom in selecting
the routes and flight altitudes while enhancing safety. Consequently this has the potential to save aircraft operators a huge amount of expenditure by allowing more direct routings, which in turn reduce unnecessary fuel burn and excessive emission. With better airspace management it is expected that congestion and delays at the terminal area and airports will be reduced and hence increasing passenger conveniences. Since GATM has many components, the initial step 1
towards the implementation of one of its component i.e., Reduce Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) has been started in March 1997 over the North Atlantic Ocean airspace. Globally, the implementation of all its components will be executed in stages and the full benefits of GATM will be realized by 2025. On the other hand, the aviation community should take the necessary measures to equip their platforms with the avionics that are compatible and meeting the requirements of CNS/ATM in order to gain its benefit. While the central aim of the new ATM infrastructure is to accommodate more traffic within a given airspace, it can only do so with airborne equipments that are in compliance with its digital technology. Failure to have the appropriate avionic suite will incur a penalty range from inefficient routings to denial of airspace. Gravity of this situation to the military air transport planners is obvious. Military air transport is not only being used in the war situation, but since the end World War II increasing demand has been pun upon military air transport to conduct peaceful operations. No military planners would like to see that their air mobility is hampered in any situation. 3. For any airforce, transport aircrafts had been used extensively to support
government’s effort in carrying out humanitarian and disaster relief operation. The frequency of earthquake and other disasters happenings lately saw massive usage of transport aircraft being utilized to ferry rescue and medical teams around the world. Military transports have the advantage in terms of short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability which normally being required in order to operate within the disaster areas. It can airdrop the humanitarian aids in the area being cut-off from road networks and the absence of insurance liablity permits the aircrafts to be operated anywhere in risky areas. Disaster dictates a fast response and to achieve that obviously a direct air route to the disaster area is a crucial factor. Coupled with the other operations undertaken by military transport aircrafts such as transporting troops for exercises in foreign countries, long range navigation practices, and delivering United Nation (UN) forces, it is imperative that military transport aircraft should meet the requirement of the CNS/ATM architecture. This paper will address the implication of GATM on air mobility operations and its corresponding pilots’ training with the view to make advantageous gain from the benefits of the new 2
technology. In doing so, this paper will be divided into three parts. First part is concerned with a deliberate study on the architecture of GATM and analysing its implementation which has a direct effect on air mobility operations. In the second part, the present avionic capability of selected medium and heavy fixed wing military aircrafts will be examined vis-à-vis the requirements of GATM. Correspondingly the associated pilot training will be discussed in the light of operating in the new environment. Finally, the main objective of this paper is to suggest a viable solution for aircraft upgradation and approaches towards the conduct of pilot training to meet competency requirement.
AIM 4. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of GATM on air mobility
operations and make suitable recommendations.
ARCHITECTURE OF GATM General 5. The key architecture of GATM comprises Communication, Navigation,
Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM). It is on these four elements that changes are being made to satisfy present and future traffic requirements. Considering that it is being implemented throughout the global scale, ICAO has been providing flexibility for every member states or air navigation service provider (ANSP) to implement changes that corresponds to regional demand. In doing so it only provide a broad guideline by defining this concept as “Communications, Navigation and Surveillance systems, employing digital technologies, including satellite systems together with various levels of automation, applied in support of a seamless global Air Traffic Management system.”
This general guideline
emphasized the utilization of digital technology in all aspects of the architecture. 3
Since, this architecture encompasses air to ground and ground to ground system, the following explanation will delve heavily upon air to ground systems only as it affects the subject in discussion. Communication 6. Safety, regularity and economy of flights are much dependent on efficient
radio links for communications between aircrafts and ground controllers. This necessitates technical requirements to ensure sufficient radio frequency spectrum exists to cater for traffic growth. While embarking upon the requirements, GATM also emphasized global connectivity and operation to enable the facilities to be shared among many users. Even though this architecture propagates the use of satellite communication, it will continue to utilize very high frequency (VHF) channels for voice and digital data transmission. This is known as VHF Digital Link (VDL). Furthermore, data transmission over high frequency (HF) channels will cover remote areas which are inaccessible to satellite coverage. Basically, the following radio links are used for the purpose of transmission between air and ground: a. Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Service (AMSS). AMSS is a system
designed for mobile communication using the geostationary communications satellites. The system provides voice and data communication channels and having almost a global coverage. Hence, this system is particularly suitable for oceanic flights or within remote continental airspace. b. VHF (Analog).
Existing VHF analog radios will be used for voice
communications in busy terminal areas, non-routine communications and in any emergency situations. However the radio set might need to be upgraded since in the airspace where VHF frequency band reaches saturation level, the channel spacing is reduced from 25 kHz to 8.33 kHz in order to generate more available channels. c.
HF (Analog). Variation in propagation characteristics coupled with
quality audio reception render HF radio links quite incompatible for the new 4
architecture. Nevertheless, with the absence of a suitable satellite constellation to cover the polar regions, HF will be continued to serve these areas. d.
VDL Mode-2. This mode provides expanded VHF channel capacity It is capable of
within the 25 kHz spacing needed for data link services.
supporting Air Traffic Network (ATN) protocol for various operational functions. The primary application of this mode is to support Controller-Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC). CPDLC will be used for Pre-Departure Clearance, Departure Clearance, Digital Automatic Terminal Information Service (D-ATIS) and during en-route phase of the flight. Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC) being the data link service provider also uses VDL Mode-2 to provide new range of flight information such as electronic charts, graphical weather, and aircraft/engine condition monitoring programs.
avionics has been a standard suite for new commercial aircrafts. This airground data link will be a key starting point in supporting the future automation of ATM. e. VDL Mode-3. This mode integrated voice and data communication within VHF spectrum. It is planned as an upgraded version for avionics with VDL Mode-2 standard and scheduled to be in service by the year 2010. In order to acquire Mode-3 capability, aircrafts need to be equipped with digital radios. f.
