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1

Introduction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Design Optimization and Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Design Optimization Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 Sensitivity Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3 Features of the Design Optimization and Sensitivity Module (OPTSTAR) .1-4 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-8

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Elements of Optimization and Sensitivity

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Design Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1 Design Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2 Objective Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5 Behavior Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5 Sensitivity Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6 Sensitivity Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8

3

Procedures and Examples

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1 Overview of Process for Design Optimization and Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . .3-2 Overview of Commands for Design Optimization and Sensitivity . . . . . . . .3-3 Procedures for Performing Design Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-5 Procedures for Performing Sensitivity Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-12 Special Features for Optimization and Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14

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Contents

4

Numerical Aspects

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1 Basic Statements of Optimization Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2 Function Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2 Singular Value Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4 The Modified Feasible Direction Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4 Overall Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4 Search Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5 Convergence to the Optimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6 Satisfaction of Kuhn-Tucker Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-7 The Sequential Linear Programming Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9 Move Limits of Design Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10 Constraint Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-11 Convergence Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14

5

Additional Problems

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Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

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Introduction

**Design Optimization and Sensitivity
**

Before starting the topic of design optimization and sensitivity, it is important to distinguish between analysis and design. Analysis is the process of determining the response of a specified system to its environment. Design, on the other hand, is the actual process of defining the system. Analysis is therefore a subset of design. Engineering design in general, is an iterative process as shown in Figure 1-1. The design is continuously modified until it meets evaluation and acceptance criteria set by the engineer. Mathematical and empirical formulas aided by years of engineering judgment and experience have been useful in the traditional design processes to verify the adequacy of designs. However, a fully automated design optimization and sensitivity is used when engineers are trying to modify a design which level of complexity exceeds their ability to make appropriate changes. It is not surprising that even what might appear as extremely simple design task may easily be a real challenge to the designer during the decision-making process. The design optimization and sensitivity capability provides many design options. Whether you wish to design a simple truss or a complicated three dimensional solid model, COSMOSM or COSMOSFFE will modify both the size and geometrical shape in search for an improved design.

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Chapter 1 Introduction Figure 1-1. Iterative Process of Engineering Design

Initial Design

Requirements Satisfied ? Yes Any Room for Improvments ? No

No

Change Design

Yes

Final Design

The following sections provide more information on the design optimization and sensitivity module (OPTSTAR). They include brief explanations of terminology, the optimization process, and sensitivity studies. There is also a summary of the important features of the OPTSTAR module.

Terminology

The terminology frequently used in design optimization and sensitivity study are: design variables, objective function, behavior constraints, response quantities, feasible design, optimum design, and sensitivity type. Chapter 2, Elements of Design Optimization and Sensitivity, explains these terminology in more detail.

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In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 1-3 . AND ANALYSIS DEFINE OPTIMIZATION PARAMETERS GEOMETRY MESHING ANALYSIS APPROXIMATION AND OPTIMIZATION POSTPROCESSING Yes Is Convergence Achieved ? No O P TIMIZATIO N LO O P Refer to Chapter 3. Sensitivity Studies The process of sensitivity study is similar in principle to the design optimization process illustrated previously. The procedure is summarized in Figure 1-3. Procedures and Examples. Figure 1-2.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Design Optimization Process The process of design optimization can be pictorially represented as shown in the following figure. for general guidelines to performing design optimization. MESHING. Design Optimization Process GEOMETRY.

describes more details about performing sensitivity studies. evaluation of analysis results and design changes. Procedures and Examples. OPTSTAR performs two-dimensional and threedimensional sizing and shape optimization and sensitivity for structural and thermal applications. Sensitivity Process GEOMETRY. AND ANALYSIS DEFINE SENSITIVITY PARAMETERS GEOMETRY MESHING ANALYSIS POSTPROCESSING Yes Is Required Number of Runs Executed ? No S E NS ITIV ITY LO O P Chapter 3. and modifications for yet another solution phase are performed automatically in COSMOSM. element and material libraries In de x 1-4 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . The following are some of the module's capabilities: • Full interaction with GEOSTAR for model creation.Chapter 1 Introduction Figure 1-3. results manipulation and display (pre. Features of the Design Optimization and Sensitivity Module (OPTSTAR) The process of finite element analysis. MESHING.and postprocessing) • Access to COSMOSM and COSMOSFFE solvers.

Fatigue usage factors In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 1-5 .Dimensions and parameters used in building the model's geometry –Sizing Applications . predefined sizing options include: • • • • • Cross-sectional area of truss elements Thickness of 2D continuum elements Thickness of shell elements Width and height of beam elements with rectangular cross-sections Thickness and radius of pipe elements • Optimization behavior constraints: – Trimming control – Different sets (with lower and upper limits) of: .Relative displacements .Displacements .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization • Type of analyses: – Linear Static (including multiple load cases) – Linear Dynamic (natural frequencies and mode shapes) – Linearized Buckling – Heat Transfer – Nonlinear – Fatigue – Advanced Dynamic – Dynamic Stress • Design variables: – Side constraints (upper and lower limits of design variables) – Move limits control – Shape Applications .Reaction forces .For linear static analysis.Stresses .Strains .Parameters used to define the model other than the shape parameters .

Weight .Accelerations .Velocity .Strain .Temperatures .User-defined quantities • Optimization objective function: – Minimization and maximization of one type composed of different sets with user-specified weight factors.Stress .Temperature gradients .Temperature .Relative displacement .Chapter 1 Introduction .Heat Fluxes .Linearized buckling load factor .Heat flux .User-defined quantity In de x 1-6 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . .Volume .Reaction force .Volume .Velocities .Displacement .Fatigue usage factors .Natural frequencies .Natural frequency .Temperature gradient .Weight .Acceleration .Linearized buckling load factors .

Linearized buckling load factors .Fatigue usage factors . strain. in addition to optimization sensitivity results.Stresses .Accelerations . – Sensitivity response quantities include: . quadratic and cubic approximations – Restart and restore options • Results: – Output file – X-Y convergence and sensitivity plots – Color filled.Strains . temperature. local and offset pre-optimization sensitivity studies.Relative displacements . and heat flux for the current model.Natural frequencies .Volume .User-defined quantities • Numerical techniques: – Modified Feasible Directions – Singular Value Decomposition technique – Linear.Heat fluxes . and vector plots of displacement.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization • Sensitivity options: – Global. stress. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 1-7 .Displacements .Velocities .Reaction forces . colored line contour plots.Weight . temperature gradient.Temperatures .Temperature gradients .

000 and 64. –Tabular data reports Limits • • • • • • • • • • 25 design variables 60 constraint sets 100 objective function sets 60 sensitivity response quantities 75 design sets for optimization 20 increments for global sensitivity 20 sets for offset sensitivity 32.Chapter 1 Introduction – Animation and plots of deformed shapes for linear static analysis and mode shapes for frequency and buckling analyses.000 nodes and 64.000 elements on EWS (Unix workstations) In de x 1-8 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .000 nodes and elements on PCs 3000 nodes and 3000 elements for EXPLORER 64.

Figure 2-1. Minimum Weight Design of a Structure Remov able Material Neutral Axis Initia l D e sign t3 t1 d2 d1 t2 t4 In de x Fina l D e sign COSMOSM Advanced Modules 2-1 . Figure 2-1 shows minimum weight design of a structure.2 Elements of Optimization and Sensitivity Design Optimization Design optimization refers to the automated redesign process that attempts to minimize or maximize a specific quantity (objective function) subject to limits or constraints on the response by using a rational mathematical approach to yield improved designs.

Figure 2-2 shows a structure having four geometry dimensions defined as design variables. other optimal designs can exist. Lower and upper bounds are also referred to as side constraints. A Structure with Four Design Variables t1 t2 t4 t3 In de x 2-2 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . For example: 10 ≤ T1 ≤ 25 Lower Bound Upper Bound Figure 2-2. Upper and lower bounds are specified for each design variable. A feasible design may not be optimal. and behavior constraints. An optimum design is defined as a point in the design space for which the objective function is minimized or maximized and the design is feasible. If relative minima exist in the design space. Basic terminology in design optimization are: Design variables. They are explained in the following sections.Chapter 2 Elements of Optimization and Sensitivity A feasible design is a design that satisfies all of the constraints. objective function. Design Variables Design variables are the parameters (independent quantities) that users seek to find their values for an optimum design.

In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 2-3 .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Depending on design variables. SHELL4T. SHELL3. there are two types of optimization applications: sizing optimization and shape optimization. Initial and Final Geometry and Mesh for a Sizing Optimization Problem Initial Ge ome try and Me sh = Final Ge ome try and Me sh For linear static analysis. Table 2-1. predefined sizing options are summarized in Table 2-1. Figure 2-3. SHELL9 PIPE Design Variable Cross-Sectional Area Width. TRUSS3D BEAM2D. Height Thickness Thickness Thickness. PLANE2D SHELLAX. SHELL4. Radius Shape optimization refers to the class of problems where any change in design variables causes change in the problem's geometry or mesh as shown in Figure 2-4. SHELL3T. SHELL6. BEAM3D TRIANG. Predefined Sizing Options COSMOSM Element Type and Name Truss Beam (rectangular cross-sections) 2D Continuum Shell Pipe TRUSS2D. Sizing optimization refers to the class of problems where a change in design variables does not change the problem's geometry or mesh as shown in Figure 2-3.

Chapter 2 Elements of Optimization and Sensitivity Figure 2-4. Initial and Final Geometry for Sizing/Shape Optimization Problems Initial Geometry Initial Geometry Final Geometry Final Geometry Sizing Parameter: Thickness Sizing Parameter: Cross-Section Area Truss Elements Shell Elements or Continuum Elements In de x 2-4 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . there is a class of problems where both sizing and shape parameters are defined as design variables as shown in Figure 2-5. Initial and Final Geometry and Mesh for a Shape Optimization Problem Initial Geometry and Mesh Final Geometry Besides purely sizing optimization and shape optimization mentioned above. Figure 2-5.

and can reflect different weight (importance) factors for different portions of the model as shown in Figure 2-6. Displacement. Natural Frequency. The objective function must be a continuous function of the design variables. Velocity. A Structure Composed of Three Regions Rg 1 Rg 2 Rg 3 • User-Defined Functions. Linearized Buckling Load Factor. Acceleration. Strain. Other quantities are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Stress. The behavior constraints are typically response quantities that are functions of the design variables. Reaction Force. Temperature. and Figure 2-6. Heat Flux. The weight (or volume) of a structure is an example of the commonly used objective functions. Temperature Gradient. Von Mises stress is a typical example in structural problems: In de x von Mises stress ≤ allowed stress COSMOSM Advanced Modules 2-5 .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Objective Function Objective function is a single quantity that the optimizer seeks to minimize or maximize. The objective function can be composed of different sets of the same type. Fatigue Usage Factor. Behavior Constraints A behavior constraint is defined as an inequality that must be satisfied in order to have a feasible design.

Strain. Stress. Acceleration. Figure 2-7. For example: 0 ≤ von Mises stress ≤ allowed stress Sensitivity Study A sensitivity study is the procedure that determines the changes in a response quantity for a change in a design variable. In COSMOSM. Temperature. Displacement. users have to specify lower and upper limits for behavior constraints.Chapter 2 Elements of Optimization and Sensitivity Other quantities are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Volume. and User-Defined Functions. Velocity. Temperature Gradient. Multiple constraint sets of different types can also be specified. Fatigue Usage Factor. Natural Frequency. Weight. Heat Flux. In de x 2-6 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Figure 2-8 shows a sensitivity study of a control arm bracket and Figure 2-9 shows its result. Reaction Force. An Optimization Problem with Stress and Displacement Constraint Deflection Linearized Buckling Load Factor.

Sensitivity Study of a Control Arm Bracket in Frequency Analysis Figure 2-9. All the postprocessing quantities which are suitable for the objective function and behavior constraints are also suitable for the sensitivity response quantities. COSMOSM Advanced Modules 2-7 . t1 In de x Basic terminology in sensitivity study are: Design variables and response quantities. Response quantities are functions of the design variables. Fundamental Frequency versus Design Variable-1.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Figure 2-8. The definition of design variables is the same as that in design optimization.

Global sensitivity . Figure 2-10. Global Sensitivity .5 The plots of response quantity versus design variable are shown in Figure 2-10 through Figure 2-12.where design variables are changed between their lower and upper bounds in a user-specified number of steps. offset sensitivity. global sensitivity.One at a Time: Fundamental Frequency versus Design Variable-1. The number of steps is the same for all the design variables. Have the frequency analysis of a control arm bracket as an example where: 0. and optimization sensitivity results. namely. t1 In de x 2-8 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . They are explained in the following paragraphs. the user can change all the design variables simultaneously or one at a time.5 ≤ design variable-2 ≤ 3. Under this type of sensitivity.Chapter 2 Elements of Optimization and Sensitivity Sensitivity Types There are four types of sensitivity study. local sensitivity.5 and 1.5 ≤ design variable-1 ≤ 2.

The design variables are defined either by the actual values or by a perturbation ratio with respect to the initial value. Global Sensitivity .Simultaneously: Fundamental Frequency versus Normalized Design Variable-1and -2 Offset sensitivity . t2 Figure 2-12.One at a Time: Fundamental Frequency versus Design Variable-2. Global Sensitivity .where users specify the values of a series of design variables in a user-defined sets. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 2-9 .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Figure 2-11.

0 2.5 The plot of response quantity versus sensitivity set is shown in Figure 2-13.5 3.0 2.5 2.5 1. Have the frequency analysis of a control arm bracket as an example where: In de x 2-10 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .5 2. The perturbed design variables are defined either by the actual values or by a perturbation ratio with respect to the initial value.Chapter 2 Elements of Optimization and Sensitivity Have the frequency analysis of a control arm bracket as an example where the series of design variables are: Sensitivity Set Number 1 2 3 4 5 Design Variable-1 0.0 1. The gradients of the response quantities with respect to the design variables are computed based on the finite difference method.0 1.5 Design Variable-2 3. Offset Sensitivity: Fundamental Frequency versus Sensitivity Set Number Local sensitivity .where a design variable is perturbed at a time by a userspecified value while the rest of the design variables are kept unchanged. Figure 2-13.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization

Initial Value:

design variable-1=2.5, design variable-2=3.5 design variable-1=+0.1, design variable-2=+0.1

Perturbation Ratio:

**The plot of gradient of the response quantity versus design variable set is shown in Figure 2-14.
**

Figure 2-14. Local Sensitivity: Gradient of Fundamental Frequency versus Design Variable Number

Optimization sensitivity results - where gradients of behavior constraints and objective function are computed during the optimization process. The gradients are obtained by taking the derivatives of the approximation functions with respect to the design variables. This type of sensitivity study is available only when the design optimization is to be performed.

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Procedures and Examples

Introduction

This chapter presents detailed examples that fully describes the procedures for performing design optimization and sensitivity in COSMOSM. The descriptions include: selection and definition of appropriate parameters required for geometry creation, generation of the finite element mesh parametrically or otherwise, applying loads and boundary conditions, optimization constraint definitions, defining the objective function, defining sensitivity response quantities, specifying the optimization and sensitivity options, performing the optimization and sensitivity loops, and postprocessing of optimization, sensitivity and analysis results.

Table 3-1. Examples Shape Optimization of a Slotted Control Arm in Static Analysis (See page 3-17.) Sensitivity Study of a Control Arm Bracket in Frequency (See page 3-37.)

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Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples

**Overview of Process for Design Optimization and Sensitivity
**

The general process for design optimization and sensitivity displayed in Chapter 1 is shown in the following figures in more detail.

