Digestive system of (alimentary canal) of man is a long (6-9 m) tube of variable diameter. It has the following parts. MOUTH It is a transverse slit present below the nose and is bound by two movable lips covered externally by skin & internally by mucous membrane. Upper lip has a tubercle in the middle a groove or philtrum above & two ridges on the sides. VESTIBULE It is a narrow space between gums & lips in front & checks on the sides. Lips are connected with gums by superior & inferior labial frenula. BUCCAL CAVITY It is large space in between the upper immovable jaw and lower movable jaw. The roof is formed by palate while the floor consists of throat with tongue. Hard palate (in front) bears transverse ridges called rugae. Soft palate (behind) ends in a flap or Uvula for closing internal nares. Tongue is a muscular, protrusible, mobile flattened soft structure which is free in front and attached basally by Frenulum that help in the chewing, tasting and swallowing of food. Taste areas of tongue: Sweet (tip) Salt(tip and sides) Sour(sides) Bitter(base). Mucous glands occur over the tongue are called weber’s glands. The upper surface bears four types of papillae– vallate, fungiform, foliate and filiform. Teeth : In man there are 16 teeth each Jaw. There are four different types of teeth. A tooth has three parts. (i) Crown (exposed part) (ii) Neck(surrounded by gums) (iii) Root(embeded in socket). Tooth is mainly made up of ivory like substance called dentine. In crown part of dentine covered by enamel (hardest substance of body). Cement and peri dontal ligament fixed the tooth in bony socket. Pulp cavity : Cavity of tooth with connective tissue, nerve fibers, and blood vessels.

In man two sets of teeth appears during life. In humans, the first set or milk teeth consists of 20 teeth. These are called deciduous or temporary teeth. They are completely replaced by the permanent teeth by about 12 years of age.

DENTAL FORMULA OF HUAMN ADULT — DENTAL FORMULA OF HUMAN CHILD I C Pm M I C Pm M 2, 1, 2 , 3 2, 1, 0 , 2 , 2, 1, 2, 3 2, 1, 0 2 ,

(Dental formula is the representation of number of teeth in each upper and lower half jaw)
Teeth are heterodont (different types), diphyodont (temporary and permanent) bunodont (low cusps) & thecodont (fixed is sockets). Teeth help in cutting, tearing and crushing of food. Salivary glands are 3pairs – parotid (below ears), submaxillary (submandibular at angles of lower jaw) and sublingual (below tongue). They secrete 1-1.5 litres of saliva per day which is poured into buccal cavity for lubrication, mastication and partial carbohydrate digestion.

The oral cavity passes into a pharynx. Which has three parts nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx. The masticated food, which has been partially digested with the help of ptyalin (an enzyme contained in saliva), passes through the pharynx, and then goes down into the stomach through a tube called oesophagus. Some tonsils of lymphoid tissues also present at the junction of buccal cavity and pharynx.

It is a muscular tube of 25-40 cm length that connects pharynx with stomach. It corresponds to the neck region of man. It has mucous glands for lubrication. The muscular walls of the oesophagus move in a rhythmic wavelike manner, which conveys the food downwards. This muscular movement is called peristalsis. A ring of muscle, the oesophageal sphincter, controls the opening of oesophagus into the stomach. Its thoracic part is without serosa.

Located below the diaphragm & is saclike, J shaped structure. It helps in mechanical churning and chemical digestion of food. It also acts as food reservoir. Stomach is differentiated into four parts- cardiac part (present near the heart), fundus (extends superiorly, from the cardiac part) filled with air and gases, body (middle dome shaped part), pyloric part (distal part of stomach),which is differentiated into three parts antrum, canal and sphincter.Pyloric canal and pyloric sphincter guards the opening between the stomach and duodenum.

Small intestine is about 6 to 7 metres in length & 2.5 cm in diameter, consists of three parts : (a) Duodenum : It is the first part (proximal) of intestine and is about 25 cm (10 inches) long. It is C shaped. It has ampulla of vater which receives both bile duct from liver and main pancreatic duct from pancreas and whose opening in duodenum is guarded by sphincter of oddi. Brunner’s glands present mainly in duodenum secrete mucus and bicarbonate ions etc.

