A PROJECT REPORT ON
“WIRELINE SOLUTION FOR MOBILE BACKHAUL”
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF SRINIVAS A N (Manager-Business Development)
TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION IN TELECOM MANAGEMENT (MBA -TM)
SUBMITTED BY ASTHA
Symbiosis Institute of Telecom Management Pune 411 042 2010-12 MBA TM-I Batch 2010-12 Systems & Finance
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that project titled
“WIRELINE SOLUTION FOR MOBILE BACKHAUL”
Is a bonafied work carried out by Astha
STERLITE TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED
Under the guidance of Srinivas A N (Manager-Business Development)
Towards the partial fulfillment of Master of Business Administration in Telecom Management (MBA- TM)
This report is an assimilation of co operation, support and guidance of several dignitaries. I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to the following people who have made the completion of this report possible. Firstly, I would like to convey my sincere gratitude to Mr. Prashant Nazare (Business head, Sterlite Technologies Ltd) for vital encouragement and support. I am indebted to my mentor Mr. Srinivas A N (Manager-Business Development, Sterlite Technologies Ltd) who acted as a pillar of support and a light of knowledge during the journey of completion of this project and also for his constant reminders and much needed motivation. Words are inadequate in offering my thanks to other members of Sterlite technologies for their encouragement and support in carrying out my project work. I would also like to take the opportunity to thank my institute Symbiosis Institute of Telecom Management, Pune for providing me the opportunity to be a part of Sterlite Technologies Limited. I would especially thank our director Mr Sunil Patil, Director, Mr. Prasanna Kulkarni, Deputy Director and Mrs. Sujata Joshi, Placement Incharge for getting me to work in this prestigious company.
the most important being less deployment time & cost of 4
. especially in the urban market. fiber or microwave Presently in India approx 90% of the tower backhaul are on microwave.. Therefore. people love talking over the phone rather than interacting using SMS or other means. better access of data services including ecommerce. In 2010. A growing and robust economy. if one is able to provide compelling services such as video calls at affordable prices. operators can choose one of three physical mediums. a young and increasingly literate population and wide technological base give it the opportunity of emerging as a major power. The advent of 3G and 4G mobile services brings with it a surge in data traffic. In India. The Indian mobile market is still voice intensive and the operators‟ major source of revenue. India is ready for 3G. Indian telecom industry is one of the fastest growing in the world with an average of 18 million subscribers added every month.ABSTRACT
India today stands at the threshold of great opportunities. copper. In this context. which in turn puts a strain on existing cellular networks. Microwave has some obvious advantages. social networking. and many other broadband applications with very high speed. various operators in India are particular about providing faster and more robust Internet. it will be a huge hit. audio-video conferencing. Looking into their backhaul options. Nowhere is the demand for more available capacity felt more than in the tower backhaul. But this would lead to increase in bandwidth requirement by each customer. voice-based 3G services will see greater acceptance and adaptation by the domestic consumers. Indian telecom sector witnessed the much awaited 3G & BWA spectrum auction With the arrival of 3G.
. But the present microwave transmission supports a maximum of 155Mbps. it can be used in STM1 ring but beyond this datarate microwave communication cannot support. With 3G and 4G coming up in India. Moreover the backhaul network should be scalable such that it can cater to the need of even higher bandwidth requirement in case of 4G.In that case Fiber cable that provides unlimited bandwidth would be the ultimate choice for operators.installation. i. datarate requirement per BTS would increase to approx 20-30Mbps.e. whereas for existing 2G network datarate requirement per BTS is merely 4Mbps.
0 Evolution of telecom technologies 2.1 Capex and Opex for microwave link 4.3 India Telecom Subscriber Statistics March 2011 1.0 Telecom infrastructure in India 6.1 Comparison of telecom technologies 3.4 Opportunity 2.0 Microwave radio system 4.1 Indian telecom sector 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Topic Detail Acknowledgement Abstract List of Figures List of Data Tables Nomenclature & Abbreviations Title & Objective Company Profile 1.1 Core network 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sr no.2 Backhaul network 3.0 Network planning 6.1 Capex /Opex & challenges in fiber deployment 7.1 Radio network optimization 6.4 Backhaul requirement in future 4.3 Detailed explanation of backhaul for 2G 3.2 Modulation scheme 5.0 Telecom architecture 3.2Optical fiber vs microwave 6 Pg No 2 3 6 7 8 10-12 13-19 22 23 24 24 26 29 30 31 32 33 34 37 38 40 43 47 49 51 52 54 58 60
.0 Optical fiber overview 7.2 Microwave planning 7. Introduction 1.2 Wireless subscribers in India 1.
3 3G plans: A sneak peek 8.1 System architecture overview 8.1 Wireless broadband: world scenario 10.0 Demand estimation of fiber in tower backhaul(3G) 9.1 Business opportunity for Sterlite from 3G deployment 10.0 LTE: the way ahead 10.6 Changes in backhaul network(3G) 8.2 3G:Present Indian scenario 8.0 4G impacts to mobile backhaul 12.0 International wireless backhaul trend Conclusion References
62 63 64 65 65 66 67 69 70 74 75 79 81 83 86 88 89 91
.2 LTE vs WIMAX 11.5 Implementation of 3G: changes in the existing network 8.7 Calculation for throughput requirement/BTS(2G) 8.4 3G prediction 8.31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
8.8 Calculation for throughput requirement/BTS(3G) 9.0 3G: UMTS 8.
List of Figures
Figure Number Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Description Sterlite global operation Sterlite clients Wireless subscribers in India Wireless subscribers GSM vs CDMA Evolution of telecom technologies Telecom architecture Core network Backhaul network BTS connection to BSC via STM1 ring Microwave components Adaptive modulation for a microwave link. 3G network architecture Prediction of 3G subscribers 2G/3G network architecture Typical LTE network Pg No 18 19 24 25 29 31 32 33 36 40 44 64 66 85 87
Table No Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table Description Throughput comparison of telecom technologies Datarate per BTS(2G) Spectrum charges State wise no of towers CAPEX per fiber deployment OPEX/ fiber/km/month Fiber vs microwave Existing 3G subscribers Datarate requirement per BTS(3G) E1 required per BTS(3G) Pg No 30 35 46 58 58 60 64 65 69 72
Nomenclature and Abbreviations
Abbreviations STL MNP Teledensity
Full Forms Sterlite Technologies Limited Mobile number portability Percentage of mobile and landline users out of whole population Broadband wireless access 3rd/4th generation Value added service Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution Universal mobile telecommunication system High-Speed Downlink Protocol Access Evolution data only Evolution data voice Equipment identity register Authentication centre Home location register Gigabits per second Time division multiplexing Radio access network Transmitter receiver No of BTSs connected to 1 BTS hub 155Mbps 2 Mbps Line of sight Outdoor unit 10
BWA 3G/4G VAS EDGE UMTS HSDPA EVDO EVDV EIR AUC HLR Gbps TDM RAN TRX AGGREGATION RATIO STM1 E1 LOS ODU
IDU QAM QPSK GPS ROW RNC NODE B OFDM CKm LTE
Indoor unit Quadrature amplitude modulation Quadrature phase shift keying Global positioning system Right of way Radio network controller 3G nomenclature of BTS Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Cable km Long term evolution
Overview of present Indian telecom market To study and analyze evolution of telecom technologies (2G to 4G) To analyze and compare present mobile backhaul technologies Microwave vs fiber Existing Microwave market in tower backhaul Scope of fiber in tower backhaul networks
.TITLE OF THE PROJECT: “WIRELINE SOLUTION FOR MOBILE BACKHAUL”
This project was undertaken in the cables department of Sterlite technologies. While working on the project following objectives were set. I was given a Business Development project.
Sterlite Technologies is a leading global provider of transmission solutions for the power and telecom industries. It is among the Top 3 global manufacturers of power conductors and among the Top 5 global manufacturers of optical fibers and cables. They intend to diversify this business as well with the commencement of power cables business and currently Sterlite is executing a project in transmission network ownership.
Connecting every home on the planet…
Sterlite has two broad parts of its business– namely telecom and power. Sterlite has developed technical expertise in fiber optic cables and proven its capabilities in manufacture of energy efficient bare overhead power conductors. Sterlite
. Since the past two decades. The power business mainly comprises manufacture of bare overhead power conductors and its capacity today is amongst the largest in the world.
