# 1

Introduction

Introduction
COSMOSFFE Static is a fast, robust, and accurate finite element program for the analysis of linear static structural problems. The program exploits a new technology developed at Structural Research for the solution of large systems of simultaneous equations using sparse matrix technology along with iterative methods combined with novel database management techniques to substantially reduce solution time, disk space, and memory requirements. COSMOSFFE Static has been written from scratch using state of the art techniques in FEA with two goals in mind: 1) to address basic design needs, and 2) to use the most efficient possible solution algorithms without sacrificing accuracy. The program is particularly suitable to solve large basic models subjected to a variety of loading and boundary conditions environments. COSMOSFFE Static is not meant to be a replacement for STAR, the COSMOSM conventional linear static structural analysis module. The capabilities of FFE Static are a subset of the capabilities of STAR. Problems that can be solved by FFE Static can also be solved by STAR. The advantage is that FFE Static for the class of problems it supports is far superior in terms of robustness, speed, and use of computer resources. Clear messages of unsupported capabilities and options are given whenever encountered. Appendix A gives a list of these messages along with suggestions for fixing the problem.
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Chapter 1 Introduction

Theoretical Background
Linear Static Analysis
(1-1)

where [K] is the structural (assembled) stiffness matrix, {U} is the vector of unknown nodal displacements, and {F} is the load vector. The load vector {F} has components from mechanical, thermal, and gravitational loads. The load vector {F} can be expressed as a combination of applied nodal forces {Fa} and reaction (or single point constraint) forces {Fc}. For linear static problems, each of these load vectors are the superposition of mechanical, thermal, and gravitational loads as shown below: {Fa} = {Fm} + {Fth} + {Fgr}
(1-2)

The mechanical load vector {Fm} is computed as the sum of applied nodal forces and moments, and element pressures as shown below:
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COSMOSFFE Static

Chapter 1 Introduction

(1-3)

where {Fnd} is the applied nodal force vector, and {Fepr} is the element pressure load vector. The thermal, and gravitational load vectors are computed as follows:
(1-4)

where {Fnt} is the load vector of nodal temperatures, {Feth} is the element thermal load vector, [Me] is the element mass matrix, and {a} is the acceleration vector.

Multiple loading is an important feature in linear analyses that is supported by both STAR and FFE Static. The utility is very popular due to time saving, convenience, and ease of book keeping of “what-if” load combination scenarios. The user may define loading conditions for up to 50 primary load cases and the program will calculate the displacements, strains and stresses in a single run. All results will be available simultaneously for all primary load cases. Secondary load cases may then be defined using the results of primary load cases. Refer to Chapter 4 for more details on multiple load cases.

Consistent Systems of Units
In COSMOSM modules including FFE Static, you are free to adopt standard or non-standard systems of units, but you are responsible for consistency and the interpretation of the units of results. The table below shows consistent standard systems of units for the physical quantities used in the FFE Static module.

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Chapter 1 Introduction Table 1-1. Table of Consistent Units for COSMOSFFE Static Description COSMOS Name

* FPS1 (gravitational)
Measure in

* SI2 (absolute)
m Newton/m2 or Pascal N/m2 or Pa m/m (no units) kg/m3 m/(m

* MKS3 (gravitational)
cm

CGS4 (absolute)

Length Material Properties Elastic Modulus Shear Modulus Poisson's Ratio Mass Density Coeff. of Thermal Expansion

X, Y, Z

cm

EX, EY, EZ GXY, GYZ, GXZ NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ DENS ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ

lbs/in2 lbs/in2 in/in (no units) lbs sec2/in4 in/(in °F)

kg/cm2 kg/cm2 cm/cm (no units) kg sec2/cm4

dyne/cm2 dyne/cm2 cm/cm g/cm3 cm/(cm °K)

°K)

cm/(cm °C)

Loads and Boundary Conditions Temperature Translational Displacements TEMP UX, UY, UZ

°F
in radians lbs in lbs lbs/in2 lbs/in in/sec
2

°K
2 2

°C
2

°K

Rotational Displacements RX, RY, RZ Forces (nodal) Moments (nodal) Pressure Distributed Beam Load Linear Acceleration Angular Velocity Angular Acceleration FX, FY, FZ MX, MY, MZ P PB ACEL OMEGA, CGOMEGA DOMEGA, DCGOMEGA

Results Displacements Stresses Strains UX, UY, UZ, RES in m N/m2 or Pa m/m (no units) cm kg/cm2 cm/cm (no units) cm dyne/cm2 cm/cm (no units)

SX, SY, SZ, TXY, TYZ, TXZ, lbs/in2 P1, P2, P3, VON, INT EPSX, EPSY, EPSZ, GMXY, in/in GMYZ, GMXZ, ESTRN (no units)

* Units are consistent with the COSMOSM material library. 1 FPS refers to the U.S. customary system of units. 2 SI refers to the International system of units. 3 MKS refers to the Metric system of units. 4 CGS refers to the French system of units.
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COSMOSFFE Static

2

Brief Overview

Introduction
COSMOSFFE Static currently addresses basic classes of structural problems encountered in practical engineering applications. The program is being constantly updated to include more capabilities and support more options. This chapter lists the current capabilities of the program.

Element Library
• Two and three dimensional trusses (TRUSS2D and TRUSS3D) • Three dimensional beam elements (BEAM3D) • First order triangular plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric elements
(TRIANG)

• Second order triangular plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric elements
(TRIANG)

• First order quad plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric elements
(PLANE2D)

• Second order quad plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric elements
(PLANE2D)
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Chapter 2 Brief Overview

• • • •

First order triangular (3-node) shell elements (SHELL3) First order quad (4-node) shell elements (SHELL4) First and second order hexahedral elements (SOLID) First and second order prism-shaped elements (SOLID with a face collapsed to an edge)

• First order tetrahedral elements (TETRA4) • Second order tetrahedral elements (TETRA10)
Refer to Chapter 3 for details on elements.

Loads may be applied to nodes or elements directly or through association with geometric entities. Up to 50 primary load cases may be created. The applied load may be:

• • • • • • • • • •

COSMOSM literature. Special loading is considered on top of other mechanical loads defined for a load case. The consideration of special loading effects must be activated before running the analysis using the A_FFESTATIC (Analysis > STATIC > FFE Static Options) command.
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COSMOSFFE Static

Use STAR for orthotropic or anisotropic materials. The following choices are available: 1. Element order in analysis • • • • Use first order elements with first order elements in GEOSTAR Use second order elements with first order elements in GEOSTAR Use first order elements with second order elements in GEOSTAR Use second order elements with second order elements in GEOSTAR 2.Chapter 2 Brief Overview Displacement Constraints • • • • Displacement constraints in the global Cartesian coordinate system Displacement constraints in the global Cylindrical coordinate system Displacement constraints in the global Spherical coordinate system Displacement constraints in the any local coordinate system defined by the user Material Properties In this release only isotropic materials are supported. Analysis Capabilities Analysis options are specified through the A_FEESTATIC (Analysis > STATIC > FFE Static Options) command. Special loading to be considered on top of mechanical loading • Thermal loading • Gravity loading • Centrifugal loading In de x COSMOSFFE Static 2-3 .

and extremes Output file contains displacement results and useful information on resources used during analysis Case) command • Define secondary load cases through the LCCOMB (Results > Combine Load In de x 2-4 COSMOSFFE Static . plots. plots. and extremes Stresses lists. • • • • Displacement lists.Chapter 2 Brief Overview Results Results will be available for all primary load cases. and extremes Strains lists. plots.

Most of 2D and 3D continuum elements are programmed on the first and second order hierarchical basis. In this case the middle node information for elements on the boundary will still be used for the geometry. Similarly. you may define TETRA4 elements in GEOSTAR but specify second order in the A_FFESTATIC command. you may define TETRA10 elements in GEOSTAR but specify first order in the A_FFESTATIC command. Plane 2D Continuum Elements • • • • • • • First order (3-node) triangular plane stress elements (TRIANG) Second order (6-node) triangular plane stress elements (TRIANG) First order (3-node) triangular plane strain elements (TRIANG) Second order (6-node) triangular plane strain elements (TRIANG) First order (3-node) triangular axisymmetric elements (TRIANG) Second order (6-node) triangular axisymmetric elements (TRIANG) First order (4-node) quadratic plane stress elements (PLANE2D) In de x COSMOSFFE Static 3-1 . but still the order used in the analysis is controlled by the flag in the A_FFESTATIC (Analysis > STATIC > FFE Static Options) command rather than the name of the element group. As an example.3 Element Library Introduction This chapter lists the elements currently supported by COSMOSFFE Static. The elements may be modeled in GEOSTAR as linear or parabolic.

Chapter 3 Element Library • • • • • Second order (8-node) quadratic plane stress elements (PLANE2D) First order (4-node) quadratic plane strain elements (PLANE2D) Second order (8-node) quadratic plane strain elements (PLANE2D) First order (4-node) quadratic axisymmetric elements (PLANE2D) Second order (8-node) quadratic axisymmetric elements (PLANE2D) Continuum 3D Solid Elements • First order (8-node) hexahedral elements (SOLID) • Second order (20-node) hexahedral elements (SOLID) • First order (8-node) pentahedral elements (SOLID with a face collapsed to an edge) • Second order (20-node) pentahedral prism-shaped elements (SOLID with a face collapsed to an edge) • First order tetrahedral elements (TETRA4) • Second order tetrahedral elements (TETRA10) Structural Elements • • • • Two and three dimensional truss elements (TRUSS2D and TRUSS3D) Three dimensional beam elements (BEAM3D) First order triangular (3-node) shell elements (SHELL3) First order quad (4-node) shell elements (SHELL4) The elements given above are to be defined using the EGROUP (Propsets > Element Group) command shown in the table below. These commands can be issued by following the menu path given in Table 3-1 between parenthesis. Table 3-1 also lists other commands for the manipulation of the associated element properties. In de x 3-2 COSMOSFFE Static .

When you execute the EGROUP command. designated as OP1. real constants sets. Assigns the existing element group. The RCONST (Propsets > Real Constant) command should be used to specify the cross-sectional dimensions of the element such as the thickness of SHELL3 element. EPROPSET (Propsets > New Property Set) EPROPCHANGE (Propsets > Change El-Prop) EGLIST (Edit > LIST > Element Groups) EGDEL (Edit > DELETE > Element Groups) Every element has different analysis and modeling options (maximum of eight entries). …. you are prompted for their input with sufficient physical interpretation for the selected element. and real constant groups as well as element coordinate system to newly created elements. PICK_MAT. or R_MATLIB (if the InfoDex Mil 5 material library options is available to you) found in the Propsets menu. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 3-3 . Commands for Element Group Definition. and material property sets. material property. Modification. ✍ You can choose to perform the analysis with either first order or second order elements in spite of the actual elements generated. Changes the association between element groups. Lists specified element groups and the associated element analysis options. Material properties may be specified using MPROP.Chapter 3 Element Library Table 3-1. The on-screen listing can be piped to a text file if desired. Comments The maximum number of element groups permitted in a model is 20. and Listing Command EGROUP (Propsets > Element Group) Function Defines element groups and the associated element analysis options. Element Library. The following figure shows pictorial representations of all elements available in the COSMOSFFE Static module. COSMOSM User Guide (Volume 1) presents a detailed description of all elements in Chapter 4. OP8. using the LISTLOG (Control > MISCELLANEOUS > List Log) command. Deletes specified element groups and the associated element analysis options.