Figure 3-1. Overview of Process for Design Optimization

P re proce ssing Build Geometry and Mesh in Terms of Design Parameters

O ptimiz ation Loop

Update Geometry and Mesh (If Needed)

P e rform Analysis

• • • • • • • •

Static Frequency Buckling Thermal Nonlinear Post Dynamic Dynamic Stress Fatigue

De fine O ptimiz ation P arame te rs • Design Parameters (Variables) • Design Objective (Objective Function) • Design Constraints (Behavior Constraints)

Perform Analysis

Extract Critical Constraints

P ostproce ssing

Approximate Objective Function and Constraints

• Deformed Shapes • Animation • Mode Shapes • Contour and Vector Plots • X-Y Plots

Improved Design

Final Design

Yes

Requirements Achieved?

No

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Overview of Process for Sensitivity Study P re proce ssing Build Geometry and Mesh in Terms of Design Parameters S e nsitivity Loop P e rform Analysis De fine S e nsitivity P arame te rs • Design Parameters (Variables) • • • • • • • • Static Frequency Buckling Thermal Nonlinear Post Dynamic Dynamic Stress Fatigue Update Geometry and Mesh (If Needed) • Response Quantities P ostproce ssing Perform Analysis • Deformed Shapes • Animation • Mode Shapes • Contour and Vector Plots • X-Y Plots • Sensitivity Types Yes Is required number of runs executed? No Overview of Commands for Design Optimization and Sensitivity The following figure provides an overview of commands required for defining design variables. constraints. please refer to the COSMOSM Command Reference manual (Volume 2). objective function. and optimization/sensitivity options in COSMOSM. For more information on the commands.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Figure 3-2. response quantities. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-3 .

Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Figure 3-3. Overview of Commands for Design Optimization and Sensitivity DE S IGN O P TIMIZATIO N AND S E NS ITIV ITY • Design Variables • Optimization Objective • Optimization Constraints • Sensitivity Response • Optimization Loops • Sensitivity Runs ANALY S I S > O P TI MI ZE / S E NS I TI V I TY ME NU TRE E OP_OBJDEF OP_OBJSET OP_OBJLIST OP_OBJDEL OP_CONDEF OP_CONLIST OP_CONDEL OP_CONTRIM OP_CONTROL OP_RESTORE A_OPTIMIZE R_OPTIMIZE A_SENSITIV R_SENSITIV SN_RESPDEF SN_RESPLIST SN_RESPDEL DVARDEF DVARLIST DVARVDEL OP_DVMOVE SN_SETDEF SN_SETLIST SN_SETDEL CONVERGENCE AND SENSITIVITY PLOTS DI S P LAY > X Y _ P LO TS ME NU TRE E INITXYPLOT ACTXYPOST SETXYPLOT XYRANGE XYREFLINE XYIDENTIFY XYLIST XYPTLIST XYPLOT In de x 3-4 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

• You must exercise caution when using parameters to describe the model geometry. Some of the capabilities of this parametric language are: .the use of single parameters. Step 1. These parameters should then be defined as design variables using the DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define) command. These guidelines are not in any sense complete. For sizing optimization.g. and . you need to use the COSMOSM command language to parametrically model the design geometry and/or physical properties. and are intended to be complementary to your own optimization knowledge and expertise.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Procedures for Performing Design Optimization The following steps are recommended to be followed for performing design optimization studies using OPTSTAR. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-5 . the geometry creation and meshing will not fail. Appendix E for more details.logical expressions. arrays and functions. Build the model parametrically • For shape optimization problems. . build the model geometry parametrically in places where it is necessary. The command language essentially facilitates you to describe the design variables in GEOSTAR for a fully automated design optimization and sensitivity processes. .. Volume 1. Refer to COSMOSM User Guide.generating macros. • For design optimization and sensitivity. You may choose to use all or some of the defined parameters in the optimization process. The chosen parameters have to define the model completely so that when their values are modified during the optimization loops. cross-sectional area of a truss) and design aspects to be optimized will be defined as parameters. In most cases only the PARASSIGN (Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter) command needs to be used. . Note that the DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define) command needs to be applied to each design variable separately.construction of arithmetic expressions.control structure commands. the section constants (e.

.Use R_THERMAL (Analysis > HEAT TRANSFER > Run Thermal Analysis) command to execute heat transfer analysis. .heat transfer analysis. The types of analyses currently supported for design optimization are: .linear static problem in which the temperatures are computed using either HSTAR or FFE Thermal. • Post dynamic and fatigue analyses cannot be executed alone instead they must follow other types of analysis. .Use R_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis) command to execute linear static analysis.post dynamic analysis.dynamic stress analysis. Execute required initial analyses • Execute the initial analysis as usual in COSMOSM. • If you are performing design optimization on a heat transfer . You need to follow the procedures listed below to get correct results.Use A_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Static Analysis Options) command with flag T to include thermal loading in static analysis. • For multidisciplinary design optimization. .nonlinear structural analysis.Post dynamic analysis: 1. .fatigue analysis.analysis of natural frequencies and mode shapes. • It should be noted that natural frequency analysis and buckling analysis cannot be combined in a multidisciplinary optimization application since they share the same database locations in the program unless user-defined postprocessing functions are used for constraints and/or objective functions. then you need to follow the procedure listed below in order to input the heat transfer results as thermal loads in static analysis: .linear static stress analysis (including multiple load cases). . and . . . Use R_FREQUENCY (Analysis > FREQUENCY/BUCKLING > Run Frequency) command to execute analysis of natural frequencies and mode shapes. . you can execute the analyses in any order before proceeding with optimization loops except the following cases.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Step 2.Use TEMPREAD (LoadsBC > LOAD OPTIONS > Read Temp as Load) command to read temperatures from heat transfer analysis. . In de x 3-6 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .linearized buckling analysis.

1) and Basic FEA System Manual (Vol. and R_STRESS (Analysis > STATIC > Run Stress Analysis) commands to execute frequency. . Default values = 1/100 | upper bound. . whether in shape or sizing optimization. Use R_FATIGUE (Analysis > FATIGUE > Run Fatigue Analysis) command to execute fatigue analysis. Users will have access to all existing GEOSTAR'S postprocessing features. 2. must have already been defined as a parameter [using the PARASSIGN (Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter) command]. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-7 . 3. Please refer to User Guide (Vol.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization 2. Use R_DYNAMIC (Analysis > POST-DYNAMIC > Run Post Dynamic) command to execute post dynamic analysis.Fatigue analysis: 1.Type of variable (shape or sizing) and its parametric name. For multidisciplinary analysis. Note that each design variable.to lower bound | . Step 3.Lower and upper bounds.Method of choosing the pre-optimization design variable values (perturbation or random evaluation). 3) for more information.Convergence tolerance (see Chapter 4). Begin design optimization procedures by defining design variables • First. . Use R_STRESS (Analysis > STATIC > Run Stress Analysis) command to execute dynamic stress analysis if desired. Perform postprocessing of initial analysis results Perform postprocessing of the initial executed analyses as usual. R_DYNAMIC (Analysis > POST-DYNAMIC > Run Post Dynamic). post dynamic and dynamic stress analysis. define the design variables using the command DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define). Use R_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis) or R_NONLINEAR (Analysis > NONLINEAR > Run NonL Analysis) command to execute linear or nonlinear structural analysis respectively or R_FREQUENCY (Analysis > FREQUENCY/BUCKLING > Run Frequency). you need to first activate the required type of analysis. Step 4. The command controls the following information: .

Reference keypoint (relative displacement). Numerical Aspects explains in more detail how the move limits of design variables function in each optimization loop.Analysis type (for multidisciplinary optimization). it cannot be used with frequency and buckling functions. Step 5. In de x 3-8 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . .Types of objective functions. However.Sizing options and element type (only for linear static analysis) where a distinction has to be made between 2D and 3D beam elements and either membrane or bending dominant behavior has to be indicated for shell elements. Define objective function • Define the objective function using the OP_OBJDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function) command.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples . .Load case (multiple load cases only) or time step number (nonlinear or post dynamic only).Type of application (minimization or maximization). The command controls the following information: . . • You can use the OP_OBJSET (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function Set) command to declare portions (sets) of the model for objective function computations. . This command is most useful for volume and weight objective functions (cost). .Criterion and approximation type (see Chapter 4). This command is seldom necessary since its default options will suffice in most cases. . It is also possible to assign weight factors to different parts of the model using the same command. . Chapter 4.Layer and face numbers (for composite shells only). • Use the commands OP_DVMOVE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Move Limits) to control the move limits of design variables during the optimization loops.Convergence tolerance (see Chapter 4). • Use the commands DVARDEL (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Delete) and DVARLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > List) ‘to delete and list the design variables respectively.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization

**• Use the OP_OBJDEL (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE
**

FUNCTION > Del Function Set) command to delete sets defined by the OP_OBJSET (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function Set) command.

**• To delete the objective function defined using the OP_OBJDEF (Analysis >
**

OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function) command, you need to use the same command again to overwrite the old information.

**• Use the OP_OBJLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE
**

FUNCTION > List Function) command to list information defined by OP_OBJDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function) and OP_OBJSET (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function Set) commands. Step 6. Define constraints

**• Define behavior constraints using the OP_CONDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/
**

SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINT > Define) command. The command controls the following information: - Types of behavior constraints, - Layer and face numbers (for composite shells only), - Analysis type (for multidisciplinary optimization), - Geometry association, - Lower and upper limits (bounds), - Feasibility tolerance: Default values = 1/100 | upper bound- to lower bound | - Reference keypoint (relative displacement), - Criterion and approximation type (see Chapter 4), - Load case (multiple load cases only) or time step number (nonlinear or post dynamic only).

**• Use OP_CONLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR
**

CONSTRAINT > List Behavior Const) and OP_CONDEL (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINT > Del Behavior Const) commands to list and delete constraints, respectively.

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Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples

**• By default, OPTSTAR considers only the violated and potentially critical
**

constraints during calculations. In order to control this step, use the command OP_CONTRIM (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINT > Truncate Constraint) which allows you to input trimming (truncation) factors for the unviolated constraints. If the normalized value of a particular constraint is above the negative value of the truncation factor, then that constraint is appended to the critical list. For more detailed explanation, refer to Chapter 4, Numerical Aspects. Step 7. Specify parameters for optimization

**• Specify the parameters for the optimization loops using the A_OPTIMIZE
**

(Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options) command. The important input for this command are: – Maximum number of optimization loops (nloops flag) – Number of stages to check convergence (loop_conv flag) – Type of analyses. It should be mentioned that an optimization loop will execute the analyses in the same sequence specified here. For heat transfer linear static problems requiring data transfer from heat transfer to static analysis, you must specify THERMAL followed by STATIC. – Number of consecutive infeasible design sets. You are recommended to always start with a feasible initial design. Otherwise, the program will prompt you with a choice to continue or stop. If you choose to continue, the optimization loops will be terminated if a feasible solution is not reached after five consecutive attempts. To change this number (five), use the A_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options) command and specify the appropriate input for the infeas flag.

**• Start the optimization process using the R_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/
**

SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Run Optimize Analysis) command. Step 8. Restart options prior to convergence In cases where the maximum number of optimization loops are exceeded, you can restart the process by activating the restart flag under the A_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options) command, followed by the R_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Run Optimize Analysis) command. If you choose to use this option, only the following commands can be reissued (if needed): DVARLIST, OP_DVMOVE, OP_CONLIST, OP_CONTRIM, OP_OBJLIST, OP_CONTROL.

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Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization

Step 9. Postprocess optimization results

**• You can display convergence plots of objective function (component name
**

OP_OBJ), behavior constraints (component name OP_CON), and design variables (component name OP_DVAR) against number of loops using the ACTXYPOST (Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) and XYPLOT (Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves) commands from the Display-XY Plots menu tree. It is also possible to list the activated result component on-line using the XYPTLIST (Display > XY PLOTS > List Points) command. It should be mentioned that the ACTPOST (Results > SET UP > Set PostProcess Type) command has to be used prior to using the ACTXYPOST (Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) command.

**• The optimization results for each loop are summarized in the output file
**

jobname.OPT. Step 10. Postprocess converged analyses results

**• Perform postprocessing of the converged analyses as usual. Please refer to User
**

Guide (Vol. 1) and Basic FEA System Manual (Vol. 3) for more information.

**• One of the good features of the optimization module is that you will have the
**

optimum product in terms of its geometric dimensions (not giving only the final coordinates of the mesh) which is an aspect favored in the manufacturing process. Using the standard methods of transferring geometry (such as IGES and DXF formats), the users can transfer the final geometry to NC machines. Step 11. Restore an interim design set

**• It is possible to examine the design configuration at an interim step even after
**

the convergence of the optimization loops. The command OP_RESTORE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Restore Design Set) can be used to restore a design set (corresponding to a specified loop number) so that the entire database can be reconstructed for the specified design set and the required analyses run automatically.

**• If you use the OP_RESTORE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY >
**

OPTIMIZE LOOP > Restore Design Set) command, note that the converged solution obtained will be lost. You need to therefore save the database of the converged solution before applying this command.

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Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples

**Procedures for Performing Sensitivity Studies
**

The following steps are recommended to be followed for performing sensitivity studies using OPTSTAR. These guidelines are not in any sense complete, and are intended to be complementary to your own knowledge and experience. Step 1. Initial model and analysis The first step is similar to steps 1 through 3 of the procedures recommended for performing design optimization: – – – Build the model parametrically Execute required initial analyses Perform postprocessing of initial analysis results

Step 2. Begin sensitivity study by defining design variables

**• Define the design variables using the DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/
**

SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define) command. Note that each design variable, whether of shape of sizing type, must have been already defined as a parameter (using the PARASSIGN (Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter) command). It should be noted that the DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define) command is used for both optimization and sensitivity applications where some options of the command are needed only for optimization.

**• Use the commands DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY >
**

DESIGN VARIABLES > Define) and DVARLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > > List) to delete and list the design variables respectively. Step 3. Define the sensitivity response quantities

**• Define the response quantity using the SN_RESPDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/
**

SENSITIVITY > RESPONSE QUANTITY > Define) command. The commands controls the following information: - Type of response quantities, - Layer and face numbers (for composite shells only), - Analysis type (for multidisciplinary optimization), - Geometry association,

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– Type of analyses: • It should be mentioned that a sensitivity run will execute the analyses in the same sequence specified here. you can restart the process by activating the restart flag under the A_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Options) command. Specify type of sensitivity • Specify the type and parameters of the sensitivity study using the A_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Options) command. Step 5. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-13 . offset sensitivity. For instance if you want to find the fundamental frequency of the model based on the deformed configuration calculated by the nonlinear program.Load case (multiple load cases only) or time step number (nonlinear or post dynamic only). . the command SN_SETDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > RESPONSE QUANTITY > Define) should be used to define the user-specified design sets. Step 4. you must specify NONLINEAR followed by FREQUENCY.Reference keypoint (relative displacement).Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization . . Restart option In cases where the sensitivity study is terminated by the user or due to an error. or local sensitivity. • Use SN_RESPDEL (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > RESPONSE QUANTITY > Delete) and SN_RESPLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > RESPONSE QUANTITY > List) to delete and list response quantities respectively.Criterion type (see Chapter 4). followed by the R_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Run Analysis) command. For offset and local sensitivity studies. • Start the sensitivity study by using the R_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Run Analysis) command. The important input for this command are: – Type of sensitivity: • Global sensitivity.