Supported by a fully integrated manufacturing facility and a dedicated R&D Center. It also offers a complete range of end-to-end terrestrial copper telecom cables for a variety of applications in telecommunications networks.2007. Sterlite‟s range of optical fibers deliver superior performance in data transmission and performance reliability. 2000 to enable a sharper focus on each of the businesses. Sterlite offers a complete range of end-to-end optical fibers for a variety of applications in telecommunication networks.
Sterlite Optical Technologies Limited was formed by the demerger of the erstwhile telecom division of Sterlite Industries (India) Limited with effect from July 1.
Number of employees: Approximately 1000 employees
. With its own manufacturing facilities for UL approved structured data cables.has integrated these core strengths in its comprehensive OPGW solution that includes Optical Fiber Composite Ground Wire and related hardware In the telecom business. The name of the company was changed to Sterlite Technologies Limited with effect from December 1. Sterlite offers a comprehensive range of structured cables for premise networks
Brief history: Sterlite‟s range of Telecom Cables had been manufactured under Sterlite Industries (India) Limited from 1988 till Year 2000 and under Sterlite Optical Technologies from Year 2000 onwards.
Europe. • Telecom systems and solutions. fiber optic cables. 34 patents granted in USA. • Power transmission network ownership. faster and more cost-effective for service providers to build telecom and power infrastructure. copper telecom cables. • Manufacture of power transmission Conductors.
. structured data cables. technical enhancements and quality needs. Sterlite partners with its customers to deliver optimal solutions for their evolving needs
Intellectual property Sterlite has prioritized in-house R&D to catalyze product development as per evolving industry requirements. aluminum & alloy Rods.Scope of business activity
• Manufacture of optical fibers.
Vision: To connect every home on the planet
Mission: To make it easier. India & China.
1. OPTICAL FIBER Sterlite Technologies manufactures a complete range of Optical Fibers. Sterlite PMDSingle Mode Optical Fiber Sterlite DOF-LITE™ RS Single Mode Optical Fiber Sterlite DOF-LITE™ LEA Single Mode Optical Fiber Sterlite DOF-LITE™ Metro Single Mode Optical Fiber Sterlite BEND-LITE™ Single Mode Optical Fiber 16 -LITE™ Low Water Peak
. designed for use in Optical Fiber Cables and catering to the specific technical requirements by the Telecommunication Industry.
5/125 microns Multi Mode Optical Fiber
2. FIBER OPTIC CABLES
Sterlite's Fiber Optic Cable plants produce the complete range of Terrestrial Fiber Optic Cables in standard and customized designs.Sterlite MULTI-LITE™ 50/125 microns Multi Mode Optical Fiber Sterlite MULTI-LITE™ 62. with fiber counts up to 864. COPPER TELECOM CABLES
Foam Skin Insulated Copper Telecom Cables Solid Insulated Copper Telecom Cables Aerial Self-Supporting Copper Telecom Cables PCM Z-Screened Copper Telecom Cables
. Sterlite Duct-Lite™ Series Sterlite Armor-Lite™ Series Sterlite Aerial-Lite™ Series Sterlite Ribbon-Lite™ Series Sterlite Premise Cable Series
Sterlite’s global operations:
Figure 1: Sterlite‟s global client
. LAN CABLES
Sterlite Cat 5e LAN Cables Sterlite Cat 6 LAN Cables
All of Sterlite‟s Products are manufactured at ISO 9001:2000 certified facilities Sterlite‟s Optical Fiber facilities are also certified for the ISO 14001:2004 Environment Management System and OHSAS 18001:1999 Safety Management System.4.
Figure 2: Sterlite clients
.Sterlite’s valuable customers
Sterlite's customer list includes some of the most prominent companies in the telecom world.
cable manufacturers have addressed increasing costs for energy. smaller independent telephone companies. including polymer resins. and other cable elements. The culprit seems to be the strong surge in cable demand.
Cablers face rising costs but also growth prospects. In markets such as the US and Canada. which is partially fuelled by the award of grant money under the federal government‟s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. part of the growth comes from new customers.Growing fiber demand: overview 
Worldwide fiber demand for the first quarter was 49 million km. and operators other than the large incumbent telcos. which is proving to be a growing business opportunity for carriers in the US and elsewhere. There have been reports in April and May of increasing lead times for the supply of optical cable in North America. the longer lead times also are affecting cable makers that do not use fiber from Japan. As it turns out. such as alternative carriers. water-blocking materials. Although there are some imports of fiber from Japan to the US. armour tape. up 3 million km and 6% compared with Q1-2010. most of the fiber in cables dedicated at least initially to mobile network operators has been installed in the developing telecom markets. In the US and other markets. there was already an embedded base of fixed-line telecom networks in 20
. Information from the US and other large markets suggests that demand growth was accelerating through the quarter and has continued to do so in April and early May. transportation. municipalities. and strength members. Some of these carriers are installing fiber for cellular-mobile infrastructure. including backhaul
In addition to concerns about fiber availability.
The GSM Suppliers Association. On the other hand. tested. and this percentage dropped to 68% in 2010. Now. or to support capacity requirements on new 3G and 4G transceiver stations. The quantity of fiber installed for mobile networks in China has been so great – about 60 million fiber-km in the past two years – that other markets are not likely to offset that downturn in the worldwide mobile segment. more than half the fiber in dedicated backhaul systems has been installed by the mobile operators in China. for example. 2012.
. based on the number of new systems being planned or completed. fiber is being installed to increase capacity on established cellular networks. or built in 80 countries. and also the amount of fiber installed each year in China‟s cellular networks. In 2009. 74% of the world‟s dedicated backhaul fiber installations were in China. has tallied 20 LTE networks already launched in 14 countries. The number in operation is expected to grow from 20 this year to 81 by December. Since 2006. for example. The LTE technology is described as the fastest-growing mobile technology ever. there will be many new opportunities associated with the deployment of LTE (sometimes referred to as “4G”) mobile broadband systems. but says that there are another 194 being planned.place when cellular networks were being built out 20 to 30 years ago. This percentage. will decrease even more after 2010 as the large multi-year 3G network projects are nearing completion. The worldwide total in the backhaul application is also vulnerable to decreases when a small number of large operators complete their projects.
The easy access to mobile services is the outcome of positive regulatory changes. As a result of liberalization. low-priced handsets. the mobile phone has been transformed from being a luxury that few could own into one of the essentials of an average Indian‟s existence. India is now closely integrated with the global economy and is considered one of the pillars of global economic growth. respectively.1.  In FY10 (financial year ended 31 March 2010). India has grown rapidly from a “command and control” economy to a market-based economy.9%3 of GDP. with the further opening of the economy and the creation of regulatory institutions to march toward fully competitive markets. India‟s GDP has been rising by more than 7% annually in the past decade. while the industrial sector and agriculture sector contributed 28.1 INDIAN TELECOM SECTOR
OVERVIEW: Over the past two decades.5% annually from 1950 to 1980.5% and 14. intense competition among multiple operators.6%4 of total GDP in FY10. Within the services sector. India‟s service sector was estimated to account for 56. The process of liberalization started in the mid-1980s and gathered momentum in the 1990s.
. low tariffs and significant investments in telecom infrastructure and networks. accounting for nearly 3. In less than a decade.6%. to GDP. the telecom sector has been the major contributor to India‟s growth. compared with 3. The Indian economy maintained a growth rate of more than 5% even during the global recession.
and this growth is primarily attributed to the growth in wireless services.Indian telecom industry is one of the fastest growing in the world with an average of 18 million subscribers added every month.3 million subscribers in FY10.2 WIRELESS SUBSCRIBERS IN INDIA India has emerged as one of the world‟s fastest-growing telecom markets. The wireless subscriber base in India grew from FY00 through FY10 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 77. Present wireless subscriber base (march 2011) is 812 million.
1.5%14 to reach 584.
Figure 3: Wireless subscribers in India
. Indian telecom industry showed no signs of recession and created job opportunities like never before. Contrary to other industries. India‟s mobile market is the second largest in terms of subscribers in the world after China.