Node Thin S he ll Element: SHELL3 Nodes: 3 4 .Node S he ll Element: SHELL4 Nodes: 4 4 .Node P la ne or Ax is y mme t ric Tria ngle Element: TRIANG Nodes: 6 3 .Node P la ne or Ax is y mme t ric Tria ngle Element: TRIANG Nodes: 3 6 .Node P la ne or Ax is y mme t ric Q ua drila t e ra l Element: PLANE2D Nodes: 4 8 .Node P la ne or Ax is y mme t ric Q ua drila t e ra l Element: PLANE2D Nodes: 8 3 .Node S olid Element: SOLID Nodes: 20 Firs t O rde r P ris m.S ha pe d S olid Element: SOLID Nodes: 8 with a face collasping to an edge S e c ond O rde r P ris m.Chapter 3 Element Library Figure 3-1.Node Te t ra he dra l S olid Element: TETRA10 Nodes: 10 8 .Node Te t ra he dra l S olid Element: TETRA4 Nodes: 4 1 0 .S ha pe d S olid Element: SOLID Nodes: 20 with a face collasping to an edge In de x 3-4 COSMOSFFE Static .Node S olid Element: SOLID Nodes: 8 2 0 . Supported Elements Trus s / S pa r Element: TRUSS2D or TRUSS3D Nodes: 2 Be a m Element: BEAM2D or BEAM3D Nodes: 2 or 3 4 .

The corresponding option in the element group definition is ignored.Chapter 3 Element Library Top and Bottom Faces of Shell Elements Only the mid surface of a shell element is shown in GEOSTAR. Results from FFE Static should compare with results from STAR when the full integration option is used. The direction of the thumb when using the right-hand rule points to the direction of the top face. SOLID. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 3-5 . TETRA4. Elements generated by meshing a surface will have their top face in the direction of the outside normal of the surface determined by the right-hand rule. ACTMARK may also be activated from the STATUS1 table. Figure 3-2. The direction of the outer contour of a region is used to determine the top face of elements generated by meshing regions. Bottom face (Face 5) is directed towards you. PLANE2D. ✍ Full integration is always used for the TRIANG. Use the ELIST (Edit > LIST > Elements) command to list the connectivity of elements. Each shell element has a top and a bottom face determined by the order of the connectivity in the element definition. 4 Top face (Face 5) is directed towards you. Top and Bottom Faces of Shell Elements S HE LL3 3 S HE LL3 2 4 S HE LL5 S HE LL4 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 2 3 Top face (Face 5) is directed towards you. The ACTMARK (Control > ACTIVATE > Entity Mark) command may be used to show the parametric directions of surfaces. Bottom face (Face 5) is directed towards you. and TETRA10 elements.

In de x 3-6 COSMOSFFE Static .

This chapter therefore will not repeat the information here but will offer a brief overview of those commands which are relevant to the COSMOSM FFE Static module. boundary conditions.geometry. This chapter attempts to conceptually illustrate the procedure for building a model for analysis in the COSMOSFFE Static module. The COSMOSM User Guide (Volume 1) presents in-depth information on the preand postprocessing procedures in GEOSTAR. visualization and output of results. etc. Irrespective of the type of analysis. solution of system of equations.4 Input Data Introduction Proper modeling and analysis specifications are crucial to the success of any finite element analysis. loads. accessed by pressing the left button of the mouse on the Help icon shown in the command dialog box. elements. numerical solution using finite element analysis requires complete information of the model under consideration. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 4-1 . The finite element model you submit for analysis must contain all the necessary data for each step of numerical simulation . refer to the on-line help. For a detailed description of all commands. or refer to the COSMOSM Command Reference Manual (Volume 2).

Use the A_FFESTATIC (Analysis > STATIC > FFE Static Options) command to specify desired options including special loading and element order. Define the appropriate element group. Repeat steps 2 through 5 as desired if needed. 6. Submit the completed finite element model for analysis using the R_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis) command. 3. In de x 4-2 COSMOSFFE Static . 9. Merge coinciding nodes along the common boundaries of different geometric entities using the NMERGE (Meshing > NODES > Merge) command. 7. LC (Control > ACTIVATE > Set Entity) command and define load cases as desired. 11. Results may be displayed in text or graphical formats. Use the LISTLOG (Control > MISCELLANEOUS > List Log) command to pipe list screens to a file. Mesh the desired part of geometry with appropriate type of elements. beam. Create the problem geometry. 10. If multiple load cases are desired. plane stress and shell elements. Define the loads on the model. 4. Define material properties. 5. 13. Define real constants for truss. 2. Use the Results menu to postprocess the results. 8. Apply constraints on the finite element model.Chapter 4 Input Data Modeling and Analysis Cycle in the COSMOSFFE Static Module The basic steps involved in a finite element analysis are: 1. use the ACTSET. 12.

The commands summarized in the table below provide you with information on the input of element groups. The term analysis in the above figure refers to the phase of specifying the analysis options and executing the actual analysis. loads and boundary conditions. and out-put specifications. The following two factors determine which one will run: 1) If you have not issued the A_STATIC nor the A_FFESTATIC commands. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 4-3 . Postprocessing refers to the manipulation of the analysis results for easy understanding and interpretation in a graphical environment. STAR will run if A_STATIC has been issued later. then STAR will run if A_STATIC has been issued. R_STATIC will run STAR. and other information needed.Chapter 4 Input Data ✍ runs either STAR or FFE Static. applying loads and boundary conditions. 3) If only one of the two commands has been issued. Finite Element Modeling and Analysis Steps START Problem Definition Analysis and Design Decisions STOP PREPROCESSING ANALYSIS POSTPROCESSING Preprocessing refers to the operations you perform prior to submitting the model for analysis. material properties. Figure 4-1. mesh generation. analysis options. R_STATIC These steps can be schematically represented as shown in the figure below. the later one will determine which code to run. 2) If both of the two commands have been issued. or FFE Static if A_FFESTATIC has been issued later. and FFE Static if A_FFESTATIC has been issued later. Such operations include defining the model geometry.

The most recently issued command out of the two commands (A_STATIC and A_FFESTATIC) determines whether the R_STATIC command will run STAR or FFE Static.HTO” file for the current problem exists in the database. As an example. G and T. The HTO file is the file in which temperature results from thermal analysis are stored.Chapter 4 Input Data • If temperatures were defined as boundary conditions for a heat transfer analysis. Note that the A_STATIC command specifies analysis options for linear static analysis using the STAR module. 0 1 special-loading Special loading flag. If no HTO file exists however. SOLID elements are treated similarly except that for these elements the same element group names are used for both first and second orders. On the other hand you may define TETRA10 elements and specify to use first order. Any one character can be assigned. then these temperatures are ignored if the “problem-name. The A_FFESTATIC Command Geo Panel: Analysis > STATIC > FFE Static Options The A_FFESTATIC command specifies analysis options for linear static analysis using the FFE Static module. if you define TETRA4 elements and use second order. middle nodes on straight edges will be considered during analysis. Static Analysis Options The A_FFESTATIC command is used to specify several static analysis options to be used for subsequent analysis using the A_FFESTATIC command. Two or three characters can be assigned in any combination of C. Entry & Option Description element-order Order of the element to be used. In de x use first order for continuum elements. In spite of the element group name in the database. you may specify through this option whether first (linear) or second (parabolic) elements will be used. then the specified temperatures are used as thermal loading to calculate the corresponding static analysis results. The default is to run STAR. The syntax and help for the A_FFESTATIC and R_STATIC commands are given below. use second order for continuum elements. (default is 1) COSMOSFFE Static 4-7 .

Use the LISTLOG (Control > In de x MISCELLANEOUS > List Log) and STRLIST commands to redirect stress results to a file. The command will calculate displacements and stresses for all load cases set to run. f. a clear message will be given. The STRLIST (Results > LIST > Stress Component) and ACTSTR (Results > PLOT > Stress) commands will prompt you for a coordinate system to be used for listing and plotting during postprocessing. d. Plot. Create the model. c. For FFE messages. Use flags specified by the A_STATIC command or the A_FFESTATIC command. Recommended steps for performing analysis: a. ✍ FFE Static always calculates stresses and ignores the flag controlled by the STRESS command for the option to calculate or not calculate stresses when STAR is used. Use equivalent commands for other types of analyses. Issue the R_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis) command to perform linear static analysis.Chapter 4 Input Data Notes: 1. e. Issue the A_FFESTATIC (Analysis > STATIC > FFE Static Options) command to specify the element order and specify special loading flags or the A_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Static Analysis Options) command to specify STAR options. The message is also written to the output file (extension OUT). COSMOSFFE Static 4-9 . If the run is not successful. Use the equivalent command for other types of analyses. refer to Appendix A of this manual for explaining and fixing the problem. 3. list and examine the model. ✍ Stresses are not written to the output file. If H_method adaptive meshing is specified. the R_STATIC command will progressively repeat the analysis as instructed by the ADAPTIVE (Analysis > STATIC > Adaptive Method) command if STAR is used. 2. 5. b. Use the LCCOMB (Results > Combine Load Case) command to define secondary load cases. Execute the R_CHECK (Analysis > Run Check) command to check input data. The command will calculate displacements and stresses for all load cases set to run. 4. ✍ All stresses are calculated in the global directions.

you may still miss some errors that are not easily identifiable. However. Table 4-2. element groups. it is plausible to perform model checks in an automated environment. and scale values for all plots Creates secondary load cases Can be used to pipe the list screens to a file * See Table 4-1 for the menu path Verification of Model Input Data One of the difficulties you may come across in the solution is avoiding errors in the model input data. Postprocessing Commands Related to FFE Static Command * DEFPLOT DISLIST DISMAX STRLIST STRMAX STNLIST STNMAX SMLIST SMMAX BEAMRESLIST BEAMRESMAX ACTDIS DISPLOT ACTSTN STNPLOT ACTSTR STRPLOT SMPLOT SETPLOT LCCOMB LISTLOG Description Plots the deformed shape Lists displacements Searches for extreme displacement values Lists stresses Searches for extreme stress values Lists strains Searches for extreme strain values Lists shear and moment for beam element Searches for extreme shear and moment values Lists beam element forces Searches for extreme beam element results Activates a displacement component for plotting Plots the activated displacement component Activates a strain component for plotting Plots the activated strain component Activates a stress component for plotting Plots the activated stress component Plots shear and moment diagrams for beam elements Sets color set. nodes.OUT is generated by FFE Static. In de x 4-10 COSMOSFFE Static . it is often easier to perform these checks to see if all required input data have been properly generated and defined. and many other on-line tools. The results in the database can be viewed in both text and graphical formats in GEOSTAR. Plotting or listing loads and constraints. material properties and real constant sets.Chapter 4 Input Data Postprocessing An output file problem-name. The following table gives a brief description of the postprocessing commands related to FFE Static. listing the elements. The file is an ASCII file that can be viewed and edited as desired. For small problems. Some of the errors can be detected by plotting the model in various views. range. For these types of situations and also for larger problems.

