How to respond to Climate Change Impacts in Urban Areas

A Handbook for Community Action

Community-Based Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change in Urban Areas Experiences from Ho Chi Minh City Manual for Community Action

1

Published by Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus Department for Urban Planning and Spatial Design & enda Vietnam © 2011 Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus ISBN 978-3-00-034353-7 Authors Ulrike Schinkel, Lê Diệu Ánh, Frank Schwartze Team Nguyễn Thị Xuân, Đào Đức Khánh, Nguyễn Ngọc Gióng, Nguyễn Thị Dung, Phạm Thị Việt Hà, Lê Mỹ Linh, Nguyễn Thị Thanh Phú, Nigel Downes, Paula Hentschel, Moritz Maikämper Acknowledgement The CBA model project has been a joint initiative of the “Megacity Research Project TP. Ho Chi Minh - Integrative Urban and Environmental Planning Framework Adaptation to Climate Change”, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), and enda Vietnam (Environment and Development in Action). enda Vietnam is the Vietnamese antenna of enda Tiers Monde; enda Vietnam‘s work focuses on community development, poverty reduction and environmental improvement. 2

Preface
With this handbook, we attempt to make a contribution to the current imperative discussion on climate change, its impacts felt on the local level by communities and opportunities for adaptation and vulnerability reduction. It is predominantly dedicated to urban communities that are presently and will be in the future affected by climate variability, by flooding and by thermal discomfort. The handbook traces the adaptation approach of one local community in Ho Chi Minh City and makes the tools utilised available to other communities with a similar exposure portfolio, as well as to civil society organizations and local governmental institutions which can support adaptation processes within their own spheres of influence. Hereby, we would like to thank the local government of District 4, Ward 8, and all members of enda Vietnam for their invaluable support. Nevertheless, this project could not have been possible without the spirit and enthusiasm of the model community; to them we wish to express our heartfelt appreciation and our sincerest thanks.

How to read this Handbook
Causes of Climate Change - The Greenhouse Effect M1
This figure briefly explains the Greenhouse Effect, causing Global Warming and Climate Change.

Some radiation is reflected by the Earth‘s surface and the atmosphere. The Earth‘s surface radiates the heat back out towards space. Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere. A significant portion of solar radiation is absorbed . by the Earth‘s surface and warms it.

EARTH
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap a portion of the heat and leads to rising temperatures. .

ATMOSPHERE Rising temperatures lead to the melting of glaciers, the expansion of the oceans, to sealevel rise and to the increasing likelihood of tropical storms and heavy rainfall events.

Climate Change 1 The Global Perspective 2 Ho Chi Minh City and its Vulnerability Community-Based Adaptation A Local-Level Approach

Adapted from the European Commission28
6

Flooding Scenario for 2050 M5
taking into account a projected sea-level rise of 1,5m

Hóc Môn 12 Thủ Đức Go Vap Bình Thạnh Tân Bình Phú Nhuận 11 6 10 5 8 3 1 4 7 9

Tân Phú Bình Chánh Bình Tân

2

Nhà Bè

not built-up area built-up area river and canal network inundation due to sea-level rise

11

ech Adaptation Measures - Responses to Flooding M6

Even if you do not have influence on the occurrence of heavy rain events or tidal flooding, you may reduce their impact on your home and on your neighbourhood by taking some of these measures.

3

ater barriers in front of your doors.

ater Barriers

Construct water channels to collect and discharge rainwater.

Water Channels

4

Identify safe paths in to evacuate the most aggected areas.

Evacuation Routes

Do it yourself Low-Tech Adaptation Measures Do it yourself Participatory Tools

Step 1 - Assessment: Climate Change Impacts and related Problems T3
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Problem Tree

The Problem Tree tool highlights the underlying problems and their effects on the community.

n of Ground Floors

groundfloor levels perntly or temporarily.

Construct roof projections to Mosquito Loss Plague Mobility protect facades from rain. Constraints
Health Constraints Damage

Roof Projections
Soiling Inundation

Instability of Structures

5

Waste Management
Do not litter drainages, collect waste in bins.

Flooding
24

Overheating

Pollution

The handbook is divided up into five parts: The 1st part summarizes the causes and drivers of climate change from a global perspective, whereas the 2nd part highlights the impacts on Ho Chi Minh City and on precarious settlements in particular. In the 3rd part, community-based adaptation is presented as one feasible approach to respond to climate stimuli, outlining the set-up, implementation and results of our model project. Part 4 gives instructions to stimulate adaptation processes in other communities and lists measures which can be easily implemented. Parts 1 to 4 contain materials for capacity-building and awareness-raising; all assessment, decision-making and evaluation tools used in the model project are compiled and prepared for individual use in part 5. 3

ary Water Storage

ages for rain water to uce flood levels.

Roof Securing + Repair
Repair leaking roofs.

Appoint persons for weather observation, warning and securing of resources.