12 Billion • Total subscriber base: 847 million • Wireless subscriber base:812 million
• Teledensity : 70. better access of data services including e-commerce. and many other broadband applications with very high speed.91.3 India Telecom Subscriber Statistics March 2011
1 2 3 4
• Indian population: 1. audio-video conferencing. social networking.4 Opportunities
In 2010. The deployment of 3G services is also likely to help the emergence of new VAS.87 million
1.98 • Overall wire line tele-density is 2.89%(total) • Urban: 157.1.42 million • Broadband subscriber: 11. various operators in India are particular about providing faster and more robust Internet.35%
• Wireless tele-density stands at 67.32% • Rural: 33.
• MNP request:6. Indian telecom sector witnessed the much awaited 3G & BWA spectrum auction With the arrival of 3G. The demand for value added services is likely to surge given that 'Gen Y' are more 25
the telecom operators are exploring cost-efficient models to migrate to newer technologies. GSM EDGE. Conventionally. and the telecom operators will also benefit from the introduction of 3G services in the long term. where data gets transferred from one point to another in packets. with the implementation of mobile number portability. voice services have been the key driver for the development of the sector. Also. The mobile backhaul network is the critical link between the broadband subscribers and the network. In the current mode. keeping in mind the end consumer. and
. a family of standards including CDMA. 3G. One of the aspects to achieve success at both fronts is 'creating cost-effective infrastructure'. and UMTS standards. 3G is a packet based technology. the service providers need to focus more on developing VAS as a service differentiator to retain their existing customers besides attracting the new ones. Mobile backhaul networks link the remote base stations and cell towards the mobile operator's core networks. The success of the telecommunications sector had been limited to the urban areas till now. and data coming together at speeds that the Indian consumer has not experienced till now. Telecom operators in the country are gearing up with their 3G services. the technology used sends the data packet over fixed circuit path which is ineffective in 3G environment. will soon be a reality in India with mobile customers enjoying the seamless benefits of voice.inclined to use the smartphones and adopt the VAS services. Moreover. They are keen to explore innovative yet affordable offerings to the end users. video.
Hence the backhaul data rate would also increase. if one is able to provide compelling services such as video calls at affordable prices. people love talking over the phone rather than interacting using SMS or other means.provide access to both the voice network and the Internet.
With the help of a setup called 'backhaul'. Nowhere is the demand for more available capacity felt more than in the Backhaul. voice-based 3G services will see greater acceptance and adaptation by the domestic consumers. Mobile operators are more focused on mobile backhaul transport. The bandwidth at backhaul will be increased upto 50 Mbps once 3G is alive. Looking into their backhaul options. copper. Therefore. In this context. Moreover the backhaul network should be scalable such that it can cater to the need of even higher bandwidth requirement in case of 4G.
. The Indian mobile market is still voice intensive and the operators‟ major source of revenue. largely because its costs represent up to 25% of their opex. especially in the urban market. In India. But this would lead to increase in bandwidth requirement by each customer. which in turn puts a strain on existing cellular networks. fiber or microwave Presently in India around 90% of the backhaul network is connected on microwave. we are expecting a shift towards fiber which offers unlimited bandwidth. it will be a huge hit. service providers get connectivity from cell sites to cell site controller.
India is ready for 3G. operators can choose one of three physical mediums. But with the increasing demand of bandwidth hungry application.In that case Fiber cable that provides unlimited bandwidth would be the ultimate choice The advent of 3G and 4G mobile services brings with it a surge in data traffic..
2.0 Evolution of telecom technologies
Figure5: Evolution of telecom technologies
3.75(EDGE) 3G(UMTS) 2G(IS 95) (2.25MHZ (3G)CDMA20001X /(EVDO) (3G)CDMA2000/ 1X(EVDV) (3.5G)CDMA2000/ EVDO Rev B
1.4 kbps 20-40kbps 114kbps 384kbps .6Kbps-14.5(GPRS) 2.25MHZ 1.1Mbps(forward)
Table1: Throughput comparison of telecom technologies
Throughput /datarate increases with advancement in technology Transition from voice-centric application to data centric applications Increase in demand for bandwidth hungry applications Shift toward all IP network: Next generation network Demand for more capacity in tower backhaul and core network
TECHNOLOGY TDMA TDMA TDMA CDMA&TDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA+TDMA
DATARATE (EXPECTED) 9.2.5G)CDMA 2000 1X 200KHZ 200KHZ 200KHZ 5MHZ 1.25MHZ
2.1 Throughput comparison of telecom technologies:
BANDWIDTH 2G(GSM) 2.45Mbps
(3G)CDMA2000X (EVDO) 1.2Mbps 115kbps 153kbps 2.
topography.3. depending upon subscriber usage. so as to facilitate the handing over of signals from one BTS to another like a chain.0 TELECOM ARCHITECTURE:
Typically. The radius of each BTS varies from 500 meters to as much as 8-10 km. with each BSC being connected to a base transceiver station (BTS). The BTSs are installed in a contiguous manner. frequency band of operation and spectrum Telecom architecture can be broadly divided into 3 parts
Figure 6: Telecom architecture
. a mobile network in a circle consists of mobile switching centers (MSCs). each of which is connected to base station controllers (BSCs).
Data traffic was such a small percentage of the overall network that its contribution to the total growth was minimal. 31
. In most cases.3. and maximum distances were limited to 50-60 km. the bit rate required in the backbone networks was 565 Mbps and 1.1 CORE NETWORK:
Figure 7: core network
It is also called as backbone network. Aggregation of BSC to MSC and interconnection of MSCs are called core network. TDM was sufficient to combine information channels. About fifteen years ago.
Today's telecom network supports a number of services by means of time division multiplexing (TDM). and the management of the transmission network itself is designed as per the vendor or the operator.2 Gbps. asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). survivable ring topology was not much in use. Bandwidth hungry services such as the Internet were limited only to some academic institutions. and Internet Protocol (IP). the transmission bandwidth is managed separately from the services.
3. the core would be completely packetized. the core network supports both TDM and packet transmission. Looking into
.2 BACKHAUL NETWORK
Figure 8: backhaul network
The aggregation of traffic from BTS to BSC is known as backhaul network.For 3G. Both voice and data would be transmitted through packets. ie. Nowhere is the demand for more available capacity felt more than in the Backhaul.TDM is used for voice & packet transport for data. The backhaul environment is the part of a mobile network that connects base stations to network controllers within a coverage area. The advent of 3G and 4G mobile services brings with it a surge in data traffic. With NGN coming in picture. which in turn puts a strain on existing cellular networks.
such as fiber. in the radio access network (RAN) layer of mobile networks. A 2/2/2 configuration means that a cell is divided into 3 sectors. operators can choose one of three physical mediums. fiber or microwave Presently in India around 90% of the backhaul network is connected on microwave. we are expecting a shift towards fiber which offers unlimited bandwidth. Each sector has 2 TRX (transmitter/receiver) each. But with the increasing demand of bandwidth hungry application.
BACKHAUL NETWORK IN DETAIL:
3. copper. copper. Therefore in total a cell site under this configuration has
.3 BACKHAUL FOR GSM: PRESENT SCENARIO  Mobile backhaul provides secure and reliable transmission between base stations and base station controllers (BSCs).their backhaul options.In order to meet the demands of ever increasing subscriber base. Some of the most commonly used configurations include 2/2/2. 4/4/4. Each BTS in a cell site caters to the mobile subscribers in that particular cell site (along with the roaming subscribers). or microwave. the quality of mobile backhaul determines the overall quality of the mobile user's experience. Each sector has n numbers of TRX.
The backhaul environment is the part of a mobile network that connects base stations to base station controller. Because all customer terminals get access to mobile networks to use mobile services through the RAN. generally a cell site is divided into sectors. Normally a cell is divided into 3 sectors. 6/6/6 configurations. using different physical media.
Therefore a total of 3*6=18 TRXs in one cell site. Thus maximum no of subscribers that can simultaneously call through one BTS can be calculated.2*3=6 TRXs. In order to calculate the bandwidth requirement of backhaul network. Similarily 6/6/6 configuration means that each sector has 6 TRX. it is important to know No of BTSs connected to one BSC Bandwidth requirement of 1 BTS. Therefore 1 TRX can support 4 users at a time in full rate and 8 users at a time in half rate. This network is known as BACKHAUL NETWORK.
CALCULATION FOR BANDWIDTH REQUIREMENT OF 2G NETWORK (GSM)
Table 2: Bandwidth/BTS (2G)
. Each TRX has 8 time slots out of which 4 are used for traffic channel & the remaining 4 for signaling and control. All these BTSs are aggregated to BSC.
