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that is able to overcome the major criticism of each has, in the last decade, led to an exploration of ethics, not understood as a set of rules guide actions but as an attribute of character or role duty.
Consequence-oriented systems focus on reasoning to an appropriate action It is the action itself rather than the character of the agent that is the heart of the matter
Nicomachean Ethics the philosopher Aristotle , poses a disturbing problem focus not on the particular action but rather on the heart of the mortal agent
*We may go as far as to state that the man who does not enjoy performing noble actions is not a good man at all. Nobody would call a man just who does enjoying acting justly, nor generous who does not enjoy generous actions, and so on.
In posing the problem, Aristotle is following, a third path: Aretaic Ethics- taken from the Greek word “arête”, which can be translated as either excellence or virtue Virtue ethics the heart of the mortal agent making the decision rather than the reasoning to a right action the individual who has the emotional disposition and habits of virtue that manifest their being in action or non-action focus on the sorts of characteristics, traits, or virtues that a good person should have belief- someone who has appropriate mortal virtues such as courage, temperance, wisdom, and justice will act in certain ways hold that it is not only important to do the right thing but equally that one has the right disposition, motivation, and traits for being good and doing right primarily about personal character and moral habit, rather than a particularly action
The question then is not. Virtue is a disposition to choose the mean. but rather. One becomes just and temperate by doing just and temperate things. Choice must proceed from a firm and unchangeable character. Without the foundation of individual character to motivate action. Virtuous acts must be chosen for their own sakes. “how should I carry out my life is I am to live well?” Good virtuous character traits courage magnanimity honesty justice temperance 1. “What shall I do?. Aristotle believes: Intellectual virtues. 3. 2. Over the last several decades philosopher: Alasdair MacIntyre Elizabeth Anscombe Bernard Mayo Richard Taylor They argue that the action based ethical systems are essentially negative and fail to inspire or motivate to excellent behavior. the action-based systems seemed more mental gymnastics and hair –splitting than the basis for mortality Goodness of character – was brought about by the practice of virtues such as courage. honesty and justice These practice created the habit of taking pleasure in virtuous acts. which then acted as a sign of a good life. The virtuous person had a disposition of moderation towards the mean between two extremes. such as practical wisdom the power of deliberation about things good for oneself could be directly taught mortal virtues of character virtues must be lived in order to be learned .
justice. . Individual enters into a relationship not only with contemporary practitioners. Real problems with virtue ethics is that today’s practitioners are being confronted by situation for which no role practices have been created. and Early American (industry/capitalist) Believes in a core idea of virtue. but also with those who preceded them in the role. but are being guided by the duties imposed by our role and position in the healthcare team and society. but tradition also learns from us.Goodness is a matter of character and character is developed by actions overtime. such as Homeric (strength/warrior). We learn from tradition. Alasdiar MacIntyre Contemporary philosopher Expanded Aristotle’s work Isolates and describes several idealizes characters. of which courage. for which tradition provides no answer. Neither intellectual virtues such as practical wisdom nor characters virtues could exist independently from each other. One attempted to live well by practicing right habits. and honesty are essential components - Ethical formulation Practices are the arena in which the virtues are exhibited. These right habits through practice became intrinsic to the individual and thus became the individuals’ virtues. New Testament (humility/slave). What may be considered a virtue in one period may be inappropriate in the next. We are not calculating our duties from a teleological or deontological orientation. and it is only in terms of the particular practice that virtues can be defined.
Virtuous people will automatically do the right thing because it is in their character to do so. It is concerned with character. A traditional emphasis makes mortality depend on past experience rather than on reason. Virtue ethics generally does not provide specific directions in regard to decision making. or because it is an obligation of some social role relevant to decision at hand. Future shock. and truthful beings Reminds us of the important considerations often overlooked in the action-focused theories It is an important supplement to duty and consequence theories in htat it reminds us that in the realm of values. Does not emphasize the rationality of the individual decision maker. honorable. the need to be a team player. Contemporary social problems. 3. This environment provides little respect or personal autonomy or the use of reason in moral judgment 5. sexism and more. and the need to be a whistle blower. 2. Practitioners often find themselves attempting to address more than one set of idealized roles. It rely on a higher reason: the wisdom of ages. it does not quickly respond to changes in the practices that require new sorts of mortal response 3.rapid change named by Alvin Toffler. The derivation of duty from one’s social roles is likely to lead to or perpetuate classism. 4. the nature of the individual making the choice is often an important as the ability to reason to a correct answer Divine Command Ethics Fourth type of theory that is often used in ethical debates Idea: a divine being who has set down a finite series of rules that adherent claim can provide guidance to most. People find themselves adrift when times change faster than they can adjust to them. 2. It does not give directions. if not all. Proposed change in the tradition or social roles is for the better.Criticism of virtue ethics 1.result of too much autonomy and too little respect for tradition Virtue ethics Instructs us to first become compassionate. a in case of negligent action) 6. Virtue ethics often yields results that do not maximize happiness Virtue ethics response to criticism 1. which may come into conflict (for examples . Takes it as a good thing that it does not change quickly in response to the whims of the masses. not action. In that virtue ethcis relies on traditional practices. moral decisions .
Interpretations are not insurmountable. but morally exemplary. so can the theory. This can lead to fundamentalism-extension of the basic rules to other cases are unproblematic or differences in interpretation resulting to differences in people’s moral views 3. It is simply a matter of likening the text and admonitions to ourselves 3. we are asked to obey on faith in the superior wisdom of the divine being or the exemplary individual. Ten Commandments Variant of divine command theory: command theory based on a nondivine. To the extent that these beliefs can be questioned. There are reasons behind a religion’s more injunctions. Command theory has what may be called the “Euthphro problem”. Command theories have “no exceptions” 4. it is simply a matter of seeing the light 2. but we are unable to completely fathom the justification due to our personal limitations. The complexity and context of the questions associated with modern healthcare will stretch the divine command ethics seemingly to their limits. The answer provided by divine mandate ethics is not only RIGHT but GOOD. Command theories can’t cover all possible cases of moral decision. For true believers. or failure to achieve nirvana in the Buddhist tradition. It is believed that the very need for exceptions to revealed truth is a sign of a decadent time. which places the opposite view as not only WRONG but perhaps BAD . 2. Hence.- Ex. and perhaps a greater adherence to the rules will lead to a more morally sound society 4. Command theories assume belief in either divine beings or exemplary individuals. individual such as Buddha There are central moral injunctions that we are supposed to obey upon pain of divine retribution in the Judeo-Christian tradition. Criticisms of Divine Mandate Theory 1. Question: is an action morally unaaceptable because the divinity or exemplary individual says so? Or is it a case that the divine being or exemplary individual is basing the rule on some justifying reason? Divine Command Responses to Criticism 1.
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