Early Warning System

Causes of Climate Change - The Greenhouse Effect M1
The Greenhouse Effect is mainly responsible for global warming and climate change. This figure briefly explains the process.
2

Part 1

Some radiation is reflected by the Earth‘s surface and the atmosphere.

3

The Earth‘s surface radiates this heat back out towards space.
1

Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere. A significant portion of solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth‘s . surface and warms it.
5

EARTH

4

ATMOSPHERE
Global warming leads to the melting of glaciers, to the expansion of the oceans, to sea-level rise and to changes in climate, increasing likelihood of tropical storms and heavy rainfall events.

However, greenhouse gases (GHGs) present in the atmosphere trap a portion of this reflected heat leading to rising temperatures and global warming.

Adapted from European Commission1

4

Human Activities as Producers of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) M2
In this figure selected human activities, causing significant greenhouse gas emissions, are summarized.

CO2 Carbon Dioxide Use of fossil and other fuels Deforestation Production of cement N2O Dinitrogen Monoxide* Use of fertilizers Biomass burning Use of fossil fuels * Although the share of N2O in overall GHGs emissions is low, its impact as a driver of global warming is exceptionally high.

CH4 Methane Production and use of energy Rice cultivation Animal husbandry

64% 20% 6% 10%

Alkyl Halides Power lines Production of aluminium

Use of air conditioning, chemical industry

Adapted from the German Federal Agency for Civic Education2

Part 1
5

Carbon Footprint M3
Most daily activities cause carbon emissions; in this figure you can see how much of this greenhouse gas is emitted by different means of transportation, by food production and in production of everyday items.

Part 1

To go 10km by... car motorbike
per person

100g of... bus beef pork bread

1.0 - 5.0kg

0,9kg

0,4 - 0,8kg

1.3kg

0.3kg

0.6kg

1 piece of... plastic bottle plastic bag can recycled can

1 tree per... month year

0.4kg

0.2kg

0.2kg

0.01kg

-0.5kg Offsetting Carbon

-6.0kg

Sources: European Commission3, Planet Green4, Institute for Applied Ecology5, EEA6, Hope & Gibson7

+

Emitting Carbon

-

6

Waste Durability M4
If waste is not disposed of correctly, but dumped on roads and into drains, it will have a long-lasting impact on your community‘s environment. This figure shows examples of different kinds of waste and their durability.

glass bottle 1000 years

plastic bottle 100 years

aluminium can plastic cup plastic bag wood wool sock
2000 2000

10 years

1 year 1 month
Source: The Ocean Conservancy8

lottery ticket

Part 1
7

Ho Chi Minh City and its Vulnerability to Climate Change
Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) is the country‘s main driver of growth and economic development. Being situated in a low-lying delta region, the city is vulnerable to impacts of climate change, such as sea-level rise, tidal flooding and overheating.

HCMC is Vietnam‘s largest urban agglomeration and of great importance for matters of economic growth and modernization. The city is the main target area of foreign direct investment and attracts great numbers of migrants from rural areas seeking jobs and a better living standard; current projections show that the population of HCMC will reach 10 million people by 20209. As a result, large parts of the city have become built-up in the course of rapid and uncontrolled urbanization. A great number of precarious settlements have also evolved around the city’s outskirts or on vacant land in the city centre, in low-lying areas and alongside canals, being characterized by severe infrastructure shortcomings and the lack of urban services10. HCMC ranks amongst the cities most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; the metropolis is exposed to climatic extremes, the increasing likelihood of severe storms and tidal flooding11. As 72% of HCMC’s urban area lies below two metres above the current mean sea-level, it is exceptionally at risk by inundation caused by changes in sea-level rise12. Currently, the

reach of tidal influence into the urban canals causes periodic flooding events in adjacent areas. In addition, heavy rainfall events are increasing in number and intensity. Besides flooding events related to climate change and sea-level rise, HCMC is affected by rising temperatures; the annual average temperature of the urban area is 26.9°C. However, the annual average temperature has increased at a rate nearly double that of the surrounding Mekong Delta region in the recent past13 and will further rise by 1 - 2°C till 205014; this is due to the escalating heat production from air conditioning units, transportation and industry as well as due to the on-going surface sealing, which reduces vegetation cover and natural cooling areas. The figure on the adjacent page shows a flooding scenario for the year 2050 for the current urban extent of HCMC, taking into account a projected sea-level rise of 1.5m15. It highlights all built-up and non built-up areas which will be at risk by future inundation caused by rising sea levels. For more information take a look at our website: www.megacity-hcmc.org

Part 2
8

Flooding Scenario for 2050 M5
taking into account a projected sea-level rise of 1.5m

Hóc Môn 12 Thủ Đức Go Vap Bình Thạnh Tân Bình Phú Nhuận 2 Tân Phú 3 Bình Tân 10 1 11 4 5 6 7 8 9

Bình Chánh

Nhà Bè

1

District Non built-up area Built-up area River and canal network Inundation due to sea-level rise

Source: Megacity Research Project TP. Ho Chi Minh (2010): Research Results from Action Field 1, STORCH, H.; DOWNES, N. and RUJNER, H.