(b) Jejunum : It is about 1 to 1.5 metres long and narrower than duodenum, with abundant plicae(circular folds), villi & digestive gland. It is the seat of major digestive activity. (c) Ileum : It is much longer about 3 to 3.5 metres long & 2-3 cm in diameter in adult man and more coiled. It is distal in position. Its distal end is dilated into a small bulb like structure sacculus rotundus. Both the jejunum and ileum are greatly coiled and are suspended by mesentery.

It is characterised by aggregated lymphoid follicles called Peyer’s patches and finger like villi. Bases of villi possess crypts of Liberkuhn where intestinal glands are located, which secretes intestinal juice. Fine lymphatic channels (Lacteals) are extended up to villi for absorption and transportation of lipids. Two nerve plexuses of Autonomic nervous system are : (a) (b) Auerbachs plexuses – controls movement of food in gut. Meissners plexuses – control movement of villi.


LARGE INTESTINE It is wider than small intestine, about 1.5 to 1.8 metres long. It is divisible into 3 parts Caecum, colon & rectum. Caecum : It is a small blind pouch situated at the junction of ileum and colon. Its blind end is produced into vermiform appendix. In man it is a vestigial organ. Internally, there is an ileocaecal valve. Here wall of ileum is thickened & muscular to function as ileocaecal sphincter. It slows down the passage of ileac contents into colon. It is present in sacculus rotundus. Infection of the appendix is called appendicitis. Rupture of appendix results in peritonitis.

Colon : It is the largest part of large intestine an inverted U-shaped tube about a metre long. In humans the large intestine ascends from the caecum as the ascending colon these crosses to left side as the transverse colon and descends again as the descending colon. Colon has longitudinal bands called taeniae coli and small pouches named haustra. Colon is dividied into four parts. Ascending colon : Extends upto liver on the right side. Absorbs fluids and salts. Transverse colon : Crosses the abdominal cavity below the pancreas. Remove more water from the waste materials. Descending colon : Running downwards on the left side. Hold resulting waste. Sigmoid or pelvic colon : S-shaped and enters the pelvis and joins the rectum. [Hence colon is concerned with conservation of water, sodium and other minerals and formation of faeces]. Rectum : It is the last part of alimentary canal. It opens to the exterior by anus. It bears longitudinal folds. It is a storage chamber for faeces. Rectum absorbs excess of water from the undigested food, secretes mucus & helps in egestion of undigested faecal matter. Enlargement of rectal veins causes Piles or haemorrhoids. Anal canal : It connects rectum with anus, & is about 3cm long.

It is the terminal inferior opening of alimentary canal which is guarded by an internal involuntarily sphincter & an external voluntary sphincter. HISTOLOGY OF HUMAN GUT Four major layers of different cell types form the wall of the alimentary canal. Starting in its cavity or lumen. (i) Mucosa : (the innermost layer) moist & friction resistant lining epithelium. Which contains the secretory and absorptive cells. At the base of the mucosa are some smooth cells. (ii) Sub mucosa : (Just outside the mucosa) Soft connective tissue layer with blood and lymph vessels & nerve supply.

(iii) Muscularis externa : (external to the submucosa) Formed of a circular inner layer and a longitudinal outer layer of smooth muscle. (iv) Serosa : (outer most layer of the gut) It is a fibrous coat. The mucosa is produced into millions of microscopic folds or finger like projections called villi. supplied with a network of blood capillaries & also a network of lymph vessels, the largest of which it the central lacteal. Besides, the cells that line the surface of the villi, produce numerous microscopic bristle-like projections called the microvilli or brush border. On the surface of the mucosal epithelium are billions of single cell mucous glands, called mucous or goblet cells, secrete mucus that acts as a lubricant and protects the epithelial surface from excoriation and digestion. Surface areas of the gastrointestinal tract are lined by invaginations of the epithelium (pits) or in the submucosa. These pits of the intestine are called crypts of liberkuhn, contain specialized secretary cells. Besides, the stomach & upper duodenum contain many deep tubular glands.

DIGESTIVE GLANDS (i) Salivary glands : In man their are 3 pairs of salivary glands. (a) Parotid : largest below and in front of ears. Parotid or stenson’s ducts open in vestibule just outside the 2nd upper molars (b) Submaxillary or : Submandibular, medium sized at the angles of lower jaw. Submaxillary or wharton’s ducts do so near the lower central incisors. (c) Sublingual or Rivinus duct open under the tongue. Salivary glands secrete saliva (pH 6.8) Saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase, (Ptyalin) Which breakdown starch of the food into maltose (a simpler sugar). About 1.0 –1.5 litres of saliva is produced daily. It contains 99% water, some salts, mucin, lysozyme, thiocyanate ions (both are antibacterial agent), lactoferrin and ptyalin. Salivation increased by parasympathetic nervous system while decreased by sympathetic nervous system.

