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2011 ANSYS, Inc.

June 8, 2012 1
Electric Machines
Considering Power Electronics
Zed (Zhangjun) Tang, Ph.D.
Presented at ANSYS Confidence by Design
June 5, 2012
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 2
Machine Design Methodology Introduction
RMxprt
Maxwell

Advance Capabilities
Core Loss
Demagnetization / Magnetization

Field-Circuit Co-Simulation
Maxwell Circuit Editor
Simplorer Capabilities, Switches, IGBT Characterization
Simplorer Examples

Multi-Physics
Force Coupling
Thermal Coupling
Outline
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 3
Introduction: Machine
Design Methodology
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 4
Maxwell 2-D/3-D
Electromagnetic Components





Field Solution
Model Generation

HFSS






ANSYS
Mechanical
Thermal/Stress





ANSYS CFD
Fluent
PExprt
Magnetics





RMxprt
Motor Design





Maxwell Design Flow Field Coupling
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 5
Simplorer
System Design






PP := 6
ICA:
A
A
A
GAIN
A
A
A
GAIN
A
J PMSYNC IA
IB
IC
Torque J PMSYNC IA
IB
IC
Torque
D2D

HFSS, Q3D, SIwave





ANSYS CFD
Icepack/Fluent
Maxwell 2-D/3-D
Electromagnetic Components






ANSYS
Mechanical
Thermal/Stress





PExprt
Magnetics





RMxprt
Motor Design





Simplorer Design Flow System Coupling
Model order Reduction
Co-simulation
Push-Back Excitation
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 6
RMxprt - Initial Motor Design
Analytical solution
16 different Motor/Generator types
Input data
geometry, winding layout
saturation, core losses
comprehensive results
machine parameters
performance curves
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 7
Parametric Sweep:
Stack_Length
Skew/no Skew
Stator_ID
AirGap
Monitor:
Torque
Power
Efficiency
Determine the Best Design
Create FEA Model
Export Circuit Model
RMxprt - Motor Design
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 8
Integrated EMDM Foundations
Auto Setup Maxwell Design from RMxprt
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 9
Maxwell/RMxprt V15 Axial Flux Machine
AC or PM Rotor
Single or Double Side Stator
Sample Inputs
Sample Outputs
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 10
Maxwell/RMxprt V15 Axial Flux Machine
Maxwell 3D auto-setup (Geometry, Motion, Master Slave, Excitations, etc. )
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 11
Design Exploration
P2 - parallel
P1 - cond
Workbench Schematic
Maxwell Project
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 12
Design Exploration
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 13
Design Exploration Six Sigma
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 14

More Than 30
UDP Machine
Components
for 2D and 3D
Integrated Motor Solution
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 15
RMxprt Dynamic Link to Simplorer
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 16
Maxwell
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00
Time [ms]
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
P
o
s
itio
n
[m
m
]
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
C
o
il C
u
rre
n
t [m
e
te
r]
TRW/ Ansof t
Position & Current Hysteresis Control Close/Open1
Curve Inf o
Position
Coil Current
Diode Current
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 17
Automatic Adaptive Meshing
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 18
Advanced Capabilities
Coreloss Computation
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 21
Lamination Core Loss in Time Domain
Instantaneous hysteresis loss


Instantaneous classic eddy current loss

Instantaneous excess loss


where
dt
dB
H
dt
dB
B k t p
irr m h h
= = u
t
cos
1
) (
2
2
2
1
) (
|
.
|

\
|
=
dt
dB
k t p
c c
t
( ) u u
t
t
t
d C
e
}
=
2 /
0
5 . 1
5 . 1
cos
2
2
2
1
) (
dt
dB
k
C
t p
c
e
e
=
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 23
Core Loss Effects on Field Solutions
Basic concept: the feedback of the core loss is
taken into account by introducing an
additional component of magnetic field H in
core loss regions. This additional component
is derived based on the instantaneous core
loss in the time domain
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 25
Model Validation by Numerical Experiment
The effectiveness of the model can be validated by the
power balance experiment from two test cases:
considering core loss feedback and without considering
core loss feedback. The increase of input electric power
and/or input mechanical power between the two cases
should match the computed core loss.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (ms)
L
o
s
s