9

The Vulnerability of Precarious Settlements
Climate change vulnerability is the susceptibility to loss, damage, disturbance or injury from climate change impacts. Precarious settlements are particularly vulnerable to overheating and flood events due to their density and their location in low-lying, flood-prone areas and because of the often limited capacities of their inhabitants to respond.
The vulnerability of a community or a neighbourhood is dependent on a wide range of factors. Vulnerability can be sub-classified into social, economic and physical vulnerabilities16. Settlements located in the direct proximity to the Sai Gon River and to urban canals are highly prone to flooding, caused by high tide or heavy rainfall events. Where housing areas have evolved spontaneously and without adequate infrastructure provision, a sufficient drainage system and in the absence of solid waste collection, flooding events may not only cause mobility constraints, damage to buildings, the loss of resources and income, but may also lead to an environmental crisis having a serious impact on health and hygiene. In many cases, unplanned areas face the impact of overheating. Here, the already rising temperatures are aggravated by the high density of housing which prevents natural ventilation, together with the high degree of ground sealing and the general lack of vegetation. Dwelling units, constructed from non-durable materials and on undeveloped land, are also vulnerable to extreme climate events and ground instability17. The vulnerability of settlements related to their location may be further heightened by endangered and unstable income generating activities, the lack of access to credit facilities for adaptation and rehabilitation, weak community structures or the lack of awareness18 regarding climate change, its causes and impacts. Nevertheless, the issue of vulnerability cannot be discussed without acknowledging that local communities possess a range of individual capacities and potentials to respond and to tackle the underlying causes and drivers of vulnerability.

Part 2
10

Settlement along canal, HCMC

Community-Based Adaptation
Adaptation is the response to current or projected future changes in climate - from the national to the local level. Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) enables vulnerable communities to build resilient livelihoods and to take action within their living environment and their own sphere of influence using their own resources and capacities.
Successful adaptation efforts have to be undertaken from the national to the local level19, they require the linking of indigenous knowledge and practices provided by communities with the projections and adaptation research of the wider scientific community as well as to a supportive policy environment. All communities cope with and adapt to climatic or environmental changes; while coping strategies may be temporary or emergency solutions in times of difficulty or hardship, adaptation signifies permanent changes in livelihood systems20 and therefore strives to be more sustainable. CBA enables local communities to strengthen their own existing adaptive capacity and to build resilient livelihoods, to reduce their individual vulnerability and disaster risk21, 22. CBA combines long-term strategies, such as structural adaptation and livelihood diversification, with short- and medium term strategies, such as temporary migration, the setting up of warning systems and evacuation plans. Local communities know their area very well; they have the capacity to assess the local impacts of climate change on a day-to-day basis and to find individual solutions to respond. In order to avoid the affects of maladaptation, they need to be provided with further information on climate change impacts and on existing larger-scale adaptation plans. In CBA processes, communities have full control over assessments, planning and the implementation of adaptation measures; they also play a vital role in awareness raising by sharing their local site knowledge. They can be assisted significantly by civil society organizations and the local government, who can provide information, capacity-building, adaptation and community mobilization activities.

Community workshop

Part 3
11

The CBA Model Project
In order to initiate community-based adaptation processes in HCMC, a model project was carried out in a local community of District 4, Ward 8. In a series of workshops, the community assessed the impacts of climate change on their living environment, discussed various options for adaptation and implemented the most feasible measures.
District 4 is situated south of the city centre, enclosed between the Sai Gon River, the Ben Nghe Canal and the Te Canal. Ward 8 of District 4 is regularly affected by flood events, caused by high tide and heavy rainfall. The ward is divided up into four blocks; while the majority of the inhabitants of block 1 and 2 have more stable jobs generating a higher income and reside in spacious houses with clear alleys, the narrow houses and small alleys of blocks 3 and 4 are occupied by low-income households engaged in small-scale businesses. The CBA model project aimed at facilitating the local community to develop small-scale adaptation strategies. The set-up followed the action planning approach, holding the view that individuals and communities, even with limited resources, are capable of improving their living environment, while integrating outsiders as disseminators, catalysts or facilitators. The key component of the model project were community workshops, combining expert inputs and community activities. Preparatory Phase In the preparatory phase, representatives of the community, the local government and the NGO enda Vietnam fixed the setting of the model project. Climate change impacts were assessed as well as the local capacities and resources to respond. 1st Workshop (March 2010) The 1st Community Workshop, involving all interested community members of Block 2, focused on awareness-raising of climate change and its impacts on the community. The assessments revealed that flooding caused by heavy rainfall events and high tide

Part 3
12

Distribution of environmentally friendly carrier bags

are notably aggravated by the inadequacy of the drainage system, the blocking of drains as well as by landfill projects undertaken in adjoining areas. As a reason for heat stress, the lack of vegetation was identified. 2nd Workshop (May 2010) The 2nd Community Workshop addressed capacity-building for low-tech adaptation. The applicability of presented small-scale measures were discussed in small groups. In a plenary session, the measures to be collectively implemented were selected: The growing of plants by the roadside, on balconies or rooftops in order to benefit from the cooling effect of shade and evapo-transpiration, the initiation of waste management activities to avoid the littering and blocking of drains and the cleaning up of living spaces to allow for natural ventilation.