VDL Mode-4. Originally VDL Mode-4 was designed for Autonomous
Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) application. Progressively it had been enhanced to provide a point-to-point CPDLC link in ATN network. This was achieved by using separate channel for ADS-B and CPDLC. Since ADS-B is a merges of surveillance and navigation aspects (as discussed in paragraph 18) VDL Mode-4 has the advantage of incorporating aspects of communication, navigation and surveillance in its avionics. But unlike VDL Mode-3, VDL Mode-4 could not incorporate voice communication in its avionic. Russia, Mongolia and Europe have implemented this mode within their operational network.
HF Data Link. Primarily this facility is considered to complement AMSS
within the oceanic or remote areas. It uses the ARINC ground stations network which has an almost global coverage. It has the advantage where it is not affected by the ionospheric condition that affects HF voice propagation. Furthermore it is not dependent upon line-of-sight propagation that characterized satellite and VDL technology. An aircraft with HFDL can communicate with any active frequency or ground station while flying around the world. 7.
In principle, any VDL modes can be utilized when within the reach of a
ground station. AMSS and HFDL will be used in areas devoid of VDL Mode 2, 3 and 4 ground stations especially in remote continental or oceanic areas. Navigation 8. Navigation precision as required for seamless GATM is defined in terms of
the accuracy within which an aircraft arrives at a particular point in space at a specific time. Traditionally, navigation is carried out with reference to groundbased Navigation Aids (NAVAIDS) such as VHF Omni-Directional Range (VOR), Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) or Distance Measurement Equipment (DME). Reliance on these NAVAIDS negates the possibility for pilot to select the most direct route when flying from one airport to another. This problem is compounded by large airspace separation buffers that were designed to protect against the navigation inaccuracies and operational errors.
A significant improvement was being made
with the introduction of Radio Navigation (RNAV) or known as Area Navigation along with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Using RNAV, pilot can navigate directly from any point, or fix to another. These fixes are normally defined by latitude and longitude coordinates where aircraft’s position relative to them can be established using various NAVAIDS or GNSS signals. GNSS is a generic name for worldwide position and time determination system that utilizes satellite constellations, aircraft receivers and integrity monitoring system. Development of GNSS was supported by the Global Positioning System (GPS) of the United States, 6
the Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) of the Russian Federation and later on, the European Global Navigation Satellite System (GALILEO).
Using the input from GNSS, aircraft would be able to navigate in all
type of airspace with high accuracy in any weather conditions. 9. RNAV avionic is capable to compute distances along and across track for
providing the pilot with estimated time to a selected waypoint, as well as continuous indication of steering guidance to maintain selected track. This led to the development of RNAV procedure, where pilot can select a direct route in the Flight Management System (FMS). Once the pilot is cleared by the air traffic controller (ATC), he will be able to execute Standard Instrument Departures (SID), a route and Standard Instrument Arrival (STAR) without relying on traditional radar vectors or ground based NAVAIDS. RNAV procedures enhance situational awareness of pilots; reduce ATC workload while at the same time capable of providing accurate ground track. In 1999, FANS committee working towards GATM established a new concept called Required Navigation Performance (RNP) which is build upon RNAV. This concept defines a minimum navigation performance accuracy that has to be met by an aircraft when operating within certain airspace. RNAV avionic was seen to be capable in enabling the aircraft to be navigated within the requirements to achieve the desired accuracy. On the other hand airspace planners or ANSP will specify RNP types to establish the total navigation system error (TSE)
horizontal dimension (lateral and longitudinal) when operating within the defined airspace. For example if RNP 1 is enforced, then for 95 percent of flight time the aircraft must be capable of maintaining within 1 nm of the programmed route centreline (laterally) and the true distance to waypoints must be within 1 nm of the displayed distance to waypoints. No consideration was given to vertical navigation for the purpose of establishing RNP types since the original RNP concept was oriented towards en-route operations. At this stage vertical navigation en-route was still being based on precision barometric altimetry. RNP was primarily concerned with precision navigation to ensure safe separation of routes horizontally and laterally. With the implementation of RNP, an aircraft that has RNAV equipment 7
output with less accurate RNP capability would be excluded from airspace with more stringent RNP requirement. En-route RNP had been categorized as shown in table 1.
RNP Type 1 Navigation Accuracy (95 Performance percent +1.0nm +4.0 nm + 10 nm +12.6nm + 20 nm 4 10 12.6 20
longitudinal and lateral position accuracy in the designated airspace).
Figure 1: En-route RNP Requirements.
Progressively RNP concept was also introduced to cover the take-off and
landing segments of the flight. Even though it is ideal that airspace should have a single RNP type, it is quite impractical to do so for the whole route considering route convergence and divergence within the terminal areas. Consequently RNP type for take-off and landing portion will be more stringent compare to the less demanding en-route sectors. For the precision departure, approach and landing operations, RNP types are defined in terms of the required accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability of navigation. For non-precision approach and departure, the RNP types might contain accuracy specification of lateral performance only, i.e., similar to enroute specification. But generally, most RNP types for approach and landing operations would require vertical containment based on navigation system information. 11. To ensure the accuracy is being complied at all time, RNP operations
introduce the requirement for the aircraft to have onboard performance monitoring and alerting system. This is the critical characteristic of RNP operations in which 8
the aircraft has the ability to monitor the navigation performance it achieves and alerting the crew if the requirement is not met during the flight. It enhances the situational awareness of the pilot and consequently enables narrower route spacing without intervention of air traffic control. Stringent RNP operations require advanced features of the onboard navigation function and automation. It also dictates certain standard to be met for the approval of crew training and procedures. These approvals are characterized as Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required (SAAAR) which are similar to the approvals required to conduct instrument landing system (ILS) Category II and III approaches. 12.