You may still find some errors that are not trapped by the use of this command. Note that the R_CHECK command is a general model verification tool. and completeness of the input data and gives messages for any warnings and errors encountered. the diagnostic messages either printed on the screen or written to an ASCII file (problem_name. You are strongly recommended to run the checking program using the R_CHECK command and fix all errors before performing submitting the model to analysis.Chapter 4 Input Data The R_CHECK (Analysis > Run Check) command performs rigorous checks on the validity. In most cases. compatibility. In addition. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 4-11 . Refer to Appendix A for more information about error messages.CHK) provide further information as to the nature of errors and their remedies. the FFE Static module will give you clear messages if any problems are encountered during the analysis process. The ECHECK (Meshing > ELEMENTS > Check Element) performs a quick check on the elements in the model and deletes any degenerate elements.

In de x 4-12 COSMOSFFE Static .

Launch GEOSTAR.GEO.GEO. follow the following steps: • • • • • • In de x Create a new working directory. and FFESX3. and 3 respectively. In order to run an example. The examples discussed in this chapter are large size practical problems that demonstrate the savings in time and resources when using FFE Static compared to using the conventional solvers. The input files for the examples in this chapter and the verification problems in Chapter 6 are available in PROBS subdirectory of your COSMOSM directory. Chapter 6 includes a number of small size problems that demonstrate most of the capabilities of FFE Static and that are suitable for verification purposes and academic studies.) command. Follow the instructions given in the following sections. COSMOSFFE Static 5-1 .5 Examples Introduction This chapter presents step-by-step examples for performing linear static analysis using the FFE Static module. The names of the input files are FFESX1. 2. Read the input file using the FILE (File > Load... FFESX2.GEO for examples 1. Choose a new problem name while you are inside GEOSTAR. Copy the input file to the new working directory.

A Model Fan (See page 5-3. List of Static Examples 1 .Chapter 5 Examples Table 5-1.Analysis of an Engine Bearing Cap 2 .) (See page 5-14.Analysis of a Column Connection Bracket Using Shell Elements 3 .) (See page 5-28.) In de x 5-2 COSMOSFFE Static .

In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-3 .393 See Page 5-2 The bearing cap shown in Figure 5-1. that rotational degrees of freedom are not considered by tetrahedral elements and the preprocessor will fix them automatically. GEOSTAR provides you with convenient options to specify symmetrical and asymmetrical boundary conditions (refer to the on-line help for the DND (LoadsBC > STRUCTURAL > DISPLACEMENT > Define Nodes) command). Note. It is very pressure important when modeling only a portion of the actual model due to symmetry.Chapter 5 Examples Example 1 – Analysis of an Engine Bearing Cap Model Information Length Units: Force Units: Pressure Units: Element Type: Element Order: Number of Elements: Number of Corner Nodes: Number of Degrees of Freedom: Millimeters (mm) Newtons (N) N/mm2 Tetrahedral Second 2700 853 15. only one half of the model need to be modeled. Due to symmetry. to specify the proper boundary Radially constrained conditions for the modeled portion along its interface with the other symmetrical portions. however. It is obvious in this case that the Y-Z plane of symmetry should not move in the global X-direction. Full Model of Engine Bearing Cap the figure below is pressure subjected to loads and boundary conditions as Plane of Symmetry shown.

1.5.5. PT.9.2.3.13. DRG.1. RGGEN.1. CT. RG.2.2.0.2.1.0.1.1.14.2.5.13.1.1. CRFILLET.75.UX.11.38.0.TETRA4. CRLINE. MPROP.14. CRPCIRCLE.0. PT.0.1.10.12.5.12.3.1. MA_PART.62607. Use the FILE (File > Load.UZ.200000. CRFILLET.5. PT.1.6.0.18. PT.40.SF.0.4. CRLINE. SFDEL.43. Note that the model maybe alternatively be created by extruding the circular ring in the Y-direction and extruding a face of the web in the Z-direction..Y. SFEXTR.1.0.1.85.RG.13.41.1.18.42.0001.50.6.39.62.16.16.5.2.38.13.1.1.5.44. SFEXTR. or you may choose to follow the commands and construct the database step-by-step by following the commands below.13.1.25. CRPCIRCLE.14.15. The file is also listed below for convenience.1.50.3.14.41.6.1. DRG.45.0.39.0.70.0. SFEXTR. PLANE.6.2.1.0.1.10.5.9.16.5. In de x 5-4 COSMOSFFE Static ..0.2.3.GEO and may be retrieved from the PROBS subdirectory in your COSMOSM directory.1. PT.1.0.EX.0. UNSELINP.1.11.360.11.1.20.16.0.0.3.18.24.00005.5.1.CS. EGROUP.1.36.1.13.42.Y.1.14.-5. PRG.45.1. List of the FFESX1.0.-52.1.1.-10.0.0.1.1.UX.0.1.0. CRDEL.0.0. RGSF.11.13. CT.NUXY.696.0.16.70.1.25.0.5.15.0. In case of constructing the model step-by-step.1.) command to read in the FFESX1.90.6.0.9.0.0.0.4.0.1.Z. PT.11. SFEXTR.70. RGDENS. PRG.1.6.0.25. RGGEN.5.1.0.UZ ACTSET. the user is referred to the Command Reference Manual or the On-line help for information about the menu path required to issue the given command.8.1E-006.1E-006.43.2.0.00005.0.Chapter 5 Examples The file needed to create the geometry is called FFESX1.0. ENGINE BEARING CAP PLANE. PART.13.12.43.1.70.X.4 HIDDEN.1.360.6.2.0.1.14.0.5.5.21.1.16.0.20.0.1. RG.0.0.15.0.0.4.10.12.1.0.5. CRDEL. CREXTR.1. CRDEL.GEO file.1.Z.GEO File TITLE. CT.45.2.1.3.12.1.1. CRINTCC.0.0. SCALE. PT. PT.5.1.0. CRPCIRCLE. CRARCCPT.44.1.0001.1. PH.41.Y.10.6.5.-10. EPLOT.44.2.7.Z.0.4803.0. CSANGLE.2.-10. CRINTCC.696.1.10.

To activate edge evaluation. Edge evaluation may be used even in cases where geometric entities are not present in the model. choose: Geo Panel: Display > DISPLAY OPTION > Eval Element Bound (EVAL_BOUND) Boundary face evaluation flag [No] > Boundary edge evaluation flag [No] > Yes Tolerance angle to ignore curvature [20] > 60 Accept entries Generate four windows for postprocessing using WCREATE (Geo Panel: New Win) command. Animate the deformed shaded shape in window 1. click on the window using the left button of the mouse. In de x 5-6 COSMOSFFE Static . Animation of Deformed Shape Activate the element shading using the SHADE (Display > DISPLAY OPTION > Shaded Element Plot) command and accept all default entries. you will get nicer plots if you suppress plotting element edges which may be done through the BOUNDARY (Display > DISPLAY OPTION > Set Bound Plot) command. An instance in the animation is shown in the figure below. choose: Geo Panel: Display > DISPLAY OPTION > Animate (ANIMATE) Load Case [1] > 1 Animation type 0=one-way 1=two-way [1] > Delay number [0] > Accept entries ✍ You may delay the animation speed using a large delay factor and/or larger window. Use default value for the delay factor and a smaller window to animate faster. Better plots can be obtained by evaluating the edges of the model. In many cases.Chapter 5 Examples Postprocessing All postprocessing commands are included in the Results menu. To activate one of these windows. You may need to adjust or relocate the newly created windows for your convenience.

In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-7 . You may need to resize the window to see the color code bar. Deflected Shape Displacement Contours Displacement contours may be generated on undeformed or deformed geometry.346] > Accept entries The generated displacement contour is plotted in the figure below. Activate window 2 and plot the resultant displacement contour by choosing: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Displacement (DISPLOT) Load case number [1] > Component [URES] > Coordinate system [0] > Click on Contour icon Plot type 0=Fill 1=Line 2=Vect [0] > Beginning element [1] > Ending Element [2700] > Increment [1] > Shape flag > Deformed shape Scale Factor [277.Chapter 5 Examples Figure 5-3. Use the ANIMATE command again to animate the displacement contour on the deformed shape.

choose Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Strain (STNPLOT) Load case number [1] > 1 Component [ESTRN] > Layer number [1] > (used only for composite elements) Face flag 0=Top [0] > Coordinate system [0] > Click on Contour icon Plot Type > Color_filled contour Beginning element [1] > Ending [2700] > Increment [1] > Shape flag > Undeformed shape In de x 5-8 COSMOSFFE Static . Displacement Contour Plot Element Strain Activate window 3 and plot the element strain contour.Chapter 5 Examples Figure 5-4.

Chapter 5 Examples The generated plot is shown in the figure below.εa)2 + (EPSZ .εa)2] ε2 = [(GMXY)2 + (GMXZ)2 + (GMYZ)2]/4 εa = (EPSX + EPSY + EPSZ)/3 Where: Strain EPSX: Strain EPSY: Strain EPSZ: In de x Average element strain in the X-direction.εa)2 + (EPSY .5[(EPSX . Element Strain Plot Note: The equivalent strain (ESTRN) is calculated from: ESTRN = 2[(ε1 + ε2)/3](1/2) where: ε1 = 0. COSMOSFFE Static 5-9 . Average element strain in the Y-direction. Note that strains are element-based quantities and. Figure 5-5. Average element strain in the Z-direction. each element is shown in one color. therefore.

SZ)2] + 3 (TXY2 + TXZ2 + TYZ2)}(1/2) Where: VON SX SY SZ In de x = von Mises stress component = normal stress in the x-direction = normal stress in the y-direction = normal stress in the z-direction 5-10 COSMOSFFE Static .Chapter 5 Examples Strain GMXY: Strain GMYZ: Strain GMZX: Strain ESTRN: Element shear strain in the X-Y plane (change in angle between lines initially parallel to the X. Element shear strain in the Z-X plane (change in angle between lines initially parallel to the Z.SY)2 + (SX . Equivalent strain.and Z-axes).and X-axes). Element shear strain in the Y-Z plane (change in angle between lines initially parallel to the Y.346] The von Mises stress component is calculated from the stress components as shown below: VON= {(1/2) [(SX . Nodal Stresses Activate window 4 and plot von Mises stresses as follows: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Stress (STRPLOT) Load case number [1] > 1 Component [VON] > Layer number [1] > Coordinate system [0] > Stress flag > Nodal stress Face-flag (shell) 0=Top 1=Bot 2=Memb 3=Bend [0] > Click on Contour icon Plot Type 0 =Fill 1=Line 2=Vect [0] > Beginning Element [1] > Ending Element [2700] > Increment [1] > Shape flag 0=Undsef 1=Def [0] > Scale factor [277.and Y-axes).SZ)2 + (SY .