Implementation Phase Following the 2nd Workshop, the chosen adaptation measures and strategies were implemented within a fixed timeframe. 3rd Workshop (July 2010) The 3rd Community Workshop focused on the evaluation of initial adaptation activities. Besides the implemented measures, the community started to save energy and to utilize reusable environmentally friendly carrier bags instead of the previously used plastic bags in order to avoid the littering drains. Moreover, the community members actively engaged in awareness raising activities in the market place and amidst neighbours. The first multiplier effects were initiated by integrating new community groups into the workshops and by sharing knowledge and experiences.

Hazard mapping

Community workshop

13

Part 3

Do it yourself! - Your individual Adaptation Process
This section is dedicated to civil society organizations and local governmental institutions, but first and foremost to communities who wish to reduce their vulnerability to climate change impacts. On the following pages, useful tools, tested in the CBA Model Project, are summarized in order to guide and support your activities.
What you need • A meeting room or place • Paper, pencils, optionally a microphone • Time for workshops (in the evening, once a month, can vary) Preparation • Read this handbook attentively. Does your community face problems related to climate change? Find additional information in newspapers, in radio or tv programmes. • Approach the local government, in order to obtain backing for your activities, and civil society organizations (NGOs) for practical assistance. • Exchange your experiences of climate change impacts with your neighbours. • Appoint a moderator for the workshops. 1st Community Workshop • Carry out a first workshop with your neighbours, local government representatives and a civil society organization. • Raise awareness about climate change and its impacts. Use the materials M1 , M2 and M5 . • Compile historical events related to environ14 mental and climate change which have affected your neighbourhood. Integrate especially the elderly community members into the discussion. Use tool T1 . • Assess the impacts of climate change on your community by drawing a hazard map and filling out a seasonal calendar. Use tool T2 as exemplar. • Discuss the interrelation of climate change and the problems faced by your community. Summarize the results in tool T3 . • How has your community responded to the problems faced? Register your findings in tool T4 .

Part 4

Community workshop, panel session

3rd Workshop - Evaluation 2nd Community Workshop • Set-up a second workshop about one month • Arrange a third workshop following the implementation phase. after the first. • Begin with a summary of the findings of the • Discuss your community‘s consumer behaviour and waste management. Can the first workshop. purchase of plastic be avoided in order to • Raise awareness about individual carbon reduce the individual carbon footprint and to footprints and waste durability; initiate a discussion on waste reduction and manageminimize the waste production? Use tool T7 to M3 and M4 . ment. Use the materials monitor and reduce your consumption. • Continue with a presentation on low-tech ad- • Answer the following questions: What has aptation measures. You may use the materibeen positive or negative? Are you satisfied als M6 and M7 . with the results? Has everyone participated? • Discuss the adaptation measures in smalUse tool T8 for your review. ler groups. Which measures do you already • Invite further neighbours who have not yet implement, which are within or beyond your participated in the workshops. Present your capacity, which can you imagine to impleproject and share your knowledge on climate ment and which additional measures come change and adaptation. Support their initiatito mind? Present your findings to the other ve to set-up their own activities. groups in a small panel session. Use tool T5 . • Continue with the workshops in order to carry • Subsequently, all members should be reforward the adaptation process. quested to place on paper the measures he or she would be willing to implement. The papers shall be evaluated by the moderator and the measures should be ordered from the highest to the lowest priority. Use tool T6 . • Fix a manageable timeframe for the implementation of the chosen measures. Implementation Phase • Implement the chosen measures and strategies within the timeframe. Document your activities with the help of photographs.

Community workshop, group discussion

15

Low-Tech Adaptation Measures - Responses to Flooding M6
Even if you are not able to influence the occurrence of heavy rainfall events or tidal flooding, you may still be able to reduce their impact on your home and on your neighbourhood by implementing some of these simple measures23.

Install water barriers in front of your doors.

Water Barriers

Construct water channels to collect and discharge rainwater.

Water Channels

Identify safe paths out to evacuate the most affected areas.

Evacuation Routes

Part 4

Elevation of Ground Floors
Elevate the ground-floor permanently or temporarily.

Construct roof projections to protect facades from rain.

Roof Projections

Do not litter drains; instead collect waste in bins.

Waste Management

Temporary Water Storage 16
Build storage for rainwater to reduce flood levels.

Roof Securing + Repair
Repair leaking roofs.

Appoint people for weather observation, warning and securing of resources.