(
W
)
Input power increase
Core loss 0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time (ms)
L
o
s
s

(
W
)
Core loss
Input power increase
Three-phase transformer
Three-phase motor
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 26
Advanced Capabilities
Demagnetization Modeling
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 27
Modeling Mechanism
The worst demagnetization point
for each element is dynamically
determined from a full transient
process
The demagnetization point is
source, position, speed and
temperature dependent
Each element uses its own recoil
curve derived at the worst
demagnetization point in
subsequent transient simulation
H
Hc
B
0
Br'
Br
K
p
Recoil lines
Worst demagnetizing point
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 28
H
Hc
B
0
Br'
Br
K
p
Recoil line
Irreversible Demagnetization
If a demagnetizing point P goes below the knee point K,
even after the load is reduced or totally removed, the
subsequent working points will no longer along the
original BH curve, but along the recoil line.
The animation shows how the demagnetization
permanently occurs with varying load current
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 32
Benchmark Example
8-pole, 48-slot, 50 KW, 245 V, 3000 rpm Toyota Prius IPM
motor with imbedded NdFeB magnet
Two steps in 3D transient FEA:
1. Determine the worst operating point element by element
during the entire transient process
2. Simulate an actual problem based on the element-based
linearized model derived from the step 1
To further consider the impact of temperature, element-
based average loss density over one electrical cycle is
used as the thermal load in subsequent thermal analysis
The computed temperature distribution from thermal solver
is further feedback to magnetic transient solver to consider
temperature impact on the irreversible demagnetization
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 33
H
c
' change in one element during a transient process:
The 1
st
cycle (0 to 5ms) doesnt consider temperature impact. The 2nd
cycle (5 to 10ms) has considered the feedback from thermal solution
based on the average loss over the 1st cycle
Observation: H
c
' has dropped from 992,755 A/m to 875,459
A/m, which is derived from the worst operating condition
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 34
Contours of loss density distribution
Static temperature distribution (K)
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 35
Torque profiles showing demagnetization and
temperature dependence:
Torque profiles derived from without considering demagnetization,
considering demagnetization but no temperature impact and
considering demagnetization as well as temperatures dependence
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 36
Magnetization
Compute magnetization based
on the original non-remanent
B-H curve
Find operating point p from
nonlinear solutions
Construct line b at the operating
point p, which is parallel to the
line a at saturation point
Br is the intersection of line b
with B-axis
Element by element
B
H
0
Br Line b
Slope of line a at saturation point
p
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 37
Br
Magnetostatic case: the
operating point used for computing
magnetization (Br) is from single
source point;


What is the Difference between Using
Magnetostatic and Transient solver?
Transient case: the
operating point used for
computing magnetization (Br)
is the maximum operating
point with the largest (B,H)
during the entire transient
simulation.

H
0
Br
p
B
H
0
p
B
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 38
Anisotropic magnetization: magnetization direction is determined by
the orientation of the magnet material and the direction is specified by a
user;


Anisotropic or Isotropic Magnetization
P(T) input
Q(T) input
Isotropic magnetization:
magnetization direction is
determined by the orientation of
the magnetizing field and is
determined during the field
computation.