One STM1 comprises of 63E1s
For 2G voice application each BTS gets a drop of max 2-3 E1s(which is sufficient for voice and some data traffic)
So a maximum of 25-30 BTS‟s can be connected to one BSC
Figure 9: BTS connection to BSC through STM1 ring
. each BSC is connected to BTSs through STM1 ring.For 2G voice application.STM1 ring has a maximum data throughput of 155 Mbps.
the operators need to make even backhaul IP ready.
.4 BACKHAUL REQUIREMENT IN FUTURE
Wireless networks are evolving from voice-only traffic to networks supporting both voice and high-speed data services. With the coming of 3G. majority of backhaul is on microwave and this needs to be upgraded to optical fiber cable for which operators need to invest heavily. This demands for large backhaul capabilities. Presently.3. The rollout of 3G services across India cannot happen without significant addition of towers-in urban areas to provide capacity and in rural areas to provide coverage.
For infrastructure. The advent of 3G services is likely to lead to a quantum increase in the usage of data services among consumers. the 3G operators need to also focus on backhaul as this can act as a choking point for data services.
Currently 3G rollouts are limited to top 40 cities in India and the primary focus has been on upgrading and utilizing the existing infrastructure. As this transition occurs. there will be an increasing need for additional bandwidth at cell sites.
The design of microwave backhaul networks presents particular constraints.e. Microwave frequency bands – available in the 6 GHz. denotes the technology of transmitting information by the use of the radio waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in small numbers of centimeters. or mountains) between the communication endpoints – which strongly dictates the network topology
A modern microwave radio consists of three basic components:
The indoor unit (IDU) which performs all digital processing operations. It is essential for microwave links to have a clear line-of-sight (LOS) – i. there is a direct path without any obstruction (such as buildings. 7 GHz. 18 GHz and 23 GHz bands. 15 GHz. optionally.0 Microwave radio system
Microwave. containing the baseband and digital modem circuitry and. 14 MHz and 28 MHz (each chunk is known as a carrier) A microwave radio system is a system of radio equipment used for microwave data transmission. Microwave spectrum is allocated in chunks of 7 MHz. Microwave refers to terrestrial point-to-point digital radio communications. usually employing highly directional antennas in clear line-of-sight (LOS) and operating in licensed frequency bands from 6 GHz to 38 GHz.4. a network processing unit that provides advanced networking capabilities such as routing and load balancing
The outdoor unit (ODU) which houses all the radio frequency (RF) modules for converting a carrier signal from the modem to a microwave signal
multiple microwave links between different locations.
Two microwave radios are required to establish a microwave link (usually operating in duplex mode3) between two locations that can be several kilometers apart.The antenna: used to transmit and receive the signal into/from free space.
Antennas used in microwave links are highly directional. which is typically located at the top of a communication tower. in turn. the antenna is directly attached to the ODU which. The distance between the indoor and outdoor equipment can sometimes be up to 300 meters. thus. To avoid waveguide losses.
Figure 10:Microwave components
. which means they tightly focus the transmitted and received energy mainly into/from one specific direction. is connected to the IDU by means of a single coaxial cable. It should be noted that a single IDU can support multiple ODUs in a same site and.
or data in many forms.  The IDU accesses a service signal. diffraction. multiplexing
and intermediate frequency (IF) modulation. video.g. the electromagnetic fields from the interference and noise sources are also converted to power at the RF receiver. it experiences different propagation phenomena – e. the RF receiver processes this power in an effort to recover exactly the source information that was originally transmitted. before
being finally transmitted. reflection. prompting baseband processing.Working:
In a microwave radio system. The signal is then sent to the ODU via coaxial cable for RF processing. likely leading to imprecise interpretation of the transmitted signal.
As a radio wave travels through the atmosphere. free-space loss..
Besides the transmitted signal. and scattering – which negatively impact the perceived energy at the receiving antenna. Finally. The energy radiated by the RF transmitter is amplified by the transmitting antenna
before propagating in the form of radio waves in the directions determined by the design and orientation of the antenna.
. communication starts with an information source that can be audio.
However. In addition. we must consider the energy consumption to keep equipment in operation. The installation costs are closely tied to the site location and equipment dimensions (size of antennas). in this case. self-build microwave involves capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operating expenditure (OPEX).4. all the cost is associated with the total CAPEX.
CAPEX includes the investment in equipment and infrastructure.1 Capital and operational cost ( capex &opex) 
Microwave generally has lower costs associated with it when compared to copper and fiber lines . The maintenance costs are usually assumed to be a percentage of the equipment
cost on an annual basis. The rising demand for energy
. such as spectrum licenses. Energy cost commonly represents less than 5% of the total OPEX of microwave radio systems. as well as installation costs. The tower rentals normally represent an important contribution to the total OPEX. tower rentals. The energy costs are mainly associated with the operation of IDU (100 W per
device) and ODU (60 W per device) equipment.
OPEX comprises the recurrent costs. The spectrum price is usually a function of the amount of the assigned bandwidth. the operator may also decide for the construction of the communication towers and. A pair of IDUs. and energy consumption. maintenance. ODUs.As a common solution. and antennas is required to establish one microwave link.
has yielded a strong social and economical incentive for energy savings in communications networks. 256-QAM modulation can deliver approximately four times the throughput of QPSK.
.2 Modulation scheme:
The capacity of microwave links is basically determined by the channel bandwidth and the modulation scheme used to transmit data.
In fact.Adaptive modulation refers to the automatic modulation (and other radio parameters) adjustment that a wireless system can make to prevent weather-related fading from communication on the link to be disrupted. Since communication signals are modulated. varying the modulation also varies the amount of traffic that is transferred per signal. modern wireless communication systems employ adaptive modulation which has been shown to considerably enhance radio link performance . In response to channel fluctuations.
4. we assume that the modulation scheme is a random factor. to overcome outage events. For instance.
Usage of microwave links above 60 GHz would be needed shortly for 3G and Wireless Broadband systems. far greater than the well-known Friis formula predicts. and in big cities and metro areas there is already an interference problem or lack of additional space and licenses.
The 80-GHz spectrum is divided into two general segments: 71 to 76 GHz and 81 to 86 GHz.Figure 11: Adaptive modulation for a microwave link. The 60-GHz segment is also used for backhaul. It is a licensed spectrum segment. unlike the unlicensed 60-GHz spectrum.That is why there are multiple 60-GHz backhaul solutions on the market and a growing presence of 80-GHz systems.
. License fees are a low $75 compared to thousands of dollars for a license in the lower bands. but the oxygen absorption level at that frequency restricts it. The solution is to push higher into the spectrum. This causes huge path losses in the air.
The traditional microwave bands devoted to backhaul (6 to 38 GHz) are filling up.
That is why the 80-GHz segment has become the go-to place for backhaul. they are not too useful.But with sufficient power. Beyond that.
. radios in the 60-GHz space can easily achieve a range of up to about 2 miles without difficulty.
Currently. implying a subscriberper-tower ratio of 1.0 Telecom infrastructure in India
Initially. over the past few years. However. Today. Extending Infrastructure Status to telecom towers and the resultant income tax benefits should certainly encourage tower companies to expeditiously set up more towers in underserved areas.
. The GoI provides certain benefits specifically to infrastructure companies. the leading operators have opted to share their infrastructure.5. operators used their tower infrastructure for competitive advantage.455 telecom towers in India. telecom towers were accorded Infrastructure Status by the RBI. This constitutes an essential and possibly the most expensive component in the entire telecom service delivery infrastructure. tenancy level for the industry stands at 1.460. there are an estimated 425.55. The tax benefit encourages the participation of private sector through investment.In July 2010.
TABLE 4: State wise no of towers
coverage and quality
.0 NETWORK PLANNING:
The base of any network either it is wire line or wireless is planning. which could be capacity or coverage. The network planning process and design criteria vary from region to region depending upon the dominating factor.