Ptyalin converts starch and glycogen of cooked or backed food into limit dextrins, maltose, and isomaltose making the food sweet (on through chewing) Lysozyme is anti bacterial agent. Mucin and water lubricates the food for proper chewing and swallowing. Mucin also protects the soft lining of buccal cavity from abrasion. Salivary gland, absent in human beings are infraorbital glands. Mumps : It is painful swelling of parotid glands when they are infected with paramyxovirus. Accessory salivary glands : They are additional minor salivary glands which occur in i.e. buccopharyngeal cavity buccal, palatal, labial, lingual. Accessory salivary glands mainly produce mucus Mucus is a glycoprotein and help to neutralize the acid in stomach and protect stomach wall against the action of HCl and protein digestive enzyme.

Gastric Glands : It is estimated that human stomach has about 35 million gastric glands producing 2 to 3 litres of gastric juice per day. They are branched and unbranched tubular glands. Which are often named after the region of stomach as cardiac, principal and pyloric. Cardiac glands mostly secrete mucus. Pyloric glands also secrete mucus some of them produce hormone gastrin. Principal (Fundic) glands occur in body and fundus part of stomach. They posses. (a) Peptic cells (Chief or zymogenic cells) yield pepsinogen (A zymogen or proenzyme) and gastric lipase. In children, another proenzyme called prorenin is also produced. (b) Oxyntic cells (parietal cells). Yield HCl and intrinsic factor (castle’s Intrinsic Factor) HCl makes the gastric juice acidic (pH 1.5 to 2.0). (c) Mucous Neck (Goblet) cells : They secrete mucus. (d) Argentaffin cells produce gastrin, motilin, somatostatin, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Intestinal glands : Formed by surface epithelium of small intestine, occurs as crypts of leiberkuhn and Brunner’s gland. This juice is slightly alkaline and contains digestive enzymes, water, mineral salt (Cl¯, HCO¯3 and PO¯4 etc.) and mucous.

Liver It is situated in the right upper part of the abdomen below the diaphragm. Largest digestive gland. Its weight is about 1.5 kg in man.

In man it has two lobes small left lobe and large right lobe. The latter is further divided into right lobe proper, quadrate lobe and caudate lobe. The liver is surrounded by two sheaths (i) an outer membrane is tough serous (fibrous) capsule containing visceral peritoneum (ii) an inner membrane is a thin layer a dense connective tissue called Glisson’s capsule. Its trabeculae divide liver lobes into hexagonal lobules also called acini. Polyhedral hepatocytes (parenchymal cells) are arranged in cords like manner. Blood Sinusoids (vascular spaces) are also present, and are lined by discontinuous capillaries and whose lining contain phagocytic cells called Kuffer cells. Kuffer cells are phagocytic, can also involved in breakdown of old red blood cells and ingestion of potentially harmful bacteria (kupffer cells are also called macrophages stellate cells because they perform scavenger activities. Liver secretes a yellowish green alkaline fluid called bile. (i) It emulsifies fats, that is, rendering them soluble, breaking them into small globules, and thus making them exposed to the action of fat hydrolyzing enzymes. (ii) The acidic food (chyme) coming from the stomach becomes alkaline when it is mixed with the bile. It is an extremely important step because the intestinal enzymes can catalyse the breakdown of food only in alkaline medium.