RNP capability is dependent upon sophistication of the avionics on-board the
aircraft. Simple RNAV computer that can only receive VOR/DME input might only qualify for higher RNP numbers. Avionics that achieve more stringent RNP requirements include the combination of various systems such as: FMS. FMS is the heart of RNP/RNAV application.
In fact, in the
overall architecture, FMS is the primary player in CNS/ATM environment.
is an avionic that integrates airborne sensor, receiver and computer with aircraft performance and navigation databases. Through the computation it provides optimum performance guidance to automatic flight control system. The data is also displayed in-front of the pilots through the Electronic Flight Instrumentation System (EFIS) which is the primary flight display. FMS can also provide the capability for lateral and vertical navigation, route planning and fuel management. FMS is also known as Performance Management Systems (PMS), Flight Management Computer (FMC), and Navigation Management Systems (NMS). b. Navigation Avionics. RNP requires aircraft to have onboard navigations avionics that encompasses Inertial Navigation System (INS) and GNSS. Ideally the GNSS avionics should be multimodal that is, capable of processing GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO signal. Considering VOR/DME is likely to remain in certain parts of the airspace architecture, the INS should also have the capability to process this terrestrial signal. 9
Crew Alerting Systems. The Crew Alerting System (CAS) is a
technology that evolved from the annunciator panel on the older systems. Rather than signaling a system failure by flashing or turning on a light behind a translucent button, with CAS, the failures are presented to the pilot through various means such as visual alerts, voice information, unique tones or stick shaker. In aircraft fitted with Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS), these failures are shown as a list in a small window near the corresponding EICAS indications. For RNP system, CAS should be able to alert the pilot when navigation accuracy going out of limits. 13. There are several challenges to the implementation of RNP in totality. Many
RNAV systems that are capable to process the functions as provided by RNP systems with high accuracy are incapable to provide assurance of their performance. Considering this reality couple with the necessity to avoid operators incurring unnecessary expense, ANSP continue to specify RNAV rather than RNP requirement where the airspace criteria do not necessitate the use of RNP system. Therefore it is expected that RNAV and RNP will coexist for many years. On the other hand, the implementations of RNP were inconsistent throughout the regions. For example in the European region, the routes which do not specify containment requirement were designated as Basic-RNAV (BRNAV) routes while in the Middle East Region they were designated as RNP-5. Since RNP-5 is fully based on BRNAV, and taking into consideration that operation without containment departed from RNP concept the implementation should be revised accordingly. Recognizing this reality, ICAO has developed a new concept that will address the issues and is seen as capable to achieve interoperability while streamlining global classification of navigational performance. This concept is known as Performance Based Navigation (PBN). 14. PBN comprises RNP and RNAV specifications, and represents a shift from
sensor-based to performance-based navigation. It specify navigation performance requirements in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity and functionality needed for the proposed operation within defined airspace when supported by 10
appropriate navigation infrastructure.
Accordingly, this concept consolidated
implementations of RNAV and RNP, including BRNAV, precision RNAV (PRNAV), RNAV 1, RNAV 2, RNP <1, RNP 1, RNP 2, RNP 4 and RNP 10 (RNAV 10) as shown below: PBN
RNAV 10 (RNP 10) Oceanic and remote continental navigation
RNAV 5 RNAV 2 RNAV 1 En-route and terminal navigation
RNP 4 Oceanic and remote continental navigation
Basic-RNP 2 Basic-RNP 1 Advance-RNP 1 RNP APPCH RNP AR APPCH Various phases of flight
RNP with additional requirement to be determined e.g. 3D (vertical RNP), 4D (timebased capability)
Figure 2: PBN Specification 15.
Basic RNP operations are defined as RNP-2 en-route, RNP-1 terminal and
RNP-0.3 final approach. For advance RNP operations other than the requirements to have the advance features of the onboard navigation function, it also requires the crew to undergo approved training syllabus to qualify for SAAAR standard. In 2006 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that 50 percent of transportcategory aircraft are capable of basic RNP operations and industry-wide forecast predicted the figure to rise to 80-90 percent by 2017. Most of these aircrafts (about 75 percent) achieve the capability by having the onboard GPS. The estimate in 2006 also pointed out that 25-30 percent of transport-category aircraft are capable of RNP SAAAR approach operations. 16.
For terminal/approach operations there is also another stringent requirement
for navigational system requirement especially within European and the Middle East regions. The requirement called for the installation of FM immunity standard 11
especially for ILS localizer receivers in lieu of World Administration Radio Conference (WARC-79) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) decision. WARC-79 had extended the VHF FM sound broadcasting band from an upper limit of 100 MHz to 108 MHz in ITU Region 1 (Europe, Africa, Russia and the Middle East) and parts of Region 3 (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand). Increase usage by the broadcasters of the extended band had increased the risk of interference to VHF navigation (ILS localizer and VOR). In responding to action taken by European states to introduce FM Immunity standards on navigational equipments , ICAO in association with the aeronautical industry had developed and agreed on an improved performance standard for ILS localizer and VOR receivers. Since 2001, aircraft with ILS localizer or VOR receivers which do not meet the FM immunity standards may be denied the use of routes, terminal area and instrument approach procedures affected by the interference. Surveillance 17. In its basic sense, surveillance is defined as an act of observing or watching.
In controlling the airspace, knowing the exact location of aircraft position is a priority that will be followed by the need to relate that one observation to many other observations in terms of its relative location to obstacles, its proximity to other aircrafts and the closure rate.