In de x .Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Step 6. – Optimization process terminated by the user either during the optimization screen or during regenerating the model's geometry or mesh using the <Esc> key – Optimization terminated because of failure to regenerate the model or crash of optimization procedure. It should be mentioned that the ACTPOST (Results > SET UP > Set PostProcess Type) command has to be used prior to using the ACTXYPOST (Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) command. Special Features for Optimization and Sensitivity Dynamic change of parameters The user can specify the flags controlling the optimization and sensitivity features in terms of parametric expressions.Terminating the process during the sensitivity screen or generating the model's geometry or mesh using the <Esc> key. Postprocess sensitivity results • You can display plots of response quantities against value or label of design variables using the ACTXYPOST (Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) and XYPLOT (Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves) commands from the Display-XY Plots menu tree.Failure to regenerate the model. • For sensitivity studies. For example. – Number of trials to find a feasible solution exceeds the allowed number. It is also possible to list the activated result component on-line using the XYPTLIST (Display > XY PLOTS > List Points) command. 3-14 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . • The sensitivity results are summarized in the output file jobname. users can restart the process from the last successful design sets in the following cases: – Iterations exceed the maximum allowed number. the upper and lower bounds of a design variable may not always be a constant value but depends on some boundary conditions and geometric features that change from one optimization or sensitivity run to another. you can restart the process from the last successful run in the following cases: . Restart option • For optimization.OPT.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization • It should be mentioned that you can restart the optimization process (as a fresh start) from the current design variable values as new initial values by choosing the OFF option in the restart flag. For example. Instead. The reason is that it would be very time consuming to follow the user's steps of running analysis modules since you might have executed these commands many times to check and modify the initial model. A user-defined feature is included in the OP_OBJDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION >Define Function). Vol. or sensitivity response quantities. User-defined constraints. optimization will begin its first iteration all over again. There are however some commands (action commands) in the session file that are ignored by GEOSTAR (e. the optimizer will consider the design variables. These quantities can be calculated using the extensive options provided by the COSMOSM command language (User Guide. OP_CONDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINT > Define Behavior Constraint) and SN_RESPDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > RESPONSE QUANTITY > Define) commands. If you choose fresh start at this point. OP_CONDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINTS > Define Behavior Constraint) or SN_RESPDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > RESPONSE QUANTITY > Define) commands. “R_” or “R.” commands). The user-defined quantity has to be declared by a PARASSIGN (Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter) command prior to issuing the OP_OBJDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function). if your model converged to an optimum selection in eight iterations. constraints and objective function values of the fifth design set as initial values in a new optimization run. Appendix E). 1. In this case.g. objective function and sensitivity response quantities • Situations may arise where you need to customize your own objective function.. • Regenerating the model through GEOSTAR requires reading all the steps you followed as stored in the session file in every optimization or sensitivity loop. the control of this step is left to the A_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options) and A_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Options) commands. behavior constraints.. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-15 . and you chose to restore the fifth design set to inspect it.

The file name should be GEOFILE. a separate option is included in the type of analysis flag defined by the A_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options) and A_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Options) command. Once the mesh is generated you will be able to use its information to calculate these quantities (using VOLUME and WEIGHT functions explained in Appendix E of the User Guide.) and other GEOSTAR commands are included in a separate file prepared by the user. in order to use the frequency function (FREQ) you have to execute R_FREQUENCY (Analysis > FREQUENCY/BUCKLING > Run Frequency) first. • In order to respect the sequence (or order) of issuing some of GEOSTAR commands which is essential in some user-defined cases.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples • User-defined objective function.) If the user-defined feature is a postprocessing-function dependent quantity. In de x 3-16 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . This option is called “FILE”. For example. You need to run R_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis first followed by the LCCOMB (Results > Combine Load Case) command. Another example is the use of secondary load cases using the LCCOMB (Results > Combine Load Case) command. An example of a preprocessing quantity is the volume or weight of some elements. This file include the “R_” commands and other action commands given in the sequence necessary for calculating the user-defined quantities. and it means that the type of analysis (“R_” commands. behavior constraint or a response quantity may be a preprocessing or a postprocessing quantity.FIL and it has to be located in the local directory. it must be defined after running the analysis.

The only constraint on the control arm is that the von Mises stress due to the applied loading should neither exceed 225 MPa nor fall below 10 MPa. The objective function for minimization is the volume of the control arm with a tolerance of 1%.3. Figure 3-4. you are required to find the thickness of the two shafts (TR1 and TR2). The outer arm thickness is 20 mm. TR2 and TW.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Shape Optimization of a Slotted Control Arm in Static Analysis In this example. Boundary Conditions and Loads Y (See page 3-1.3 Py = 4 N/ mm 2 (Y direction) Note: All dimensions in millimeters. and Poisson’s ratio is 0. modulus of elasticity is 2 x 105 MPa. The control arm is subjected to a pressure loading of 4 MPa as shown in the following figure. Since their value will change with each optimization cycle. and the size and location of the cutout (TW). initial values and tolerances for the design variables are as shown below: In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-17 .) Y r2 = 7 10 tr 2 5 5 20 tr1 5 r1 = 30 tw Py X 10 20 Fixed = 140 6 . they will be defined as parameters using the PARASSIGN (Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter) command.Node TRI ANG Thickness = 20 mm E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 ν = 0. The design variables for this problem as seen from the above figure are designated as TR1. Initial Geometry. The bounds.

set a working plane by executing the following command: Geo Panel: Geometry > GRID > Plane (PLANE) Rotation/sweep axis > 2 Offset on axis > 0. Initialize all parameters used to build the model using the PARASSIGN (Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter) command. the finite element mesh of the initial geometry will be subjected to loads and boundary conditions.5 Using the design variables as well as other geometric dimensions. you can define some other dimensions of the model as parameters. the program will automatically change the design variable values as required and perform linear static stress analysis to satisfy the constraints. R1 and R2). During the optimization cycle. TR2 and TW): Geo Panel: Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter (PARASSIGN) Parameter name > TR1 Data type > REAL Parametric real value > 25 Geo Panel: Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter (PARASSIGN) Parameter name > TR2 Data type > Real Parameter real value > 20 In addition to the required design variables. The linear static stress analysis is performed as usual. you will first build the initial geometry of the model parametrically.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Bounds 8 ≤ TR1 ≤ 25 8 ≤ TR2 ≤ 20 3 ≤ TW ≤ 8 Initial Value 25 20 8 Tolerance 1 1 0. and solve for the optimal shape of the control arm. The following paragraphs describe all relevant steps in detail with illustrations. These dimensions include the length between the centers of the shafts and their radii (L. Let us start with the design variables (TR1. In de x 3-18 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . After successful completion. 1. you need to specify the input for design optimization. To start with.0 Grid line style > Solid 2. In the next step.

0. you need to increase the closure tolerances at keypoints. Establish keypoints for the centers of shafts as follows (note the parametric input for the center of the smaller shaft): Geo Panel: Geometry > POINTS > Merge Tolerance (PTTOL) Tolerance > 0. 0.000000 20.000000 30.0 Geo Panel: Geometry > POINTS > Define (PT) Keypoint > 2 XYZ-coordinate value > L. 0. 0 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-19 .000000 7.001 Geo Panel: Geometry > POINTS > Define (PT) Keypoint > 1 XYZ-coordinate value > 0.000000 For this problem. Name TR1 TR2 TW R1 R2 L Type REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL REAL Value 25.000000 140.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geo Panel: Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter (PARASSIGN) Parameter name > R1 Data type > Real Parameter real value > 30 Geo Panel: Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter (PARASSIGN) Parameter name > R2 Data type > Real Parameter real value > 7 Geo Panel: Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter (PARASSIGN) Parameter name > L Data type > Real Parameter real value > 140 The parameters defined above can be listed on-screen using the PARLIST (Control > PARAMETER > List Parameter) command which provides a summary as shown below: Num 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.000000 8.0.0.

0 XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > L+R2. 0. 0. 0.0 XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > R1.0.0. 0. 0. 0.0 Number of segments > 4 Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > CIRCLES > By Center/Edge (CRSCIRCLE) Curve > 5 XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > L. Use the Auto scale icon to adjust the view on the screen. In de x 3-20 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . 0. 0. 0. 0.0. Use the Auto scale icon to re-scale the screen view. The prompts and input for creating the shafts are as below [ACTNUM (Control > ACTIVATE > Entity Label) command is used to activate labels of curves]: Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > CIRCLES > By Center/Edge (CRSCIRCLE) Curve > 1 XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > 0. 0.0. The circles created above will be connected together by straight lines tangential to the inner circles of the shafts using the CRTANLIN (Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Tangent btwn 2 Cr) command as illustrated below.0. Next.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples 4. draw circles at the points created above using the CRSCIRCLE (Geometry > CURVES > CIRCLES > By Center/Edge) command to model the two shafts.0 Number of segments > 4 Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > CIRCLES > By Center/Edge (CRSCIRCLE) Curve > 13 XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > L XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > L+R2+TR2 Number of segments > 4 5.0.0.0.0 XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > R1+TR1. 0.0 Number of segments > 4 Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > CIRCLES > By Center/Edge (CRSCIRCLE) Curve > 9 XYZ-coordinate value of center of circle > 0. The shafts have a radius of R1 and R2 with thickness of TR1 and TR2 (defined as parameters).

In order to draw these lines. Figure 3-5 Construction of Tangential Lines Connecting the Shafts 6. Note that the lines protruding into the shaft thicknesses will be trimmed later. Activate the display of point tables using the Status 1 icon. you will construct two more lines parallel to the tangents created earlier representing the slotted portion of the model.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Tangent btwn 2 Cr (CRTANLIN) Curve > 17 Curve 1 > 1 Curve 2 > 5 Break flag > Do not break Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Tangent btwn 2 Cr (CRTANLIN) Curve > 18 Curve 1 > 4 Curve 2 > 8 Break flag > Do not break The figure below shows a view of the two shafts connected together by tangential lines. you can define a coordinate system along the tangential lines so that the new curves generated will be parallel to the tangential lines. In the next step. Use the CSYS (Geometry > COORD SYS > By 3 Points) command as shown below: Geo Panel: Geometry > COORD SYS > By 3 Points (CSYS) Coordinate system > 3 Coordinate system type > Cartesian Keypoint at origin > 19 Keypoint on the X-axis > 20 Keypoint on the X-Y plane > 1 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-21 .

apply the CRGEN (Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate) command at the top tangent line and input an offset of -TW (with respect to the new coordinate system) which represents the thickness of the slotted portion. The commands below illustrate these tasks: 3-22 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .0 Y-displacement > -TW Z displacement > 0. The lines inside the shafts can be then easily removed. Geo Panel: (CRGEN) Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate Generation number > 1 Beginning curve > 17 Ending curve > 17 Increment > 1 Generation flag > Translation X-displacement > 0.0 Y-displacement > -TW Z-displacement > 0.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Geo Panel: Geometry > COORD SYS > By 3 Points (CSYS) Generation number > 1 Beginning curve > 18 Ending curve > 18 Increment < 1 Generation flag > Translation X-displacement > 0. In de x You now need to remove the lines protruding into the shaft thicknesses.0 Similarly apply the CSYS (Geometry > COORD SYS > By 3 Points) and CRGEN (Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate) commands at the bottom tangent line as shown below: Geo Panel: Geometry > COORD SYS > By 3 Points (CSYS) Coordinate system > 4 Coordinate system type > Cartesian Keypoint at origin > 21 Keypoint on the X-axis > 22 Keypoint on the X-Y plane > 1 7. This can be achieved by finding the intersection of the straight lines with the outer circles of the shafts and then subdividing the lines at the points of intersection.0 Next.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geo Panel: Geometry > POINTS > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect (PTINTCC) Primary curve > 17 Beginning curve > 9 Ending curve > 14 Increment > 5 Tolerance > 0.15.0.30.18.23. CRDEL.000050 Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) Curve to be broken > 17 Reference keypoint > 27 Original curve keeping flag > Do not keep Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) Curve to be broken > 21 Reference keypoint > 28 Original curve keeping flag > Do not keep Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) Beginning curve > 17 Ending curve > 22 Increment > 5 You need to repeat the above procedure for the remaining three lines of the slotted portion as outlined below: (Cryptic commands need to be typed in the command window.1.1. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK.18.22.23.) Geo Panel: Geometry > POINTS > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect (PTINTCC) PTINTCC.18.18. however.3.14.9.12.0. Geo Panel: In de x Geometry > POINTS > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect (PTINTCC) PTINTCC. CRPTBRK.19. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.29.5. COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-23 . the command paths are also shown.

CRPTBRK. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK. CRPTBRK.0.29.0.0.23.24. Next.20. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.0.33.12.25. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK.0.20.9.20.33.12. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.25. Geo Panel: Geometry > POINTS > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect (PTINTCC) PTINTCC.12. 8. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.0.15. it is necessary to remove arcs of the outer circles at the connection with the slotted portion so that model domain is continuous. CRDEL.19.1.25.32. CRDEL. There are four such arcs and the CRPTBRK (Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt) and CRDEL (Edit > DELETE > Curves) commands are applied to remove them as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK.24.31.31. CRPTBRK.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK.24.1.25.1. In de x 3-24 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .1.3.0.0.28.28.19.20. CRPTBRK.27.25.34.19.1.1.

The figure below shows the geometry created so far. Fillets at these points can be defined using the CRFILLET (Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Fillet) command.1.29.15. It is necessary to smooth the sharp corners at the intersection points of straight lines with the shafts.29.000001 COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-25 . CRPTBRK.34.29. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL. CRPTBRK.0. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Fillet (CRFILLET) Curve > 31 In de x Curve 1 > 21 Curve 2 > 9 Radius of fillet > 5 Trim flag > Original curve keeping flag > Tolerance > 0. The labels of adjacent curves can be seen from the above figure for this command. Interim Model Geometry with Curve Labels 9.30. with curve labels activated.14.1. These labels will be helpful in defining fillets at sharp corners. described next. Figure 3-6.0.32.14.28.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK.0.29.0.29. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.

Figure 3-7. CRFILLET.23.24. CRFILLET. There are four contours constituting one region entity for this model.0.12.0.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Repeat the above command at other locations as shown below (as before.5.15. and TW will alter the profiles of the outer contour and the middle inner contour in the slotted portion.33.27. You also need to switch to the global coordinate system at this point.1.20. TR2. In order to generate the finite element mesh.1. CRFILLET.0.1.1.5.39.30. the cryptic commands need to be typed in the command window. The average element size is specified as half of the value of TW. The figure below shows the initial geometry of the control arm for finite element model development.0.14.23.24. The design variables TR1.10.0.1. The outer contour will be designated as the first contour and the inner ones will be numbered 2 through 4. CRFILLET. The contour and region definitions are illustrated below: Geo Panel: Control > ACTIVATE > Set Entity (ACTSET) Set Label > CS In de x Coordinate system > 0 3-26 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .1.5.40.41.10. the thickness of the slotted part.20.37. command paths on the menu are also shown): Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Fillet (CRFILLET) CRFILLET.21.26. CRFILLET.22. you need to convert the geometry to a region entity and use the automatic meshing feature for regions.1. CRFILLET.35.28.42.22. Initial Geometry of the Control Arm for Finite Element Modeling 10.0.0.

3.0.5.0.TW/2. CT. of real constants to be entered > 2 RC1: thickness > 20 RC2: material angle (Beta) > 0.21.1. CT.1.0.1.0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geo Panel: Geometry > CONTOURS > Define (CT) Contour > 1 Mesh flag > Esize Average element size >TW/2 Number of reference boundary curves > 1 Curve 1 > 23 Use selection set > No Geo Panel: Geometry > CONTOURS > Define (CT) CT. Geo Panel: Propsets > Real Constant (RCONST) Associated element group > 1 Real constant set > 1 Start location of the real constants > 1 No. Geo Panel: Geometry > REGIONS > Define (RG) Region > 1 Number of contours > 1 Outer contour > 1 Inner contour 1 > 2 Inner contour 2 > 3 Inner contour 3 > 4 Underlying surface > 0 11. material properties.0 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-27 . section constants. and higher order elements as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Propsets > Element Group (EGROUP) Element group > 1 Element Category > Area Element Type (for area) > TRIANG Accept defaults .4.1.2.. Generate the finite element mesh and define the element group...0.TW/2.TW/2.0.

Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Geo Panel: Propsets > Material Property (MPROP) Material property set > 1 Material property name > EX Property value > 200000 Material property name NUXY Property value > 0.3 Geo Panel: Meshing > AUTO MESH > Regions (MA_RG) Beginning region > 1 Ending region > 1 Increment > 1 Number of smoothing iterations > 0 Method of Sweeping Geo Panel: Meshing > AUTO MESH > Region Mesh Type (MARGCH) Beginning region > 1 Ending region > 1 Increment > 1 Element type > T Total element nodes > 6 Push flag > Yes Associate element group > 1 Define the boundary conditions and loads.0 Ending curve > 4 Increment > 1 Geo Panel: (PCR) LoadsBC > STRUCTURAL > PRESSURE > Define Curves Beginning curve > 5 Pressure magnitude > 4 Ending curve > 6 Increment > 1 Pressure at the end of direction 1 > 4 Pressure direction > Normal direction In de x 3-28 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Geo Panel: LoadsBC > STRUCTURAL > DISPLACEMENT > Define Curves (DCR) Beginning curve > 1 Displacement label > All Value > 0.

14.0 Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define (DVARDEF) Design variable set number > 2 Design variable type > Shape Design variable parametric name > TR2 Design variable lower bound > 8 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-29 . There are three design variables (TR1. Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define (DVARDEF) Design variable set number > 1 Design variable type > Shape Design variable parametric name > TR1 Design variable lower bound > 8 Design variable upper bound > 25 Design variable conv. Define the design variables. the von Mises stress constraint has bounds of 10 and 225. Each of the design variable needs to be defined separately using the DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define) command.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization 12. You also need to specify the upper and lower bounds of the design variable under this command. First. More importantly. you can make sure that the behavior constraints imposed on the model for optimization are realistic. After the linear static analysis is successfully completed. the constraints specified for this example are indeed realistic. For this example. whereas the computed von Mises stress for the preliminary design ranges from 0 to 90 (you can either use the STRMAX (Results > EXTREMES > Min/Max Stress) or STRPLOT (Results > PLOT > Stress) commands to process the von Mises stress). and TW) for this problem that will be applied in obtaining an optimal shape of the model under linear static analysis. It is a good practice to postprocess the results from the preliminary design before starting the optimization loops due to several reasons. you can proceed to define the input for shape optimization. TR2. tol. you can eliminate any modeling errors by inspecting the results. Proceed with linear static stress analysis by executing the R_STATIC (Analysis > STATIC > Run Static Analysis) command. for optimization > 1 Preopt process: zero=random nonzero=perturb_ratio > 0. 13. The following commands for specifying optimization analysis options are found in the Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY menu tree. Therefore.

0000e+000 5. The listing for this problem is as shown below: Set 1 2 3 Type Shape Shape Shape DvName TR1 TR2 TW Value 2. Tolerance/ Perturb Ratio 1. For this example.5000e+001 8.0000e-001 0.0 The DVARLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > List) command can be used to obtain an on-screen listing of design variables defined above.0000e+000 Lower/ Upper Bound 8. you will be minimizing volume as an elemental quantity using linear approximation to start with.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 2.0000e+000 The objective function to be minimized (or maximized) and the associated parameters for nodal or elemental type functions is defined using the OP_OBJDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function) command. for optimization > 1 Preopt process: zero=random nonzero=perturb_ratio > 0. Quadratic approximations with cross terms as well as cubic terms will be used for subsequent approximations of the objective function (approximation type 3).0 Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define (DVARDEF) Design variable set number > 3 Design variable type > Shape Design variable parametric name > TW Design variable lower bound > 3 Design variable upper bound > 8 Design variable conv.0000e+001 3.0000e+000 0.0000e+000 1.5 Preopt process: zero=random nonzero=perturb_ratio > 0.0000e+000 15.5000e+001 2. tol. tol. for optimization > 0. Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY> OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > Define Function (OP_OBJDEF) Type > Elemental Objective > Minimize In de x Elemental objective function name > Volume 3-30 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .0000e+000 8.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Design variable upper bound > 20 Design variable conv.0000e+001 8.0000e+000 2.

with constraint > Nodes Beginning node > 1 Ending node > NDMAX See paragraph below Increment of nodes > 1 Constraint lower bound > 10 Constraint upper bound > 225 Constraint feasibility tolerance > 3 Constraint approximation type > Linear + Quad In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-31 .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Analysis type > Linear Unused option > Unused option > Objective function convergence tolerance (ratio) > 0. = Elemental = VOLUME : Minimize =1 = Static Tolerance ApprxType Value Face = 1.003479e+005 =1 The remaining input for performing shape optimization of the control arm is the constraint definition.01 Objective function approximation type > Linear + quadratic The objective function input can be listed on-screen using the OP_OBJLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OBJECTIVE FUNCTION > List Function) command which provides the following information: Objtyp Objname Objective Layer Analysis 16. The OP_CONDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/ SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINT > Define) command is used to define the constraints as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINT > Define (OP_CONDEF) Constraint set number > 1 Type > Nodal Nodal constraint name > VON Analysis type > Linear Criterion flag > Max Abs Layer number > 1 Face flag (shell) > Top Load case/time step > 1 Entity type assoc.000000e-002 =1 = 2.

nodal. The last prompt seeks your input for constraint approximation type. infeasible designs > 5 Output print flag > On Echo option flag > On Restart flag > Off Type of analysis > Static In de x In the above. of consec. or algebraic maximum. etc. and will keep changing for different optimization loops. is applied for evaluating the constraints. If the initial design is infeasible and your model goes through five consecutive infeasible designs. you can input a parametric equivalent (NDMAX) for that prompt. The last set of input you need to specify before beginning the optimization loops is furnished using the A_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options) command.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples In the above. The type of analysis to be run in the optimization loop is static stress analysis by default. 17. The entity type associated with the constraint are nodes for this example. in this case. the second prompt seeks your input for the type of constraint. the optimization process will be halted by default. and the program will prompt you further if you plan to run multidisciplinary analyses. The options you specified under the A_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options) command can be listed on-screen using the A_LIST (Analysis > List Analysis Option) command (from the ANALYSIS submenu) as shown below: 3-32 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . The criterion flag specifies whether the absolute maximum. The constraint input can be listed on-screen using the OP_CONLIST (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > BEHAVIOR CONSTRAINT > List Behavior Const) command.. The default option of 1 for this prompt will use linear and quadratic terms for approximations of the constraint function. The command and its input are shown below: Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Optimize Analysis Options (A_OPTIMIZE) Maximum number of optimization loops > 10 Convergence check stages > To the previous loop No. Since the label of the ending node is not known in advance. the default option of 1 for the second prompt means that the convergence is achieved if the change in the objective function and design variables compared to the previous loop and the best design so far is less than the tolerance. The constraint upper and lower bounds as well as the tolerance are input for the next three prompts.

20. 21. Note that this file will only contain results corresponding to the final design. you can view the jobname.and Y-axis intervals of the X-Y plot (for a clear display) by making use of the SETXYPLOT (Display > XY PLOTS > Set Plot Parameter) command as illustrated below: In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-33 . we will plot the von Mises stresses using the ACTSTR and STRPLOT commands (Results > PLOT > Stress).OUT file. Use the R_OPTIMIZE (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > OPTIMIZE LOOP > Run Optimize Analysis) command to start the optimization loops.OPT file. In window 1. we will study the variation of objective functions versus the optimization loops. you need to use the PRINT_OPS (Analysis > OUTPUT OPTIONS > Set Print Options) command to append all subsequent results to this file. The results of the static stress analysis performed will be written as usual to the jobname. Let’s create four windows using the New Win icon. If you want to store analysis results of all loops. You can now proceed to perform the shape optimization analysis of the slotted control arm.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geo Panel: Analysis > List Analysis Option (A_LIST) Component > Optimization 18. For optimization iteration summary of all loops. Move to the first window by clicking inside he window. In main window. Adjust the X. Move to window 2 and execute the ACTXYPOST (Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) and XYPLOT (Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves) commands (Display > WINDOWS menu tree) as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Results > SET UP > Set to Post-Proc (ACTPOST) Select optimization Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc (ACTXYPOST) Graph number > 1 Y_variable > OP_OBJ Type of results > FEA Graph color > 12 Graph line style > Solid Graph symbol style > 1 Graph id > OP_OBJ 19.

we will study the variation of the design variables versus the optimization loops.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Set Plot Parameter (SETXYPLOT) X logarithmic > No Y logarithmic > No Number of X intervals > 7 Number of Y intervals > 4 Accept Defaults Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves (XYPLOT) Plot graph 1 > Yes 22. In window 2. Since there are three design variables in this example. Move to window 3 and execute the ACTXYPOST (Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) and XYPLOT (Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves) commands as illustrated below (remember to use the SETXYPLOT (Display > XY PLOTS > Set Plot Parameter) command to adjust the X-axis and Y-axis intervals): Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc (ACTXYPOST) Graph number > 1 Y_variable > OP_DVAR Set number > 1 Graph color > 12 Graph line style > Solid Graph symbol style > 1 Graph id > OP_DVAR-1 Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc (ACTXYPOST) Graph number > 2 Y_variable > OP_DVAR Set number > 2 Graph color > 14 Graph line style > Solid Graph symbol style > 1 Graph id > OP_DVAR-2 Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc (ACTXYPOST) Graph number > 3 Y_variable > OP_DVAR Set number > 3 Graph color > 8 Graph line style > Solid In de x 3-34 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . and 3 for TR1 TR2 and TW respectively. 2. you will use set numbers 1.

. Note that you can use the XYPTLIST (Display > SET UP > List Points) command to list the values of the optimization results for each loop on-screen.. Display > XY PLOTS > Set Plot Parameter (SETXYPLOT) Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves (XYPLOT) XYPLOT Plot graph 1 > Yes You will obtain a plot as shown in the following figure. Move to window 3 and execute the ACTXYPOST (Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) and XYPLOT (Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves) commands as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc (ACTXYPOST) Graph number > 1 Y_variable > OP_CON Set number > 1 Type of results > FEA Graph color > 12 Graph line style > Solid Graph symbol style > 1 Graph id > OP_CON-1 Geo Panel: . Display > XY PLOTS > Set Plot Parameter (SETXYPLOT) Geo Panel: Display > XY PLOTS > Plot Curves (XYPLOT) Plot graph 1 > Yes Plot graph 2 > Yes Plot graph 3 > Yes 23. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-35 .. In window 3.. we will study the variation of the behavior constraint versus the optimization loops.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Graph symbol style > 1 Graph id > OP_DVAR-3 Geo Panel: .

Final Stress Distribution and Convergence Plots In de x 3-36 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Figure 3-8.

) 1.5 1. and Poisson’s ratio is 0.5 S h ell3 Thickness E ν ρ = = = = 0.5 3.5 3.0 t2 X t1 1.30 0.3. Initial Geometry of the Control Arm Bracket r = 1. The initial values and bounds for the design variables are as shown below: Design Variable T1 T2 In de x Initial Value 2.5 Lower Bound 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Sensitivity Study of a Control Arm Bracket in Frequency In this example.5 1. Since their value will change with each sensitivity run. The material mass density is 0.0 The design variables for this problem as seen from the above figure are designated as T1 and T2.0 t1 0. The following figure shows the initial geometry of the bracket. you are required to find the size and location of the cutout under the first (out-of-plane) mode of free vibration. they will be defined as parameters using the PARASSIGN (Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter) command.3 cm.0 r= (See page 3-1.5 Upper Bound 2. modulus of elasticity is 2 x 107 N/cm2. Y 5.5 COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-37 . The bracket thickness is 0.0 Note: All dimensions in centimeters.3 cm 2 x 107 N/cm2 0. Figure 3-9.0 5.0075 Kg/cm3.0075 Kg/cm2 15.5 1.

2. Use Auto scaling icon SCALE.10. Geo Panel: Control > PARAMETER > Assign Parameter (PARASSIGN) PARASSIGN. you need to specify the input for sensitivity study.T2. CRLINE. Construct a triangle connecting the three keypoints created above using the CRLINE (Geometry > CURVES > Line with 2 Pts) command as shown below ACTNUM (Control > ACTIVATE > Entity Label) command is used to activate labels of curves): Geo Panel: Control > ACTIVATE > Entity Label (ACTNUM) ACTNUM.3. To start with.1.1. The following steps describe all relevant procedures in detail with illustration. the program will automatically change the design variable values as required and perform frequency analysis.0.0.0.5.REAL.2.5.CR. 2. and initialize the design variables T1 and T2 by executing the following commands: Geo Panel: PLANE.2.REAL.T1. PT. Establish the following keypoints for use in geometry creation: Geo Panel: Geometry > POINTS > Define (PT) PT. After successful completion. set the working plane and the view.3.2.3.0.0.3. PT. PARASSIGN. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > Line with 2 Pts (CRLINE) CRLINE. 3. During he sensitivity runs.1.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Using the design variables as well as other geometric dimensions. the finite element mesh of the initial geometry will be subjected to boundary conditions.3.0.1.0.15.2. In the next step. The frequency analysis is then performed as usual.5. In de x 3-38 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Geometry > GRID > Plane (PLANE) Use the VIEW icon VIEW. you will first build the initial geometry of the model parametrically. 1. Scale the view using the Auto scaling icon. CRLINE.1.

3.0.3. Geo Panel: (CRGEN) Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate CRGEN.0. Next. we will generate a line parallel to the base of the triangle which aligns along the X-axis of the default Cartesian coordinate system (label 0).0. Next.0.1.1. Geo Panel: (CRGEN) Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate CRGEN.0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization 4. Geo Panel: (CRGEN) Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate Generation number [1] > Pick/Input Beginning Curve > 2 Pick/Input Ending Curve > 2 Increment > 1 Generation flag > Translation X-Displacement > 0.3.0.1.2. define a local Cartesian coordinate system (label 3) with its X-axis aligned with the left inclined side and repeat the CRGEN (Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate) command as shown below: Geo Panel: Geometry > COORD SYS > By 3 Points (CSYS) CSYS.0 5.1.1. you can select entities from the screen using the left button of the mouse.4. In order to create lines parallel to the inclined sides of the triangle. you need to make use of the local coordinate systems. If you activate the SNP and PIC icons.1.2. Note that you can still use the keyboard.0.T1. The CRGEN (Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate) command will be used with a Y-axis offset of T2 as illustrated below.0 Y-Displacement > T2 Z-Displacement > 0. First. define another local Cartesian coordinate system (label 4) with its X-axis aligned with the right inclined side and repeat the CRGEN (Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Generate) command as shown below: Geo Panel: Geometry > COORD SYS > By 3 Points (CSYS) CSYS. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-39 .1.0.3.1.3.T1.

7.4. 7.4.1. Construction of the Control Arm Geometry CRINTCC. 6. In the next step.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples The following figure shows a plot of keypoints and curves generated so far.0.12.00005. you will construct circles and connect them to the rest of the geometry using procedures similar to the above. CRDEL.8.0. The CRFILLET (Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Fillet) command is applied as shown below at the sharp corners: In de x 3-40 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .00005.1.8. At the corners of the outer triangle. CRINTCC. Note that the corners of the inner triangle will be rounded off using fillets.6.2. The geometry of the control arm is now as shown below.6. Figure 3-11.10. along with the coordinate systems. Find the points of intersection of the straight lines bounding the inner triangle using the CRINTCC (Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect) command and delete the unwanted segments using the CRDEL (Edit > DELETE > Curves) command: Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect (CRINTCC) Figure 3-10.11. you need to create fillets at the sharp corners created by the intersection of straight lines with the circles.6.5.5.1. you will find the points of intersection of curves 4 through 6 and delete the unwanted segments.1. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves CRDEL. CRDEL.2. Construction of the Control Arm Geometry Next.