RADIO NETWORK PLANNING PROCESS The main aim of radio network planning is to provide a cost-effective solution for the radio network in terms of coverage. capacity and quality. The design process itself is not the only process in the whole network design. The process of radio network planning starts with collection of the input parameters such as the network requirements of capacity. and has to work in close coordination with the planning processes of the core and especially the transmission network. For any operator it is necessary to plan and then execute as it optimizes their performances.6. Though this is outside the purview of my current project but I want to give an overview about this so as to understand the complete planning process. This planning can be divided in to the two parts:Radio network Planning (RF planning) Transmission network planning
RF planning deals with the working of cell sites to provide connectivity to the end user.
While the objective of coverage planning in the coverage-driven areas is to find the minimum number of sites for producing the required coverage. There is a parameter set for each cell that is used for network launch and expansion. and other information such as guard band and frequency band division. availability of the frequency bands. as the capacity requirements may have to increase the number of sites. There are coverage-driven areas and capacitydriven areas in a given network region.These inputs are then used to make the theoretical coverage and capacity plans. Parameter plans are drawn up for each of the cell sites. to identify the cut-over phase where network design will change from a coverage-driven to a capacity-driven process. The frequency plans need to be fine-tuned based on drive test results and network management statistics. Frequency allocation is based on the cell-to-cell channel to interference (C/I) ratio. radio planners often have to experiment with both coverage and capacity. Definition of capacity would include the subscriber and traffic profile in the region and whole area. service probability and related signal strength. and one of these is selected based on the inputs from the transmission planning and installation engineers. frequency planning methods. The average cell capacity requirement per service area is estimated for each phase of network design. The radio planner also needs information on the radio access system and the antenna system performance associated with it. Definition of coverage would include defining the coverage areas. This set 48
. Candidate sites are then searched for. resulting in a more effective frequency usage and minimal interference. The pre-planning process results in theoretical coverage and capacity plans.
This means that the optimization process should be on-going. its performance is monitored. power budget calculations .may include cell service area definitions. interference plans. adjacency definitions.
6. verifying and improving the performance of the radio network. parameter set plans. with the difference that sites are already selected and antenna locations are fixed. The performance is compared against chosen key performance indicators (KPIs). with continuous growth taking place. frequency plans. Optimization can be considered to be a separate process or as a part of the network planning process. Once a radio network is designed and operational. The main focus of radio network optimization is on areas
. channel configurations. the network is always growing through increasing subscriber numbers and increases in traffic. during parameter planning.1 RADIO NETWORK OPTIMIZATION
Optimization involves monitoring. The final radio plan consists of the coverage plans. parameter planning. After finetuning. Apart from this. etc. A cellular network covers a large area and provides capacity to many people. In the optimization process the same issues are addressed. Optimization tasks become more and more difficult as time passes. i. etc. capacity estimations. Then follows site selection.e. the results (parameters) are then applied to the network to get the desired performance. It starts somewhere near the last phase of radio network planning. handover and power control. so there are lots of parameters involved that are variable and have to be continuously monitored and corrected. capacity and frequency planning. to increase the efficiency of the network leading to revenue generation from the network. and network-specific parameters. As we have seen. radio network planners first focus on three main areas: coverage. but subscribers are as mobile as ever.
such as power control, quality, handovers, subscriber traffic, and resource availability (and access) measurements.
6.2 MICROWAVE PLANNING
SITE SURVEY Site survey is done for the construction of new towers to expand network capacity. A GPS set; a compass and a digital camera are required to carry out the site survey. During a site survey, the height of the building on which the tower is to be constructed is taken into considerations and denoted as G + x (read as ground + x). Here x denoted the number of stories above the ground floor in the building. On top of the building, latitude and longitude are measured with GPS handset and corresponding altitude (above mean sea level) is noted. Then PN short code of the nearest base station is recorded. Then, using a digital camera, photographs are clicked at angles of 45 degrees to observe the clutter around the building where the tower is to be constructed. There should not be any obstruction in front of the site, as it will block the radiations, which will be emitted from the antennas of the proposed tower. If the site satisfies all the requirements, it is finally selected for LOS (line of sight) survey and tower construction.
Frequency planning Microwave communications, begins with “line of sight” determinations and the evaluation of path clearances with regard to refractive effects. Microwave communications path design poses many challenges. In addition to static gain and loss considerations, terrain
and propagation dynamics can play a large role in determining whether a proposed path will have the required signal levels, clearances and reliability. The following tasks are some of the fundamental components of microwave path design: Determining whether a proposed path is “line of sight”. Evaluating path clearances with regard to Fresnel zones. Evaluating path clearances with regard to refractive effects. Considering path reflections. Deriving a power budget and the fade margin. Path reliability.
7.0 Optical fiber: overview
Optical fibers An optical fiber is a glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communication, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are immune to electromagnetic interference. As I mentioned earlier that this project report is focusing more on connecting cell sites on fiber so as to plan for future data applications. With the increase in bandwidth requirement more and more operators are tending toward transmission planning through fiber especially in metros.
g. if there is some college in between two cell sites or any famous shop the team will mark it in the sheet (in which map of that area is drawn with fiber route between two cell sites is shown) so that it will be easy when the actual implementation of the plan takes place. All this information depends upon the density of user in that particular area in which cell sites are located.
After this transmission planning team takes the latitude/longitude position of the cell sites from the RF planning team and actually goes to the proposed site to see the various locations and mark various points in between two cell sites.The steps for optical fiber transmission planning are as under:-
Marketing department of company generally gives the information to augment the capacity of transmission between cell sites (if the transmission is earlier through microwave it can be upgraded to fiber) or to connect the new cell sites through fiber. As all this process happen on software (autodesk). With the inputs from marketing department network planning department does a feasibility study whether microwave or fiber will be act as an effective medium of transmission
A topographical map of particular route is drawn by the transmission team. e. Again the map with proper points is drawn which will be used by operator for fiber roll out. There are various software tools available in which the topographical map of town is already available. User has to just show the fiber connection between proposed cell sites for the ease of network people. 53
Now if the proposed area is large than it is divided into the small area for the ease of understanding and for vendor because in a given time more than one vendor works on a given project. By dividing in to small area means that different sub route of the proposed OFC route will be formed in the topographical map software. As earlier told that different vendor works on these sub routes. The print out of the sub route is given to them for their ease.
During the same time the company looks for the vendor/contractor for outside plant (OSP) work which is most important process as far as roll out of the fiber is concern
Transmission Team also makes a purchase request and gives to the SCM department so that they can issue purchase order in the name of vendor
Another important point is the right of way (ROW) permission from the government agencies. It mean that when the company through it vendor decides to work on the project in a given area then it has to take permission from the concerned government authority in that area. In the case of Delhi these government agencies are MCD, PWD etc.
As far as vendor for fiber and equipment are concerned these are already decided by corporate so this is not a project territory. The team has to only receive them from those vendors
After taking permission (ROW) from the govt. agencies the processes of out will start which is also known as outside plant (OSP) process.When
fiber roll the OFC roll
out completes the project gets completed and it is given to the Operation & maintenance department.
The simultaneous billing of project is done in Finance department with the help of SCM department. The project actually completes after clearance of bills and closing of all books.
As we can see that project related to fiber transmission planning is done by three departments i.e. N/w, SCM and Finance so it is very important to have a close coordination between these departments. Communication with vendor is also an essential part of the project. Though the corporate decides about the vendor for material but the project team has to communicate with them for material. Optical fiber roll out is always ring shape means it meet at the same point from where it starts. This is done due to transmission purposes and in case of any cut in the fiber it will avoid from the whole network breakdown.
PARAMETERS ROW TRENCHING& DUCTING DUCT FIBER CABLE(TYPICAL) PER FIBER COST TOTAL
48F(Rs/meter)* 90 200 100 50 9.16 440
Table5: Capex/fiber cable deployment(*Typical figures)
7.1 Operating expenditure(OPEX)
PARAMETERS OUTDOOR FDMS SPLICE JOINT TOTAL PER FIBER COST CABLE CUTS(8/1000Kms/Month) PER FIBER COST/Km/Month
48F(Rs)* 3500 7000 10500 219 84000 1750
Table6: Opex/fiber /km/month(*typical figures)
1 KEY CHALLENGES IN FIBER DEPLOYMENT
Right of way (ROW) from multiple agencies such as municipalities.
. PWD Railways. development authorities. forest departments & private land owners Long approval time No structural design for network deployment Existing deployment being disrupted by Infrastructure development works .7.