Early Warning System

Low-Tech Adaptation Measures - Responses to Overheating M7
°C

The annual average temperature of HCMC is rising; you can adapt with these simple measures, helping you to pocket parcs reduce the heat stress and to increase the liveability of your neighbourhood24.

°C

Grow pot plants to benefit from the cooling effect of evapo-transpiration.

Cooling - Pot Plants

Preserve existing vegetation for its shading and cooling functions. Additionally, unsealed surfaces act as infiltration areas and help to reduce flooding.

Preserve Vegetation and Reduce Ground Sealing

°C

°C

°C

Grow climbing plants on your outside walls to benefit from shade.

Shading - Climbing Plants

Allow for natural ventilation in your home.

Natural Ventilation

Install shading elements over walkways to reduce direct sunlight.

Shading Elements

°C

°C

°C

Grow trees to benefit from their shade and from the cooling effect of evapo-transpiration.

Shading - Trees

Use light materials to increase the reflection of the sunlight.

Light Materials

Install shading elements in front of windows to reduce direct sunlight.

Shading Elements

17

Part 4

Step 1 - Assessment: Historical Profile T1
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2 In order to understand the recent history of their neighbourhood, the community members have summarized past events, shocks and stresses in a Historical Profile. 1922 1963 1962/63 1963/65 Before 1968 1970 1973 Before 1975 1980 1985 1991/93 Before 1996 1997 1997 2000 2002/03 2004/05 2008
18

Year

Houses on stilts as common building type Reduction of the rice cultivation area in several wards Destruction of several houses by fire Reconstruction of houses Destruction of natural environment and houses by fire and conflict Construction of a new road in order to respond to increasing traffic volumes Installation of an 110V electrical power line Accessability of canals and river by boats; natural vegetation: cork and guava trees Canal filling, disappearance of houses on stilts Installation of tap water supply Canal filling for new housing areas during a housing land crisis Construction of several alleys in order to respond to increasing traffic volumes Relocation of inhabitants due to fire incident Filling of a canal for road construction Destruction of the market by fire Installation of the first culvert along the river Highest flooding level marked following heavy rain Flooding events aggravated by highway construction

Historical Events

Location
Wards 5, 6, 8, 9 Wards 5, 6, 8, 9 Wards 5, 6, 8, 9 Ward 8, Block 1

Ward 8 Ward 8, Block 4 Ward 8, Blocks 3, 4 Ward 8, Blocks 1, 3, 4 Ward 8, Block 4

Part 5

Your Community

Summarize past events, shocks and stresses specific to your community (with the help of elderly community members) and compile them in the table below.

Year

Historical Events

Location

19

Part 5

Step 1 - Assessment: Mapping T2
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Hazard Map

A Hazard Map has been drawn on the basis of a cadastral plan; roads and houses affected by flooding due to high tide and heavy rainfall events have been marked as well as aggravating factors such as blocked drains and solid waste dumps.

A

A

BLOCK 2, WARD 8, DISTRICT 4
Flooding due to high tide Flooding due to heavy rain Inadequate drainage system Solid waste Sewer
HẺM 129F/123/3 BVĐ

0,20 mA 0,35 m VAN DON Secondary School

Ø 1m

20

Đ. HOÀNG DIỆU

Alley no. 129F/121 BVĐ

Alley no. 129F/123/9 BVĐ

Transect

The section below has been generated, in order to highlight low-lying and most affected areas.
0,20 m 0,20 m

Ø 1m

BẾN VÂN ĐỒN

Ø 0,3m

Alley no. 129F BVĐ

HẺM 243A HD

Ø 0,3m

Ø 0,3m

Ø 0,3m

Ø 0,3m

Your Community

Organize a cadastral plan or (if not available) sketch the roads, alleys and buildings belonging to your neighbourhood on a large sheet of paper. Mark the areas, houses and roads regularly affected by the impacts of climate change, for example flooding. Distinguish between different kinds of impacts and / or degrees of severity. Include factors aggravating the situation. If flooding is a problem, on the basis of your hazard map you can draft a transect, showing the low-lying areas and flood levels.

Your Hazard Map and Transect

Seasonal Calendar

In this table, the community of District 4, Ward 8 highlighted the occurence and intensity of flooding events.

Months / Hazards

1

2
slightly

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Flood due to high tides Flood due to heavy rainfalls

slightly heavily

Your Community‘s Seasonal Calendar

Months / Hazards

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

21

Part 5

Mark the hazards or events affecting your community; distinguish between different degrees of intensity: slight / moderate / heavy.

Step 1 - Assessment: Climate Change Impacts and related Problems T3
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Problem Tree

The Problem Tree tool helps to highlight the underlying problems and their affects to your community.

Instability of Structures Soiling Inundation

Mosquito Plague

Loss

Mobility Constraints Damage

Health Constraints
Part 5

Flooding
22

Overheating

Pollution

Your Community

Your Problem Tree

Note down the underlying problems at the roots of the tree (the root problems) and the impacts faced by your community on the tree branches. Discuss the interrelationships between the different causes and impacts felt.