In Air Traffic Management (ATM) procedure,
separation is established when actions is taken to ensure an acceptable level of proximity is maintained between aircraft to aircraft and aircraft to obstacles. In the surveillance system, there are two main types of surveillance i.e. dependent surveillance and independent surveillance. In conventional dependent surveillance systems, the aircraft position is determined by onboard equipment and then communicated or transmitted to ATC. For independent surveillance the ATC use primary radar to measure azimuth and range of the aircraft from the ground station. Secondary surveillance radar provides the ATC with altitude information of the aircraft. Hence traditional surveillance is achieved by either voice position reporting or radar. The GATM airspace architecture has evolved a new concept on surveillance and separation requirements by providing alternative means to make 12
aircraft’s position available to the ATC and to other aircrafts. Conceptually it will transfer many of the traditional surveillance functions performed by ATC facilities to the aircraft. Position determination will be achieved aboard the aircraft using GNSS system, digitally broadcasted to ATC on ground and to other aircraft in the vicinity. This technique is known as Autonomous Dependent Surveillance (ADS). There are two types of ADS i.e. ADS-Broadcast (ADS-B) and ADS-Contract (ADS-C): a. ADS-B.
This is a system where an aircraft periodically broadcast
ADS-B digital information contained in its FMS to ground stations and to other ADS-B equipped aircrafts. The ADS-B information includes position, altitude, airspeed and projected track. This information can then be displayed on ATC’s screen or on other aircrafts’ cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) within the multi-function display (MFD). By strategically placing remote ground receivers and feeding back the remote signals to the controller’s screen, ADS-B has the capability to greatly extend the ATC’s view of all air traffic. In the air, even though an aircraft with ADS-B receiver will only be able to display signal from other ADS-B equipped aircraft, ATC can uplink surveillance and en-route data to aircraft by using traffic information system broadcast (TIS-B). There is also an ability to uplink textual and graphical weather information for display on the cockpit MFD by using flight information system-broadcast (FIS-B). Since all user of this system have real-time access to precisely the same data on their display, with greater positional accuracy, ADS-B may safely allow closer spacing between aircrafts to increase airspace capacity. b. ADS-C.
ADS-C is a system where the ADS message, which ADS-C message is only sent after a link
includes the position of an aircraft, is transmitted to a ground station and forwarded to an ATC centre. “contract” between an aircraft and the ground station has been established. The message can either be read by an air traffic controller or plotted on his screen. ADS-C message can be transmitted via HFDL or AMSS. Conceptually ADS-C is meant to provide surveillance in remote continental or 13
oceanic areas where radar infrastructure is non-existent. Hence it operates only in an air-to-ground mode. ADS-C is sometimes called “ADS-A” where the “A” stands for “Address”. 18. ADS can be seen as an application that merges communication and
navigation technologies. It is envisaged that with the enhancements of ground system automation, ADS data can be used directly by ground computers to detect and resolve traffic conflicts. This could lead to clearances being negotiated between aircraft and ground-based computers with little or no human intervention. Apart from this noble vision, the immediate benefits of ADS materialized in the form of reduced error in position reports, higher degree of controller responsiveness to flight profile changes, availability of surveillance in non-radar airspace and a better ability for emergency assistance. 19.
Another requirements for aircraft equipment within surveillance environment
are the airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) and ground proximity warning system (GPWS). The ACAS is an aircraft system based on SSR transponder signals that detects potential traffic conflict with aircrafts that are also equipped with SSR transponder (either mode C or mode S). ACAS I only provides traffic advisory while ACAS II generates resolution advisory (RA). In the case where both encountering aircraft are ACAS II-equipped, the manoeuvres can be coordinated automatically (ACAS cross-link). ICAO had mandated all transport-category aircraft with maximum takeoff weight above 15000 kg or carrying more than 30 passengers to be equipped with TCAS II in the wake of mid-air collision over India airspace between Saudi Boeing-747 and Kazakh Illyshin-76 in 1996. Procedure dealing with ATC when contradicted with RA had been developed by ICAO in 2007 since the mid-air collision between DHL Boeing-757 and Bashkirian Airlines Tupolev-154 over Germany airspace in 2002. 20. With increasing accidents due to “Controlled Flight into Terrain” (CFIT) the
carriage of GPWS had also being mandated by ICAO in 1998. This is applicable to all aircraft with maximum takeoff weights above 5,700 kg or carrying more than nine 14
passengers. GPWS works by advising the pilot when he is dangerously close to the ground or terrain while the aircraft is not in the landing configuration. In 1999, ICAO introduced an amendment requiring enhanced GPWS (EGPWS) to be installed in turbine aircrafts with maximum takeoff weight above 15,000 kg or carrying more than 30 passengers. The EGPWS includes predictive terrain hazard warning in one of its many functions. Air Traffic Management 21. Air Traffic Management (ATM) is the combination of airborne and ground-
based functions managed in such a way to ensure the safety and efficiency of flight operations. ATM operational concept embraces the need of shared separation assurance, improve situational awareness in the cockpits and enhance flight endurance. With the new airspace architecture, ATM function has been broaden beyond the air traffic control. Its management concept will include Air Traffic Services (ATS), Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM), Air Space Management (ASM) and all ATM-related aspects of flight operations. Presently, the focus of these ATM subsystems is geared towards ensuring efficient flow of traffic while maintaining system safety. It is expected that a fully integrated ATM system will utilize automation to eliminate or reduce the various constraints imposed by conventional system. Obviously, the implementation of CNS technologies will serve to support ATM provided the airspace users equipped with the required capabilities. This bring into the notion about the feasibility of military aircraft to operate within the new airspace environment.
IMPLICATIONS ON AIR MOBILITY PLATFORM
Analysis 22. It is crucial for any airforce to understand the capabilities needed to operate
transport aircraft in the GATM environment, its associated benefits, and the consequences if it chooses to remain non-compliant. As much as military vehicle 15
have to adhere to the rules of the road during peace time operation, the military aircraft also have to adhere to the civil air traffic regulation. A lot of work have been undertaken to foster civil-military interoperability i.e. by bringing civil and military CNS/ATM systems into convergence. The ultimate aim is to ensure military and civil aircrafts can have access to the same common airspace on equal terms. Since airspace is a finite resource, the large growth in air traffic is driving the need towards a more flexible use of airspace as envisioned in the GATM concept. With the implementation of GATM, preferred routes and reservations are set aside for properly equipped aircraft since it is more efficient for the system to provide services to aircraft with the same capabilities in specific airspace segments. Consequently, those with limited capability are geographically separated (vertically and horizontally), forced to fly the non-optimum routes or flight profiles, delayed or denied entry into the airspace altogether. Even though ICAO and civil aviation authority cannot mandate CNS capability for military aircraft, they can apply “extortion through exclusion.” Even on day-to-day operation many flights had been told to return to base (RTB) when the only mode C transponder available in the cockpit malfunctioned. ATC just would not dare to take the risk by having this military traffic without altitude reporting transponder within their busy terminal airspace. Obviously it is not feasible for the military transport aircrafts to operate using existing avionics that do not satisfy the GATM requirement.