2 OPTICAL FIBER VS MICROWAVE 
Table7: Fiber vs microwave
0 3rd GENERATION:UMTS
UMTS uses W-CDMA as the radio transmission standard.
UMTS. It employs a 5-MHz channel bandwidth (wider than the cdmaOne/CDMA2000 1XRTT channel bandwidth of 1. Elements such as the SIM have been transformed into a far more powerful USIM (universal SIM). has had a long history. In this way. the transition from GSM to UMTS does not require such a large instantaneous investment. the core network elements have been migrating towards the UMTS requirements with the introduction of GPRS and EDGE. it was clear that these would not cater for the demand forever.25 MHz). Although UMTS uses a totally different air interface. the network has been designed so that the enhancements employed for GPRS and EDGE can be used for UMTS. In addition to this.
Many of the ideas that were incorporated into GSM have been carried over and enhanced for UMTS. the investment required is kept to a minimum 60
. is the third-generation (3G) successor to the second-generation GSM-based technologies. or to carry data at speeds up to 2 Mbps in its original format. including GPRS. the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. In this way. Even as the 2G systems were first being rolled out. New technologies capable of providing new services and facilities would be required.8. which uses wideband CDMA (W-CDMA). and as such it has the capacity to carry over 100 simultaneous voice calls. and EDGE.
Thus the core network is divided into circuit switched and packet switched domains. the base station sub-system.
The user equipment is very much like the mobile equipment used within GSM
Radio network sub-system
This is the section of the network that interfaces to both the UE and the core network. the network for UMTS can be split into three main constituents. These are the mobile station. This communicates with the various UEs.1 System architecture overview 
Like GSM. called the User Equipment or UE.
Core network : core network of UMTS is based upon the combination of the circuit switched elements used for GSM plus the packet switched elements that are used for GPRS and EDGE. and with the Radio Network Controller (RNC). This is undertaken over an interface known as the Iub. and the core network.
. known as the Radio Network Sub-system (RNS). Under UMTS terminology. It contains what are roughly equivalent to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the Base Station Controller (BSC). the radio transceiver is known as the node B. The overall radio access network is known as the UMTS Radio Access Network The RNC component of the Radio Access Network (RAN) connects to the core network.8.
Some of the circuit switched elements are Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC).
Figure 12: 3G network architecture
. Visitor Location Register (VLR) and Gateway MSC. Packet switched elements are Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
Base Station Subsystem
Node B RNC SGSN GGSN Internet
Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.
garnering at least 9 million active users ever since.3 3G PLANS: A SNEAK PEEK 
Table8: existing 3G subscribers
8. Bharti Airtel leads the 3G race with with 3 million active subscribers closely followed by Tata DoCoMo with 1. Reliance communications was reluctant to disclose the numbers. Idea Cellular and Vodafone have about a million 3G subscribers each.2 3G: Present Indian scenario:
The third generation (3G) has created a rage since its launch four months ago. but reliable sources revealed that it also had close to a million subscribers.8.5 million subscribers.
3G subscribers are expected to reach 142 million by 2015. accounting for 20% of the total wireless subscriber base. video on demand. 3G services will drive the expansion of wireless services in future. including a host of rich multimedia services such as video calling.
Figure 13: prediction of 3G subscribers
. Further. location based services and remote access/ VPN applications.4 3G :Prediction
3G is the next generation mobile technology which is capable of delivering broadband content. accounting for 12% of the total wireless subscriber base. 3G subscribers are expected to be more than 300 million by 2020.8.
8. This would depend on the number of 3G users in a cell site
Cell sites would shrink in size and no of cell sites required to provide the same coverage would increase
Higher transmission frequency(2100Mhz) and greater data rate: more cell sites for 3G coverage
Increase in no of cell sites would lead to increase in the no of tower installation
Upgradation of 2G BTS‟s to Node B. indoor or in building traffic
This would result in higher datarate requirement per BTS
As a result E1 requirement per BTS would increase. The throughput provided by 3G would range from 144kbps: high mobility traffic 384 kbps: pedestrian traffic 2Mbps.
.5 Implementation of 3G : changes in the existing network:
3G enables applications that require high data rate.
Normally a cell is divided into 3 sectors. Each sector has n numbers of TRX. 4/4/4. 5-6 BTS’s would be connected to 1 BTS hub through STM1 ring. But in case of 3G. generally a cell site is divided into sectors.In order to meet the demands of ever increasing subscriber base.In 2G networks 20-25 BTS’s are connected to BSC through STM 1 ring.6 Changes in backhaul network for 3G
To start with. lets understand the backhaul network for existing 2G network:
The backhaul environment is the part of a mobile network that connects base stations to base station controller. 6/6/6 configurations. Each BTS in a cell site caters to the mobile subscribers in that particular cell site (along with the roaming subscribers). Each sector has 2 TRX (transmitter/receiver). Therefore in total a cell site under this configuration has 2*3=6 TRXs
. Some of the most commonly used configurations include 2/2/2. And these 4-5 BTS hubs would be connected to BSC through STM4 ring(explained later in detail )
Core network : packet switching+ circuit switching( packet for data& circuit switching for voice
8. A 2/2/2 configuration means that a cell is divided into 3 sectors.
Each TRX has 8 time slots out of which 4 are used for traffic channel & the remaining 4 for signaling and control.Similarily 6/6/6 configuration means that each sector has 6 TRX. In order to calculate the bandwidth requirement of backhaul network.
. Therefore 1 TRX can support 4 users at a time in full rate and 8 users at a time in half rate. Thus maximum no of subscribers that can simultaneously call through one BTS can be calculated. All these BTSs are aggregated to BSC. Therefore a total of 3*6=18 TRXs in one cell site. it is important to know No of BTSs connected to one BSC & Bandwidth requirement of 1 BTS. This network is known as BACKHAUL NETWORK.
STM1 ring has a maximum data throughput of 155 Mbps. each BSC is connected to BTSs through STM1 ring.8 THROUGHPUT REQUIREMENT PER BTS FOR 3G
3G promises a minimum data rate of 384kbps per user under normal mobility condition. the data rate requirement per BTS would increase.7 THROUGHPUT REQUIREMENT PER BTS FOR GSM NETWORK
Table 9: Datarate requirement per BTS(2G)
For 2G voice application.8. As more and more users shift to 3G. Analysis of bandwidth requirement can be done on case basis 68
. One STM1 comprises of 63E1s For 2G voice application each BTS gets a drop of max 2-3 E1s(which is sufficient for voice and some data traffic) So a maximum of 20-25 BTS‟s can be connected to one BS
Maximum datarate requirement per BTS hub: 155 Mbps STM1 ring can be used to connect BTS hubs to node B. more no of cell sites would be required to cater their datarate requirement
.23Mbps/BTS E1 requirement per Node B: 4-5E1 6-7 Node B‟s connected to 1 BTS hub.1% OF THE EXISTING SUBSCRIBERS/BTS SHIFT TO 3G Analysis: Let total no of subscribers per BTS (for 2G)= 1500 1% of them shift to 3G: 15 subscribers Maximum data rate requirement / Node B= (9. Here microwave cannot be used as it supports a maximum data rate of 155 Mbps. which supports unlimited datarate is a choice to connect BTS hubs to BSC
CASE 2: 10% OF THE EXISTING SUBSCRIBERS/ BTS SHIFT TO 3G As more and more subscribers shift to 3G. Optical fiber.8*48)+(15*384) Kbps (voice+data) 470 kbps +5.76Mbps = 6.CASE1:. Microwave can be used in STM1 ring 4-5 BTS hubs are connected to 1BSC through STM4 ring STM 4 supports a maximum throughput of 622Mbps.
25E1 or 50-60Mbps/BTS This would result in splitting of cell sites into smaller cell sites As a result no of BTS hubs would also increase in number.E1 requirement per BTS would increase to 20. These BTS hubs need to be connected to BSC through optical cable because of the huge traffic that it has to carry. Microwave cannot support that high data rate As more no of subscribers shift to 3G these is a possibility that even BTS‟s will be connected to BTs hubs through fiber.