FUNCTION OF LIVER Liver performs variety of functions like synthesis, interconversions storage, secretion of various substances as follows : Glycogenesis : Extra glucose is converted to glycogen with the help of insulin and stored either in liver or in muscles. Glycogenolysis : Glycogen is converted into glucose when its level falls (below 80 mg/100 ml) in the blood. This is influenced by glucagon hormone. Glucogenesis : Synthesis of glucose form other carbohydrates. Gluconeogenesis : Synthesis of glucose/carbohydrates from protein and lipids (non carbohydrate sources) Lipogenesis : Extra protein and carbohydrates are converted into lipid for storage in adipose connective tissue. Deamination of protein : If protein is used for energy production, the NH2 group is removed from amino acid as NH3, the end product keto acid, enters Kreb’s cycle. Ornithine Cycle : Chemical part of excretion, NH3 is converted into urea in a cyclic chain of reactions in which ornithine plays pivotal role. Cori Cycle : Lactic acid formed in muscle is converted back to glycogen. SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTANCES LIKE Vit A from carotene. Vit D from cholesterol or ergocalciferol. Plasma protein (Albumin, globulin, clotting proteins), heparin. Angiotensinogen, an osmoregulatory substance in the blood. Haemoglobin : Formation of RBC in embryonic mammals. Somatomedin : a growth promoting factor also called as IGF (insulin–like growth factor) DETOXIFICATION OF Indole, skatole, cresol, phenol, alcohol, prussic acid and other toxic substances formed during digestion or obtained in food. Excess alcoholism affects liver by overburden of work and fat deposition. It converts alcohol to aldehyde which promotes fat deposition causes puffiness and liver cirrhosis. SECRETION OF BILE Bile is a yellowish watery fluid, concentrated in gall bladder, contains : 85% water; 6% organic salt of bile acids (sodium glycholate and sodium taurocholate); 1% inorganic salt (bicarbonate, carbonates and chlorides of Na and K); 1.5 to 2% lipid (cholesterol, lecithin); 3% mucin and bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin). Extra cholesterol and bilirubin are eliminated form the body through gut. Increase in bilirubin level beyond normal (0.1 to 0.9 mg/100) in the blood is called as jaundice. This happen if hepatic cells become sick due to viral or bacterial infection or obstruction or lesion.

PANCREAS Irregular in form it is both exocrine and endocrine in nature hence, called heterocrine gland. Exocrine part consists of many acini with lumen (of duct) surrounded by acinar cells, which secrete digestive enzymes. Endocrine part consists irregular heap of cells known as Islets of Langerhans with 3 types of cells secreting different hormones like : (i) α – cells (a–cell) – Glucagon, hyperglycemic (ii) β – cell (b – cell) – Insulin hypoglycemic (iii) δ – cell (d – cell) - Somatostain, maintains balance between the insulin and glucagon as per body requirement. Rest part remains filled with areolar connective tissue known as stroma.

The secretion of pancreas is called pancreatic juice. Pancreatic juice is also called complete digestive juice because it contains all the four digestive enzymes involved in the digestion of starch, protein, nucleic acid and fats. Pancreatitis : Inflammation of the pancreas due to the action of pancreatic enzymes on it. Gall Bladder is situated on the inferior surface of right lobe. It is 8 cm long and 2 cm wide. Bile is store in gall bladder. It is released into the duodenum on the stimulation of cholecystokinin and involved in digestion and absorption of fats. Without any digestive enzymes, it contains bile salts (sodium taurocholate and sodium glycholate). inorganic salts, bile pigments (bilirubin & biliverdin) fatty substances (choleosetsol).

DIGESTIVE PROCESS Process of nutrition : Due to presence of specialized digestive tract of alimentary canal the process of nutrition involves the following steps. Ingestion ——→ Digestion ——→ Absorption ——→ Assimilation ——→ Egestion.

Ingestion means intake of food.

Digestion is defined as the conversion of non diffusible food elements into diffusible constituents. It is two types: (i) Mechanical (ii) Chemical (Break down by enzymes) PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION The digestion can be defined as a process that involves a chemical breakdown of complex food material into simpler molecules, which can be readily used by animal through absorption and assimilation. (i) Digestion in the buccal cavity : In the buccal cavity, the food is broken down mechanically by teeth and chemically by certain enzymes. The food is thus masticated and mixed with saliva secreted by salivary glands. The saliva contains water, mucus and a digestive enzymes (salivary amylase or Ptyalin). amylase The pH of the saliva is slightly acidic (6.8). Starch ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ maltose. → (ii) Oesohagus : There is no digestive juice secreted in the oesophagus and the food simply passes through the oesophagus into stomach.

(iii) Digestion in the stomach : The gastric glands in the wall of the stomach secrete gastric juice. The gastric glands consist of 3 kinds of cells. (a) Chief cells secrete pepsinogen. (b) Oxyntic (parietal) cells which secrets HCl. (c) mucous cells which secrete mucus. The gastric juice is composed of water, mucus, HCl and three enzymes, pepsinogen, prorennin and fat splitting gastric lipase.