Feasible Solution 23. In order to be totally compliant, military transport such as Hercules C130
procured prior to CNS/ATM era will have to be reequipped its with some or all of the following CNS equipment: a. VHF Radio. All military aircraft types will need to be fitted with 8.33
KHz-capable VHF radios in order to be able to operate within core European airspace above FL195. Operation below this level will require standard 2516 KHz voice VHF radio already fitted to any military aircrafts.
CPDLC has been in operation in most of the regional
airspace. In order to comply with this requirement, aircrafts need to be fitted with at least VDL Mode-2 data-capable radios. HFDL is also required for operation within remote continental and oceanic airspace. c. GNSS and FMS. Since the primary guidance for PBN is based on GNSS and FMS, this necessitates dual installation of both avionics to satisfy redundancy. Ideally For stringent requirement i.e. RNP with smaller values, precision path tracking demands utilization of autopilot or flight director which already been fitted to the aircrafts. Since there is also a requirement for avionic system to provide protection against the lost of GNSS signal-in-space an alternate means in the form of inertial reference unit (IRU) or INS must be on-board as a final backup. The INS presently fitted to the transport aircraft is sufficient to serve this function. There is also a need to have a control and alert systems that have the accuracy and integrity to support RNP requirement. d. EFIS. This system is the “interface” between the FMS and the pilots. This system should be fitted to old C130 while newer CN-235 or CN-295 or Spartan aircrafts are already EFIS capable. e. ILS-FM Immunity. In order to operate within European region, the transport aircraft need to be retrofitted with FM immunity standard that protects the ILS receiver from the interference caused by FM broadcast stations. f. g. Surveillance Data Link. At least ADS-B will need to be fitted on both ACAS II and EGPWS. Both of these systems are mandatory for aircraft types to satisfy surveillance requirement. operation within Continental United States (CONUS) and European regions. From safety perspective it is a prudent measure to have all aircrafts fitted with these systems even though they were not operated within the said regions. Factors to be Considered 24. Since some of the avionics had already existed onboard the old C130 17
aircrafts, the full interoperability compliance is not a daunting task as might appear to be. However, economic constraints, lengthy procurement cycles and cockpit integration issues are some of the factors that need to be considered when embarking on this modernization program. However, it is imperative to modernize the fleets with CNS/ATM avionic in order not to lose the air mobility criteria. On the other note, the changing airspace architecture together with the newer avionic systems presented a challenge for the pilots to be able to cope with the expected workload in the new cockpit environment. Therefore military pilot should be trained to the required level of knowledge that permitted him to understand and comprehend the CNS/ATM functions and flight procedures, competent to optimize the usage of CNS avionics and be at ease in handling “automation cockpit”.
IMPLICATION ON MILITARY PILOT TRAINING
Compatibility of the Present Training Scheme 25. Normally, military transport pilots have to undergo multi-engine conversion
upon graduating from basic flying training. At basic flying training centre, they had been exposed to the element of Basic Navigation, Instruments, Radio and Navigation Aids, Meteorology, Flight Procedures, Human Factors and Limitations, Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Operation of Performance A aircraft. The last two subjects were only taught to them at theoretical level. During the multiengine conversion, apart from the rigorous training of handling the peculiarities of multi-engine aircraft, the pilots were also exposed on the practicality of CRMprocedures. With these settings, it is not really an enormous task to train the military transport pilot for CNS/ATM environment. 26. The challenge is to readjust their understanding of the conventional airspace
and flight procedures to the new architecture and its requirements. Obviously they also need to understand the bits and pieces of the equipment and systems that are working for the GATM. Other than that, hands-on training is also an issue that has to 18
be taken care off during the period where airforce is devoid of sufficient CNS/ATM airborne platform. Training for CNS/ATM Environment 27. In general, any training program that is intended for GATM environment must
assure flight crew familiarity with CPDLC procedures, RNP/RNAV system function and capabilities during normal conditions, RNP/RNAV operational alternative with failures and degraded capabilities, handling of ADS, ACAS and EGPWS with particular emphasis on crisis management. Going into details, the required addition for military pilot training syllabus in order to meet CNS/ATM competency level are as follows: a. GATM Concept. This subject should be taught to bring into the
attentions of the pilots the changes that are taking place in the airspace environment and the procedural requirements. b. Communication and Navigation Satellite Systems. The pilots should be exposed to the elements that support these systems such as groundbased augmentation system, air-based augmentation system, satellite-based augmentation system and the associated theoretical knowledge of satellite communication and navigation system. c. Automation Flying Philosophy.
CNS/ATM relies on various level of
automation in order to achieve seamless GATM system. Therefore the aircraft automation must be effectively employed in a standardized, disciplined and fully integrated in all phases of flight. Since the pilot retains the authority in determining the optimal use of automation he must be proficient and knowledgeable to manage all levels of automation configurations for various phases of flight. Improper understanding of automation management can lead to mode confusion and loss of situational awareness. Therefore training for military transport pilot must include the elements of automation management, mode awareness procedures and the dangers of mode confusion. 19
Threat and Error Management.