Theoretical Calculation for datarate requirement/BTS
Figure 10: E1 requirement /BTS(3G)
Over the last one year. demand for backhaul for towers will increase with the advent of 3g. It is predicted that all 3G towers will be deployed by 2014
. 3G expansion to occur in all Tier 2/3 cities(1100 cities) within 2-3 years-results in fiber demand . Currently 90% of the towers are connected through microwave. This is primarily due to voice centric network deployments on 2G. operators are already installing fiber for wireless backhaul in cities. Increased data usage for 3G will lead to fiber requirements at all aggregation sites In anticipation of increased data usage and limitation of microwave .INFERENCE:
Most existing 2G & 3G operators in India use microwave backhaul and have occupied the existing slots. Airtel has been aggressively connecting their towers to fiber in the main cities. However.
9.00.000 CKm Or 1Lakh CKm Fiber demand=(1. So.8mn FKm
.000 Total 3G towers in tier 2/3 cities= 1.60. No of 3G towers to be rolled out in next 2-3 years= 1.000 Total 3G towers in Metros/Tier1= 60.0 DEMAND ESTIMATION OF FIBER IN TOWER BACKHAUL (3G)
Tier 1 cities are already almost connected on fiber.00.000*48)= 48Lakh Fkm or 4.000 Hubs Average distance from hub to BSC= 5 Km Average fiber count= 48F Fiber cable demand=( BTS hubs*average distance) (20.000 towers.00.1:5 Total BTS hubs= 1.000*5)=1.3G operators plan to deploy networks in Tier2/3 cities in next 2/3 year. for 3G network.000
3G operators at present plan to deploy networks in tier2/3 cities where they plan to install (or upgrade) an average of 1.00. 5-6 node B would be connected to 1 BTS hub Assuming that 3G aggregation ratio. As already explained.00.000/5=20.
1 BTS hub is required.
. 1 lakh cable Km is required to connect those 20.000Rs/km) = Rs 5. Considering aggregation ratio of 5: 1 for 3G.000.000 hubs These 20.1 Business opportunity for Sterlite from 3G deployment
As per the above calculation approximately 1lakh towers need to be upgraded for 3G in coming 2-3 years. As calculated above. So.000 BTS hubs would be required.000 =Rs 500 Crore
This is the total amount to be spend by all operators in coming 2-3 years for fiber deployment in order to provide 3G services to subscribers. So. ie.000/5= 20.000.00.9.000 hubs to BSC Cable cost/meter = Rs 50/meter (48F)
So total cost= 1lakh CKm*50. for 1 lakh towers. Here lies the great opportunity for Sterlite technologies.000 BTS hubs need to be connected on fiber. ie. 20. fiber deployment for 3G has business of an approximate Rs 500 crore. 1. For every 5 BTS.
. Both are a wireless technology very suitable for emerging markets like India where wire line infrastructure is severely lacking.300crore. both technologies use the same fundamental wireless standard – known as OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). Unlike cellular telephony. though it can support it.
The technologies for 4G would be WiMAX and LTE. There are lots of similarity between WiMAX and LTE. it is not designed for high mobility. and the lobbying for which would be a better technology is full on. India closed part two of the auction-for wireless broadband. TV and other multimedia services. Unlike 3G data. IP telephony.
WHAT AFTER BWA IN INDIA?
WiMax and LTE are expected to work on the BWA spectrum as DoT has decided not to specify the technology used on the bands. It will drive rapid penetration of broadband in areas outside wire-line reach.So the big story is that the wireless broadband will finally happen.10.0 LTE: The way ahead
After picking up nearly $15bn for the 3g spectrum auction in May. Broadband will ramp up in the year ahead-up fivefold from its abysmal one percent penetration in India. this isn‟t just for mobile executives. at Rs 38. And it will be a game changer for India. Technologies like LTE (3. What is gives you is broadband access. allows high speed internet access. In addition.9G) and WIMAX (4G).
France Telecom and Telecom Italia Mobile have also announced or talked publicly about their commitment to LTE. China Mobile and CSL. ZTE is also conducting LTE trials for Telefonica. as well as over ten other operators. which include Singapore Telecom. Vibo Telecom. a joint venture by Tecom.10. China's ZTE also tied up with Portugal's Optimus to build the latter's SDR which will replace its 2G/3G infrastructure and provide a smooth evolution path to LTE. Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe. While Japan was the first nation to test LTE. Riyadh. VMAX Telecom. the North Taiwan WiMAX operator. In August 2009 Telefónica selected six countries to field-test LTE in the succeeding months: Spain. Vodafone. and Brazil and Argentina in Latin America. T-Mobile. Motorola also recently signed a contract with Zain Saudi Arabia to deploy its first LTE network in capital. French operator SFR recently selected Nokia Siemens Networks to expand its mobile broadband coverage. the United Kingdom. has announced the launch of 4G WiMax services that aim to offer users with a high bandwidth. enhance service quality. high speed and real-time Internet access in Taipei. Intel CapitaLand Teco Group. and pilot LTE.
.1 WIRELESS BROADBAND (LTE) :WORLD SCENARIO
The world's first publicly available LTE-service was opened by TeliaSonera in the two Scandinavian capitals Stockholm and Oslo on the 14th of December 2009.
Higher performance 100 Mbit/s peak downlink. has announced that it will be adopting the LTE technology passing straight from 2G technology to 4G. 50 Mbit/s peak uplink 1G for LTE Advanced Faster cell edge performance Reduced latency (to 10 ms) for better user experience Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz
Backwards compatible Works with GSM/EDGE/UMTS systems 76
. Commercial deployment not expected before 2013. Related specifications are formally known as the evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA) and evolved UMTS terrestrial radio access network (E-UTRAN).The Dutch telecom provider KPN announced that it will use LTE for its 4G network. the biggest Libyan mobile phone operator. First version is documented in Release 8 of the 3GPP specifications. but there are currently many field trials.
In November 2004 3GPP began a project to define the long-term evolution of UMTS cellular technology. AlMadar Aljadeed.
the largest pan India BWA licensee. This is a setback to the WIMAX enthusiast. decided to opt for LTE technology.
1. The operators who have won the BWA spectrum auction are eager to deploy LTE.
INDIAN OPERATORS POINT OF VIEW Mukesh Ambani‟s Reliance Industries backed Infotel.2 LTE Vs WIMAX
Hazy clouds are looming over the technology after most of the players –who have won licenses for BWA services in the recently concluded auction –are backing LTE technology rather than WIMAX.
Utilizes existing 2G and 3G spectrum and new spectrum Supports hand-over and roaming to existing mobile networks
Reduced capex/opex via simple architecture reuse of existing sites and multi-vendor sourcing
Wide application TDD (unpaired) and FDD (paired) spectrum modes Mobility up to 350kph Large range of terminals (phones and PCs to cameras)
10. which is faster and cheaper than WIMAX.
Also. might stick to the WiMax route.
LTE has interoperability with existing legacy technologies (including GSM.
LTE will bring more productivity to enterprise employees. which despite having an existing WIMAX network did not win any spectrum to run the premium service. LTE will enable cloud computing a feature that will
. of sites required would be much higher.2.
4. Tikona. which started out with the broadband service on unlicensed spectrum in 10 cities and was targeting 50 cities by the end of this year. US based Qualcomm after winning spectrum in Mumbai and Delhi. was also betting for LTE based network. WiMax vendors' main business will be with BSNL and a select operators who have won BWA
5. leading to higher capex. The major setback was Tata Communications. For example. CDMA2000 and others) and hence the natural progression would be towards LTE. enabling to use corporate applications on the go. operators need to make fresh investments. to provide coverage on a WiMAX network in metro areas (Mumbai/ Delhi) the no. WCDMA. however. For WiMAX.
which requires a new network to be built. enterprises are keen on investing in LTE services
LTE will be more attractive to WiMAX operators that target mobile broadband subscribers. resulting in substantial capacity and performance losses
So which technology will ultimately prevail? It is arguable that LTE is more „risk-free' than WiMAX because it will run on an evolution of existing mobile infrastructure unlike WiMAX. it is questionable if it will even work to deploy WiMax in the Indian 20 MHz BWA allocations. and thus 30 MHz of available bandwidth. Because of this gain in productivity. without severe interference issues.
Since WiMax requires 3-cell frequency reuse. and facilitating roaming. while WiMAX equipment is limited to TDD. giving them access to a wider choice of mobile devices.
Operators have the flexibility to deploy LTE using TDD or frequency division duplexing (FDD) spectrum bands.be more and more used by enterprises but also by end users.
It is still in the testing stage. Some of them intend to move on to LTE (Long-term evolution) in 2-3 years of time.
Then the strategy could be that LTE is used to support mobile broadband users and WiMAX to support fixed or lower-mobility broadband users.
Following are 3 alternative solutions:
Operators are in no hurry to rollout the services given the eco-system constraints and slower pace of equipment procurement. they could well use LTE for macro cellular coverage and WiMAX for micro cell coverage. This may help provide operators keen to control investment with the confidence to wait for LTE technology to reach maturity before upgrading their existing infrastructure.So all the operators who follow a legacy might go for LTE and all those who are new in the field. Almost all BWA operators will initially rollout Wimax.
There is also no doubt that the advent of WiMAX has injected a new sense of urgency to the LTE standardisation effort. Even though development and deployment of the LTE standard may lag Mobile WiMAX.
What goes against LTE is that the technology is not fully evolved as of now. it has a crucial incumbent advantage of being backward compatible. once the eco-system for LTE develops. with no legacy as such might go for WIMAX. rather than invest in a brand new WiMAX network. Alternatively.
4G wireless networks will approach the broadband speeds and user experience now provided by traditional DSL and cable modem wireline service. Understanding the impact of 4G on mobile backhaul transport is critical to deploying efficient. cost-effective transport solutions that meet wireless carrier expectations for performance. but there is also a fundamental shift from TDM transport in 2G and 3G networks to packet transport in 4G networks.0 4G Impacts to Mobile Backhaul Introduction
With the introduction of 4G systems. From the wireless operator‟s perspective. Simple text messaging and slow email downloads are being replaced by high-speed connections that support true mobile office applications.
The additional speeds and capacity provided by 4G wireless networks put additional strains on mobile
backhaul networks and the carriers providing these backhaul services. and other rich multimedia applications. reliability and cost. 4G systems are vastly more efficient at using valuable wireless spectrum.
. real time video. as well as larger numbers of users. Not only are the transport requirements much higher. wireless networks are evolving to next-generation packet architectures capable of supporting enhanced broadband connections. streaming music.11. These spectral efficiency improvements support new highspeed services.
A Radio Network Controller (RNC) provides control over multiple cell sites and radio transceivers. supporting call handoffs and resource allocation. improve spectral efficiency. support flexible channel bandwidths. radios (Node B) at the cell site provide the radio air interface for each cell. whether 2G or 3G. reduce network latency.LTE Architecture
Key objectives of 4G LTE networks are to support higher data rates. In a GSM network. and simplify or flatten the network by utilizing an all packet (Ethernet/IP) architecture. The RNCs are connected to both a TDM voice switch and a packet gateway located at the MSC.
Figure 14: 2G/3G network architecture
The wireless industry defined each functional element in the network. the 3GPP wireless standards body adopted slightly different names for the functional nodes and logical interfaces for GSM 2G and UMTS 3G networks.
. While their functions are similar. driven mobile backhaul transport requirements. This traditional reliance on E1 physical interfaces has. fiber. as well as a set of standard interfaces for interconnecting each of these devices. and microwave services. this was a very logical choice for the physical layer. historically the 2G/3G wireless standards were based on T1 TDM physical interfaces for interconnection between these devices. Although updated in recent years to include Ethernet. Given the wide availability of E1 copper. up to this point.
with far fewer functional devices.
From a mobile backhaul perspective. In effect.LTE systems are based on entirely new packet-based architecture. This resulted in pushing more intelligence into the radios (eNodeB) and elimination of the radio controllers as a separate device.
. as well as the use of native Ethernet as the physical interface for connection and transport of these services back to the MSC. Another objective of the LTE standards was to flatten and simplify the network architecture. including the use of Ethernet physical interfaces for interconnection between the various functional elements. Given that most cell sites will continue to support GSM 2G and UMTS 3G networks for many years. the major changes are the higher capacities required by LTE cell sites. as shown as shown below is indeed much simpler and flatter. the addition of LTE means backhaul transport carriers need to implement systems that can support both native E1 TDM services and Ethernet services. the radio controller function has been distributed into each eNodeB radio. The resultant network.
Only those areas where data requirement is high would be upgraded to LTE cell sites. Moreover not all the existing towers would be upgraded for LTE.all LTE towers need to be connected on fiber as microwave has a datarate limitation of 155 Mbps(at present).
Since operators are still in the testing phase and due to the limited LTE handset ecosystem. By that time it is expected that around 20-25% of the backhaul would be connected on fiber. commercial deployment can be expected around end of 2012.
.1 Fiber requirement for LTE deployment
Due to high bandwidth requirement per BTS for LTE.Figure 15:A typical LTE network
000 = Rs 240 Crore So.000
Out of these total cell sites.000Rs/km) = Rs 2400.000 sites would require fiber connectivity by the end of 2014
Average distance to BSC=4Km Average fiber count = 48F Total cost=(48000CKm*50. we assume that approx 10. sites by other LTE operators = 60. there is an opportunity of Rs 240 crore for fiber deployment of LTE towers
.000.000 sites. Similarily. the pan India winner of BWA is expected to deploy 60.RIL.
China has approx. 1047k backhaul towers out of which 96% is connected on fiber
India has 360k towers in backhaul out of which approx 10% is connected on fiber.12.0 INTERNATIONAL WIRELESS BACKHAUL TRENDS
TOWER BACKHAUL TREND Smart phone penetration is growing at a slow rate.
Table 11: International backhaul cases
. Bell Canada & Telus have launched a joint HSPA+ network on their fiber network.Operators have indicated a preference to lease out fiber for 3G & LTE backhaul(Verizon & AT&T)
Vodafone Hutchison is using a combination of microwave(rural) and fiber(other areas) to migrate to IP in preparation for LTE
Existing heavy data usage within 2G and 3G and expected launch of LTE has led to majority towers being connected with fiber. which will be later upgraded to LTE
Indian telecom sector witnessed the much awaited 3G & BWA spectrum auction With the arrival of 3G. and many other broadband applications with very high speed.
. audio-video conferencing. the most important being less deployment time & cost of installation.e. In India. Therefore. fiber or microwave Presently in India approx 90% of the backhaul towers are on microwave. The existing tower backhaul network for GSM would not be sufficient to cater to this high demand of bandwidth. But this would lead to increase in bandwidth requirement by each customer. people love talking over the phone rather than interacting using SMS or other means. The advent of 3G and 4G mobile services brings with it a surge in data traffic. if one is able to provide compelling services such as video calls at affordable prices. better access of data services including e-commerce. it can be used in STM1 ring but beyond this datarate microwave communication cannot support. In this context. Looking into their backhaul options. various operators in India are particular about providing faster and more robust Internet. especially in the urban market. But the present microwave transmission supports a maximum of 155Mbps. Nowhere is the demand for more available capacity felt more than in the Backhaul. which in turn puts a strain on existing cellular networks. i. operators can choose one of three physical mediums. The Indian mobile market is still voice intensive and the operators‟ major source of revenue.CONCLUSION:
In 2010. it will be a huge hit. copper. voice-based 3G services will see greater acceptance and adaptation by the domestic consumers. Microwave has some obvious advantages. social networking. India is ready for 3G.
ie. whereas for existing 2G network datarate requirement per BTS is merely 2 E1. datarate requirement per BTS would increase to approx 20-30Mbps. 4Mbps.
.With 3G and 4G coming up in India.In that case Fiber cable that provides unlimited bandwidth would be the ultimate choice for operators. Moreover the backhaul network should be scalable such that it can cater to the need of even higher bandwidth requirement in case of 4G..
White paper by BRIDGE WAVE COMMUNICATION  7. PHD Thesis by Napoleão NEPOMUCENO :Network optimization for wireless microwave backhaul 8. Mobile Backhaul: Fiber vs. Cellular communications explained from basics to 3G by Lan Poole  6. CRU monitor optical fiber and fiber optic cable (www.crugroup.com/index.pdf  3.aspx  2. Ernst & Young report on National telecom policy 2011  5.References:
1. Voica & Data (May 2011) 10 Report by FUJITSU on Understanding Mobile wireless backhaul
.com)  4. Microwave Case Study Analyzing Various Backhaul Technology Strategies By: Tzvika Naveh Solutions Marketing Manager Ceragon Networks 9. sterlitetechnologies.com/pdf/Corporate_Profile_October_2010.