P3)2]}(1/2) The generated von Mises stress plot is shown below. and P3 as given below: VON = {(1/2) [(P1 . Figure 5-6.P3)2 + (P2 . von Mises Stress Plot The generated plots as shown in the 4-window screen are shown below. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-11 . or plotted using commands like PLOT_META (Control > Devices > Device_File > Plot Meta File).Chapter 5 Examples TXY TXZ TYZ = shear stress in the x-y plane = shear stress in the x-z plane = shear stress in the y-z plane VON may also be expressed in terms of principal stresses P1. P2. The PAPER_SETUP (Control > Devices > Paper Set Up) command may be used to setup the hardcopy including whether single or multiple windows will be stored in the meta file. PostScript and HPGL files may be also generated (refer to the File > Printer SetUp submenu).P2)2 + (P1 . Note that the METAFILE (Control > Devices > Device_File > Save Meta File) command may be used to store images in files that may be viewed later using the VIEW_META (File > View Metafile) command.

choose: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Path Graph (LSECPLOT) Pick/Input Node > 81 Pick/Input Node > 262 Pick/Input Node > 262 Resize the window to get a better view. The variation along the path will be automatically graphed. We will graph the stress variation plotted in window 4 along the path defined by the nodes shown below. Multiple-Window Plots Graphing Results Along a Defined Path You can trace the variation of the results plotted on the screen along an arbitrary path defined by up to 20 nodes. ✍ Boundary evaluation is window-dependent. The horizontal axis represents normalized distance starting from the path's first node and the vertical axis represents the value of the plotted quantity.Chapter 5 Examples Figure 5-7. In de x 5-12 COSMOSFFE Static .

Chapter 5 Examples Figure 5-8. Other plotting. listing. Refer to the User Guide (Volume 1) and the Results menu for more information. and searching for extreme values options are also available including vector plots which are particularly useful for principal stresses. Graph of von Mises Stresses Along a Path Use the ANIMATE command as before to animate the von Mises stresses on the deformed shape and corresponding graph. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-13 .

Chapter 5 Examples Example 2 – Analysis of a Column Connection Bracket Using Shell Elements Model Information Length Units: Force Units: Pressure Units: Element Type: Element Order: Number of Elements: Number of Corner Nodes: Number of Degrees of Freedom: Inches (in) Pounds Weight (lb) Lbs/in2 Shells First 3622 1968 11. Column Connection Bracket In de x 5-14 COSMOSFFE Static . Figure 5-9.808 See Page 5-2 It is desired to calculate the stresses for the column connection bracket shown in the figure below.

Next. If special loading effects are to be considered. Deformed Shape To plot the deformed shape. plot. You may list. G. GEOSTAR will get control again any you may start postprocessing the results as shown below. choose: Geo Panel: Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis (R_STATIC) Control will transfer to FFE Static which will inform you about the progress of the analysis. Postprocessing All postprocessing commands are available in the Results menu. run the analysis. then the proper combination of T. List screens may be piped to files using the LISTLOG (Control > MISCELLANEOUS > List Log) command. we are ready to specify analysis options and run the analysis. When the analysis is completed. choose: Geo Panel: Analysis > STATIC > FFE Static Options (A_FFESTATIC) Element Order [Second] > First Loading Flag [N] > Note that only the first order is currently supported for shells. and C should be specified. The default flag for special loading is accepted. and search for extreme values.Chapter 5 Examples Running Analysis Now the model has been created.037] > Accept entries In de x 5-18 COSMOSFFE Static . choose: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Deformed Shape (DEFPLOT) Load Case [2] > 1 Beginning element [1] > Ending element [3622] > Increment [1] > Scale factor [38.

Deformed Shape Plot for Load Case 1 A similar plot for load case 2 is shown below.0 to plot the true deformed shape. Deformed Shape Plot for Load Case 2 In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-19 . Input a scale factor of 1. Note that the default scale factor exaggerates deflections to 10% of the model size. Figure 5-11. Figure 5-12.Chapter 5 Examples The generated plot is shown below.

Activate boundary edge evaluation. In de x 5-20 COSMOSFFE Static .037] > Accept entries The generated displacement contour is shown in the figure below. choose: Geo Panel: Display > DISPLAY OPTION > Eval Element Bound (EVAL_BOUND) Boundary face evaluation flag [No]> Boundary edge evaluation flag [No]> Yes Click on Continue icon Tolerance angle to ignore curvature [20]> 60 To plot the resultant displacement contour. choose: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Displacement (DISPLOT) Load case number [1] > Component [URES] > Coordinate system [0] > Click on Contour icon Plot Type > Color_filled contour Beginning element [1] > Ending Element [3622] > Increment [1] > Shape flag > Deformed shape Scale Factor [38. Use the ANIMATE (Results > PLOT > Animate) command to animate the displacement contour on the deformed shape.Chapter 5 Examples Displacement Contours Displacement contours may be generated on undeformed or deformed geometry.

Figure 5-14. Displacement Contour Plot for Load Case 2 In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-21 . Displacement Contour Plot for Load Case 1 A similar plot for load case 2 is shown below.Chapter 5 Examples Figure 5-13.

choose: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Strain (STNPLOT) Load case number [2] > 1 Component [ESTRN] > Layer number [1] > (used only for layered elements) Face-flag [Top] > Coordinate system [0] > Click on Contour icon Plot Type > Color_filled contour Beginning element [1] > Ending element [3622] > Increment [1] > Shape flag > Undeformed shape Scale factor [38. Figure 5-15.Chapter 5 Examples Element Strain Strains are calculated for each element. Note that strains are element-based quantities and. therefore. To plot element strains. each element is shown in one color.037] > Accept entries The generated plot is shown in the figure below. Element Strain Plot for Load Case 1 In de x 5-22 COSMOSFFE Static .

Chapter 5 Examples A similar plot for load case 2 is shown below. Figure 5-16.037] > Accept entries In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-23 . Element Strain Plot for Load Case 2 Stress Plots To plot von Mises stresses. choose: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Stress (STRPLOT) Load case number [2] > 1 Component [VON] > Stress flag > Nodal stress Layer number [1] > (used only for layered elements) Face-flag [Top] > Coordinate system [0] > Click on Contour icon Plot Type > Color_filled contour Beginning element [1] > Ending element [3622] > Increment [1] > Shape flag > Deformed shape Scale factor [38.

Figure 5-17. von Mises Stress Plot for Load Case 1 A similar plot for load case 2 is shown below.Chapter 5 Examples The generated von Mises stress plot is shown below. von Mises Stress Plot for Load Case 2 In de x 5-24 COSMOSFFE Static . Figure 5-18.

The horizontal axis represents normalized distance starting from the path's first node and the vertical axis represents the value of the plotted quantity.Chapter 5 Examples Graphing Results Along a Defined Path You can trace the variation of the results plotted on the screen along an arbitrary path defined by up to 20 nodes. The variation along the path will be automatically graphed. Graph of von Mises Stresses Along a Path for Load Case 2 In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-25 . to use contour plots on undeformed shape for this purpose. Figure 5-19. The generated plot is shown below. choose: Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Path Graph (LSECPLOT) Pick/Input Node > 409 Pick/Input Node > 429 Pick/Input Node > 429 ✍ Nodes to determine the path for the LSECPLOT command are picked from their undeformed locations on the screen. We will graph the stress variation along the path defined by the nodes shown below. therefore. It is suggested.

Postprocessing may proceed as explained for load cases 1 and 2. A von Mises stress plot for load case 51 is shown below.5 and the results of load case 2 multiplied by 3.Chapter 5 Examples The results for load case 51 will be calculated by adding the corresponding results of load case 1 multiplied by 1. Figure 5-21. von Mises Stress Plot for Load Case 51 In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-27 .

) command to construct the database.430 5. you may continue with running the analysis and postprocessing as explained earlier.. Model Information Element Type: Element Order: Number of Elements: Number of Corner Nodes: Number of Degrees of Freedom: Tetrahedral Second 21.175 See Page 5-2 Some results of the analysis are shown below. Figure 5-22. Create a new GEOSTAR problem and use the FILE (File > Load.Chapter 5 Examples Example 3 – A Model of a Fan The file for this model is called FFESX3.GEO and may be retrieved from the PROBS subdirectory in COSMOSM directory as explained earlier.103 104. The following information describes the size of the model. Meshed Fan Model In de x 5-28 COSMOSFFE Static .. Once the model has been generated.

Chapter 5 Examples Figure 5-23. Displacement Contour Plot Figure 5-24. von Mises Stress Contour Plot In de x COSMOSFFE Static 5-29 .

In de x 5-30 COSMOSFFE Static .

.) command to reconstruct the database and run the problem The table below lists the verification problems in this chapter. The input files for theses verification problems are available in the “. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-1 .\Vprobs\FFE” subdirectory in your COSMOSM directory.. To run a verification problem. The problems are carefully selected to check the numerical answers versus theoretical results.. To extract the input files for the verification problems. it is suggested to create a new working directory and then copy the desired input file to that directory. create a new GEOSTAR database and use the FILE (File > Load.6 Verification Problems Introduction This chapter includes a set of verification problems that check various elements and features of the FFE Static module..

) Torsion of a Square Box Beam (See page 6-17.Chapter 6 Verification Problems Table 6-1. List of Verification Problems Problem FFES1 FFES2A FFES2B FFES3 FFES4 FFES5 FFES6A FFES6B FFES7 FFES8 Element PLANE2D SHELL3 SHELL3 PLANE2D PLANE2D SHELL3 SOLID SOLID SOLID PLANE2D Order First First First Second Title Long Thick-Walled Cylinder (See page 6-4.) Second Hollow Thick-Walled Cylinder Subj to Temp & Pressure (See page 6-14.) First Tip Displacements of a Circular Beam (See page 6-9.) Simply Supported Rectangular Plate (See page 6-6.) FFES15C TRIANG FFES15D TETRA10 FFES15E FFES15F SOLID SOLID Second Deflection of a Curved Beam (See page 6-23.) First First Second Cylindrical Shell Roof (See page 6-15.) Second Bending of a Solid Beam (See page 6-10.) Second Deflection of a Curved Beam (See page 6-23.) Second Deflection of a Curved Beam (See page 6-23.) Second Deflection of a Curved Beam (See page 6-23.) Second Bending of a Solid Beam (See page 6-10.) Second Rectangular Plate Under Triangular Thermal Loading (See page 6-13.) First First Reactions and Deflections of a Cantilever Beam (See page 6-22.) Second Deflection of a Cantilever Beam (See page 6-8.) FFES9 PLANE2D FFES10 FFES11 FFES12 FFES13 FFES14 FFES15A FFES15B SHELL4 SHELL4 SOLID PLANE2D SHELL4 PLANE2D PLANE2D Second Rotating Solid Disk (See page 6-21.) Simply Supported Rectangular Plate (See page 6-6.) Spherical Cap Under Uniform Pressure (Solid) (See page 6-19.) Thermal Stress Analysis of a 2D Structure (See page 6-7.) In de x 6-2 COSMOSFFE Static .) First Deflection of a Curved Beam (See page 6-23.) Second Thermal Stress Analysis of a 3D Structure (See page 6-12.) Deflection of a Curved Beam (See page 6-23.