For isotropic magnetization, all three
components have to be set to zero
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 39
Field-Circuit
Co-simulation
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 41
Maxwell Circuit Editor Example
Commutator bar: model position



Commutating model: model parameters

(a) (b) (c) (d)
WidB
WidC
Period LagAngle
Position
G
0
WidC+WidB
|WidC-WidB|
a
b c
d
Gmax
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 42
Case Example for Commutating Circuit
Torque
Winding currents
PMDC Motor
Brush
commutation
circuit
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 43
Simplorer:
Power Electronics
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 44
Simplorer Technology Highlights
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 45
State-of-the-Art Drive System:
A Multidomain Challenge
Drive systems
Simplorer conservative structures (electrical
circuits, mechanics, magnetics, hydraulics,
thermal, ...)
Simplorer non-conservative systems (blocks,
states, digital, n
th
-order differential equations.
Drive components
Maxwell with motion and circuits
RMxprt and PExprt (incl. thermal)
Maxwell with ANSYS Thermal.
HFSS, Q3D, SIwave with circuits
(Designer/Nexxim), ANSYS Mechanical,
ICEPACK, etc. ...
ANSYS provides a comprehensive toolset for multidomain work:

= M SV RS
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 46
+
-
B11 A11 C11
A12 A2
B12 B2
C12 C2
ROT2 ROT1
ASMS
3~
M
J
STF
M( t)
G
N
D
m
STF
F( t)
G
N
D
Magnetics
JA
MMF

Mechanics
L
H
O

Hydraulics, Thermal, ...
Simplorer Simulation Data Bus / Simulator Coupling Technology
State-space
Models
state
transition
AUS
SET: TSV1:=0
SET: TSV2:=1
SET: TSV3:=1
SET: TSV4:=0
(R_LAST.I <= I_UGR)
(R_LAST.I >= I_OGR)
EIN
SET: TSV1:=1
SET: TSV2:=0
SET: TSV3:=0
SET: TSV4:=1
Cx y
Bu Ax x
=
+ =
Electrical circuits
Multi-Domain System Simulator
Analog Simulat or
Block Diagram
Simulat or
St at e Machine
Simulat or
Digit al/ VHDL
Simulat or
PROCESS (CLK,PST,CLR)
BEGIN
IF (PST = '0') THEN
state <= '1';
ELSIF (CLR = '0') THEN
state <= '0';
ENDIF;
JK-Flip flop with Active-low Preset and Clear
CLK
INV
CLK
CLK
J Q
QB
CLR
PST
Flip flop
K
CLK
CLK
INV
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
X-Axis
Curve Data
ffjkcpal1.clk:TR
ffjkcpal1.j:TR
ffjkcpal1.k:TR
ffjkcpal1.clr:TR
ffjkcpal1.pst:TR
ffjkcpal1.q:TR
ffjkcpal1.qb:TR
MX1: 0.1000
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 47
Electromechanical Design Environment
Simulation Data Bus/Simulator Coupling Technology
Model Database
Electrical, Blocks, State Machines, Automotive, Hydraulic,
Mechanics, Power, Semiconductors
Maxwell Circuits
Block
Diagram
State
Machine
VHDL-AMS
Matlab
RTW
UDC
MathCAD
Matlab
Simulink
Maxwell
C/C++ Programming Interface (FORTRAN, C, C++ etc.)

Co-Simulation
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 49
Transient Electromagnetic
FEM Co-simulation Maxwell
2D/3D










Future: Multidomain model extraction and
co-simulation
plunger
limit
spring
F
F
em_force
Battery
- +
bjt1 bjt2
accumulator
Digital Control
TRIG
CTRL2
CTRL1
BS=>Q
BS=>Q
DETECT
PLUNGER
I
TRIG
Solenoid
m
p2
p p1
75
m := 0.0066
s0 := 0.0002
gravity
value := 0.0066*9.8
spacer
sul := 0.0002
sll_ := 0.0
Digital Electrical
Mechanical Hydraulic
Solenoid
A
orifice
75
ctrl1
ctrl2
plunger_control
Multi-Physics Co-Simulation
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 50
Semicondutor Modeling In Simplorer
IGBT Device model
Semiconductor device model on Simplorer
IGBT Device model : Average / Dynamic
Capability of IGBTmodel

Thermal management for Inverter
Thermal model in Simplorers semiconductor model.
Extract thermal network from ANSYS Icepak
Heat / Power loss coupling with device model

Inverter surge and conduction noise
Extract parasitic LCR from Q3D Extractor
Inverter surge and conduction noise in Simplorer
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 52
IGBT model
1. System model
Nonlinear resistance
verification of operation

2. Average model
Static char. & average loss.
Heating & temp. rise

3. Basic Dynamic model
Dynamic char.& Energy
Switching loss & heating.

4. Advanced Dynamic model
Detailed dynamic char.
Inverter surge & noise
1)
2)
3)
4)
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 57
IGBT Characterization
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 58
IGBT inverter design
Circuit design (loss) + thermal model
Line current
1T, 1D SW loss + DC loss
1T, 1D
junction
temperature
Package
temperature
Examination of
temperature cycle
1T 1D
Ambient temperature = 20 cel
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 59
-231.0n 618.0n 0 200.0n 400.0n
-50.0
700.0
0
166.7
333.3
500.0
Simplorer + Icepak
= Detailed modeling of thermal system
Simplorer
ANSYS Icepak
Q3D Extractor
Parasitism LCR
extraction
Device property and
loss consultation
CAD Import
Design of the cooling
technique and
arrangement
Design of substrate radiating route
The simulation in consideration of
change of detailed temperature
environment
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 60
Induction Motor FEA Coupled with Simplorer
FEA
PhaseA1
PhaseA2
PhaseB1
PhaseB2
PhaseC1
PhaseC2
Rotor1
Rotor2
e
+
ICA:
1400 rpm
LL:=237.56u
RA:=696.076m
B6U
D1 D3 D5
D2 D4 D6
2L3_GTOS
g_r1
g_r2
g_s1
g_s2
g_t1
g_t2
~
3PHAS
~
~
A * sin (2 * pi * f * t + PHI + phi_u)
PHI = 0
PHI = -120
PHI = -240
LDUM:=100m
CDC:=10m
LDC:=10m
RDC:=10
VZENER:=650
AMPLITUDE := 800 V
FREQUENCY := 60 Hz
-297.50
300.00
-200.00
0
200.00
0 100.00m 50.00m
LA.I [A]
LB.I [A]
LC.I [A]
FREQ := 800 Hz
AMPL := 800
PHASE := 0 deg
AMPL := 500
PHASE := -315 deg
FREQ := 50 Hz
PHASE := -195 deg
PHASE := -75 deg
SA
SB
SC
G_R1 := SA.VAL
G_R2 := -SA.VAL
G_S1 := SB.VAL
G_S2 := -SB.VAL
G_T1 := SC.VAL
G_T2 := -SC.VAL
+
V
Name Value
SIMPARAM1.RunTime [s] 111.29k
SIMPARAM1.TotalIterations 40.51k
SIMPARAM1.TotalSteps 10.00k
FEA1.FEA_STEPS
-500.00
1.50k
0
1.00k
0 100.00m 50.00m
100.00 * LD.I [A]
VDC.V [V]
-715.00
425.00
-500.00
0
0 100.00m 50.00m
Current Torque
Speed
Fed by ac-dc-ac inverter
Frequency controlled speed
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 61
BLDC motor FEA Coupled with Simplorer
FEA
sourceA1
sourceA2
sourceB1
sourceB2
sourceC1
sourceC2
Magnet01
Magnet02
e
+
ICA:
+
u
GAIN
CONST
CONST
EQUBL
EQUBL
EQUBL
1500 rpm
LL:=922u
RA:=2.991
ANGRAD
57.3
-60+PWM_PER
-30+PWM_PER
QS1
QS2
QS3
VAL[0] := mod( INPUT[0] ,INPUT[1] )
PWM_T:=60
I_TARG:=9
I_HYST:=0.2
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q5
Q4
Q6
400 V
THRES := PWM_T
EQUBL
CONST
QS4
-90+PWM_PER
EQUBL
CONST
QS5
-120+PWM_PER
EQUBL
CONST
QS6
-150+PWM_PER
RA Ohm LL H
PWM_PER:=180
INPUT[1] := PWM_PER
INPUT := -LB.I
LC.I
-LA.I
LB.I
-LC.I
LA.I
THRES1 := I_TARG - I_HYST
0
8.50
5.00
0 20.00m 30.00m
-14.50
7.80
0
0 30.00m 20.00m
-10.30
10.00
0
0 30.00m 20.00m
Output torque
Chopped currents
Inverter fed three phase BLDC
motor drive
Chopped current control
0
8.50
5.00
0 30.00m 20.00m
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 62
FEA
A1
A2
B1
B2
C1
C2
AirRotor1
AirRotor2
e
+
26293 rpm
ICA:
LL:=70.6914u
RA:=203m
140 V
100u F
+
u
ANGRAD GAIN
57.3
CONST
-30+90
CONST
-60+90
EQUBL
VAL[0] := mod( INPUT[0] ,90 )
QA
QB
QC
EQUBL
EQUBL
Name Value
FEA1.FEA_STEPS 1.00k
SIMPARAM1.RunTime [s] 6.90k
SIMPARAM1.TotalIterations 4.05k
SIMPARAM1.TotalSteps 1.00k
0
100.00
50.00
0 1.00m 500.00u
10.00 * QA.VAL
10.00 * QB.VAL + 30.00
10.00 * QC.VAL + 60.00
ROTA.VAL[0]
ROTB.VAL[0]
ROTC.VAL[0]
-54.00m
264.00m
0
100.00m
200.00m
0 1.00m 500.00u
10.00u * FEA1.OMEGA
V_ROTB1.TORQUE [Nm]
mechanical
-17.80
18.00
-10.00
0
10.00
0 1.00m 500.00u
L1.I [A]
L2.I [A]
L3.I [A]
E1.I [A]
current
control variable
SRM FEA Coupled with Simplorer
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 63
Electric Machine Design:
Maxwell Simplorer Co-Simulation
3-ph Windings
Permanent Magnets
Stator & Rotor
Flux Linkages
3ph Line Currents
Co-simulation
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 64
Multi-physics
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 65
Multiphysics Coupling through WB
Maxwell 3D provide volume/surface forces to ANSYS Structural
Solver improvements
Surface forces are supported


Deformation of the stator Deformation of coils
The electromagnetic force density from
Maxwell is used as load in Structural
Thermal-Stress with Electromagnetic Force load
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 66
Force Coupling Maxwell to Mechanical
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Time [ms]
-250.00
-200.00
-150.00
-100.00
-50.00
-0.00
50.00
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
e
w
to
n
s
)
02_DC-6step_IPM Radial Force on Tooth Tips ANSOFT
Curve Inf o
ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_Full1)
ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_2)
ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_3)
ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_4)
ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_5)
ExprCache(ToothTipRadial_6)
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Time [ms]
-30.00
-25.00
-20.00
-15.00
-10.00
-5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
F
o
r
c
e
(
N
e
w
to
n
s
)
02_DC-6step_IPM Tangential Force on Tooth Tips ANSOFT
Curve Inf o
ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_Full1)
ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_2)
ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_3)
ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_4)
ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_5)
ExprCache(ToothTipTangent_6)
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 67
Force Coupling Maxwell to Mechanical
Case 1 0% Eccentricity
Case 2 50 % Eccentricity
Max Deformation vs time
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 68
Maxwell Couplings
Forced water cooling Forced air cooling Natural air cooling
Mapped Losses 2D/3D Losses
Temperature
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 69
Two Way CFD Thermal Analysis, R14
Geometry
Losses
Maxwell Model
CFD Model
Mapped Losses
Temperature
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 70
Power Loss in windings are not displayed.
Power Loss Mapped into FLUENT
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 71
Results Temperature Distribution
2011 ANSYS, Inc. June 8, 2012 72
Thank you