Within the aviation industry, Threat
and Error Management (TEM) course had been introduced especially for the pilots to improve safety in complex flight operation. It is a conceptual framework that was designed to assist the pilots in understanding, the interrelationship between safety and human performance in the dynamic and challenging operational contexts. As its name implies there are three basic components in the TEM model i.e. threats, error and undesired aircraft states. TEM proposes that threats (such as conflicting traffic), errors (such as pilot selecting incorrect automation mode), and undesired aircraft states (such as departure from RNP required accuracy) are possible occurrences that flight crew must managed to maintain safety. It appreciates that effectively managing undesired aircraft states is the last line of defence for the pilots since not all errors are well-managed and in-effective threat management should not aggravate into an incident or accident. An important training point for flight crew is the timely switching from threat management to error management or from error management to undesired aircraft state management. For example when the crew had inserted wrong data into FMS causing conflicting traffic, the crew should disengage automation and fly manually out from the danger rather than trying to reinsert the correct data during that situation. Recognizing TEM as a best practice for aviation safety and normal operation monitoring, ICAO has mandated TEM as part of licensing and training requirements for private, commercial and airline pilots as well as the air traffic controllers. Hence it is suggested that this training should be expanded to the whole cross-section of the military flight crew members in preparing them for the highly advance automated flight deck.
There are many feasible approaches that can be undertaken by any airforce
in order to achieve the training requirements. Airforce can either utilize their existing assets or taking a more revolutionary approach in out-sourcing the training into private sector. These are: 20
Utilizing VIP Transport Fleet. Normally VIP Transports are CNS/ATM
compliant. Airforce might consider frequent rotation of the flight crew that operating VIP aircrafts in order to provide all the transport pilots with the exposure of operating a highly automated flight with CNS/ATM equipments. b. Introduce ATPL Course. This course thought pilots the in-depth technical and procedural knowledge of aircraft operations to the standard of Air Transport Pilot License (ATPL). Graduates of this course can comprehend advance flight-related issues easier than those who do not. It is imperative that airforce should design and introduce this course to raise the level of acquired knowledge of her flight crew as well as preparing them to obtain ATPL. Airforce should not view pools of ATPL qualified pilot among her ranks as a threat (they might be leaving at the first opportunity) but rather as invaluable assets of highly knowledgeable flight crew. Definitely this will increase the safety and efficiency of flight operation and presented as readily available assets when the requirement dictates such qualification. c. Reciprocity with the Airlines. Civil aviation all over the world has witnessed an unprecedented boom. As the government opened the sky to Low-Cost Carriers (LCC) operation there is a significant increase in the number of air passengers. LCC many of them that operated Airbus A320 and A330 or Boeing B737 that are CNS/ATM compliant had been crying for pilots to cater for their expanded operation. The situation is aggravated by the policy of indigenous government of not encouraging expatriates as flight deck crew. Globally, movement of pilots (shifting from one airline to another) has also impacted airlines in asia region. Many of its pilots had left for “better paying cockpits” in the Middle East. It is a situation where the airlines has advance cockpit aircrafts without enough crew while the airforce having adequate crew but (presently) does not have enough advance cockpit aircrafts to train all her crew. Hence airforce should view this situation as an opportunity to train her pilots in operating airlines aircraft and as well as helping the growth of indigenous aviation industry. With suitable arrangement within the legal framework, airforce might explore the opportunity by seconded her ATPL qualified pilots to the airlines in order to gain experience 21
in operating advance cockpit compliant to GATM environment. It should be in the spirit of win-win situation. Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU)
doing it for sometime while the Canadian Air Force has the arrangement where her pilot left the service for employment with the airlines and later on returning back into service with the newly acquired expertise and experience. (d)
Airfoce can also out-source the training of
her pilots on CNS/ATM familiarization module to the civilian establishment that conducted the CNS/ATM course for aircrew.
In the early days of aviation, a pilot can fly from one place to another solely
by visual reference to the ground. He decided on his own route, and when more aircraft climbing up into the sky, pilots often worked these things out themselves by knowing each other’s schedules to avoid collision. By 1930s the airlines started to worry about their aircrafts flying and converging into airport without any measure of control or priorities.
Two-way radio communication that was introduced into
aviation presented a mean to solve the problem. Consequently air traffic control centers were set up and gradually pilots started losing their freedom in choose their own routing within the structured airways. With the rapid growth of aviation industry, the capacity of the conventional air traffic control systems to sustain the swelling demand of air traffic reaching towards the limits. By 1983, the ICAO realized that airspace architecture needs to be redesigned in order to address the situation. 30. During the Tenth Air Navigation Conference, 450 representatives from 85
nation states and 13 international organizations endorsed the concept of CNS/ATM systems that can solve the problem of “congested sky” by the usage of emerging technologies. The changes in communication system will evolve around the requirements to reduce channel congestion, minimizing communication errors and 22
lessen the operators’ workload while providing a more direct and efficient air to ground linkages by utilizing data link. For the navigation element, worldwide accurate, reliable and flawless position determination capability had been dramatically increased with the proliferation RNAV equipments that utilize GNSS signals. This technology has the advantages of allowing ANSP to structure the airspace for maximum capacity and providing them with an option to develop procedures that support lower minima, avoiding noise sensitive area and minimizing flying time in terminal area. The surveillance element of this system is envisaged to reduce error in position reports by having a better surveillance system in non-radar airspace. ADS revolutionized the whole idea of surveillance by visually presenting to the pilot with the traffic in his vicinity. The overarching vision of ATM is to provide an autonomous flight profile or free flight for all user of this system. Hence within this architecture pilots were given back their freedom in choosing their own route provided their aircrafts are suitably equipped to operate in the new environment. 31. Air forces of the world who share the sky with their civilian counterpart is
significantly implicated with these changes. There is a need for airforce to reequipped her aircrafts with suitable gadgets and trained her pilots accordingly in order not to be restricted in her air transportation movement across the globe. In General, the avionic upgrade that airforce need to procure are FMS, GNSS, FM Immunity ILS, ACAS II, EGPWS, ADS-B, VDL Mode-2 data link and 8.33KHz radios. The benefits of answering to CNS/ATM requirement immediately is not only materialized by having unrestricted air mobility, but it also help airforce to get prepared for the operation of highly advance Airbus A400M aircraft that might be the alternative to present C130 that are operated by the airforces of the world.