Functions of HCl : It kills several bacteria that are swallowed with the food. It convert pepsinogen into active pepsin. Provides an acidic medium for the action of pepsin. Pepsin : It a a protein splitting or proteolytic enzyme. The pH optimum for pepsin is about 2. PH1.2 −1.8 Pepsinogen ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Pepsin HCl
Pepsin Proteins ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Peptones →

Rennin : Rennin takes part in curdling of milk by converting casein into paracaseinate that combine with calcium to form insoluble calcium paracaseinate. In human beings the function of rennin is carried out by pepsin. Pepsin also changes proteins into peptone. rennin → Casein ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Paracasein Paracasein + Ca ——→ Calcium paracaseinate (insoluble, curdie milk) Pepsin → Calcium Paracaseinate ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Peptones Lipase : The lipase is a fat - splitting enzyme, and acts on the fats which are in very fine emulsion. (i) Digestion in the small intestine : From the stomach the semidigested or semi-liquid food passes into the small intestine, where it is fully digested. In this region of the digestive tract three secretions are poured. These are pancreatic juice, intestinal juice and bile. Pancreatic Juice : It contains the following enzymes (a) Trypsin : This is secreted in an inactive form called trypsionogen and is activated by another enzyme enteropeptidase (previously called enterokinase) secreted from the crypts of leiberkuhn of intestinal wall. Trypsin acts upon natural proteins and splits them to proteoses and peptones. enterokinase Trypsinogen ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Trypsin (b) Chymotrypsin : This is also secreted in an inactive form known as chymotrypsinogen, and is activated into chymotrypsin by trypsin. Chymotrypsin also acts upon proteins, converting them into peptides, and clots milk. Trypsin Chymotrypsinogen ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ Chymotrypsin →
Chymotrypsin Proteins ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ Peptones →


Chymotrypsin ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ Paracsaein →

Chymotrypsin Paracasein + Ca ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ Calcium paracaseinate (insoluble curdles milk) →

(c) Carboxypeptidase : (Secreted in the form of procarboxy peptidase) trypsin → Procarboxy peptidase ⎯⎯⎯⎯ carboxypeptidase.
Carboxypeptidase Peptones ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ peptides + Amino acids

Carboxypeptidase A an amine-containing enzyme that rapidly liberates COOH -terminal residues possessing aromatic or aliphatic side chains. Carboxypeptidase B act only on peptides with terminal arginine or lysine residues.

(d) Amylase or amylopsin : Pancreatic amylase (α-1, 4-glucan - 4- glucano hydrolase) is an endoenzyme which hydrolyses interior α-1, 4 bonds of polysachharides. Digestion of amylase yield maltose. α amylase Starch ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ maltose ⎯ Pancreatic amylase also hydrolyses amylopectin which represents about 80% starch consumed by human being. (e) Pancreatic lipase or steapsin : It is a lipolytic enzyme and converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Lipase Fat ⎯⎯⎯⎯ Fatty acids and glycerol. → (f) Other pancreatic enzymes : Pancreatic juice also contains maltase and ribonuclease. The former splits maltose into glucose whereas the latter is responsible for the hydrolysis of RNA in to smaller nucleotides. Pancreatic juice also contains esterases that can hydrolyse short chain fatty acid esters. Eg. Tributyrin. (ii) Intestinal juice : Succus entericus, intestinal secretion contains several enzymes which are necessary to complete the digestion. (a) Erepsin complete the digestion of peptones and proteoses, and splits them into amino acids. Erepsin Peptones; Proteoses ⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Amino acid ⎯ The other enzymes are concerned with carbohydrates splitting. Maltase → Maltose ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ glucose
lactase → Lactose ⎯⎯⎯⎯ glucose and galactose

Amino peptidases Peptides ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Amino acid dipeptidase