23

Part 5

Step 1 - Assessment: Impacts and Response T4
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Impacts and Response

In focus group discussions, the underlying problems, the prevailing impacts and the responses were collected according to gender.

Impacts on the Community Impacts Problems faced by the Community Women Men
Inundation of ground floors Flooding due to high tides and heavy rainfall events Leaking roofs Bad odor from sewers Mobility constraints Sellers face difficulties to display their goods / Loss of income Instability of walls due to water penetration Health constraints Bad odor from sewers Mosquito plague Soiling of motorbikes

The Community‘s Response Impacts Community‘s Response Women Men
Elevation of ground floor Construction of elevated platform as safe storage areas for valuables Bailing of water during flooding events Using planks as bridges in order to push motorbikes Elevation of ground floors Petitions for drainage cleaning sent to authorities Cleaning of streets and alleys after flooding event Mobilization of households to dredge sewers

Part 5

Flooding due to high tides and heavy rain events

24

Your Community

Discuss the problems, such as flooding or overheating, and their resultant impacts on your community. Afterwards, summarize your personal or your community‘s response to these impacts. Men and women should discuss in separate groups, as their impressions, problems and responses might be different. Come together at the end for a joint discussion and compare the results. Note down the findings and make them visible for all.

Impacts faced by your Community and your Community‘s Response

Impacts on your Community Impacts Problems faced by your Community Women Men

Your Community‘s Response Impacts Your Community‘s Response Women Men

25

Part 5

Step 2 - Action Planning: Local Capacities T5
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

The Community‘s Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change

In smaller groups, the community members discussed the various adaptation measured summarized on pages 16 and 17. They decided which measures were within or outside their capacities, which measures could be implemented separately and which collectively.

Low-Tech Measures within the Community‘s Capacity
Measures and Activities Reduction of energy consumption: Reduction in air conditioning (if unnecessary) Reduction of plastic item consumption (high carbon footprint) Growing of plants / trees in front of every house; growing of vines on balconies Re-arrangement of interiors and opening of windows in order to allow for natural ventilation inside individual houses Utilization of re-usable hand baskets for shopping at markets, re-use of plastic bags Participation in private waste collection, payment of fees Sorting of waste at home, separate organic waste (food) and inorganic waste (plastic, glass)

Mitigation

Heat Reduction

Part 5

Waste Reduction (in order to avoid the littering and blocking of drains)

26

Your Community

Your Community‘s Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change

Discuss your capacities and resources available to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Which measures are beyond your capacities and resources? Summarize measures which seem feasible for your community‘s specific situation. Decide which measure can be implemented individually and which need to be carried out collectively.

Low-Tech Measures within your Community‘s Capacity
Your Measures and Activities

27

Part 5

Step 2 - Action Planning: Priorization and Planning for Implementation T6
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Selection of Adaptation Measures

Every community member noted down the adaptation measures he or she is willing and able to implement. Subsequently, the workshop moderator counted out the votes openly and the ranking list was displayed. Adaptation Measures Reduction in plastic bag use Reduction of energy consumption Growing of plants and trees Utilization of hand basket Sorting of waste at home Payment of waste collection fees Opening of windows Promotion / Awareness Raising Avoidance of littering Number of Community Members (agreed) 13 persons 11 persons 22 persons 18 persons 8 persons 6 persons 1 person 1 person 1 person

Plan for Implementation Part 5

The community members fixed a timeframe for the implementation of the adaptation measures. Adaptation Measures Utilization of hand baskets for shopping Reduction of plastic bag use Sorting of waste at home Reduction of energy consumption Growing of trees and plants Timeframe

from May 18th 2010 onwards

28

Your Community

Your Community‘s Adaptation Measures

Every community member shall note down the adaptation measures he or she is willing and able to implement on a sheet of paper. The moderators shall then evaluate these proposals and note down the adaptation measures in a ranking list, starting with the ones most preferred. Adaptation Measures Number of Community Members (agreed)

Plan for Implementation

After chosing adaptation measures, fix a binding but manageable timeframe for their implementation. Adaptation Measures Timeframe

29

Part 5

Step 3 - Implementation
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Implementation of Measures

The community of District 4, Ward 8 implemented their chosen measures.

Use of environmentally friendly carrier bags

Growing of plants in front of exterior walls

Growing of pot plants

Street view 30

Growing of pot plants

Your Community

Implementation of Measures

Carry out your chosen activities and implement the scheduled structural or environmental measures. Take photographs for documentation.

Growing of climbing plants on access balconies

Growing of plants in front of windows

Development of green spaces for recreation

Creation of roof gardens

Creation of green facades

Creation of roof gardens 31

Step 4 - Evaluation and further Activities: Monitoring T7
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Monitoring Card: Reducing Plastic Consumption

All households of the pilot community were provided with a monitoring card, in which all members were asked to note down the plastic items purchased on a day-to-day basis. This tool was introduced in order to support the community in controlling and reducing their plastic consumption.