32. It is recommended that the airforce may undertake a serious consideration to
upgrade her air transport platforms to match the GATM criteria 33. Issues of integrating the new equipments with the present’s avionics can be 23
the subject of further research. 34. Accordingly the military pilot may be trained and exposed to the requirement
of the new airspace environment.
1 2 3 4
ICAO, Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems, Doc 9750 AN/963, 2002, p II-3-6. Ibid, p I-1-1. CANSO Working Group, Demystifying CNS/ATM, Civil Air Navigation Services Organization, 1999, p 16. Edward Wigfield et al, Mission Effectiveness and European Airspace: U.S. Air force CNS/ATM planning for ICAO, Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept, Doc 9854, AN458, 2005, pp1-2. ICAO, Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems, Doc 9750 AN/963, 2002, p 3. Ibid, p I-5-2 Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. ARINC: More than 2200 Aircrafts Use VDL Mode 2 Flight Communications, HIS, July 16, 2007 Thomas P. Kabaservice, VDL Mode 3 Integrated Voice and Data Link, Harris Corporation GCSD, April 6, Peter Potocki and Eric Walter, Aeronautical Mobile Communcation Panel, Airbus View on Data Link and VDL
Future Years, The Mitre Corporation, 2006, p 5.
5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12
Mode 4, Working Group M, Reykjavik, April, 2003, Appendix H at www.icao.int/anb/panels/acp/WG/M/M7report/ WGM7Appendix_H.doc
ARINC, Eleventh Air Navigation Conference, Air-Ground Data Link Implementation; VDL/ATN and HFDL, ANUSAF Scientific Advisory Board, Report on Global Air Navigation System, Volume 1: Summary, December David Nakamura, Aeromagazine, Operational Benefits of Performance Based Navigation, Qtr-02/08, pp 13-14. Prior to the development of GALILEO, European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) had
Conf/11-WP/55, Montreal, Oct 3, 2003.
1997, p 5.
been used to augment the two military satellite navigation systems (US GPS and Russian GLONASS) to make them suitable for civil flying and shipping application.
The total navigation error constitutes four elements, i.e. navigation system error, RNAV computation error, This statement has been simplified to ease the discussion from the flight crew point of view. RNP is a
display error and flight technical error (FTE).
navigation requirement and is among the factor to be used in the determination of required separation minima. Separation standard or minima cannot be determined by the use of RNP in totality. Before any State or ANSP makes a decision to establish route spacing and aircraft separation minima, the State or ANSP will also consider the airspace infrastructure which includes surveillance and communications. In addition, other parameters such as intervention capability, capacity of the airspace, airspace structure and occupancy or passing frequency (exposure) will also being taken into account. Generally it has been accepted that RNP is the fundamental parameter in the determination of safe separation standards. This point has to be brought out since the risk of
collision is a function of navigation performance, aircraft exposure, and the airspace system’s ability to intervene to prevent a collision or maintain an acceptable level of navigation performance. An increase in traffic in a particular airspace can result in airspace planners considering a change in airspace utilization (e.g. separation minima, route configuration) while maintaining an acceptable level of risk. In collision risk analysis, this acceptable level of risk is referred to as the target level of safety (TLS).
ICAO, Manual On Required Navigation Performance (RNP), Second Edition, 1999, p 7. FAA, Roadmap for Performance Based Navigation, Evolution for Area Navigation (RNAV) and Performance FMS Technical Newsletter, Honeywell Inc, Vol XXVI, March 1998, p1. Cary Spitzer et al, “The Avionic Handbook: Flight Management Systems”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001 pp Performance Based Navigation Manual Volume 1, “Concept and Implementation Guidance”, ICAO, March 07, Ibid. FAA, Roadmap for Performance Based Navigation, Evolution for Area Navigation (RNAV) and Performance Special European RAN meeting held in Vienna in 1994. Aviation Industry Group, Surveillance, 13 (V8), October 16,2006. ICAO, Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems, Doc 9750 AN/963, 2002, pp I-7-1 – I-7-3. Loftur Jonasson And Jelanie Jonasson, Introduction to Aeronautical Data Link, Iceland Telecom, Bangkok, Ibid ICAO, Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM Systems, Doc 9750 AN/963, 2002, pp I-7-2 – I-7-3 Director General of Civil Aviation, Ground proximity Warning System, Airworthiness, Government of India, May John Law, ACAS II, ACASA/ WP6.1/105 p 5 EUROCONTROL, European Organization for Safety of Air Navigation, Safety Plan – 8.33kHz above FL195 in NBAA, NBAA Automated Flight Deck Training Guidelines, Management of Automation, p4. Merritt et al, “Defensive Flying For Pilots: An Introduction to Threat and Error Management”, Texas University, Xinhua, “Indonesian Air Force May Send Pilots for Commercial Flights: Air Force Chief”, People’s Daily Karen Christiuk, “The Maple Leaf, A New Philosophy for Canada’s Air Force”, July 23, 2008, 11 (26) 7.
Based Navigation (RNP) Capabilities 2006-2025, July 2006, p 6.
Based Navigation (RNP) Capabilities 2006-2025, July 2006, p 6.
27 28 29 30
November 19, 2003, pp 17-18.
31 32 33
28,1999, pp 1-3.
ICAO EUR Region, European Air traffic Management Programme, March 14, 2006
December 12, 2006.
