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Two key factors are important for where a Settlement will be located: SITE SITUATION *SITE WET POINT SITES water supply is a key factor; many settlements grew up near a river or spring. Early villages located at springs at base of escarpments (e.g. Salisbury Plain) or where simple wells could be constructed (e.g. Desert Oasis) are found on areas of higher land away from marshy areas or areas prone to flooding (e.g. Ely – Cambridgeshire) originated on higher land which gave a good view in case of attack (e.g. Edinburgh). These sites also found on meanders in rivers – which form a natural barrier (e.g. Durham) is the physical landscape a settlement is built on is the settlement location relative to the surrounding area
DRY POINT SITES
BUILDING MATERIALS / FUEL SUPPLY were heavy and bulky to transport so villages grew up where wood or stone available. Wood also important for fuel (e.g. Forest of Dean) GOOD FARMING LAND was essential to produce food (although ideal location would be suitable for growing food and rearing animals). Many villages grew up on fertile lowlands (e.g. Vale of Evesham) ACCESSIBILITY & COMMUNICATION were essential – villages grew up at bridging points (e.g. Oxford) crossroads/route centres (e.g. Paris) and gaps between hills (e.g. Dorking) SHELTER & ASPECT in GB a south-facing slope is protected from cold northerly winds and gains max. benefit from sun‛s warmth (e.g. Torquay)
These site factors are no longer as important as they used to be (POLITICAL and ECONOMIC factors important). Most factors can be got round with the aid of modern technology e.g. LAS VEGAS – built in middle of desert, everything transported in! *SITUATION a settlement with good access to natural resources and to other settlements will grow in size. Settlements with the best situations grow into cities
later for social and economic reasons buildings are spread apart from communication link and each other e. Linear Nucleated buildings along a communication line; river.g.PATTERNS As Settlements grow they develop distinctive shapes and patterns. initially for defense. Milton Keynes – settlements on newly reclaimed or developed land Dispersed Planned . road buildings grouped together. Settlements may contain a mixture of these patterns.
SETTLEMENT IN MEDCs – URBAN: PARIS PARIS: SITE & SITUATION Paris Population Established Capital of France Approx 10million 3rd Century BC SITUATION Paris is a focus of roads throughout France and Europe SITUATION International Airports provide global links SITUATION Paris is a centre of European rail networks SITE Fertile soil of River Seine‛s floodplain was excellent for farming SITE Site was also good for defence and also as a key river crossing point SITE Forest provided fuel and building materials SITE Settlement first began on a small island in River Seine SITE River Seine provided water supply .
NORTHUMBERLAND (UK) Warkworth never grew into a city despite many site advantages SITE River may be used for transport Relief – firm.SETTLEMENT IN MEDCs – RURAL: WARKWORTH. flat land – easy to build on Dry Point Site Good farming land nearby River provides water supply River also provides defence on 3 sides – and can be bridged easily Forest and Rock outcrops nearby provide building materials SITUATION Warkworth has never grown into a large town Original advantages not important today Services and links to these services are not readily available here .
intensified by traffic fumes. 100 000 inhabitants these areas are located close to the factories where people work Luxury Apartments Favelas (Newer Outer Suburbs) Favelas (Older Inner Suburbs) PROBLEMS WITHIN RIO DE JANEIRO Housing Estimated 1million homeless 1million live in Favelas and another 1million in poor quality housing Rio is notorious for use of drugs.BRAZIL RIO: SITE & SITUATION The world‛s fastest growing cities are presently in L. quieter.D. hangs over the bay Rubbish. violence Many residents leaving and moving to suburbs Mountains ‘hem‛ traffic along a limited number of routes Severe congestion An industrial haze. congestion – though still a ‘vibrant‛ place to be close to city centre where people work fantastic views over bay rich beginning to move to new towns on outskirts (Barra da Tijuca) which are safer. pollution. replacing shacks with brick houses have become towns in their own rights with approx.SETTLEMENT IN LEDCs RIO DE JANEIRO . found closer to city centre improved homes. offices and company HQs problems of crime. sewage etc often not collected in Favelas (has led to outbreaks of cholera) Crime Traffic Pollution .Cs Growth of cities in South America is the result of Rural-Urban Migration Rio de Janeiro 3rd Largest City in Brazil Situated around the huge natural harbour of Guanabara Bay Approx 12million Population CBD Luxury Apartments Old inner suburbs Newer outer suburbs Urban-rural fringe Too steep for settlement Favelas Low-quality local authority (conjuntos habitaçionais) CBD focused in old.E. less polluted poor people move from the countryside but as there are no homes they build their own from whatever material they can find ‘shanty towns‛ built on steep slopes where floods and landslides may occur built 40-50 years ago. historical part of the city many shops.