Plastic Items purchased
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

June 2010
Sunday

1

2

3

plastic bottles

4

5

plastic bags

6

7

plastic toys

8

9

10

11 plastic cups 18

12

13

14

15

16

17 plastic toys 24

19

20

21

Part 5

22 plastic bags 29

23

25 plastic bags

26

27

28

30 plastic bottle

32

Your Community

Your Monitoring Card: Reducing your Plastic Consumption

In order to reduce your plastic consumption, note down the plastic items purchased in the monitoring card every day. Discuss with your family, household and community members, which items have been bought unnecessarily. Continue the record keeping and try to avoid their additional purchase in the following months.

Plastic Items purchased
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

/

Month / Year
Sunday

Saturday

33

Part 5

Step 4 - Evaluation and further Activities: Review T8
Community of HCMC, District 4, Ward 8, Sub Ward 2

Review: Opinions and Experiences

The 3rd Community Workshop was set up in order to evaluate the initial adaptation efforts and to maximize the first multiplier effects, e.g. the sharing of knowledge and experiences with other community groups and the initiation of further activities. The tables below summarize a range of opinions and experiences the community of District 4, Ward 8 wanted to share. What has changed in your behaviour? Garbage is collected and sorted at the household level in order to improve the environmental condition of the neighbourhood and in order to avoid the littering or even blocking of the drainage system. Electronic devices and lights are switched off, when they are not in use, in order to reduce overall energy consumption. Environmentally friendly and re-usable carrier bags are utilized for shopping in order to reduce waste production. The consumption of plastic items has been reduced. Do you want to share any experiences? Do you have any remarks? The green, conspicuous carrier bags, distributed by enda Vietnam are recognized by shopkeepers and sellers at markets. This gives the community members the opportunity to inform on the CBA model project, on climate change and the necessity to keep the environment clean and to reduce plastic consumption. It was found more efficient to use one big bag instead of many plastic bags. It was suggested that the distribution of the shopping bags shall be expanded to other blocks and wards. The growing of plants in public open spaces, along the roadside and on balconies increases the attractiveness of the neighbourhood and provides a welcoming atmosphere.
34

Part 5

Your Community

Review: Your Opinions and Experiences

Use the questions below to share your opinions and experiences with your community. Highlight positive aspects but be honest and do not hesitate to bring up negative impressions, too, as a starting point for the improvement of the overall process.

What has changed in your behaviour?

Are you satisfied with the measures and their impacts? If not, why not?

Has everyone participated? If not, why not?

Do you want to share any experiences? Do you have any remarks?

35

Part 5

36

Encouragement and Concluding Remarks

At this point, we would like to summarize a variety of findings from the CBA model project, in order to encourage vulnerable communities, civil society organizations and local governmental institutions to start an adaptation initiative by themselves. At the starting point of an adaptation project, it may seem that the objective of adaptation to climate change and vulnerability reduction is out of reach. The experiences with the community of District 4, Ward 8, have proved, that local communities may have limited resources for structural adaptation, but they possess indigenous knowledge as a basic component of CBA; they have the ability to assess the local impacts of climate change, to organize workshops, to communicate with civil society organizations and the local government. Of course, we cannot conceal that the CBA approach has to rise to various challenges: Local level activities are limited in scale and scope; major impacts of climate change, such as floo-

ding due to sea-level rise, or overheating due to rising temperatures may not be addressed effectively. If a community is heavily endangered by inundation, only the migration to a safer site will bring about the needed change to their situation. CBA activities might be pertubed and even nullified by larger scale developments; in order to be sustainable, small-scale, community-based initiatives therefore need to be integrated into the overall planning procedures. Nevertheless, take courage, be proactive and make the first move to initiate your own CBA project in your neighbourhood! And of course, we want to learn from your experience. We wish to hear from you. For any feedback, comments or project reports please contact the Megacity Research Project TP. Ho Chi Minh or enda Vietnam. We wish you a lot of success!

37

References and Photo Credits

1

EUROPEAN COMMISSION (n.d.): The Greenhouse Effect. (URL: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/campaign/pdf/greenhouse_effects_en.pdf retrieved Feb. 2011).

8

THE OCEAN CONSERVANCY (2005): Pocket Guide to Marine Debris. (URL: http://www.cobsea. org/cleanupeas/docs/ICC_PocketGuide_EN.pdf retrieved Mar. 2011). HO BA THAM (2009): Urbanization for Ho Chi Minh City in the Future: Forecasting Cultural and Social Challenges and Opportunities. HCMC Institute of Development Studies, Conference Paper (URL: http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/resources/seminars/Urbanization_Seminar/HCMC_ Workshop/Additional_Materials/Urbanization_for_ HCMC_in_the_Future__Dr._Ho_Ba_Tham.pdf retrieved Feb. 2011). WUST, S.; BOLAY, J.-C. and THAI THI NGOC DU (2002): Metropolization and the ecological crisis: precarious settlements in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. In: Environment and Urbanization (2002), No. 14, pp. 211-224.