) Thermal Stress Analysis of a Truss Structure (See page 6-27.) Thermal Stress Analysis of a Frame (See page 6-36.) FFES17 FFES18 FFES19 FFES20 FFES21A PLANE2D TRUSS3D TRUSS2D BEAM3D BEAM3D FFES21B FFES22 FFES23 FFES24A FFES24B FFES25 FFES26 BEAM3D TRUSS3D TRUSS3D TRUSS3D TRUSS3D BEAM3D BEAM3D FFES27 BEAM3D FFES28 TRUSS2D In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-3 .) Pin Jointed Truss (See page 6-26.) Frame Analysis with Combined Loads (See page 6-39.) Clamped Beam Subject to Imposed Displacement (See page 6-30.) Beam Stresses and Deflections (See page 6-29.) Truss Structure Subject to a Concentrated Load (See page 6-41. List of Verification Problems (Concluded) Problem FFES16 Element TRIANG Order First Second -------------- Title Analysis of an Elliptic Membrane Under Pressure (See page 6-24.) Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis (See page 6-34.) Clamped Beam Subject to Imposed Rotation (See page 6-30.Chapter 6 Verification Problems Table 6-1.) Deflection of a Hinged Support (See page 6-33.) Thermal Stress Analysis of a Flat Plate (See page 6-25.) Thermal Stress Analysis of a Simple Frame (See page 6-38.) Space Truss with Vertical Load (See page 6-35.) Space Truss with Vertical Load (See page 6-35.

thick walled cylinder subjected to an internal pressure p.40 In de x 6-4 COSMOSFFE Static .50 .5 (Element 1) 107. 1951.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES1: Long Thick-Walled Cylinder TYPE: Static analysis.3 (See page 62.5 (Element 2) 112.802.34 COSMOSM .75 . 2-D axisymmetric elements (PLANE2D).80 .” McGraw-Hill. New York.40 . and Goodier.) MODELING HINTS: The model is composed of three elements through the thickness and three along the length. REFERENCE: Timoshenko. S. 58-60. PROBLEM: Calculate the radial stresses for an infinitely long. pp. P. COMPARISON OF RESULTS: r (Radial Distance) (in) 102. J.139.5 (Element 3) Radial Stress σr (psi) Theory .139.447. “Theory of Elasticity.802.. GIVEN: a b p E ν = 100 in = 115 in = 1000 psi = 30 x 106 psi = 0.447.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFES1-1 σ r p x y 13 7 14 8 10 4 5 6 1 2 2 3 7 3 4 11 15 9 16 z y 1 rad p 9 12 6 8 5 1 x a b Finite Element Model a b Problem Sketch In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-5 .

“Theory of Plates and Shells. pp. COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Case A B X (in) 20 20 Y (in) 20 20 Wmax at Node 25 (in) Theory 0.3 h = 1 in a = b = 40 in F = 400 lb p = 1 psi MODELING HINTS: Due to double symmetry in geometry and loads.027123 3. P. 1962. a quarter of the plate is taken for modeling.78327 x 10 -3 (See page 6-2. S. GIVEN: E = 30. PROBLEM: Calculate the deflection and stresses at the center of a simply supported isotropic plate subjected to (A) concentrated load F.) Figure FFES2-1 Y Z F 21 25 b 1 a 5 X h Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model COSMOSM 0. REFERENCE: Timoshenko. (B) uniform pressure (P).. 143-120.7915 x 10-3 In de x 6-6 COSMOSFFE Static . and Woinowsky-Krieger. 3-node thin plate element (SHELL3).000.” McGraw-Hill Book Co.0270230 3. 2nd edition.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES2A.000 psi ν = 0. FFES2B: Simply Supported Rectangular Plate TYPE: Static analysis.

26000.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Displacements at Nodes (2.1 2 4 6 L 1 2 1 3 5 x L L Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-7 .65 x 10-5/°F = 0. and 6) YDisplacement (in) Theory COSMOSM 0.001083 0.26000. 4.001083 XXStress (psi) .25 = 100° F = 1 in Figure FFES3-1 y (See page 62. GIVEN: E α ν T L = 30 x 106 psi = 0.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES3: Thermal Stress Analysis of a 2-D Structure TYPE: Linear thermal stress analysis. PROBLEM: Determine the displacements and stresses of the plane strain problem indicated in figure below due to a uniform temperature rise. 2-D elements (plane strain.0 . PLANE2D).

GIVEN: E L h A ν P = 30 x 106 psi = 10 in = 1 in = 0.0 .0. Determine the deflections at the free end and the uniform shear stress.10.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES4: Deflection of a Cantilever Beam TYPE: Static analysis.001341 SHELL6 .) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Max.0.0.001333 Shear Stress (psi) .00139 t P L y h Problem Sketch P 2 4 6 10 22 h x 21 1 2 l 3 5 Finite Element Model In de x 6-8 COSMOSFFE Static . Deflection (inch) Theory COSMOSM .0 . PROBLEM: A cantilever beam is subjected to a concentrated load at the free end.0 PLANE2D .10. plane stress element PLANE2D and SHELL6.10.1 in2 =0 = 1 lb Figure FFES4-1 (See page 62.

GIVEN: E ν b h R F = 30E6 psi =0 = 4 in = 1 in = 10 in = 200 lb Figure FFES5-1 (See page 62. thin or thick shell element (SHELL3). McGraw Hill Book Company.718E-2 Y 0.99E-2 0. Y direction of a circular beam fixed at one end and free at the other end. REFERENCE Warren C. Young. Displacement (inch) X Theory COSMOSM 0.712E-2 0. “Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain. 1989.99E-2 F/2 F/2 y R b x z h Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-9 .) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: The loaded end.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES5: Tip Displacements of a Circular Beam TYPE: Static analysis.” Sixth Edition. when subjected to a force along X direction at force end. New York. PROBLEM: Determine the deflections in X.

New York. pp. McGraw-Hill Book Co.” 4th Edition. FFES6B). and 24 in xz direction (FFES6A). 1. REFERENCE: Roark. Four forces equal to F/4 have been applied at nodes 6. and. “Formulas for Stress and Strain. Two couples equal M/2 have been applied at nodes 6. GIVEN: L h E ν F = 10 in = 2 in = 30 x 106 psi =0 = 300 lb (See page 63. R. 12. 12. 18.00500 – 0. 1965. and (B) a moment M. J.. PROBLEM: A beam of length L and height h is built-in at one end and loaded at free end: (A) with a shear force F. SOLID element.00500 0.00495 In de x 6-10 COSMOSFFE Static . 2. FFES6B: Bending of a Solid Beam TYPE: Static analysis.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES6A.. 18 and 24 (FFES6B).00507 FFES16B – 0. Determine the deflection at the free end. 104-106.) M = 2000 in-lb MODELING HINTS: Two load cases have been used (FFES6A. COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Displacement in Z-direction (in) (node 21-24): FFES6A Theory COSMOSM 0.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFE6-1 F h M L L Case 1 Case 2 Problem Sketch Finite Element Model In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-11 .

000650 9. 8 Theory COSMOSM 0.s 11 7 12 L 3 8 4 5 1 6 1 2 L L L 2 10 9 (See page 63. 6.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: X-Displacement (Nodes) 5.000650 0.25 = 100° F = 1 in Figure FFES7-1 y. 7.r z. PROBLEM: Determine the displacements of the three-dimensional structure shown below due to a uniform temperature rise. 3-D SOLID element.001300 0. 11.65 x 10-5/°F = 0. 12 0.001300 x. GIVEN: E α ν T L = 3 x 107 psi = 0.t Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x 6-12 COSMOSFFE Static . 10.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES7: Thermal Stress Analysis of a 3-D Structure TYPE: Linear thermal stress analysis.

J. Inc.40 0.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES8: Rectangular Plate Under Triangular Thermal Loading TYPE: Linear thermal stress analysis..43 x Same Boundary Condition COSMOSM In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-13 . 1965. COMPARISON OF RESULTS: σxx / (E α To) (Node 45) Reference Method 1 Method 2 0. pp.42 0. D. 2-D elements (plane stress analysis. GIVEN: a b t E = 15 in = 10 in = 1 in = 30 x 106 psi y A Same Boundary Condition (See page 63. 40-47. only one quarter of the plate was analyzed.) Figure FES8-1 To = -100 °F αc = 0.65 x 10-5 in/in/°F MODELING HINTS: Due to the double symmetry in geometry and loading. Determine the normal stress at point A. “Thermal Stress Analysis. PROBLEM: A finite rectangular plate is subjected to a temperature distribution in only one direction as shown in figure. REFERENCE: Johns. PLANE2D)..” Pergamon Press.

15) σr. 1.398.1 x b b Problem Sketch In de x Finite Element Model 6-14 COSMOSFFE Static . “Theory of Elasticity. pp.50 Figure FFES9-1 Ta T(r) y a Pa a 0.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES9: Hollow Thick-Walled Cylinder Subject to Temperature and Pressure TYPE: Static analysis. A steady state axisymmetric temperature distribution given by the equation: T(r) = (Ta/ln(b/a)) · ln(b/r) where Ta is the temperature of the inner surface and T(r) is the temperature at any radius. psi Theory) COSMOSM .” McGraw-Hill Book Co.. PROBLEM: The hollow cylinder in plane strain is subjected to two independent load conditions. (See page 63. 1961.2875 in (elements 13.) An internal pressure.3 = 1 x 10-6 1/deg = 100 psi = 100 leg COMPARISON OF RESULTS: At r = 1. psi . New York.47 .398. 2-D axisymmetric element (PLANE2D).34 .592. 2.596. P.20 σθ. REFERENCE: Timoshenko. S. 448-449. and Goodier. GIVEN: E a b ν α Pa Ta = 30 x 106 psi = 1 in = 2 in = 0.