0.24.0. CRFILLET.360.0.1.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Fillet (CRFILLET) CRFILLET. Figure 3-12.1.1.2.0.20. CRFILLET.2.9.1.2.360.1E-006. Construction of the Con The geometry of the slotted control arm you constructed up to this stage is as shown below.2.6.360.3.8.1. Use Auto scale icon SCALE.1E-006. CRPCIRCLE.6.4.20.1.5.9.0.2.3.7. Define concentric circles at the three corners as shown below: Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > CIRCLES > Circle in Plane (CRPCIRCLE) CRPCIRCLE.12.10.14. You need to find the intersection points of the straight lines with the circles and remove the unwanted segments.4.6.1.0.2.2.360.0. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > CIRCLES > Circle in Plane (CRPCIRCLE) CRPCIRCLE.8. CRPCIRCLE.34.1.20.5.7.360.360. 8. CRPCIRCLE.28.40.0.1. 9.1. Use Auto scale icon SCALE.1E-006.16.4.5. CRPCIRCLE. Find the points of intersection of the straight lines with the circles using the CRINTCC (Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU Cr/Cr Intersect) command and delete the unwanted segments using the CRDEL (Edit > DELETE > Curves) command: In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-41 .

2.37.52. 11.0.0.49.49. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.45. CRFILLET.0. You can next proceed to generate the finite element model.52.00005.53. Delete the remaining unwanted segments as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.1.2.1.50. CRPTBRK.1.1. CRDEL.46.40.1.58. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.0. CRFILLET.7.3.0.0.1E-006.55.38.0.1E-006.39.00005.16.0. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect (CRINTCC) CRINTCC.48.1.1.1E-006.1.5. Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Break Near Pt (CRPTBRK) CRPTBRK.51.48. CRFILLET.38.45.52.56.47.1E-006.48.2.1. In de x 3-42 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .54.5.0.51.2.1E-006.1.0.10. The following figure shows a view of the initial geometry.2.0.43. Geo Panel: Edit > DELETE > Curves (CRDEL) CRDEL.1. CRFILLET.51. CRDEL. the initial geometry of the control arm is now fully constructed.0.40. With the steps executed so far.0.1E-006.49.33. 10. Smoothen the sharp apices of the control arm using fillets as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > MANIPULATION MENU > Fillet (CRFILLET) CRFILLET.1.34.1.57.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Geo Panel: Geometry > CURVES > GENERATION MENU > Cr/Cr Intersect (CRINTCC) CRINTCC.28.29.53.3.1.29.52.0.1. CRFILLET.

1.0. Geo Panel: LoadsBC > STRUCTURAL > DISPLACEMENT > Define Contours (DCT) DCT.3.0.16. CT. Geo Panel: Geometry > REGIONS > Regions (RG) RG.1.1. Geo Panel: Propsets > Element Group (EGROUP) EGROUP.0.1.0075.0. Geo Panel: Propsets > Real Constant (RCONST) RCONST.EX.0.0.1.8.1.22.5.1.2.0.0.20. The control arm will be held in place at the two bottom openings against rotations and translations in all directions (we will also be switching back to the default Cartesian global coordinate system at this stage): Geo Panel: Control > ACTIVATE > Set Entity (ACTSET) ACTSET.1.0.0. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-43 .1.1.0.0.0.5. CT.E6.2. Geo Panel: Meshing > AUTO MESH > Regions (MA_RG) MA_RG.0.4.DENS.4.SHELL3.0.1.0.6.0.0.1.1.5.0. CT. Geo Panel: Propsets > Material Property (MPROP) MPROP.51.1.0.1.1.1.3.1.0.0. In order to prepare the initial geometry for meshing.0.3.25.1.0. You will be using triangular 3-node shell elements with an average element size of 1 units. Figure 3-13.4. execute the CT (Geometry > CONTOURS > Define) and RG (Geometry > CONTOURS > Regions) commands as illustrated below: Geo Panel: Geometry > CONTOURS > Define (CT) CT.0.1.0. Completed Initial Geometry of the Control Arm 13.0.0.CS.1.1.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization 12.1.3.ALL. CT.

you need to run the analysis once to make sure that you did not make any errors in modeling or in the required features of analysis. It is a good practice to postprocess the results from the preliminary design before starting the sensitivity study so that you can eliminate any modeling errors by inspecting the results.Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples The following figure shows the completed finite element mesh of the initial design. Figure 3-14. 14. Deformed Shape Plot of the Initial Design (First Mode) 15. Execute the R_FREQUENCY (Analysis > FREQUENCY/ BUCKLING > Run Frequency) command and use the default options from the A_FREQUENCY (Analysis > FREQUENCY/BUCKLING > Frequency Options) command which include the computation of the first mode of vibration using the subspace iteration algorithm. Note that it is possible to study the sensitivity of the model’s frequency of different modes. You need to next execute the analysis to compute the first out-of-plane free vibration mode. Finite Element Mesh of the Initial Design Before starting the sensitivity study. In de x 3-44 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . The figure below was obtained using the DEFPLOT (Results > PLOT > Deformed Shape) command illustrated as follows: Use Viewing icon to set isometric view (XYZ) Geo Panel: Results > PLOT > Deformed Shape (DEFPLOT) Mode shape number > 1 Figure 3-15.

With the successful completion of the initial model.5 Design variable upper bound > 2.5 Design variable upper bound > 3.5 Accept defaults ... There are two design variables (T1 and T2) for this problem.5 Accept defaults . you can now proceed to define the sensitivity data. the A_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Options) command is used to specify the sensitivity study options and the analysis type: Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Options (A_SENSITIV) Sensitivity type > 1 by 1 In de x Number of increment > 5 COSMOSM Advanced Modules 3-45 . you will define frequency as the response quantity: Geo Panel: Analysis> OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY> RESPONSE QUANTITY> Define (SN_RESPDEF) Response set number > 1 Type > Freq Mode shape number > 1 Define the design variables. You also need to specify the upper and lower bounds of the design variable under this command.. Each of the design variable needs to be defined separately using the DVARDEF (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define) command. Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define (DVARDEF) Design variable set number > 1 Design variable type > Shape Design variable parametric name > T1 Design variable lower bound > 0. Lastly. As required.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization 16. Geo Panel: Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > DESIGN VARIABLES > Define (DVARDEF) Design variable set number > 2 Design variable type > Shape Design variable parametric name > T2 Design variable lower bound > 1..

Chapter 3 Procedures and Examples Output print flag > On Echo option flag > On Restart flag > Off Type of analysis > Frequency Now. After ten runs. a message “sensitivity study completed” will be displayed. In de x 3-46 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . ACTXYPOST Display > XY PLOTS > Activate Post-Proc) and XYPLOT (Display > XY PLOT > Plot Curves) commands to view the variation of the fundamental frequency versus the design variable values. 17. you can use R_SENSITIV (Analysis > OPTIMIZE/SENSITIVITY > SENSITIVITY RUN > Run Analysis) command to start the sensitivity study. Use the ACTPOST (Results > SET UP > Set to Post-Proc).

singular value decomposition. These materials are sufficient in most situations to perform the design problems. Default values are provided for those parameters and in most situations they are working perfectly. The material covered in this chapter includes: basic statements of optimization problems. the sequential linear programming method. and so on. function approximation. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 4-1 .4 Numerical Aspects Introduction The basic features and procedures for design optimization and sensitivity were introduced in Chapter 1 to Chapter 3. This chapter is intended for the users who wish to learn more about the implementation of the optimizer in OPTSTAR. Nevertheless. tolerance. the modified feasible direction method. Many of the methods used in the optimizer use numerical parameters to control the convergence. the users are allowed to override these constants by using appropriate commands. move limits of design variables. and convergence criteria. constraint trimming.

The optimization process is then applied to the approximate problem represented by the polynomial approximation. Such a relationship is generally not known in advance.Chapter 4 Numerical Aspects Basic Statements of Optimization Problems The basic problem that we consider in OPTSTAR is the minimization of a function subject to inequality constraints. Minimize: Subject to: Objective function Side constraints Behavior constraints where: X = ith design variable i Figure 4-1.X 2) = Constant X2 = X2 U g (X1. Objective Function and Constraints in the Design Space with Two Design Variables Figure 4-1 shows the objective function and constraints in the design space with two design variables.X 2) F(X1.X 2) 2 X2 = X2 X1 X1 = XL 1 X1 = X U 1 L Function Approximation The main idea of design optimization presented herein relies on finding a mathematical relationship between the objective function or constraints and design variables. In de x 4-2 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . OPTSTAR makes use of the existing response (objective function or constraints) at a number of points in the design space to construct a polynomial approximation to the response at other points. X2 g1 (X1. It is noted that for a maximization problem we can always transform it to be a minimization one by multiplying the objective function by -1.

The coefficients of the polynomial function are determined by a least squares regression. page 4-3) Table 2-1. di = Number of design variables = ith design variable = Coefficients to be determined OPTSTAR (Advanced Modules Manual. 3 ) Start with linear and add quadratic and quadratic cross terms if needed ( 1 . or quadratic cross-terms may be selected for the polynomial approximation depending on the approximation type. 4 ) Start with linear and add quadratic. 3 . if we want to fit the response by the approximation type +1. a quadratic approximation is adopted. Approximation Types Flag -1 -2 -3 0 +1 +2 +3 Only linear terms ( 1 . 2 . In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 4-3 .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Linear. 5 ) For example. new design sets are added to the linear approximation until it reaches 2Nd+2. Part 2. we need Nd+2 (extra one for quality factor) design sets to start with a linear approximation. bi. 1 . cij. 2 . 3 5 ) Automatic determination of approximation type Start with linear and add quadratic terms if needed ( 1 . 2 . 2 Type ) ) Only quadratic terms ( Only cubic terms ( 1 . After then. As the optimization loop number exceeds this value. cubic. 4 . quadratic. They are as follows: = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 where: Nd Xi ai. 3 . quadratic cross terms and cubic terms if needed ( 1 .

we are able to solve the approximate optimization problem. The svd_iter of the OP_CONTROL command controls the maximum number of iterations allowed to detect singular values. It is advantageous to use SVD because it can handle: • the mathematical irony that least-squares problems are both overdetermined (number of data points greater than number of parameters) and underdetermined (ambiguous combinations of parameters exist).Chapter 4 Numerical Aspects Singular Value Decomposition Singular value decomposition (SVD) is used for regression analysis. The Modified Feasible Direction Method Overall Process After the objective function and constraints are approximated and their gradients with respect to the design variables are calculated based on the approximation. It is important to distinguish the iteration inside the approximate optimization from the loop in the overall optimization process. The svd_thr of the OP_CONTROL command sets the threshold for singular values allowed to be non-zero. • sets of equations that are either singular or very close to singular. The solving process is iterated until convergence is achieved. One of the algorithms used in the optimizer is called the Modified Feasible Direction method (MFD). it is a ratio of the maximum singular value of the matrix. Figure 4-2 shows the iterative process within each optimization loop. In de x 4-4 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Figure 4-2. The Modified Feasible Direction Algorithm

**Ge ne ra l Optimiza tion
**

Parametric Geometry and Mesh X (1) i m=1 Update Geometry and Mesh (m) (if needed) X i

MF D 1. q = 0, X q = X m 2. q = q + 1 3. Evaluate objective function F(X i ) and behavior constraints g j (X i ) ≤ 0 where j = 1, 2, . . ., N c 4. Identify critical and potentially critical constraints, N c

Initial Analysis

Define • Design Variables • Objective Function • Behavior Constraints

Perform Analysis

Postprocessing

Approximate Objective Function and Constraints

Improved (m+1) Design X i

m = m +1

Yes

Requirements Achieved? Optimization Loop

No

5. Calculate gradient of objective function —F(X i) and behavior constraints ∇g k (X i ) where k = 1, 2, . . ., N c 6. Find a usable-feasible search direction S q 7. Perform a one-dimensional search X q = X q-1 + α S q 8. Check convergence. If satisfied, go to 9. Otherwise, go to 2. 9. X m +1 = X q

Search Direction

In order to make any further improvement in an optimization loop, a new search direction must be found that continues to reduce the objective function but keeps the design feasible. We seek a usable-feasible search direction, in which:

• A usable direction is the one that reduces the objective function, and • A feasible direction is the one that a small move in this direction will not violate

In de x

the constraints.

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

4-5

Chapter 4 Numerical Aspects

This situation is shown in Figure 4-3. To find the search direction, active and violated constraints have to be identified. A constraint is active if its value lies between mfd_viol (+ve value) and mfd_active (-ve value) as defined by the command OP_CONTROL. A small positive value, mfd_viol, is allowed before categorizing a constraint as violated. If a constraint is less than mfd_active, it is then inactive. These conditions are displayed in Figure 4-4.

**Figure 4-3. Usable-Feasible Search Direction
**

X2

Feasible Sector F(X1 , X 2 ) = Constant Usable Feasible Sector

g2 (X1 , X 2 ) = 0

S

Usable Sector

g1 (X1 , X 2 ) = 0 X1

**Figure 4-4. Tolerances for a Constraint in a Two Design Variable Space
**

X2 g j (X) = mfd_ active g j (X) < 0 g j (X) = 0 g j (X) > 0 X1

g j (X) = mfd_ viol

**Convergence to the Optimum
**

The optimizer uses several criteria to decide when to end the iterative search process. The criteria are described as the following. Maximum iterations - The maximum number of iterations (search directions) is defined by mfd_ifsrch in the command OP_CONTROL. It is intended to avoid excessive computations and the default value, 100, is usually more than enough for finding an optimum. Changes of objective function - To measure the progress made in the successive iterations, one of the following criteria is to be satisfied:

In de x

4-6

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization

or

where mfd_relobj and mdf_absobj are the specified tolerances defined in the command OP_CONTROL. The first criterion, relative change, is an indication of convergence if the objective function is large. However, the convergence is controlled by the second criterion, absolute change, if the objective function is small. The number of successive iterations is defined by mfd_conv in the command OP_CONTROL.

**Satisfaction of Kuhn-Tucker Conditions
**

Besides the previously mentioned criteria, the Kuhn-Tucker conditions necessary for optimality must be satisfied. Unconstrained problems - The conditions degenerate to the case where the gradient of the objective function vanishes:

In de x

It is noted that this Figure 4-5. Relative and Global Minima in the Design Space condition is necessary but not sufficient for F(X) optimality. To ensure a function to be a 2 minimum, the 1 Hessian matrix * * (second derivatives with respect to design variables) must be positive-definite. X Also, the optimum is in a sense of relative optimum rather than global one. In general, the conditions to ensure a global minimum can rarely be demonstrated. If a global minimum is intended, the designers must restart the optimization process from different initial points to check if other solutions are possible. Figure 4-5 shows the relative and global minima in the design space.

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

4-7

Chapter 4 Numerical Aspects

Constrained problems - The conditions of optimality are more complex. By using the Lagrangian multiplier method, we define the Lagrangian function as the following:

where tj is a slack variable which measures how far the jth constraint is from being critical. Differentiating the Lagrangian function with respect to all variables we obtain the Kuhn-Tucker conditions which are summarized as follows:

1.

2.

The corresponding λj is zero if a constraint is not active.

The physical interpretation of these conditions is that the sum of the gradient of the objective function and the scalars λj times the associated gradients of the active constraints must vectorally add to zero as shown in Figure 4-6.

Figure 4-6. Kuhn-Tucker Conditions at a Constrained Optimum

X2 λ 2 g 2 (X) g2 (X) = 0 ∆ ∆ F (X)

λ1 g 1(X)

(X) ∆ g 2 (X) ∆ g 1 (X)

F (X) g 1 (X) = 0

In de x

The Kuhn-Tucker conditions are also sufficient for optimality when the number of active constraints is equal to the number of design variables. Otherwise, sufficient conditions require the second derivatives of the objective function and constraints (Hessian matrix) similar to the unconstrained one. If the objective function and all of the constraints are convex, the Kuhn-Tucker conditions are also sufficient for global optimality.

4-8

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

∆

∆

X1

go to step 2. Find an improved design X p (using the MFD algorithm) 6. Use this approximation of optimization instead of the original nonlinear functions: Minimize: F(X) L U Subject to: g j (X) ≤ 0 and X i ≤ X i ≤ X i 5. p = p + 1 3. Check feasibility and convergence. Otherwise. In Figure 4-8. 7. The iterative process within each optimization loop is shown in Figure 4-7. go to 7. Figure 4-7. If both of them are satisfied. X = X Postprocessing Define • Design Variables • Objective Function • Behavior Constraints Perform Analysis Approximate Objective Function and Constraints 2. The Sequential Linear Programming Method Ge ne ra l Optimiza tion Parametric Geometry and Mesh X (1) i m=1 Update Geometry and Mesh (m) (if needed) X i Initial Analysis SLP p m 1. p = 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization The Sequential Linear Programming Method In OPTSTAR. X m +1 = X p Improved (m+1) Design X i m = m +1 Yes Requirements Achieved? No Optimization Loop In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 4-9 . linear approximations to the objective function and constraints are displayed.X p-1) 4.X p-1) g j (X) = g j (X p-1) + ∇g j (X p-1) (X . the other algorithm for solving the approximate optimization problem is called the Sequential Linear Programming method (SLP). Linearize the problem at X p-1 by creating a first order Taylor Series expansion of the objective function and retained constraints: F(X) = F(X p-1) + ∇F(X p-1) (X .

move limit ML. Linear Approximation to Objective Function and Constraints X2 g (X) 1 X p Linear Approximation to F (X p) Linear Approximation to g (X p) 1 F(X) True Oprimum g (X) 2 Approximate Optimum Linear Approximation to g (X p) 2 X1 The flag slp_iter controls the maximum number of iterations (repeated linearization process) and slp_conv controls the number of successive iterations for convergence check. Move Limits of Design Variables During the optimization process. is temporarily applied to the current value of design variable such that local bounds are created as: The physical interpretation of move limits is that the optimizer creates a temporary box around the current value of design variable as shown in Figure 4-9. each design variable is bounded by its global lower and upper limits as shown below: Within each optimization loop. In de x 4-10 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . a percentage change.Chapter 4 Numerical Aspects Figure 4-8. Both flags are specified in the command OP_CONTROL.

and multiplier. To identify what is meant by potentially critical. It is In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 4-11 . the move limit for a subsequent optimization loop is computed by the following formula: Constraint Trimming Most structural optimization problems contain more constraints than what are necessary to adequately guide the design. The constraints are filtered such that only violated and potentially critical ones are considered in the optimizer to increase the computational efficiency.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Figure 4-9. If the normalized value of a particular constraint is below the negative value of the trimming factor. a trimming (truncation) factor is applied to the non-violated constraints by using the command OP_CONTRIM. then this constraint is temporarily deleted from the critical list. With these parameters. Move Limits of Two Design Variables X2 Objective Function X1 Behavior Constraint L X1 L X1 X1 X1 U U X1 The command OP_DVMOVE controls the initial move limit. its lower and upper bounds. MlL and MuL. µ.

• If the initial design is infeasible and the allowed number of consecutive In de x infeasible designs has been exceeded. The optimization process continues until either convergence or termination occurs.Chapter 4 Numerical Aspects noted that those constraints which are temporarily deleted may become active during the subsequent optimization loop. thus may be retained in the critical list later.2.3 is within its bound 30%. If the trimming factor is 0. however the second one will be deleted.4 has violated its bound by 40%. then the first constraint will be retained in the critical list. Constraints are normalized by using their lower and upper bounds specified by the command OP_CONDEF. The process may be terminated before convergence in two cases: • The number of design sets so far exceeds the maximum number of optimization loops specified in the command A_OPTIMIZE. a normalized constraint with a value +0. The original constraint is bounded by: A pair of normalized constraints with respect to upper and lower bounds are bounded by: This normalization provides a clear indication for the trimming. For example. another constraint with a value -0. Convergence Criteria Convergence or termination checks are performed at the end of each optimization loop. 4-12 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

.The difference between the current value and the best design so far is less than the tolerance τF specified in the command OP_OBJDEF.The difference between the current value of each design variable and the best design so far is less than the respective tolerance τi specified in the command DVARDEF.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization The optimization problem is considered converged if all of the following conditions are satisfied: • The current design is feasible. and In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 4-13 . • Changes in the objective function F: .The difference between the current value and the previous design is less than the tolerance.(Optional) The differences between the current value and two previous designs are less than the tolerance. . .The difference between the current value of each design variable and the previous design is less than the respective tolerance. . and • Changes in the design variables Xi: .(Optional) The differences between the current value of each design variable and two previous designs are less than the respective tolerance.

“Numerical Optimization techniques for Engineering Design with Applications. Convergence Plots Objective Function (F) Fbe st Design 10 Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Infeasible Constraint Value F easible Infeasible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Design 10 Set References 1.” Cambridge University Press.. In de x 4-14 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Gürdal “Elements of Structural Optimization. W.Chapter 4 Numerical Aspects Figure 4-10 shows the convergence plots.” Third Edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers. H.” McGraw Hill. S. 1984. Teukolsky and W. Figure 4-10. R. T. A. B. 3. 1986. 2. Vanderplaats. P. Vetterling. Inc. Flannery. “Numerical Recipes. Haftka and Z. Press. N. 1992. G. T.

5 Additional Problems Introduction This chapter presents additional examples for performing shape and sizing optimization and sensitivity in COSMOSM. static and buckling analysis of a fixed channel for the optimal shape.. natural frequency analysis by FQ.. heat transfer analysis by HT. Where “. OPSTSB1 addresses thermal. Static stress analysis is denoted by letters ST. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-1 .” denotes the COSMOSM directory. nonlinear by the letter N. whereas for sizing. The prefix alphabets for the shape sensitivity problems are SNS. Multidisciplinary analysis examples use a combination of the first alphabets from the above. they are SNZ. buckling analysis by BK. OPZBK2 discusses minimum weight of a cantilever subject to buckling constraints. Note that post dynamic and fatigue analyses are categorized to multidisciplinary since they cannot run alone. The input files for these problems are available in the “.. The following tables provide a listing of shape and sizing optimization examples and sensitivity with respect to the type of analysis. For example. It is noted that the results may vary in a certain range from one platform to another. the problem OPSST5 discusses shape optimization analysis of a beam under linear static stress analysis..\Vprobs\Optimization” folder. The prefix alphabets for the shape optimization problems are OPS. whereas for sizing. post dynamic analysis by D. and fatigue analysis by FT. they are OPZ.

Minimum volume of a 3-bar statically determinate truss subject to stress constraints (see page 5-54). Stress and thermal analysis of a mechanical part (see page 5-30). Fatigue analysis of a curved pipe under a cyclic pressure loading (see page 5-48). Stress analysis of a Steering Control Arm (see page 5-8). Random vibration analysis of a lever arm (see page 5-39). Harmonic response analysis of a culvert (see page 5-37). static and frequency analysis of a circular disk (see page 5-31). Fatigue analysis of a nozzle under a cyclic temperature loading (see page 5-45). Buckling analysis of a C-shape column (see page 5-15). In de x 5-2 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Stress and frequency analysis of a bracket (see page 5-26). Thermal analysis of a circular disk (see page 5-17).line curves (see page 5-11).Chapter 5 Additional Problems Table 3-1. Nonlinear analysis of a rubber circular ring (see page 5-24). Minimum volume of a 1-bar truss subject to displacement constraint (see page 5-53). Thermal analysis of a pipe cooling system (see page 5-19). Stress and buckling analysis of a C-shape column (see page 5-28). Stress analysis of a simply supported beam . Dominantly Shape Optimization Problems OPSST1 OPSST2 Static OPSST3 OPSST4 OPSST5 OPSST6 Natural Frequency Linearized Buckling OPSFQ1 OPSBK1 OPSHT1 Heat Transfer OPSHT2 OPSHT3 OPSHT4 Nonlinear Structural OPSN1 OPSN2 OPSFS1 OPSBS1 OPSTS1 OPSTSF1 Multidisciplinary OPSTSB1 OPSTN1 OPSFDS1 OPSFDS2 OPSFDS3 OPSTNFT1 OPSFDSFT1 Stress analysis of a cantilever bracket (see page 5-6). Stress analysis for an engine bearing cap under multiple load cases (see page 5-13).Bezier curves (see page 5-12). Static and buckling analysis of a fixed channel (see page 5-33). Sizing Optimization Problems OPZST1 OPZST2 Static OPZST3 OPZST4 Minimum volume of a 1-bar truss subject to stress constraint (see page 5-52). Nonlinear analysis of a thick-walled pipe (see page 5-23). Stress analysis of a simply supported beam .dependent heat conduction of a slab (see page 5-22). Frequency analysis of a control arm bracket (see page 5-14). Response spectrum analysis of a trophy setting on a table (see page 5-42). Stress analysis of a slotted control arm (see page 5-9). Thermal. Thermal. Minimum weight of a 3-bar statically indeterminate truss . Transient thermal and nonlinear analysis of a cylinder (see page 5-35).multiple load cases (see page 5-55). Table 3-2. Thermal analysis of a simplified mechanical part (see page 5-21). Transient temperature .

triangular continuum elements (see page 5-65). Minimum volume of a cantilever pipe subject to a stress constraint . Minimum volume of a plate subject to displacement constraint .quadrilateral continuum elements (see page 5-67).beam elements (see page 5-59). Minimum volume of a plate subject to stress constraint . Minimum weight of a cantilever subject to frequency constraint . Minimum volume of a cantilever pipe subject to a stress constraint . Minimum volume of a plate subject to stress constraint .beam elements (see page 5-60). Minimum weight of a simply supported rectangular plate subject to strain energy density constraint .beam elements (see page 5-58).beam elements (see page 5-57). Minimum displacement of a cantilever subject to weight constraint . Minimum weight of a cantilever subject to frequency constraint .shell elements (see page 5-69).quad. Minimum weight of a cantilever plate subject to stress constraint . Sizing Optimization Problems (Continued) OPZST5 OPZST6 OPZST7 OPZST8 OPZST9 OPZST10 OPZST11 OPZST12 Static OPZST13 OPZST14 OPZST15 OPZST16 OPZST17 OPZST18 OPZST19 OPZST20 OPZST21 OPZFQ1 Natural Frequency OPZFQ2 OPZFQ3 Minimum weight of a 4-bar statically indeterminate truss subject to stress constraints (see page 5-56).quadrilateral continuum elements (see page 5-68).t constraint shell elements (see page 5-63). In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-3 .beam elements (see page 5-72).Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Table 3-2. Minimum weight of a pipe cantilever subject to frequency constraint . Minimum stress of a simply supported rectangular plate subject to weight constraint shell elements (see page 5-61).shell elements (see page 5-70). Minimum weight of a simply supported rectangular plate subject to effective strain constraint . Minimum weight of a cantilever subject to displacement constraint .pipe elements (see page 5-74). Minimum weight of a cantilever subject to stress constraint .triangular continuum elements (see page 5-66). Minimum weight of a cantilever subject to stress constraint . Minimum volume of a plate subject to stress constraint .shell elements (see page 5-73). Minimum stress of a simply supported rectangular plate subject to displ. Minimum stress of a simply supported rectangular plate subject to stress constraint shell elements (see page 5-62).pipe radius (see page 5-71). continuum elements (see page 5-64).pipe thickness (see page 5-71).

Sensitivity of a rubber ring to coefficient of friction in nonlinear analysis (see page 5-114). stress and frequency analysis (see page 5-94). Sensitivity study of a circular disk in heat transfer analysis (see page 5-91). Sensitivity study of a control arm bracket in frequency analysis (see page 5-88). Sensitivity study of a culvert in harmonic response analysis (see page 5-98). Sensitivity study of C-shape column in thermal. stress and buckling analysis (see page 5-96).beam elements (see page 5-76). Sizing Optimization Problems (continued) OPZBK1 OPZBK2 Linearized Buckling OPZBK3 OPZBK4 OPZBK5 Multidisciplinary OPZNB1 OPZFDS1 Minimum weight of a cantilever subject to buckling load factor constraint . nonlinear and frequency analyses (see page 5-116). Sensitivity study of a cylinder in transient thermal and nonlinear analyses (see page 5-98). Sensitivity study of a circular disk in thermal. Sensitivity study of a trophy in response spectrum analysis (see page 5-105). Minimum weight of a cantilever subject to buckling constraint . Table 3-4. Table 3-3. Offset sensitivity of a 2-bar truss (see page 5-110). Local sensitivity of a 5-bar truss (see page 5-111).pipe elements (see page 5-79).Chapter 5 Additional Problems Table 3-2. Sensitivity study of a cantilever beam in linear.quadrilateral continuum elements (see page 5-78). Dominantly Shape Sensitivity Problems SNSST1 Static Natural Frequency Linearized Buckling Heat Transfer Nonlinear SNSST2 SNSFQ1 SNSBK1 SNSHT1 SNSN1 SNSTSF1 SNSTSB1 Multidisciplinary SNSTN1 SNSFDS1 SNSFDS2 SNSFDS3 Sensitivity study of a steering control arm in stress analysis (see page 5-86). Sensitivity study of a C-shape column in buckling analysis (see page 5-89). Sensitivity study of a graphite-epoxy laminate (see page 5-112). Global sensitivity of a 2-bar truss: design variables incremented one at a time (see page 5-109). Modal time history analysis of a simply supported shell structure (see page 5-83). Sensitivity study of an engine bearing cap in stress analysis under multiple load cases (see page 5-87). Sizing Sensitivity Problems SNZST1 SNZST2 Static SNZST3 SNZST4 SNZST5 Nonlinear SNZN1 MultiSNZNF1A disciplinary SNZNF1B Global sensitivity of a 2-bar truss: (incremented simultaneously) (see page 5-108). Sensitivity study of a thick-walled pipe in nonlinear analysis (see page 5-93). Snap buckling of a thin hinged cylindrical shell under a central point load (see page 5-82). In de x 5-4 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Sensitivity study of a lever arm in random vibration analysis (see page 5-102). Minimum weight of a cantilever plate subject to buckling constraint . Maximum buckling load design of a graphite-epoxy laminate (see page 5-80). Minimum weight of a pipe cantilever subject to buckling load factor .shell elements (see page 5-77).

Dominantly Shape Optimization Problems In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-5 .

175.3 ν Note: All dimensions in milimeters.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSST1: Stress Analysis of a Cantilever Bracket KEYWORDS: Shape.0 I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry 12. 8-node PLANE2D. Pressure (see page 5-2). 12.0 6 dv1 6 dv2 Y r=5 X 12.5 8 . and stress constraint.000 N/mm 2 = 0. minimum volume.5 r=5 6 100. static analysis.5 25 dv3 I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x 5-6 COSMOSM Advanced Modules 25 .Node P LANE 2 D E le me nt s ( S iz e = 4 ) Thickness = 10 mm 2 Pressure = 5 N/mm E = 200.

A pressure of 5 N/mm2 is applied to the top edge of the bracket.0 0.3. The bracket thickness is 10 mm. The initial values and bounds of design variables. constraints and the objective function are shown below.0 2.08 Tolerance 2.0 67.600 311. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters DV1 DV2 DV3 Volume von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 10 ≤ 25 ≤ 25 10 ≤ 25 ≤ 25 20 ≤ 50 ≤ 50 106.0 20.814 10.000 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.0 2.0 Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-7 .05 (Ratio) 15. modulus of elasticity is 200.794 0 ≤ 94 ≤ 300 Final Value(s) 19.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Find size and location of the cutout.

0 4.0 1.870 0 ≤ 105. The initial values and bounds of design variables.0 Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x 5-8 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Y TE TRA4 E LE ME NTS E ν Py = 2 x 105 N/mm 2 = 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSST2: Stress Analysis of a Steering Control Arm KEYWORDS: Shape.0 1. minimum volume.6981 17.0 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters TR1 TR2 TW DINT Volume von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 8 ≤ 24 ≤ 25 8 ≤ 19 ≤ 20 4≤8≤8 4 ≤ 6 ≤ 17 218.3. Z Note: All dimensions in milimeters.11 Tolerance 1. and Poisson's ratio is 0. and stress constraint.0 8.3 = 31 N/mm 2 20 30 X Internal surfaces fixed in all directions 20 (see page 5-2).35 ≤ 225 Final Value(s) 8. static analysis.000 N/mm2.0 1.046 218. Y 7 tw tr 2 dint tr1 140 Py I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find thickness of the two shafts and size and location of the cutout. constraints and the objective function are shown below. The arm outer thickness is 20 mm.01 (Ratio) 3. TETRA4. modulus of elasticity is 200.00 76.

Y (see page 5-2). and stress constraint. static analysis. I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-9 .3 = 4 N/mm2 Py (Y direction) Note: All dimensions in milimeters. minimum volume.Node Tria ngula r Me s h Thickness = 20 mm 5 2 E = 2 x 10 N/mm ν = 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSST3: Stress Analysis of a Slotted Control Arm KEYWORDS: Shape. Y Py tr2 20 Fixed tr1 tw r1 = 30 5 5 5 10 r2 = 7 X 10 20 = 140 I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry 6 . 6-node TRIANG.

modulus of elasticity is 200.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find thickness of the two shafts and size and location of the cutout. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters TR1 TR2 TW Volume von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 8 ≤ 25 ≤ 25 8 ≤ 20 ≤ 20 3.0 Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x 5-10 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . The initial values and bounds of design variables.047. and Poisson's ratio is 0.0 0.70 Tolerance 1.0 1. The arm outer thickness is 20 mm.00125 (Ratio) 3.3.0 8.64 ≤ 225 Final Value(s) 8.13 227.5 0.5 ≤ 8 ≤ 8 200. constraints and the objective function are shown below.0 5.8192 72.347.000 N/mm2.9 10 ≤ 90.

99 49.2 ≤ 6 ≤ 10 0. static analysis. Nodal forces of 100 lb are applied to the middle part of the beam.3 Tolerance 0. minimum volume.7 5033.3.03 (Ratio) 49. The beam width is 4 in. and stress constraint.4309 1014. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints D1 D2 Volume von Mises 1 von Mises 2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. modulus of elasticity is 1E7 psi.2 ≤ 6 ≤ 10 2400 1 ≤ 1575.8 4949.99 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-11 . 4" 100 lbs/Node (see page 5-2).098 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below.6 ≤ 5000 1 ≤ 1648. The initial values and bounds of design variables.4442 3.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSST4: Stress Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam – Line Curves KEYWORDS: Shape.098 0. 8-node SOLID. and Poisson's ratio is 0. D1 D2 10" I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry Cros s S e c t ion 45" 45" I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find height of the beam at support and middle part.2 ≤ 5000 Final Value(s) 1.

99 149. and Poisson's ratio is 0. modulus of elasticity is 1E7 psi.8693 1.1 ≤ 6 ≤ 10 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSST5: Stress Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam – Bezier Curves KEYWORDS: Shape.2 ≤ 15000 1 ≤ 5255.052 2681. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters D1 D2 D3 D4 Volume von Mises 1 von Mises 2 von Mises 3 von Mises 4 von Mises 5 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.440.2882 4.099 0.099 0. minimum volume.110 Tolerance 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables.1 ≤ 6 ≤ 10 0. static analysis.099 0.0 1 ≤ 7401. The beam width is 4 in.1 ≤ 15000 Final Value(s) 4. 1. and stress constraint. 8-node SOLID.035 15.99 Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x 5-12 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .124 14. Nodal forces of 1000 lb are applied at the midsection of the beam.099 0.1 ≤ 6 ≤ 10 0.8858 729.99 149.42 15.3.1 ≤ 6 ≤ 10 1.03125 (Ratio) 149.5 15.7 ≤ 15000 1 ≤ 3409.7≤ 15000 1 ≤ 7378.000 lbs/node 4" (see page 5-2).99 149.1135 1. constraints and the objective function are shown below. D1 D2 D3 D4 Cros s S e c t ion 20" 20" init ia l P roble m G e ome t ry 20" init ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find heights along the beam span.99 149.1 ≤ 15000 1 ≤ 2759.

14 0.02 Tolerance 0.767 259.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSST6: Stress Analysis of an Engine Bearing Cap Under Multiple Load Cases KEYWORDS: Shape.7424 21. multiple load cases.78 STAR: 0 ≤ 117. constraints and objective function are shown below. static analysis. The bearing cap modulus of elasticity is 200. A horizontal pressure (as load case 1) and a vertical pressure (as load case 2) are applied to the internal surfaces of the cylindrical hole. The initial values and bounds of design variables. TETRA10.450 261.6 ≤ 250 Final Value(s) STAR 50 6. HUMP Symmetry Boundary Conditions Fixed E ν = 2 x 10 5 N/mm 2 = 0.50 Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-13 .7574 21.05 (Ratio) 12. TWEB 1 0 -Node Te tra Me sh (see page 5-2).4 FFE: 113.04 0. and stress constraint.25 0.30 Height Initial P roble m Ge ome try ECCENT Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find size and geometric dimensions of the bearing cap. minimum volume.21 FFE 50 6 40 9. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters ECCENT TWEB HEIGHT HUMP Volume von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 50 ≤ 75 ≤ 75 6 ≤ 10 ≤ 10 40 ≤ 70≤ 70 1 ≤ 15 ≤ 15 69.844.000 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.30.30 0.6044 40 6.

The material mass density is 0.0075 Kg/cm3 (see page 5-2). 15.0 r = 2. constraints and the objective function are shown below.Node Tria ngula r Me s h ( S iz e = 1 ) Thickness E ν ρ = = = = 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T1 T2 Volume Fundamental frequency Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.5 28.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSFQ1: Frequency Analysis of a Control Arm Bracket KEYWORDS: Shape.0 t2 X t1 1.0 I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: Find size and location of the cutout. The initial values and bounds of design variables. minimum volume.06 In de x 5-14 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .008 (Ratio) 0.30 0.5 ≤ 3.65 ≤ 14 Final Value(s) 0. frequency analysis.491 7.3 cm 2 x 107 N/cm2 0.5 16.0 t1 0. SHELL3.5 Note: All dimensions in centimeters. The bracket thickness is 0.0 Y Fixed Fixed 5.0 5. 1.5 ≤ 2. and Poisson's ratio is 0.02 0.5 1.5 1. and frequency constraint.9992 Tolerance 0.0075 Kg/cm3.473 8 ≤ 13.02 0.0 3 . r = 1.6256 1.5 ≤ 2.5 ≤ 3.3 cm. modulus of elasticity is 2E7 N/cm2.5 1.3.

28 -3 2 4 = 0. minimum volume.32h T2 C = 3" h = 120" 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSBK1: Buckling Analysis of a C-shape Column KEYWORDS: Shape. and buckling load factor constraint.73 x 10 lbf sec /in 0. Fixed T1 Fillet (T2 /4) Element Size Thickness Material E T1 ν ρ S HE LL3 = = = = 3 in 0. buckling analysis.18h T2 T1 A = 6" 0.000 psi In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-15 .18h p= 5.32h I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h 0. B = 20" T2 = 0. SHELL3. 25 in A_Steel 3 x 10 7 psi (see page 5-2).

The cross section thickness is 0.15 1.11 0.34 0..5843 Tolerance 0.0 11.6 ≤ 2. Summary of Results: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T1 T2 Volume Buckling load factor Initial Value(s) and Bounds 1 ≤ 5 ≤ 35 1 ≤ 5 ≤ 12 1018.261 745.87 ≤ 10 Final Value(s) 35.01 (Ratio) 0. A pressure of 5000 psi is applied to the column's face.02 In de x 5-16 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find size of the column cutouts.91 1. constraints and the objective function are shown below. and Poisson's ratio is 0.28.25 in. The initial values and bounds of design variables. modulus of elasticity is 3E7 psi.

Node S he ll Me s h ( S iz e = 2 ) Thickness = 2 mm Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-17 . and temperature constraint.0 W/mm 2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C 3 . thermal analysis. minimum volume. 10 5 5 10 Convection 0.0005 W/mm2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C Radius 5 5 25 10 Initial P roble m Ge ome try 25 Heat Flux 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSHT1: Thermal Analysis of a Circular Disk KEYWORDS: Shape.1 W/mm 2 5 (see page 5-2). SHELL3.1 W/mm 2 Convection 0. Heat Flux 0.

375.0015 (Ratio) 1. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints Radius Volume Temperature Initial Value(s) and Bounds 30 ≤ 70 ≤ 70 33. constraints and the objective function are shown below. The disk thickness is 2 mm.15 Tolerance 1.86 140. The heat source regions (heat flux of 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find radius of the disk. and conductivity is 0.1 W/mm2) is assumed to have a convection of 0 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50°C.57 W/mm-°C. The initial values and bounds of design variables.0 0. A convection of 0.56 50 ≤ 77.849 8566.0 In de x 5-18 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .0005 W/mm-°C with an ambient temperature of 50 °C is applied to the entire model except for the heat sources.63 ≤ 140 Final Value(s) 30.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSHT2: Thermal Analysis of a Pipe Cooling System KEYWORDS: Shape. thermal analysis.2 mm) T2 H3 =7 T3 T2 H3 =7 T3 T2 H2 =7 H1 = 5 T3 Cros s S e c t ion I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-19 . RADD R1 = 5 T1 H1 = 5 H2 =7 T3 T3 T2 H3 =7 T3 I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry R4 (thickness of pipes = 0. 8-node SOLID. minimum volume. R 2 (see page 5-2). and temperature constraint. SHELL4.

3671 1.3246 1.0 1.001 (Ratio) 1. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters R2 RADD R4 T1 T2 T3 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 13 ≤ 25 ≤ 25 8 ≤ 50 ≤ 50 1≤3≤3 1≤2≤2 1≤2≤2 1≤2≤2 HSTAR 196.55 ≤ 100 FFE 196.1 W/mm2) is assumed to have a convection of 0 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50°C The initial values and bounds of design variables.1 0.36 ≤ 100 50 ≤ 50.0 1.18 98.588 99.264 Tolerance 1. constraints and the objective function are shown below.0 1.36 ≤ 100 50 ≤ 50.34 ≤ 100 50 ≤ 76.0 1.56 ≤ 70 Final Value(s) HSTAR 13.0046 100.1 0.0 1.0 1.0015 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50°C is applied to the entire model except for the heat source. The heat source region (heat flux of 0.0 8.0 0.0 FFE 37.57 W/mm-°C.754 98.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find radii and thicknesses of plates and pipes of the cooling system.995 68.0 8.0 HSTAR 37.436 50 ≤ 77.0 1.317 FFE 13.0 Design Variables Optimization Parameters Objective Function Constraints Weight Temp 1 Temp 2 Temp 3 In de x 5-20 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .1 0.436 50 ≤ 77.0 1.33 ≤ 100 50 ≤ 76. A convection of 0.0 1. The material conductivity is 0.1 Tolerance 0.602 68.

5 ≤ 250 125 ≤ 222.04 0.7 123.0 3.0 3.57 W/mm-°C. A convection of 0.02 W/mm3 are applied for the entire model.4367 55.0003 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50 °C and a volume heat of 0. T (see page 5-2).44 125 ≤ 222.45 0.12 Tolerance 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSHT3: Thermal Analysis of a Simplified Mechanical Part KEYWORDS: Shape. TW P la n H TW I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Mode l PROBLEM: Find dimensions and thicknesses of the mechanical part.0 Optimization Parameters Objective Function Constraints Volume 69405. and temperature constraint. thermal analysis. constraints and the objective function are shown below.0 HSTAR FFE 2. The material conductivity is 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables TW H T Initial Value(s) and Bounds 2≤6≤6 55 ≤ 100 ≤ 100 3 ≤ 15 ≤ 15 HSTAR FFE 69405.57 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-21 .434 55.3 Final Value(s) HSTAR 2. minimum volume.3 Temp 17030.001 (Ratio) 1. The initial values and bounds of design variables. TETRA10.75 17046.0 FFE Tolerance 0.27 ≤ 250 123.

62531 151. Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find the thickness of an infinitely large slab. and temperature constraint.01 (Ratio) 1.71 ≤ 150 Final Value(s) 5.47 Tolerance 0. The temperature of the left side is suddenly raised to 200 °F and returns to the initial temperature of 100 °F after 10 seconds. The initial values and bounds of design variables. temperature-dependent conductivity. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints H Volume Temp Initial Value(s) and Bounds 5 ≤ 20≤ 20 20 0 ≤ 104.0" H Initial P roble m Ge ome try (see page 5-2). The specific heat is constant (C = 8 BTU in/lb-s2 °F).6253 5. minimum volume. transient thermal analysis. The thermal conductivity K is assumed to vary linearly with temperature. T.15 0. constraints and objective function are shown below.50 In de x 5-22 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSHT4: Transient Temperature – Dependent Heat Conduction of a Slab KEYWORDS: Shape. PLANE2D. (K = 2 + 0.01 T BTU/in-s °F). 1.

Poisson's ration is 0. minimum volume.5 ≤ 2 ≤ 2.01 0. automatic time stepping.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSN1: Nonlinear Analysis of a Thick-walled Pipe KEYWORDS: Shape. nonlinear analysis.3.5 2. The initial values and bounds of design variables. constraints and objective function are shown below.0795 23.666 psi. von Mises plasticity. yield stress is 17.23 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-23 .01 (Ratio) 0.007 Tolerance 0. and stress constraint.396 ≤ 23 Final Value(s) 1.32 psi and tangential modulus is 866 psi. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints ROUT Volume von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 1. (see page 5-2).34716 0 ≤ 17. The modulus of elasticity is 86. PLANE2D. Rint Rout Initial P roble m Ge ome try Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find the pipe's outer diameter.5427 1.

5615" 0. rubber.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSN2: Nonlinear Analysis of a Rubber Circular Ring KEYWORDS: Shape. contact.3" 0. automatic time stepping. axisymmetric PLANE2D.3" (see page 5-2).5615" 0.278" 0.3475" 0. nonlinear analysis. and stress constraint. minimum volume. Initial P roble m Ge ome try 2 R Cross Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh In de x 5-24 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . prescribed displacement. Mooney model. Top Steel Plate Rubber Ring Bottom Steel Plate 0.

the Mooney's constants are 175 and 10 psi and Poisson's ratio is 0.139 ≤ 0.5 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-25 . For rubber.001 0. the Young's modulus is 30 x 106 psi.37 Tolerance 0.01 (Ratio) 4. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints RCROSS Volume (rubber) von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.01.49. constraints and objective function are shown below.03 0 ≤ 209.30. The coefficient of friction is 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Find the cross-section radius of a circular rubber ring squeezed between two parallel steel plates.05 ≤ 0.00749278 453. The initial values and bounds of design variables. and Poisson's ratio is 0.069462 0.15 0.218 ≤ 450 Final Value(s) 0. For steal plates.

frequency analysis.5 r=5 6 dv1 6 dv2 100. I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x 5-26 COSMOSM Advanced Modules 25 .Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSFS1: Stress and Frequency Analysis of a Bracket KEYWORDS: Shape.0 8 . minimum volume.5 25 dv3 175.5 Note: All dimensions in milimeters. 12. stress constraint.Node P LANE 2 D Me s h ( S iz e = 4 ) Thickness Pressure E ν Density = 10 mm = 5 N/mm 2 = 200. multidisciplinary optimization. Pressure (see page 5-2). and frequency constraint. 8-node PLANE2D.3 = 0. static analysis.00785 gm/mm 3 12.000 N/mm 2 = 0.0 6 Y r=5 X 12.