As an LEDC city. has grown rapidly since the 1950s It is now the largest city in South-East Asia – population 14 million Growth of Jakarta is mainly a result of Rural – Urban migration caused by a shortage of land in the countryside. Jakarta contains everything from shiny new apartment blocks to squalid shanty towns PROBLEMS Unemployment and Poverty large numbers of migrants to Jakarta are unable to find regular jobs. There is no mains sewage system so human waste is removed by special lorries.INDONESIA Jakarta.SETTLEMENT IN LEDCs JAKARTA . and the possibility of paid work in the city. lorries and autotaxis increase Housing Services Traffic SOLUTIONS Transnational Companies New Towns Shanty Towns Self-Help Schemes Water Supplies Road Congestion Railway Network have been encouraged to provide jobs have been built on the city outskirts to provide more housing have been destroyed and apartment blocks built in their place have helped the poorest people to build their own homes are being improved is being tackled by building large flyovers throughout the city is being improved . if at all congestion is becoming worse as the number of cars. The jobs that are available are often low paid and dangerous shortage of cheap housing means many migrants live in appalling conditions in Jakarta‛s shanty towns basic services are in short supply. Many people have no running water and must pump water by hand. the capital city of Indonesia.
Doctor. Government Buildings.g. Village Hall Town Hall. Shopping Centre. Several Universities. Railway Station. or public telephone Church. Theatre. County Hall. University. a large range and number of services and will be a long distance from other Conurbations *An Isolated Dwelling is at the bottom of the hierarchy because it only has a few people living there. Large Football Team. Shops for Daily goods. Banking HQ.SETTLEMENT HIERARCHY The ‘Settlement Hierarchy‛ model shows the rank order of settlements a pattern which is generally true – though there are some exceptions e. possibly no services. Bus Station. Opticians and Jewellers. A local newsagents which a lower number of people will use Small places provide LOW order goods and services . Large Hospital. Museums and Art Galleries. Post Office. International Airport Large Town City Conurbation / Capital Large places provide HIGH and LOW order goods and services e. Small Junior School. Banks. Small Hospital. Large Shopping Complex. Furniture stores. Public House. Small Secondary School. and it is likely to be close to other isolated dwellings THE NUMBER OF SERVICES PROVIDED IN A SETTLEMENT INCREASES WITH SETTLEMENT SIZE. Cathedral. Theatres which a high number of people will use e. Large Theatre. Railway Termini. Cafes and Restaurants.g. Several Shops Several shopping areas / arcades. the number decreases – so there are many villages but few conurbations *A Conurbation is at the top of the hierarchy because it has a high population. Railway Station. Airport Cathedrals. Hotels. Small Football Team Large Railway Station.g. Hierarchy of Settlements according to Services Hamlet Village Small Town Perhaps none. of services and distance apart also important) As settlement size increases. a city smaller than a large town Settlements are ranked by Population Size (no. Hypermarket. Several Churches / Chapels.
administration and employment of a settlement Range is the maximum distance people are prepared to travel to use a service * Goods bought frequently are called convenience goods è weekly shopping è people only travel short distances * Goods bought infrequently are called comparison goods è furniture è people travel greater distances is minimum number of people needed to support a service * Shops selling convenience goods have low threshold populations * Shops selling comparison goods have high threshold populations Village shop Doctor Secondary School Shoe shop Large supermarket Department store Diagram of the ‘Sphere of Influence‛ of EXETER 300 2 500 10 000 25 000 50 000 100 000 A Sphere of Influence Model Threshold . Market Area and Hinterland) It is the area served by the goods. Catchment Area.SPHERE OF INFLUENCE SPHERE OF INFLUENCE (also Urban Field. services.
Bournemouth. employ a high number of civil servants and are the centres of local government TYPE OF FUNCTION MARKET TOWN DESCRIPTION Originally collecting and distributing centers for surrounding farming area. though the permanent resident population might be small ADMINISTRATIVE CENTRES such as county towns.g. These settlements are easily accessible INDUSTRIAL TOWN or CITY where manufacturing is the main employer. perhaps for a short period. Today they may service and process agricultural machinery and produce Developed to exploit local mineral or fuels Where raw materials are processed into manufactured goods Located on coasts. Liverpool and Bristol still important because of this CULTURAL CENTRES & UNIVERSITY TOWNS such as Oxford have a reputation for cultural or educational service RESORTS are holiday centres – usually on the coast (e. for educational and religious purposes Developed to control areas which may vary from a small region (County Town) to a country (Capital City) Where the majority of residents live but do not work Include spa towns. rivers and lakes for the movement of goods and people from land to sea. particularly important in 18th and 19th centuries. Such places need facilities to cope with high numbers of temporary residents.THE FUNCTION OF SETTLEMENTS On a basic level Settlement function can be described as: Residential; Administrative; Industrial; Commercial and Services *The function of a Settlement is its social and economic activities* Most cities have more than one function: RETAIL when a settlement is the main shopping centre. Sheffield – steel industry) PORTS are vital to international trade. or vice versa At the convergence of several natural routes or at nodal points (where communication links meet) resulting from economic development Providing the needs of industry and business Attracting people. Brighton). Many industrial towns are associated with a particular industry because of the availability of natural resources (e. coastal and mountain resorts UK EXAMPLE YORK WORLD EXAMPLE Winnipeg MINING INDUSTRIALMANUFACTURING PORTS CORBY BIRMINGHAM SOUTHAMPTON Prudhoe Bay Pittsburgh Thunder Bay ROUTE CENTRES CARLISLE Paris COMMERCIAL CULTURAL/RELIGIOUS ADMINISTRATIVE LONDON CAMBRIDGE EXETER Hong Kong Rome Brasilia RESIDENTIAL TOURIST RESORTS TELFORD BATH Marne-La-Vallee Orlando .g.
former fishing villages in Spain) .Settlement function can CHANGE over time decline of manufacturing industry (e. Morecambe – GB) and increase in tourism in other places (e. redevelopment of Liverpool Docks) SOCIAL CHANGE increased wealth and travel has meant a decline in tourism in some places (e.g.g.g. Sheffield) because of cheaper goods being imported INDUSTRIAL CHANGE old retail centres decline due to the growing number of Out Of Town retail parks and supermarkets CHANGE IN PLANNING POLICY environmental policy has encouraged development of ‘Brownfield sites‛ – previous sites of industry that are now derelict and disused (e.g.
offices and transport routes meet here. 4. It has shops. there are also high land values is the area of wholesale manufacturing. 5.URBAN LAND USE IN MEDCs Two ‘Models‛ were suggested to represent Urban Land Use in MEDCs: The CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL (Burgess) says that the centre is the oldest part of the city and building spreads out from the middle. People who live in the country and work in the city 2. Low-Quality Residential Medium-Quality Residential High-Quality Residential These models are not true of every city and some cities display characteristics of both models This diagram shows a cross-section through the ‘Burgess Zone Model‛ . which means the newest parts of the city will be on the edge THE SECTOR MODEL (Hoyt) expanded this idea to take into account industrial development along main routeways (roads. rail links) out of the city The Zones in each model have FUNCTIONS 1. This is often being redeveloped (Gentrified – where old apartment blocks are ‘done-up!‛) old terraced housing and blocks of flats renovated terraced houses and older semi-detached houses modern estates of semi-detached and detached houses on the city outskirts (suburbs / dormitory villages – where land is cheaper). Central Business District the commercial centre. Zone of Transition / Wholesale Light Manufacturing 3. It is a mix of poorer quality housing and old industrial buildings which are often run down.
g. Also people moving to the cities are younger and so have more children 3. hospitals -more reliable sources of food -higher salaries -shops and entertainment (‘bright lights‛) -ability to carry out religious practices safely Rural ‘PUSH‛ Factors -drought -overgrazing by farm animals: (soil erosion) -remoteness: lack of services -pests eat crops and cause ill health -farm machinery replaces workers; (unemployment) -large families; not enough land for heirs -poor seed; poor tools; little fertiliser; low output; insufficient food 2. Population Increase . so the death rate is lower. shanty town -young population (high birth rate – rapid increase) -sanitation and transport systems cannot cope with increased population URBANISATION IN LEDCs Urbanisation is an increase in the percentage of people living in cities Urban Growth is the expansion of cities into the surrounding area 3 MAIN CAUSES OF URBANISATION IN LEDCs 1. Rural-Urban Migration has increased the relative proportion of people living in cities Urban ‘PULL‛ Factors -jobs in industry -better housing. schools. Infrastructure of Cities in LEDCs is expanding faster than in rural areas. shops and offices replaced factories in the city centre to form a CBD * Today around 70% of people in MEDCs live in urban areas (INNER CITY DECLINE) Urbanisation affects RURAL and URBAN areas of a Country Problems for the COUNTRYSIDE -little rural investment -ageing population as young move out -fewer extended families – changing social trends -continued poverty -continued reliance on agriculture -economic stagnation Problems for the CITY -overcrowding -shortage of housing and jobs -spontaneous settlements e. towns expanded to become cities * During the 20th century.URBANISATION IN MEDCs Urbanisation is an increase in the percentage of people living in cities Urban Growth is the expansion of cities into the surrounding area * Urbanisation began in MEDCs as a result of the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century * People migrated from the countryside to towns looking for work in factories * Terraced houses were built to accommodate workers * Over time. which attracts industrial investment (and people looking for work) tends to be faster in urban areas because health care is better.
These show some similarities to the ‘HOYT Sector Model‛ CBD HIGH-QUALITY HOUSING of shops and offices. looks very similar to MEDCs expensive apartments and large houses on best-quality land. the QUALITY OF HOUSING decreases as the distance from the CBD increases . wood.URBAN LAND USE IN LEDCs Just as there are models for Urban Land Use in MEDCs. improved by occupants over several decades self-built using breeze blocks and corrugated iron (improved Shanty Towns) newest housing on the city outskirts built from scrap. some ‘models‛ have been suggested for Urban Land Use within LEDCs. close to CBD and along main roads oldest housing. metal and plastic zones of industry have developed along roads and railways MEDIUM-QUALITY HOUSING LOW-QUALITY HOUSING SHANTY TOWNS INDUSTRY In general.
Out-of-town shopping centres have become more common. sprawling. social deprivation. improved technology -High unemployment. This makes planning for growth very difficult HOUSING housing shortage leads to the growth of spontaneous. during rush hour) and air pollution (damages health) become problems . cramped. certain problems may occur: OVERCROWDING high populations and lack of available transport mean people want to live close to where they might find work Pressure on Services as hospitals. Marks & Spencer have brought about the closure of shops in CBD. damp and unhealthy -Public transport systems struggled to cope TRAFFIC PROBLEMS increase in car ownership and commuting mean major congestion problems (companies allowing ‘Flexi-time. run-down buildings were left -Modern Industries need good access. derelict. more space. better-off move to suburbs -Inner city housing was old. richer countries. police and sanitation struggle to cope with an ever-expanding population Problems with clean water supply and waste disposal RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION rapid rate of migration means it is impossible to know exactly how fast cities are growing. Leaves a ‘hollow‛ in the middle of the city URBAN PROBLEMS IN LEDCs With the growth of cities in less developed.URBAN PROBLEMS IN MEDCs With the growth of cities in more developed. schools. good location (not expensive – close to CBD). and Park-and-Ride schemes counter this) -Pollution caused by car fumes RETAILING CHANGES The ‘Doughnut Effect‛ occurs where the commercial centre becomes concentrated on the outskirts of a city. Shanty Towns. Very poor living conditions and these are often built on dangerous ground – for example steep hillsides which can collapse in heavy rain TRAFFIC traffic congestion (esp. certain problems may occur: INNER CITY DECLINE major problems in Inner City areas due to the decline of Manufacturing -As traditional manufacturing closed down. neighbourhoods decline. poorer countries.
as rent and rates were lower . as the docks (which were part of a thriving port) stood empty many of the associated industries left the area – leaving the area with the highest unemployment in London The government set up the LDDC (London Docklands Development Corporation) the first Urban Development Corporation For 18years the LDDC brought land and buildings back into use (often with the help of private companies) New Roads. and a Light Railway were built to improve transport New Industry was attracted.g. Tower Hamlets.g. London) new ring roads.g. London) old terraced housing replaced with tower blocks (e. shops and leisure facilities (e.URBAN RENEWAL Urban Renewal changes Inner City areas Many of these schemes operate within in MEDCs: URBAN RENEWAL SCHEMES aim to attract industry back into older areas and encourage investment in new housing.g. amenities and employment (e. London Docklands) Gentrification old terraced houses and industrial buildings are converted to high-quality housing (e. Greenwich. light railways and trams relieve congestion (e. London Docklands) derelict factories and wasteland redeveloped with office blocks. Docklands Light Railway) Urban Regeneration Urban Redevelopment Integrated Transport Systems LONDON DOCKLANDS In 1981 London‛s Docklands was an urban area in serious decline.g. particularly into the Enterprise Zone on the Isle of Dogs. Millennium Dome.
church. which links West Cumbria to M6 Old core remains. BUT surrounded by modern houses and accommodation and services for tourists Only a handful of residents are employed locally. Increase in commuting. Increase in house prices – young cannot afford homes and move away Village is largely empty during the day – dormitory village. outbuildings along narrow lanes Most buildings – 18th / 19th Century Employment: farming woollen mill flour mill nearby mines Community was self-contained (inc. groups of people moving to surrounding villages) REASONS FOR COUNTER-URBANISATION 1. (Also known as Commuter/Dormitory towns) (also . Decline in community spirit Local shops and services close as few people use them. school and inn) 70 YEARS LATER Character changed due to improved mobility and accessibility Village is 5km from Keswick (Tourist Centre) Next to improved A66. not local services 3.COUNTER-URBANISATION / SUBURBINISATION Counter-Urbanisation / Suburbinisation mean ‘the moving out of cities in MEDCs‛ COUNTER-URBANISATION is the movement out of cities to surrounding areas SUBURBINISATION is where the rural areas on the outskirts of towns increasingly develop the characteristics of Urban areas. 3. Movement into village Lyndhurst. village hall. policies can encourage movement out of cities by setting up fast transport links in ‘satellite towns‛ New business parks on out of town ‘Greenfield Sites‛ mean people don‛t need to travel to city centre – so live close to work on outskirts Pollution and traffic congestion in cities encourage people to rural areas More people move house when they retire Cities are so popular that house prices have become too high 4.outward growth of urban areas. Growth in transport and communication means people no longer need to live close to where they work. COUNTER-URBANISATION EFFECTS ON VILLAGE CHARACTER & FUNCTION 1. 5. 5. Rural transport reduced as it is non-economical Local people without transport have access to fewer amenities – young/old become isolated BRAITHWAITE Braithwaite is a small village in the Lake District 1925 Nucleated core of tightly grouped farms. 6. IT means people can work from home 2. either in farming or tourism . Hampshire 2. 6. Govt. 4. More affluent population and higher car ownership – people use city. chapel.
Metrolink in Manchester. NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF INCREASED TRAFFIC IN URBAN AREAS Environment air pollution noise pollution from cars.g.COMMUTING Commuting occurs when people live in a different area to that which they work A COMMUTER is a person who lives in a smaller town or village in the area surrounding a larger town or city. reduce or accommodate traffic by schemes such as Traffic-Free Zones. Singapore and Hong Kong These rapid transport systems have resulted from Improved Technology ü ü . lorries and buses visual pollution of M-ways and car parks cost of petrol/diesel and use of non-renewable resource (oil) cost of building and maintaining roads time wasted sitting in traffic jams / gridlock situations general congestion danger of accidents and increase in stress (drivers and pedestrians) damage to foundations by car vibrations Destruction of property for new roads / car parks Economy People Buildings WHAT CAN BE DONE? ü Exclude. Supertrams in Sheffield. Metros in Tyne and Wear. especially from vehicle exhausts Improve Public Transport e. and who travels to that town or city for work This has been brought about by increase in car ownership and the improvement of road networks. Park and Ride Schemes and Urban Motorways Try to reduce pollution.
completed in 1978 The Bay Area Rapid Transit System is a 120km electric railway (with underwater.A. the CBD This would NOT have reduced the congestion It was decided to build a completely new system Opened in 1974.T The San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit System During the 1960s an increasingly large percentage travelled by car.R. underground and elevated sections) designed to ease traffic congestion in the CBD Underwater section withstands earthquakes. causing pollution. and car parks within.5mins at peak times and every 20mins at night Carriages are noiseless.COMMUTING II B. moving as the ground moves (experienced no problems in the 1989 quake) ADVANTAGES ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Electric and so pollution free Fast conveyance of 350 000 commuters a day Trains can travel up to 120km/hr Travel times reduced by at least 30mins Trains run every 1. air-conditioned and carpeted Whole system is computerised and fully automatic (drivers only take over in an emergency) Long platforms ensure rapid alighting and boarding Lower fares than by bus to attract users Cars left at suburban stations reduce CBD congestion Regeneration of commercial life in downtown San Francisco . accidents and congestion Increasing demands to construct more freeways into.
RURAL DECLINE Urbanisation can have a negative effect on the rural environment RURAL DECLINE is brought about for a number of reasons; Urbanisation (inc. not enough jobs etc (PULL factors) Counter-Urbanisation Greenfield Sites changes the ‘typical‛ rural settlement are rural locations that not have been built on before These sites are popular with developers as they are cheaper and easier to build on Building on ‘Greenfield Sites‛ can lead to URBAN SPRAWL Such housing developments can encourage further building – business parks. retail parks and leisure facilities . Counter-Urbanisation and building on ‘Greenfield Sites‛ Urbanisation people moving out of the countryside -little rural investment -ageing population as young move out -fewer extended families – changing social trends -continued poverty -continued reliance on agriculture -economic stagnation In LEDCs these factors are increased with natural disasters (drought etc). Push/Pull factors).
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