3024 0. “The Analysis of Moderately Thick to Thin Shells by the Finite Element Method. F. Dimensions and boundary conditions are shown in the figure below. a quarter of the shell is considered for modeling. The distributed force (self weight) is lumped at the nodes. l970. SHELL6).Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES10: Cylindrical Shell Roof TYPE: Static analysis.” Report No.) MODELING HINTS: Due to symmetry. USCEM 70-l2.3036 In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-15 . of Civil Engineering. PROBLEM: Determine the vertical deflections across the midspan of a shell roof under its own weight. GIVEN: r E ν Shell Weight = 25 ft = 3 x 106 psi =0 = 90 lbs/sq ft (See page 63. COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Vertical Deflection at Midspan of free edge (Node 25): δx. REFERENCE: Pawsley. Dept. University of California. (inch) Theory COSMOSM SHELL4 0.. shell element (SHELL4. S.

30365 -.3 EXACT -.1 0.1 5 0.Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFES10-1 Free Edge W v=w=0 t = 0.25 ft X 5 U V 1 25 25 ft Free Edge v= w=0 40° 40° r 21 Z 25 ft Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model Y Figure FFES10-2 .004676 W 0 -.1 θ 0.18961 -.07423 -.2 0.01335 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 .3 In de x 6-16 COSMOSFFE Static .1 0.2 COSMOS/M -.

and Goodier. 1951. PROBLEM: Find the shear stress and the angle of twist for the square box beam subjected to a torsional moment T. rad 0. shell elements (SHELL4). S.” McGraw-Hill..Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES11: Torsion of a Square Box Beam TYPE: Static analysis. N.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: : Shear Stress Theory COSMOSM τ.. GIVEN: E ν t a L T = 7. 299.5 psi = 0. lb/in Rotation θ. J. New York. REFERENCE: Timoshenko.3 = 3 in = 150 in = 1500 in = 300 lb in (See page 63. p. P.00222 0.00222 (avg) In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-17 . “Theory of Elasticity.0154074 0.01503 0.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFES11-1 Z I T X Z Y t L a I Problem Sketch Section I-I 150 z y x 150 .25 .25 1500 .5 Finite Element Model In de x 6-18 COSMOSFFE Static .

Ux = 0 Simply supported: 1. Eng. solid and composite solid elements (SOLID). Vol. To impose simplysupported boundary conditions by solid elements. All nodes on plane A. J. on plane D = 0 In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-19 . Mech. radial displacement = 0. on plane C = 0 2. at least 8 elements per side have to be used. 2 layers of elements through the thickness are required. “Exact Solutions of Moderately Thick Laminated Shells. Disp. PROBLEM: Calculate the center deflection of a simply supported spherical cap under uniform pressure (q = 1) in the direction normal to the cap surface. All nodes on side c. Uy = 0 2. 794-809. GIVEN: Geometry: R h = 96 = 0. pp. N. (1984). radial displacement = 0.3 (See page 63.32 in Material Properties: E = 1E7 psi ν = 0. The model used below is an 8x8x2 mesh.) Length of side a = b = c = d = 32 in MODELING HINTS: Boundary Conditions Due to symmetry: 1. Div. All nodes on plane B. Disp.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES12: Spherical Cap Under Uniform Pressure (Solid) TYPE: Static analysis. 110. All nodes on side d. ASCE. REFERENCE: Reddy. To capture the geometry of a curved surface by a bi-linear shape function accurately.” J.

a 235 154 d 73 ED AN PL h sy m.3232E-2 Z 163 sym.3139E-2 0.Chapter 6 Verification Problems COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Wmax (inch) Theory COSMOSM Figure FFES12-1 0. 82 1 b 171 90 PL AN E C c 243 162 81 9 R EA AN PL PL AN ED PLA NE B EC AN PL X Y Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x 6-20 COSMOSFFE Static .

5 inch) Stress Theory COSMOSM Figure FFES13-1 Y Y Location Element 9 (r = 8.91 416. “Theory of Elasticity. p.18 σθ psi 203. N.02 lb sec2/in4 (See page 63. l970. P.12 46.37 416. GIVEN: E ν = 30 x l06 psi = 0.82 σθ psi 416. PROBLEM: A solid disk rotates about center 0 with angular velocity ω. 80. Determine the stress distribution in the disk.. axisymmetric (PLANE2D) elements. Goodier. REFERENCE: S.16 202.” McGraw-Hill.3 h ω R = l in = 25 rad/sec = 9 in DENS = 0.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES13: Rotating Solid Disk TYPE: Static analysis. Timoshenko and J.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Location Element 1 (r = 0. New York.82 σr psi 45.03 ω h 1 2 20 1 9 19 R X 2R Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-21 . centrifugal loading.5 inch) σr psi 416.

667 x 10-4 8 lb 80 lb-in h L Problem Sketch Y 45 31 W 1 1 10 40 55 33 11 X Finite Element Model In de x 6-22 COSMOSFFE Static .Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES14: Reactions and Deflections of a Cantilever Beam TYPE: Static analysis.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Theory Tip Deflection (Node 33) Total Force Reaction Total Moment Reaction 2. shell elements (SHELL4). PROBLEM: Calculate reactions and deflections of a cantilever beam subject to a concentrated load at tip.667 x 10 8 lb 80 lb-in -4 COSMOSM SHELL4 2. GIVEN: E h L W P = 30E6 psi = 1 in = 10 in = 4 in = 8 lb Figure FFES14-1 P (See page 63.

15C. 15F: Deflection of a Curved Beam TYPE: Static analysis. J. l965. 15D. REFERENCE: Roark.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES15A.08 PLANE2D (4-Node) (15A) First PLANE2D (8-Node) (15B) Second TRIANG (6-Node) (15C) TETRA10 (15D) SOLID (8-Node) (15E) SOLID (20-Node) (15F) Second Second First Second In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-23 .08843 0. 15E.56 0. New York.08839 0. 8-node SOLID. “Formulas for Stress and Strain.08842 0. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 15B. 6-node TRIANG. 166. 10-node TETRA4R10 and 20-node SOLID).07852 0.12 0. pp.08854 in Element Order COSMOSM δy in2 0. GIVEN: E ν = 10E6 psi = 0.17 11.14 0. SHELL4T.. multi-field elements (4-node PLANE2D.) Figure FFES15-1 P R 2 R 1 t Rl = 4.08847 Error (%) 10.25 R2 = 4.32 in t p = 0. Determine the deflection at the free end.” 4th Edition. R.. 8-node PLANE2D.07919 0.1 in = 50 lb/in2 (total force is 1 lb) Problem Sketch (See page 63. PROBLEM: A curved beam is clamped at one end and subjected to a shear pressure P at the other end.12 in COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Deflections at free end by theoretical solution is equal to 0.32 0.

October.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES16: P-Method Analysis of an Elliptic Membrane Under Pressure TYPE: Static analysis. G. Test No.0 1. PROBLEM: Calculate the stresses at point D of an elliptic membrane under a uniform outward pressure.25 2 2 Y = 1 2. A. 1.7 92.” NAFEMS Rept. LG1. REFERENCE: Barlow..1 p = 10 MPa Figure FFES16-1 y (See page 63.0 D C x 2. FEBSTA.3 t = 0. O. 1986.1 1. “Selected FE Benchmarks in Structural and Thermal Analysis.75 A x 3. J. Rev.. plane stress triangular p-element (6-node TRIANG). GIVEN: E = 210 x 103 MPa ν = 0.25 In de x 6-24 COSMOSFFE Static .) COMPARISON OF RESULTS σy.75 () x 2 2 + y2 = 1 All dimensions in meters Thickness = 0. at Point D Theory COSMOSM 92.6 ( )+ ( ) B 1. and Davis.

You need to delete the applied temperature using the NTNDEL command and apply tempera-ture of 100° F using the NTND command.1 in = 0.1 in = 0.30 ksi T = 200° F .00001 in/in/°F =0 = 30. In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-25 .00001 in/in/°F =0 = 30.30 ksi .60 ksi * The temperature in the input file corresponds to T = 200° F. plane continuum element (PLANE2D). GIVEN: t x ν E = 0.000 ksi A Same Boundary Condition (See page 63. PROBLEM: Determine the deflections and thermal stresses in the plate due to uniform changes of temperature equal to 100° F and 200° F.000 ksi Same Boundary Condition x COMPARISON OF RESULTS: σx for all elements T = 100° F * Theory COSMOSM .60 ksi .Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES17: Thermal Stress Analysis of a Flat Plate TYPE: Linear thermal stress analysis.) Figure FFES17-1 y GIVEN: t x ν E = 0.

R. P.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES18: Pin Jointed Truss TYPE: Static analysis. Inc. E.18 σ3-4.20 31.39 σ2-4. PROBLEM: A 50 lb load is supported by three bars which are attached to a ceiling as shown.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS σ1-4.. p.40 10.. REFERENCE: Beer.. 47. psi 31. psi 10. truss element (TRUSS3D).. F. 1962.” McGraw-Hill Book Co. Jr.91 x 6 ft 2 2 ft 1 4 ft 3 2 8 ft y 6 ft 1 3 4 In de x 6-26 COSMOSFFE Static . Determine the stress in each bar. psi 22. and Johnston. “Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics.90 22. GIVEN: Area of each bar = 1 in2 E = 30 x 106 psi Theory COSMOSM Figure FFES18-1 (See page 63. New York.

1 COSMOSM 0 0 0 .1 0 0 .Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES19: Thermal Stress Analysis of a Truss Structure TYPE: Linear thermal stress analysis. “Elementary Theory of Structures.21. Y.1 35.1 (See page 63.1 0 0 . REFERENCE: Hsieh.1 Members 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Theory 35.28. pp.1 0 0 . Y.21. truss elements (TRUSS2D).. PROBLEM: Determine the member forces of truss shown below subject to the rise of 50° F at the top chords.28.1 0 0 .21. GIVEN: E = 30 x 106 psi Expansion coefficient = α = 0.28.65 x 10-5/°F L(ft) / A(in2) = 1 (for all members) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Member Forces (kips) Members 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Theory 0 0 0 .1 35. 200202. elements 13 and 14. 1970.1 COSMOSM 35.” Prentice-Hall. Inc.28.1 .1 0 0 + 35.) In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-27 .1 .1 0 0 + 35.21.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFES19-1 50° F Y 13 14 2 4 6 9 32 ft 5 2 3 10 6 8 11 7 3 12 1 1 4 8 x 5 7 4 x @ 24 ft = 96 ft Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x 6-28 COSMOSFFE Static .