2

GERMAN FEDERAL AGENCY FOR CIVIC EDUCATION (n.d.): Klima-Killer (URL: http://www.bpb. de/popup/popup_grafstat.html?url_guid=79PP5C retrieved Feb. 2011). EUROPEAN COMMISSION (n.d.): Climate change. What can you do to fight it? (URL: http:// ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/campaign/pdf/ppt3-notes-en.pdf retrieved Feb. 2011). PLANET GREEN (2009): The Mysterious Carbon Footprint of Packaging. (URL: http://planetgreen. discovery.com/tech-transport/mysterious-carbonfootprint-packaging.html retrieved Mar. 2011).

9

3

4

10

5

FRITSCHE, U. R.; EBERLE, U.; WIEGMANN, K. and SCHMIDT, K. (2007): Treibhausgasemissionen durch Erzeugung und Verarbeitung von Lebensmitteln. Institute for Applied Ecology (URL: http://www.oeko.de retrieved Mar. 2011). EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AGENCY (2008): Climate for a Transport Change. ISSN 17259177 (URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/ eea_report_2008_1 retrieved Mar. 2011).

11

6

ADB Asian Development Bank (2010): Ho Chi Minh City - Adaptation to Climate Change. Summary Report, ISBN: 9789715618939, Manila, The Philippines. STORCH, H.; DOWNES, N.; KATZSCHNER, L. and NGUYEN XUAN THINH (2010): Building Resilience to Climate Change through Adaptive Land Use Planning: The Case of Ho Chi Minh City. In: Zimmermann, K.O. and Zimmermann, M. (Eds.) Resilient Cities; Berlin: Springer. ADB Asian Development Bank (2010): ibid.

12

7

HOPE, A. and GIBSON, J. (2008): Carbon Dioxide Offsetting for Conferences. (URL: http://www. nzsses.auckland.ac.nz/conference/2008/papers/ Hope-Gibson.pdf retrieved Mar. 2011).

13

38

14

BOOTH, T. H.; NGUYEN HOANG NGHIA; KIRSCHBAUM, M. U. F.; HACKETT, C. and JOVANOVIC, T. (1999): Assessing Possible Impacts of Climate Change on Species Important for Forestry in Vietnam. In: Climatic Change (1999), No. 41, pp 109-126, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. MEGACITY RESEARCH PROJECT TP. HO CHI MINH (2010): Research Results from Action Field 1, Work Package 1, STORCH, H.; DOWNES, N. and RUJNER, H. WISNER, B.; BLAIKIE, P.; CANNON, T. and DAVIS, I. (2004): At Risk. Natural Hazards, People‘s Vulnerability and Disasters. Second Edition. ISBN 9780415252164, Routledge, London, UK. WUST, S.; BOLAY, J.-C. and THAI THI NGOC DU (2002): ibid. DAVIS, I.; HAGHEBAERT, B. and PEPPIATT, D. (2004): Social Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis. Paper, ProVention Project (URL: http://www.proventionconsortium.org/themes/default/pdfs/VCA_ ws04.pdf. retrieved Feb. 2011). IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007): Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. (URL: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessmentreport/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf retrieved Nov. 2010). DAVIES, S. (2009): Are Coping Strategies a Cop-Out? In: Schipper, E. L. F. & Burton, I. (Eds.) (2009): The Earthscan Reader on Adaptation to Climate Change, pp 99-116, Earthscan, UK & USA.

21

BAAS, S. and RAMASAMY, S. (2007): Improved Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change for Sustainable Livelihoods in the Agriculture Sector. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, UNDP (URL: http://www.fao.org/nr/clim/abst/ clim_080303_en.htm retrieved Feb. 2011). CARE INTERNATIONAL (2010): Framework of Milestones and Indicators for Community-Based Adaptation. (URL: http://www.careclimatechange. org/files/toolkit/CBA_Framework.pdf retrieved Sept. 2010).

15

22

16

23

17

MEGACITY RESEARCH PROJECT TP. HO CHI MINH (2010): Research Results from Action Field 2, Work Packages 7 and 8, ECKERT, R. and SCHINKEL, U.

24

18

MEGACITY RESEARCH PROJECT TP. HO CHI MINH (2010): ibid. Photos ENDA VIETNAM: Community Workshops, Pages 12 and 13 (left) Project Implementation, Pages 30 and 31. MEGACITY RESEARCH PROJECT TP. HO CHI MINH; ECKERT, R.: Settlement along canal (HCMC), Page 10. MEGACITY RESEARCH PROJECT TP. HO CHI MINH; SCHINKEL, U.: Canal Settlement, Title Community Workshops, Pages 11, 13 (right), 14, 15.

19

20

39

Megacity Research Project TP. Ho Chi Minh
Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus www.megacity-hcmc.org megacity-hcmc@tu-cottbus.de

www.endavn.org.vn
© 2011 Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus ISBN 978-3-00-034353-7

enda Vietnam

40

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful