This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Introduction to Alloy Steel
- Alloy steel contains elements such as chromium, nickel, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, boron and copper; and manganese, silicon, phosphorous and sulphur in amounts greater than normally are present. - The purpose of adding alloying elements in to steel is to achieve o o o o o o o Strengthening of the ferrite Corrosion resistance Better hardenability Grain size control Improved machinability Improved high or low temperature stability Improved ductility, etc.
- Given below is the composition of typical alloy steel. C Si Cr Fe 0.2 – 0.4 % 0.3 – 0.6 % 0.4 – 0.6 % Balance Mn Ni Mo 0. – 1.0 % 0.4 – 0.7 % 0.15 – 0.3 %
1. Carbon in steel affects hardness, tensile strength, machinability
and melting point.
2. Manganese contributes markedly to strength and hardness. It
lowers both ductility and weldability, if present in high percentage with high carbon content in steel.
3. Silicon improves oxidation resistance and strengthens low alloy
4. Nickel increases toughness and resistance to impact. It renders
high chromium iron alloy austenitic. It strengthens steels and lessens distortion in quenching.
5. Chromium adds to depth hardenability with improved resistance
to abrasion. It helps preventing corrosion and oxidation.
6. Molybdenum promotes hardenability of steel, makes it fine
grained, counteracts tendency towards temper brittleness, raises tensile and creep strength at high temperature, etc.
7. Vanadium promotes fine grains in steel, increases strength while
retaining ductility, etc.
8. Tungsten Improves hardness and strength at high temperatures,
resists heat and promotes fine grain.
9. Cobalt contributes to red-hardness by hardenings ferrite. 10. Copper (0.2 – 0.5 %) when added to steel increases resistance to
atmospheric corrosion and acts as a strengthening agent.
11. Aluminium produces fine austenitic grain size and acts as a de-
12. Sulphur imparts free machining properties. 13. Boron (0.001 – 0.003 %) is a powerful hardnebility agent. 14. Titanium reduces martensitic hardness in chromium steels. -
Alloy steels can be classified as
a. Low alloy steels (total alloy content up to 5 %) b. Medium alloy steels (total alloy content up to 5 to 8 %) c. High alloy steels (total alloy content up to 8 %)
- Some of the popular alloy steels are i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Low alloy, high strength steels (a typical composition is C 0.12%, Mn 0.60%, Si 0.30%, Ni 0.55%, Fe balance). Chromium steels Nickel steels High nickel-chromium steels Low carbon molybdenum steels Tool steels Stainless steel.
Welding of Low Alloy High Strength Steels
Introduction - Low alloy steels (under 0.3% carbon) are 10 to 30 % stronger than the straight carbon steels and are used where resistance to corrosion and heat is desired. Low alloy steels are of course slightly more expensive than straight carbon steels. - Good resistance to atmospheric and other mildly corrosive environments characterizes low alloy high strength steels.
Such steels have yield strength values between 50,000 and 80,000 psi (3500 and 5600 kg/cm) and tensile strength values between 70,000 and 110,000 psi (4900 and 7700 kg/cm). Such steels may find applications as sheets and thin plates in trucks, railroad cars, road building equipment, etc.
- Weldability of low alloy steels is dependent upon the composition and the hardenability; those exhibiting low hardenability being welded with relative ease, while those of high hardenability require preheating and post heating. - Welding of such steels is carried out on mush the same lines as that of carbon steels of equivalent carbon contents. - Sections of 6 mm or less may be welded with mild steel filler metal and may secure joint strength approximating base metal and weld reinforcement. Alloys of higher strength require metals of mechanical properties matching the base metal. Special alloys with creep resistant or corrosion-resistant properties must be welded with filler metals of the same chemical analysis. - An important consideration in welding many high strength low alloy steels is the prevention of under bead or cold cracking; which can be minimized by using low hydrogen type electrodes (either mild steel or alloy-steel analysis) and a slower rate of cooling. Welding of low alloy high strength steels which highhydrogen type of covered mild steel electrodes, however, usually requires that the assembly be preheated. Welding with low hydrogen electrodes generally does not require preheating except for highly restrained sections. Welding Process - All the common welding process can weld the low alloy high strength readily. - However, low alloy high strength (hot-rolled) steels have the following chemistry limitations:
a. For resistance welding, 0.12% C max and 1% Mn max. b. For other welding process, 0.2% C max, 1.25% Mn max, 0.05% S max, 0.15% P max and 0.90% Si max.
- The type of filler rod employed depends upon the mechanical properties required. A high tensile steel rod will prove effective. For corrosion resistance, etc. the weld metal must match with the parent metal. - A flux is used to counteract the oxidation of alloying elements. - After welding, a post heat-treatment is necessary for the heat treatable low-alloy steels to refine the grain structure.
2. Flux-shielded Metal Arc Welding
Mild steel electrodes will work very well with steels having a carbon content under 0.14%. Weld develops tensile strength as high as 80,000 psi (5600kg/cm) as the result of alloy pick-up from the base steel.
- Where higher strength at better ductility is desired, low alloy steel electrodes may be required. Because of greater crack sensitivity of the low alloy steel electrodes, preheating may be necessary. - Where corrosion is a factor, it may be advisable to use core wires of the same composition as the base steel. - Given below are the recommendations for welding some typical low alloy high strength steels.
% Composition (i). C 0.12,Mn 0.5-0.9, Si 0.15 max Ni 0.45-0.75, Cu 0.95-1.30, Al 0.12-0.27 (ii). C 0.12, Mn 0.2-0.5, Si 0.250.75, Cr 0.30-1.25, Ni 0.65 max, Cu 0.25-0.55, P0.07-0.015 (iii). C 0.12 max, Mn 1.25, Si 0.10 max, Cu 0.50 max C 0.40, Mn 0.7-0.9, Si 0.2-0.3
Electrode Material Low alloy steel
Preheat & inter-pass temperature 94 to 260°C
Low alloy steel Mild steel Low alloy steel
94 to 205°C Up to 94 °C 205 to 316°C
3. Submerged arc welding
Both hot rolled and heat-treated grades of low alloy steels are welded by using the method very similar to that used for welding low carbon steels. Because of deep penetration characteristics of this process, a mild steel filler rod usually satisfactory and pre-heating is generally not necessary.
4. Thermit Welding
Low alloy high strength steel can be Thermit welded. Metallic elements are added to the thermit mixture to obtain composition close to that a parent metal. Metallic elements are added either as metallic pieces or in the form of combinations of oxides of the required elements with aluminium. Stress-relieving heat-treatments, when required, should be carried out between 595 and 675°C.
5. Resistance spot welding
Spot welding can be carried out satisfactory. For alloys having high hardenabilty, special treatments such as pre-heating, grain reinforcement and tempering heat-treatments may be incorporated in the welding cycle.
6. Other joining process include
MIG Welding Atomic Welding Seam Welding Brazing.
A Text book of welding Technology. O.P.KHANNA