(b) In addition, a lipase as well as a number of enzymes for the hydrolysis of nucleic acids (nucleases, nucleotidase, nucleosidase) also occur in the intestinal juice. The intestinal juice also contains a phosphatidyl cholinase and a phosphatase. These enzymes complete the digestion of the various nutrient at the surface or within the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelial cells. Bile : It is made up of water, bile salt and bile pigments.Bile is usually stored in the gall bladder and is stimulated to flow down by the common bile duct when food enters in the small intestine. A hormone cholecystokinin secreted by the intestinal lining stimulating gall bladder to secrete bile. Bile salts emulsify fat into small particles. By virtue of its alkaline nature bile creates a suitable medium for intestinal digestion. The role of bile salts in the digestion of fats is secondary to it important function of enhancing the absorption of digested fats by the intestinal villi. Bile salts reduce the surface tension of the absorbing epithelium increase their permeability and thus facilitate absorption. This is known as hydrotropic action. The bile pigments : biliverdin and bilirubin are derived from degradation of haemoglobin in liver cells and give bile its characteristics colour. In human bilirubin is the predominant pigment, so that human bile is golden yellow. Normally, bilirubin is converted in the intestine into more soluble urobilinogen and this pigment, together with other breakdown products it gives brown colour to the feaces. Digestion in large Intestine : The colon bacteria secrete the enzymes that work upon the proteins and cellulose of plant.

ABSORPTION : (Mainly occurs in jejunum and ileum through villi and micro villi by both active and passive process) Absorption is the process by which nutrients produced after digestion are circulated throughout the body by blood and lymph and supplied to all body cells according to their requirements. Mainly absorption occur through the villi of the ileum (small intestine) due to following reasons. Internal folds of intestinal wall increases its absorptive surface area many times. Existence of microvilli on the free surface of the intestinal epithelial cells also enhance the absorption. The chyme stays for a considerable time in small intestine. The absorptive cells of intestinal mucous membrane are specialized for this function. Absorption of dipeptides, monosacharides and aminoacids across the plasma membrane of intestinal cells into blood present in the blood capillaries of villi, depends on 2 types of process. Active process : It is a vital process in which nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal mucosa against concentration gradient. It occurs more rapidly as it is energy dependent. During this the nutrients are completely absorbed from the intestinal lumen. It can stop when the cells are poisoned with cyanides or depressed by cold. It can also occur by two processes active transport and endocytosis. Active transport : It is the movement of molecules from a low concentration area to a high concentration area by means of a carrier molecules or proteins and the expenditure of energy. Glucose, Galactose, Amino acids, etc. are actively absorbed nutrients. These are absorbed by a common sodium dependent pump in the intestinal cells. Endocytosis : During this large sized liquid or solid nutrients are taken in some vesicles through the plasma membrane. Passive absorption : It is a physical process in which nutrients are absorbed along the concentration gradient. Basically it depends on diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion for absorption. It is a slow process as it does not require energy. Water and their soluble substances (like water soluble vitamins C and B) and fructose are absorbed by passive absorption.

Absorption of fats : First of all emulsified products of lipid digestion must form micelles along with bile salts, phospholipids and lecithin in the intestinal lumen. Micelle are water soluble particles. Micelle have bile salts on their outer surface where as the fatty acids and cholesterol molecule form the internal core. Action of bile salt is called hydrophilic. Formation of micelle helps absorption of free fatty acids, cholesterol and monacyl glycerols from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells by simple diffusion. In these cells, with the aid of bile salts many fatty acids and glycerol enter epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa resulting in the resynthesis of triglycerides by combining together. The re-synthesized fats than passes into the lacteals (lymph vessels) of the intestinal villi, primarily in the form of small lipid droplets known as chylomicron, [chylomicron are transported out of cells by exocytosis]. The lymph reaching the thoracic duct from the intestine contains an excess of fat giving it a milky appearance. It is called chyle. In this way fatty acids and glycerol are eventually brought into the blood stream and by a circulating route to the liver where they are re-organised and recombined to form human fat. PATH WAY OF ABSORPTION (i) Through hepatic portal system to liver (ii) Through lymphatic channel it is drained into subclavian vein by via thoracic duct.

ASSIMILATION It is an anabolic process by which absorbed nutrients enters into the cells and involved in metabolic processes to re-synthesize the complex biomolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acid etc.

EGESTION It is the elimination of faecal matter which is formed by undigested food along with water and excess of digestive enzymes. This undigested food in colon changes into faeces which is temporarily stored in rectum where more water is absorbed. The faeces is finally expelled out through the anus. Faeces contain number of substances mentioned below. Undigested food which mainly consists of cellulose and other plant fibres. Mucus and dead mucosal cells from the gut wall. The gut lining is constantly shed off or wears off and is replaced by new cells. Bile pigments and its derivatives give colour to feaces.

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