182 MODELING HINTS: Use consistent length units..0 0. P. A half-model has been used because of symmetry.000 lb/ft COMPARISON OF RESULTS: At the middle of the span (node 3): σmax. S.65 in2 E p = 30 x 106 psi = 10. Part 1. D.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES20: Beam Stresses and Deflections TYPE: Static analysis. Determine the maximum stress in the middle portion of the beam and the deflection at the center of the beam. beam elements (BEAM3D). PROBLEM: A standard 30" Wide Flange beam is supported as shown below and loaded on the overhangs by a uniformly distributed load of 10.000 lb per ft. Resultant force and moment have been applied at node 2 instead of distributed load.0 11400. Van Nostrand Co. Inc. Figure FFES20-1 C L P a P 15" z 4 2 1 y C L Section a-a 10' 20' a 10' 1 3 x 2 Finite Element Model Problem Sketch In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-29 . GIVEN: Area = 50. psi δ.) Timoshenko. inch Theory COSMOSM 11400.” 3rd Ed. REFERENCE: (See page 63. “Strength of Materials. p. Elementary Theory and Problems.. 98...182 0. New York. 1965.

937. PROBLEM: Determine the end forces of a clamped beam due to a 1 inch settlement at the right end. Van Nostrand Co. beam elements (BEAM3D).5 37...500.500. J.0 .1. 1965.1.0 In de x 6-30 COSMOSFFE Static . REFERENCE Gere. Jr.” D.0 . “Analysis of Framed Structures.) ANALYTICAL SOLUTION: Reaction: R = -12EI / L3 Moment: M = 6EI / L2 COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Theory Imposed Displacement (in) End Shear (lb) End Moment (lb-in) . GIVEN: E l A I h = 30 x 106 psi = 80 in = 4 in2 = 1.33 in4 = 2 in (See page 63. W.0 COSMOSM .Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES21A: Clamped Beam Subject to Imposed Displacement TYPE: Static analysis.5 37. M. and Weaver.937.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFES21A-1 h 1.0 in L Problem Sketch y 6 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 x 5 Finite Element Model In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-31 .

Van Nostrand Co. PROBLEM: Determine the end forces of a clamped-clamped beam due to a 1 radian imposed rotation at the right end. “Analysis of Framed Structures.500 .) ANALYTICAL SOLUTION: Reaction: R = -6EI / L2 Moment: M = 4EI / L COSMOSM 1 .500 . beam elements (BEAM3D).37. 1965. J. and Weaver.2.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES21B: Clamped Beam Subject to Imposed Rotation TYPE: Static analysis.000.000 h L Problem Sketch In de x 6-32 COSMOSFFE Static . Jr. W.3333 in4 h = 2 in COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Theory Imposed Rotation (1 rad) End Shear End Moment Figure FFES21B-1 φ = 1 rad 2 (See page 63. M.37.. N..” D. REFERENCE: Gere.000.2.000 1 . GIVEN: E = 30 x 106 psi L = 80 in A = 4 in2 I = 1.

.. Glesson. REFERENCE: Timoshenko. P. S. GIVEN: P θ E = 5000 lbs = 30° = 30 x 106 psi Vertical Deflection at B in inches Forces in Members AB and BC in lbs (See page 63.” D.5 in2 Figure FFES22-1 A 1 θ 1 Z C θ 2 2 B 3 Y P Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-33 . Inc. truss element (TRUSS3D). PROBLEM: A structure consisting of two equal steel bars.12 5000 COSMOSM 0.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Theory 0. p. Van Nostrand Co.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES22: Deflection of a Hinged Support TYPE: Static analysis. June 1949. is submitted to the action of a vertical load P..12 5000 AB = BC = 15 ft Cross-sectional area = 0. and MacCullough. “Elements of Strength of Materials. 3rd edition. Determine the forces in the members AB and BC along with the vertical deflection at B. 13. H.. 15 feet long and with hinged ends.

D. Van Nostrand Co. p.3 L = 10 in = 2F2 = 1000 lb = 30 x 106 psi Figure FFES23-1 Y R1 4 3 (See page 63. “Strength of Materials. 1956. truss elements (TRUSS3D).” 3rd edition. 26..Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES23: Statically Indeterminate Reaction Force Analysis TYPE: Static analysis.. PROBLEM: A prismatic bar with built-in ends is loaded axially at two intermediate crosssections by forces F1 and F2. GIVEN: a L F1 E = b = 0. Elementary Theory and Problems. Determine the reaction forces R1 and R2. Part 1. Inc.. REFERENCE: Timoshenko.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: R1 lbs Theory COSMOSM 900 900 R2 lbs 600 600 a b F 1 3 L 2 2 F 2 1 1 X R2 Finite Element Model Problem Sketch In de x 6-34 COSMOSFFE Static . P. S.

D.” end Ed.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES24A.5 x 10-6/°F = 1in2 = 4 ft L D 4 3 2 C 3 1 7 2 L A 1 4 2. D. the panel ABCD being in a horizontal plane. S. attached to a vertical wall at points C. Calculate: 1. F.92 lb S14B -1259. A. Figure FFES24-1 (See page 63.) The axial force produced in the redundant bar AD by the vertical load P = 1 kip at joint A (FFES24A). E. The thermal force induced in the bar AD if there is a uniform rise in temperature of 50° F (FFES24B). truss elements (TRUSS3D). = 30 x 106 psi = 6. New York. pp. H. FFES24B: Space Truss with Vertical Load TYPE: Static analysis. P L z F 6 6 5 5 E GIVEN: E y x α A L Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model COMPARISON OF RESULTS: For Element 2: S14A Theory COSMOSM 56.4 lb In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-35 .0 lb 55. “Theory of Structures. PROBLEM: The simple space truss shown in the figure below consists of two panels ABCD and ABEF. E. and Young. and the same modulus of elasticity.0 lb -1292. 330-331. All bars have the same cross-sectional area. REFERENCE: Timoshenko. P.. McGraw-Hill. 1965.

PROBLEM: An irregular frame subjected to differential temperature.0 1.5 1.5 Ar-r (ft) 2.82.61 In de x 6-36 COSMOSFFE Static .61 . 292-294.25 1.41.17.57.96 .17.64 .5 1.25 2.73 .50 + 82. “Structural Analysis by Direct Moment Distribution.42. l968.8125 3.92 .Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFESS25: Thermal Stress Analysis of a Frame TYPE: Linear thermal stress analysis.0 (See page 63.0000l ft/ft °C Member Specifications Member 1 2 3 4 5 d (ft) 1.96 + 17.” Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.57. REFERENCE: Rygol.0 2.61 . 1 2 3 4 5 COSMOSM .628 1. beam elements (BEAM3D).87 + 38.5 2.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Moments (lb-in): Member No.96 + 17. J.25 1.96 + 84.61 Reference Solution . GIVEN: E α = 192.82.0 3.. Find member end moments. pp.41.42.187 1.79 .25 2.40 + 82.96 .857 tons/ft2 = 0.0 b (ft) 1.96 + 38.0 lt-t (ft) 0.5 2.125 3. New York.422 1.92 + 84.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFES25-1 Y 2 o 10 C 2 1 4 o 10 C 4 B B o 80 C 6 12' o 40 C X 3' 1 3' A 3 18' A 3 5 5 27' Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model Figure FFES25-2 s d s b d t t Section A-A b Section B-B In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-37 .

65 x l0 in/in/°F Element No.) α COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Displacements at node 2 (in): δx Theory COSMOSM Figure FFES26-2 y 100° F 2 1 B A width = 5" t (z) x s (y) t (z) depth = 6" B 2 3 depth 50° F width = 3" δy 0.0.0583 . 1 2 Difference in Temperature S-dir 72° F 0 T-dir 0 13.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES26: Thermal Stress Analysis of a Simple Frame TYPE: Linear thermal stress analysis.1157 + 0.5° F (See page 63.000 kips/in2 = 0.0583 A 240" 1 50° F 120" s (y) Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x 6-38 COSMOSFFE Static .1168 . GIVEN: E = 30. PROBLEM: Determine displacements and end forces of the frame shown in the figure below due to temperature rise at the nodes and thermal gradients of members as specified below.0. beam elements (BEAM2D).

In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-39 .79 ft2 = 432 x 104 K/ft2 (See page 63.6430 ft4 = 3.Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES27: Frame Analysis with Combined Loads TYPE: Static analysis. COMPARISON OF RESULTS: The results are shown in the figure below with COSMOSM results shown in parentheses.40 ft3 = 2.. PROBLEM: Determine the forces in the beam members under the loads shown in the figure.) Areas of members were made to be larger than the actual area in order to neglect axial deformation.” McGraw-Hill Book Co.3 A4 E = Izz = 0. 1969. “Structural Analysis. GIVEN: Iyy I A1 A2. 310-312. Inc. Set up the input to solve each one individually and then combine them together to obtain the final result.. beam elements (BEAM3D). pp. New York. Harold I. Consider two separate load cases represented by the uniform pressure and the concentrated force.50 ft2 = 4..3215 ft4 = 0. REFERENCE: Laursen.

32) 1 5 10.Chapter 6 Verification Problems Figure FFES27-1 2k 15' 5' 2 4 Y 2 3 3 E.67) In de x 6-40 COSMOSFFE Static .547 K ft (10.5 K/ft 15' 1 1 X 4 5 Problem Sketch Finite Element Model Figure FFES27-2 2 2 6.682 K ft (10.51) 1 4 28.766K ft (6. I 0.76) 2 4 3 3 10.256K ft (28.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems FFES28: Truss Structure Subject to a Concentrated Load TYPE: Static analysis. Y. l62l63. truss elements (TRUSS2D).006733 in 48 K 16 K COSMOSM 0. PROBLEM: Calculate the reactions and the vertical deflection of joint 2 of the loaded truss shown below subject to a concentrated load.) COMPARISON OF RESULTS: Theory Deflection of Joint 2 0. l970..” Prentice-Hall Inc. Y.. REFERENCE: Hsieh. “Elementary Theory of Structures. GIVEN: E P = 30. pp.006733 in 48 K 16 K L (ft)/A(in) = 1 for all members 6 5 7 6 8 10 7 1 2 2 11 8 12 3 3 4 9 4 13 32 ft 5 1 P 4 at 24 ft = 96 ft Problem Sketch and Finite Element Model In de x COSMOSFFE Static 6-41 .000 kips/in2 = 64 kips Reaction at Node 1 Reaction at Node 5 Figure FFES28-1 (See page 63.

Chapter 6 Verification Problems In de x 6-42 COSMOSFFE Static .

Explanation of the diagnostics and the needed corrective measures are provided. CPCNS. or CPEQN commands.A Troubleshooting Introduction This appendix lists the error messages produced by the COSMOSFFE Static in alphabetic order. PROBLEM: Coordinate system <number> is referenced but not defined Define the missing coordinate system and try again or modify your input such that the named coordinate system is not referred to. Use the conventional solver STAR or remesh your model so that the mesh is compatible between the parts to be bonded. PROBLEM: Coupling is not supported You have defined coupling using the CPDOF. Use the conventional solver STAR or delete the defined coupling. PROBLEM: Bonding is not supported You have defined bonding of two or more bodies in your model. In de x COSMOSFFE Static A-1 . Coupling is not supported in this release by FFE Static. Bonding is not supported in this release by FFE Static.

This type of collapsed element is not currently supported by FFE Static. area elements whose area is less than PTTOL square. or TETRA10 element group. PROBLEM: Degenerate element <number> Degenerate elements were detected in your model. or solid elements with 0volume. and use automatic meshing instead of parametric meshing. Use the conventional solver. Delete the mesh. PROBLEM: Element <number> has unsupported type The given element is associated with an element group that is not supported in this release of FFE Static. Prism-shaped elements are automatically supported by FFE Static. which is not supported The named element belongs to a SOLID element group. This element may have been defined manually or resulted from the parametric meshing of a volume with a collapsed face.Appendix A Troubleshooting PROBLEM: Crack elements are not supported You have defined CRACK elements in your model. Use the conventional solver STAR or delete the defined CRACK elements. Degenerate elements are bar elements with 0-length. CRACK elements are not supported in this release of FFE Static. Use the ECHECK (Meshing > ELEMENTS > Check Element) command to correct the problem and automatically delete bar elements whose length is less than PTTOL. PROBLEM: Error while closing a temporary file An I/O error occurred while closing a temporary file PROBLEM: Error while positioning a temporary file An I/O error has occurred while reading information from a temporary working file. The point tolerance is defined by the PTTOL (Geometry > POINTS > Merge Tolerance) command. and solid elements whose volume is less than PTTOL cubed. define a TETRA4. area elements with 0-area. or redefine the element group if possible. PROBLEM: Element <number> is pyramid shaped. The nodes defining a face of the solid have collapsed to a single location. In de x A-2 COSMOSFFE Static .

Axisymmetric elements must be defined in the global X-Y plane with the Y-axis as the axis of symmetry. Try to use other alternatives such that connected elements have compatible degrees of freedom. PROBLEM: Internal error # <number> An internal error has occurred. Use the R_CHECK (Analysis > Run Check) command to check the elements. An example is connecting TETRA4 elements to TETRA10 elements. or boundary conditions of the model have been improperly defined. PROBLEM: Incompatible element groups The generated mesh connects elements with incompatible element groups to each other. Record the error number and report to S.C. and use the ELIST (Edit > LIST > Elements) command to examine the order. or boundary conditions Either the mesh. invalid parametric tetrahedral mesh.R. material properties. though not necessary to change the element group(s). This can be the result of improper node merging. Use the ECHANGE (Meshing > Element Order) command to fix the problem by raising the order of first order elements or lowering the order of second order elements. Plot the element with active node numbering. PROBLEM: Invalid order of nodes for element <number>. try ECHECK command to fix The order in which the nodes of the specified element are defined is invalid.A. PROBLEM: Improper mesh. This error may only occur if the element is manually defined through the (Meshing > ELEMENTS > Define In de x A-4 COSMOSFFE Static . Also list and examine the material properties and boundary conditions. PROBLEM: Improper mesh near element <number> The mesh elements are not compatible in the neighborhood of the named element.Appendix A Troubleshooting PROBLEM: Improper axisymmetric model The defined axisymmetric model is improper. It is recommended. PROBLEM: Invalid combination of first and second order elements First order (linear) and second order (parabolic) elements are connected to each other resulting in incompatible common edges. or invalid manually created elements. properties.

Appendix A Troubleshooting

Element) command. Use the ECHECK (Meshing > ELEMENTS > Check Element) command if the element is degenerate. PROBLEM:

Invalid Poisson's ratio (<wrong_value>) in material set <number>

The value given to the Poisson's ratio for the specified element group is wrong. Redefine Poisson's ratio such that its value is greater than zero, and less than 0.5. If you have a hyper-elastic material, you may need to use the nonlinear structural module NSTAR where such material modules are supported.
PROBLEM:

No temperature data found for the time step number <number>

Thermal loading has been activated for FFE Static with temperatures to be read from previous steady-state or transient thermal analysis. The TEMPREAD (LoadsBC > LOAD OPTIONS > Read Temp as Load) command must have been used to specify the time step in the case of transient thermal analysis. Verify your input and if needed rerun the thermal analysis.
PROBLEM:

Not enough boundary conditions

The boundary conditions defined are not adequate to support the model which results in infinite displacements or rotations in one or more directions. Add or modify the displacement boundary conditions to stabilize the model and rerun the analysis.
PROBLEM:

Orthotropic material properties are not supported

A material set has been defined to include orthotropic material. Only isotropic materials are supported in this release. Modify the properties and rerun, or use the conventional STAR module using the R_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis) command.
PROBLEM:

Out of memory or swap space

Available virtual memory is not sufficient to run this problem. On UNIX systems contact your system administrator to increase size of the swap space.
PROBLEM:

Pure membrane or shear panel analysis is not supported

A shell element group has been defined such that pure membrane or shear panel analysis specified. Only the default option of considering both membrane and
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A-5

Appendix A Troubleshooting

bending effects is supported. Redefine the shell element group and use the default analysis type option.
PROBLEM:

Second order shell elements are not supported

Second order shell elements like SHELL6 and SHELL9 are not supported. Use SHELL3 instead.
PROBLEM:

Stress output in the local coordinate systems is not supported

You have requested the calculation of stresses in a local coordinate system. This option is not currently supported. All stresses are calculated in the global Cartesian coordinate system. Stresses in other coordinate systems are however available in the postprocessing phase using the ACTSTR (Results > PLOT > Stress) command.
PROBLEM:

There is no active load case to solve

No load case is active for analysis. Either you do not have any forces defined, or you defined load cases but deactivate them using the LCSET (Analysis > STATIC > Activate Load Case) command. Define loads, or use the LCSET command to activate load cases for running analysis.
PROBLEM:

Thermal analysis results don't correspond to the current model

You have activated thermal loading such that temperatures will be read from a previous thermal analysis but FFE Static has determined that the temperature file does not correspond to the current model. This could happen if changes in the model (like adding or deleting elements) were made after running the thermal analysis, or the file problem-name.HTO was not generated by the correct COSMOSM thermal analysis version. Check the model and try running FFE Static again.
PROBLEM:

Unable to create a temporary file

FFE Static could not create a temporary file. Check the integrity of your system and verify that adequate disk space is available.
PROBLEM:

Unable to create file <filename>

FFE Static could not create the named file. Check the integrity of your system and verify that adequate disk space is available.
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A-6

COSMOSFFE Static

Appendix A Troubleshooting

PROBLEM:

Unable to open file <filename>

FFE Static could not open the named file which is part of the COSMOSM database. The file may have been deleted. Check the integrity of your hard disk, reconstruct the model by creating a new problem and using the FILE (File > Load...) command.
PROBLEM:

Unable to open problem database

FFE Static could not open the database for this problem. Verify that the database files for this problem exist in the proper path and directory specified and that the correct version is being used. Also check the integrity of your system and verify that adequate disk space is available.
PROBLEM:

Unexpected end of file while reading <filename>

An end-file mark was found before reading all needed data from the named file. Check related input, fix the problem if any, and try again. Regenerate the file if possible, check the integrity of your system and reconstruct the database through the FILE (File > Load...) command if the problem could not be fixed otherwise.
PROBLEM:

Unsupported element type

You have defined an element group that is not yet supported. Try to use an equivalent element group if possible, or use the conventional STAR module.
PROBLEM:

You are not authorized to use this type of analysis

You are not authorized to use this type of analysis. Use the PRODUCT_INFO (Control > MISCELLANEOUS > Product Info) command to get a list of the modules you are authorized to use. Contact S.R.A.C.
PROBLEM:

Zero or negative thickness for element <number>

The thickness of the specified the element is either negative or zero. Use the
ELIST (Edit > LIST > Elements) command to list the element group and real constant sets associated with this element and then use the RCONST (Propsets > Real Constant) command to define the thickness. PROBLEM:

Zero or negative Young modulus in material set <number>

The young's modulus in the specified material property set has been given a negative value or zero. Use the MPROP (Propsets > Material Property) command to define a new positive value for EX.
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COSMOSFFE Static

A-7

In de x A-8 COSMOSFFE Static .

5-3. 6-3. A-4. 4-7. 6-21 centrifugal loading 2-2. 5-8. A-3. 5-10 error messages 4-11. 6-2. A-5 D damping effects 1-2 database management 1-1 Define element 5-15. 6-9. 520 C Cartesian coordinate system 2-2. 4-10 coordinate system 2-2. 1-3. 5-5. 4-4. 5-20. 6-30. 2-3. 4-8. 6-15. 5-7. 4-2. 4-10. 4-6. 3-3. A-4. 6-36. 2-1. A-4 axisymmetric elements 2-1. 6-38. 526 disk space 1-1. 5-20. 4-4. 5-19. 2-3. 4-5 activate load case A-6 analysis options 2-3. 4-2. 5-10. 5-18. A-3. 6-39 BEAM2D 6-38 BEAM3D 2-1. A-6. 1-4. 5-20 Displacements 1-2. 4-4. 6-29. 6-30. 5-7. A-1 Extreme strain 4-10 Extreme stress 4-10 B beam 1-4. 57. 6-21. 3-1. 6-32. 6-38. 6-21 coefficient of thermal expansion 4-6 Commands for FFE Static Analysis 4-4. A-6 coupling A-1 CRACK elements A-2 Cylindrical coordinate system 23 deformed shape 4-5. 4-3. 6-23. 5-20 Edge pressure 2-2 Element group 3-1. 5-5.Index A Acceleration of gravity 2-2. 3-2. 3-1. 6-4. 6-32. A-6. 3-2. 629. 523. 4-8. 6-4. A-5 Dynamic loads 1-2 E Edge evaluation 5-6. 2-3. 5-5. 6-9. 6-29. 5-13. 3-1. 4-10. 4-7. 3-3. 4-4. 4-5 constraints 2-3. 4-3. 3-5. 6-38. 617. 5-17. A-1. 6-14. 5-20. 4-9. 6-19. 5-23. 6-2. A-2. 6-8. A-7 Displacement constraints 2-3 Displacement contours 5-7. 4-7. 4-5. 4-10. 5-18 Animate 5-6. 4-8. A-5. A-4 In de x COSMOSFFE Static I-1 . 6-3. 6-22. 5-13. 5-5. 3-3. 4-4. 2-3. 4-6. 4-8. 6-10. 4-5. 4-2. 3-3 element pressures 1-2 element strain contour 5-8 element strains 5-22 equivalent strain 5-9. 6-7. 3-2. 4-10. 6-12. 3-2. 6-36. 4-5. 6-36. A-7 Element Library 2-1. 6-39 beam elements 2-1. 5-15. 1-4. A-6 centrifugal 2-2. 4-9. 5-6. 6-39 bottom face 3-5 boundary conditions 1-1. 3-2. 3-2. 526 anisotropic 2-3 axisymmetric 2-1. 4-9. A-4 boundary edge evaluation 5-6. 44. 630. 5-22. 41. 6-32.