Online, September 12, 2007, at english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6261237.html
At one stage, a railroad man was called to provide his opinion in solving air traffic problem by deriving the
railroad experience. After appreciating the problem, the railroad man shook his head, laughed and said, “It’s hopeless. You have got all of it backwards. Railroad has one track en-route and then spread out to many at terminal. You (air traffic) have many tracks en-route, but then squeeze them all down onto one at terminal. It will never work.”
Books and Publications 1. Captain Robert N. Buck, “The Pilot’s Burden: Computers Fly the New Airplanes-or Do They?” Iowa States University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1994 2. Cary Spitzer et al, “The Avionic Handbook: Flight Management Systems”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001 Journal and Papers 1. Aviation Industry Group, Surveillance, 13 (V8), October 16, 2006. 2. CANSO Working Group, “Demystifying CNS/ATM”, Civil Air Navigation Service Organization, 1999. 3. David Nakamura, “Aeromagazine: Operational Benefits of Performance Based Navigation”, Qtr-02/2008. 4. Director General of Civil Aviation, “Ground proximity Warning System Airworthiness”, Government of India, May 28,1999. 4. Edward Wigfield et al, “Mission Effectiveness and European Airspace: U.S. Air force CNS/ ATM Planning for Future Years”, The Mitre Corporation, 2006. 5. EUROCONTROL, “European Organization for Safety of Air Navigation, Safety Plan – 8.33kHz above FL195 in ICAO EUR Region”, European Air traffic Management Programme,
March 14, 2006 6. FAA, “Roadmap for Performance Based Navigation, Evolution for Area Navigation (RNAV) and Performance Based Navigation (RNP) Capabilities 2006-2025”, July 2006. 7. FMS Technical Newsletter, Honeywell Inc, Vol XXVI, March 1998. 8. ICAO, “Global Air Navigation Plan for CNS/ATM System”, Doc 9750, AN/963, 2002. 9. ICAO, “Global Air Traffic Management Operational Concept”, Doc 9854, AN/458, 2005. 10. ICAO, “Manual on Required Navigation Performance”, Second Edition, 1999. 11. Karen Christiuk, “The Maple Leaf, A New Philosophy for Canada’s Air Force”,11 (26), July 23, 2008. 12. Loftur Jonasson And Jelanie Jonasson, “Introduction to Aeronautical Data Link”, Iceland Telecom, Bangkok, November 19, 2003. 13. Merritt et al, “Defensive Flying For Pilots: An Introduction to Threat and Error Management”, Texas University, December 12, 2006. 14. NBAA, “NBAA Automated Flight Deck Training Guidelines, Management of Automation”. 15. Peter Potocki and Eric Walter, “Aeronautical Mobile Communcation Panel, Airbus View on Data Link and VDL Mode 4”, Working Group M, Reykjavik, April, 2003. 16. Thomas P. Kabaservice,“ VDL Mode 3 Integrated Voice and Data Link”, Harris Corporation GCSD, April 6, 2003. 17. USAF Scientific Advisory Board, “Report on Global Air Navigation System, Volume 1: Summary”, December 1997. 18. EUROCONTROL, “Surveillance Roadmap”, European Air Traffic Management Programme, March 2002.
Internet Websites 1. Xinhua, “Indonesian Air Force May Send Pilots for Commercial Flights: Air Force Chief”, People’s Daily Online, September 12, 2007, at english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6261237.html
assessed on August 28, 2008. 2. Arjun Singh, “Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) Beyond 2012”, GIS Development, Beijing 2004, at http://www.gisdevelopment.net/technology/gps/ma04082pf.htm assessed on May 8, 2008. 3. George Marsh, “Q & A: Col Jan Plevka: Military/Civil Interoperability in European Airspace”, Avionics Magazine, August 1, 2005, at www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/military/1043.html assessed on August 22, 2008. 4. David Rubalcaba, “Unrestricted Global Mobility through Global Air Traffic Management”, Mobility Forum, May 1997, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3744/is_199705/ai_n8763700 assessed on May 11, 2008. 5. Bert Ruitenberg, “CNS/ATM System Implementation: Training and Other Human Factors Issues”, The International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers’ Association, at http://www.icao.int/icao/en/ro/rio/speeches/6-Ruitenberg_text.wpd. assessed on August 08, 2008. 6. ARINC, “VDL Mode 2 Flight Communications Passes a Milestone with 2200 Aircraft Users”, Brand Management and Communication, June 20, 2007, at http://www.arinc.com/news/2007/06-20-07.html assessed on August 1st, 2008. 7. “GNSS and GALILEO Frequently Asked Question” at http://www.galileoic.org/la/?q=node/188 assessed on August 22, 2008.
assessed on August 22, 2008. 8. Stanislaw Drozdowski, “Changes to ICAO Rules Regarding TCAS RAs (as of 22 Nov 07)”, at http://eurocontrol.int/ra-downlink/gallery/.../ICAO ACAS changes 22Nov07.pdf assessed on August 25, 2008. 9. ICAO, “Seamless ATM System”, Trans-Regional Airspace and Supporting ATM Systems Steering Group, May 03, 2007 at http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/enroute/.../TRASA S1_WP03_Seamless_ATM_System.pdf assessed on August 22, 2008. 10.ICAO, “Guidelines for the Implementation of RNP Operations” May 06, 2005 at http://www.icao.int/icao/en/ro/apac/2005/ARNRTF3_SEACG12/wp04.pdf assessed on August 22, 2008. 11. ICAO, “Establishment of the National Working Group for PBN and GNSS Implementation”, Thailand, January 11, 2008 at www.icao.or.th/meetings/2008/pbn_tf1/ip04.pdf assessed on August 15, 2008. 12. EUROCONTROL, “Requirement for Military Aircraft”, November 21, 2007 at http://www.eurocontrol.int/avionics/public/standard_page/165_General.html assessed on October 19, 2008. 13. EUROCONTROL, “Requirement for Civil Aircraft”, November 21, 2007 at http://www.eurocontrol.int/avionics/public/standard_page/16_Avionics_civil.html assessed on August 23, 2008.
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