52 1.05 (Ratio) 15.0 22. A pressure of 5 N/mm2 is applied to the top edge of the bracket.012 Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-27 .0 0.8613 ≤ 3 Final Value(s) 25. The initial values and bounds of design variables. modulus of elasticity is 200.063.8 ≤ 2.0 10.0 76.7978 Tolerance 2.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Find size and location of the cutout.000 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.794 0 ≤ 94.3. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters DV1 DV2 DV3 Volume von Mises stress Fundamental frequency Initial Value(s) and Bounds 10 ≤ 25 ≤ 25 10 ≤ 25 ≤ 25 20 ≤ 50 ≤ 50 106. The material density is 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below. The bracket thickness is 10 mm.0 0.00785 gm/mm3.12 ≤ 300 1.0 2.0 2.64 241.

Chapter 5 Additional Problems

**OPSBS1: Stress and Buckling Analysis of a C-shape Column
**

KEYWORDS: Shape, stress analysis, buckling analysis, multidisciplinary optimization, SHELL3, minimum volume, buckling load factor constraint, and stress constraint.

Fixed T1 Fillet (T2 /4) Element Size Thickness Material E T1 ν ρ S HE LL3 = = = = 3 in 0. 25 in A_Steel 3 x 107 psi

(see page 5-2).

B = 20" T2

= 0.28 -3 2 4 = 0.73 x 10 lbf sec /in

0.18h

T2

T1

A = 6"

0.32h

T2

C = 3"

h = 20"

0.32h

I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h

0.18h

p= 5,000 psi

In de x

5-28

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization

PROBLEM: Find size of the column cutouts. The cross section thickness is 0.25 in., modulus of elasticity is 3E7 psi, and Poisson's ratio is 0.28. A pressure of 5000 psi is applied to the column's face. The initial values and bounds of design variables, constraints and the objective function are shown below. SUMMARY OF RESULTS:

Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T1 T2 Volume von Mises stress Buckling load factor Initial Value(s) and Bounds 1 ≤ 5 ≤ 35 1 ≤ 5 ≤ 12 1018.15 0 ≤ 8,729 ≤ 22,000 1.8 ≤ 2.87 ≤ 10 Final Value(s) 35.0 9.8635 780.98 19,125 1.8012 Tolerance 0.34 0.11 0.01 (Ratio) 220 0.02

In de x

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

5-29

Chapter 5 Additional Problems

**OPSTS1: Stress and Thermal Analysis of a Mechanical Part
**

KEYWORDS: Shape, static analysis, thermal analysis, multidisciplinary optimization, TETRA4R, minimum volume, temperature constraint, and stress constraint.

T

(see page 5-2).

TW

P la n

H TW

Initial P roble m Ge ome try

Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh

PROBLEM: Find dimensions and thicknesses of the mechanical part. The material conductivity is 0.57 W/mm-°C. A convection of 0.0003 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50 °C and a volume heat of 0.02 W/mm3-°C are applied for the entire model. The modulus of elasticity is 1E07 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.30. The initial values and bounds of design variables, constraints and the objective function are shown below. SUMMARY OF RESULTS:

Optimization Parameters TW H T Volume von Mises stress Temperature Initial Value(s) and Bounds 2≤6≤6 55 ≤ 100 ≤ 100 3 ≤ 15 ≤ 15 69,599.5 0 ≤ 8752.45 ≤ 9000 125 ≤ 222.658 ≤ 250 Final Value(s) 2.4053 55.0 3.0 17,017.8 6133.8 123.18 Tolerance 0.04 0.45 0.12 0.001 (Ratio) 20.0 2.0

Design Variables Objective Function Constraints

In de x

5-30

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization

**OPSTSF1: Thermal, Static and Frequency Analysis of a Circular Disk
**

KEYWORDS: Shape, thermal analysis, static analysis, frequency analysis, multidisciplinary optimization, SHELL3, TEMPREAD command, minimum volume, temperature constraint, displacement constraint, and frequency constraint.

Heat Flux 0.1 W/mm 2

5

(see page 5-2).

10 5 5 10 Convection 0.0005 W/mm2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C

Radius

5 5

25 10

Initial P roble m Ge ome try

25 Heat Flux 0.1 W/mm 2 Convection 0.0 W/mm 2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C

3 - Node S he ll Me s h ( S iz e = 2 ) Thickness = 2 mm

Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh

In de x

COSMOSM Advanced Modules

5-31

0 0. Poisson's ratio is 0.0008 0. The modulus of elasticity is 200000 N/mm2.00785 gm/mm3. frequency Initial Value(s) and Bounds 30 ≤ 70 ≤ 70 33.09 ≤ 0.166 ≤ 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below.40 107. The initial values and bounds of design variables.08974 5. frequency Displ. The disk thickness is 2 mm. coefficient of thermal expansion is 0.859 11.57 W/mm°C.251.13E-4/°C and material density is 0.30.0015 (Ratio) 1.46 ≤ 140 0.0 ≤ 1. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints Radius Volume Temperature Displ.17 1.28985 Tolerance 1. The heat source regions (heat flux of 0.39 0. A convection of 0.07 In de x 5-32 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .96 50 ≤ 76.1 W/mm2) is assumed to have a convection of 0 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50 °C. and conductivity is 0.0 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find radius of the disk.0005 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50 °C is applied to the entire model except for the heat sources.139 ≤ 8 Final Value(s) 38.955.

TEMPREAD command. and displacement constraint.28 -3 2 4 = 0. thermal analysis.18h T2 T1 A = 6" 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSTSB1: Thermal. Static and Buckling Analysis of a Fixed Channel KEYWORDS: Shape. buckling analysis. multidisciplinary optimization. buckling load factor constraint. 25 in A_Steel 3 x 107 psi (see page 5-2). static analysis. B = 20" T2 = 0.18h In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-33 . Fixed T1 Fillet (T2 /4) Element Size Thickness Material E T1 ν ρ S HE LL3 = = = = 3 in 0.32h T2 C = 3" Fixed h = 120" 0.32h I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h 0. minimum volume.73 x 10 lbf sec /in 0. SHELL3.

The material conductivity is 6.0001 BTU/sec in2-°F with an ambient temperature of 50 °F and a volume heat of 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T1 T2 Volume Buckling factor Displacement Initial Value(s) and Bounds 1 ≤ 5 ≤ 35 1 ≤ 5 ≤ 12 1018.00 887.8432 ≤ 10 0. The material's coefficient of thermal expansion is 7. The cross section thickness is 0.257 12.25 in.6 ≤ 1.7E-4 BTU/in/s/°F.018 Final Value(s) 17. and Poisson's ratio is 0.018179 Tolerance 0.01102 ≤ 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below. modulus of elasticity is 3E7 psi.01 (Ratio) 0.15 1.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find size of the channel cutouts.005 BTU/sec in3 are applied for the entire model. A convection of 0.11 0.00018 In de x 5-34 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .157 3.0 ≤ 0.4E-6/°F The initial values and bounds of design variables.34 0.981 0.28.02 0.

heat flux.140625 BTU / (sec in in in) Radiation Source = 500° F Emissivity = 0. strain and temperature constraints.8 Thick Heat Flux = 0. minimum volume.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSTN1: Transient Thermal – Nonlinear Analysis of a Cylinder KEYWORDS: Shape. stress. constraints and objective function are shown below. prescribed temperature. nonlinear analysis. Convection _ Ambient Temperature = 200° F Firm Coefficient = 0. multi-disciplinary optimization. Element Heat = 0. convection. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-35 . element heat.9 View Factor = 0.0125 BTU / (sec in in) Initia l Ge ome try.1 BTU / (sec in in°F) Thick Temperature = 70° F (see page 5-2). radiation. transient thermal. von Mises plasticity. Axisymmetric PLANE2D. Steel alloy and Aluminum materials are used. Loa ds a nd Bounda ry C onditions ROUT Initia l Finite Ele me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find the radius and thickness of a cylinder subject to thermal loads and boundary conditions. The initial values and bounds of design variables.

015 0.0021032 ≤0.045 ≤ 50.999 0 ≤ 44.49 381.01 (Ratio) 500 300 1.213 ≤ 30.000 0 ≤ 30.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function ROUT THICK Volume von Mises 1 von Mises 2 Temp Effective Strain 1 Effective Strain 2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 5 ≤ 12 ≤ 12 0.001796 Tolerance 0. ≤ 413.66144 9.003445 0.003896 ≤ 0.07 0.01 Final Value(s) 5 0.63 ≤ 450 0 ≤ 0.5 ≤ 2 ≤ 2 39.81 30152.000 350.4841 38954.0 1 x 10-4 1 x 10-4 Constraints In de x 5-36 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .01 0 ≤0.429 0.

displacement. minimum volume design. 4-noded PLANE2D elements.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSFDS1: Harmonic Response Analysis of a Culvert KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. dynamic stress analysis. multidisciplinary optimization. Initial Problem Geometry Initial Finite Element Mesh In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-37 . (see page 5-2). post-dynamic analysis (harmonic response). and stress constraints. frequency. shape optimization.

8 15.268 1. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints DV1 DV2 Volume Frequency (1st) Displacement (Uy) Stress (von Mises) Initial Value(s) and Bounds 20 ≤ 20 ≤ 35 1.3333 1954.01 (ratio) 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find the radius R and slope s of a culvert. The input data regarding optimization as well as the converged results are listed in the following table.5 5 ≤ 16. The material constants of the culvert are given as: Young’s modulus E = 30E6 psi.0429 ≤ 0. A harmonic pressure loading with constant amplitude 500 psi within the desired range of frequency (1 rad/sec .6893E4 ≤ 5E4 Final Value(s) 23.179 ≤ 20 0 ≤ 0.470 0.3333 ≤ 2 ≤ 2 2575.400 rad/sec) is applied to the top of the culvert. Note that the displacement and stress constraints are defined as the extreme values within the desired range of frequency. A modal damping 0.3.7637E4 Tolerance 0.05 0 ≤ 4. and Density ρ = 1 lb*sec2/in4. In de x 5-38 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .6667E-3 0.15 6.E-4 500. Poisson’s ratio υ = 0.015 is assumed for the first 10 modes.05021 4.15 5.

multidisciplinary optimization. 6-noded TRIANG elements. Initial Finite Element Mesh Initial Problem Geometry In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-39 . minimum volume design.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSFDS2: Random Vibration Analysis of a Lever Arm KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. post-dynamic analysis (random vibration). (see page 5-2). and stress constraints. shape optimization. displacement. frequency. dynamic stress analysis.

Chapter 5 Additional Problems Base Excitation versus Frequency Curve Pressure Loading versus Frequency Curve In de x 5-40 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

Both harmonic pressure loading and base excitation (acceleration) in the y-direction are applied to the structure as shown in the figure.6325 29.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Find the hyperbolic arc parameter RATIO and thickness T2 of a lever arm. The input data regarding optimization as well as the converged results are listed in the following table.5 ≤ 0.E-7 125.1893E4 ≤ 1.2624E4 Tolerance 2.35 0.0 in.5E-3 0.5 ≤ 0.1874E-5 ≤ 3. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-41 . Note that the displacement constraint is defined as the extreme value of PSD within the desired range of frequency and the stress constraint is the extreme value of RMS.25 3.6078 82.782 1.008E4 75 ≤ 92. The arm is made of A_STEEL and has a uniform thickness 1.377 ≤ 100 0 ≤ 3.75 15 ≤ 40 ≤ 50 2.25E4 Final Value(s) 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints DV1 DV2 Volume Frequency (1st) Displacement (Uy) Stress (von Mises) Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.01 (ratio) 0.089 2.5.5E-5 0 ≤ 1.1262E-5 1. A modal damping 3% is assumed for the first 5 modes.

Initial Problem Geometry Initial Finite Element Mesh In de x 5-42 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . and stress constraints. SHELL4 elements. and response spectrum analysis). maximum volume design. frequency. displacement. (see page 5-2). response spectrum generation. multidisciplinary optimization. post-dynamic analysis (time history analysis. shape optimization.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSFDS3: Response Spectrum Analysis of a Trophy Setting on a Table KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. dynamic stress analysis.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Geometry of a Table Impulsive Base Excitation (for Table) In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-43 .

3549 ≤ 0. 2. A design optimization of the trophy in the response spectrum analysis is performed where the spectrum generated previously is used to excite the trophy in the form of acceleration base excitation. The input data regarding optimization as well as the converged results are listed in the following table.12 0.75 10. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters DV1 DV2 DV3 DV4 Volume Frequency (1st) Displacement (Ux) Stress (von Mises) Initial Value(s) and Bounds 4≤5≤8 8 ≤ 10 ≤ 20 8 ≤ 10 ≤ 15 15 ≤ 20 ≤ 25 377. A maximum acceleration response spectrum is generated from the previous results.005 250 Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x 5-44 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Note that the displacement and stress constraints are defined as the extreme values by using the SRSS mode combination method. 3.49 10 ≤ 27.1 0. Both structures are made of A_STEEP.01 (ratio) 0.994 20 8 25 1229.3 0.5019 1.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find the radii (R2 and R3) and heights (H3 and H4) of a trophy which is setting on the top level of a table at the point P. Maximum Response Spectrum Generation (for Trophy) A time history analysis of the table is performed where an impulsive displacement base excitation in the xdirection is applied.935 0. The trophy has a 5% critical damping.04 0. This problem is solved in three steps: 1.5E4 Final Value(s) 4.9645E4 Tolerance 0.849E4 ≤ 2.043 ≤ 40 0 ≤ 0.5 0 ≤ 1.07 0.

minimum volume design. (see page 5-2). multidisciplinary optimization. shape optimization. and stress constraints. 4noded PLANE2D elements. nonlinear elastoplastic analysis.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPSTNFT1: Fatigue Analysis of a Nozzle Under a Cyclic Temperature Loading KEYWORDS: Transient thermal analysis. fatigue usage factor. displacement. fatigue analysis. Initial Finite Element Mesh Initial Problem Geometry In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-45 .

Chapter 5 Additional Problems Temperature Variation Cycle Fatigue Design Curve (S-N Curve) In de x 5-46 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

a fatigue analysis is performed. The nodal temperatures of the structure are evaluated at each time interval 0.1030 < 0. respectively.824 0. and specific heat C = 40 BTU*in/(lb*hr2*°F). 2.25 < 1 < 1 23.01144 1.3. One complete cycle of this heat-up condition is shown in the figure.0 1.2 hours). 3. Applying the nodal temperatures obtained from the transient thermal analysis to the structure.5E-3 1.1 BTU/(in*hr*°F).219 0 < 0. are estimated at node N on the exterior surface of the nozzle and the resultant displacement is defined as the extreme value within the desired range of time (0 . Note that the constraints.5E4 Final Value(s) 3.1523E4 < 1.25 12. The reference temperature Tref is 60 °F. and T3 of a circular nozzle.5116E4 Tolerance 0. The convection coefficient h and the adjacent ambient temperature Ta for the exterior and interior surfaces of the nozzle are 1 and 5 BTU/(in2*hr*°F) and 60 and 1 °F.02 0.01 hours for a total time 0. yield stress σy = 1E4 psi.01057 < 0.012 0 < 1.15 0 < 0.1708 0. T2. A specified fatigue design curve (S-N curve) is shown in the figure. fatigue usage factor and von Mises stress.1491 0. tangent modulus ET = 3E6 psi. Assuming that the nozzle is exposed to a fluid heat-up condition which is expected to occur 5000 times during its service life.0.01 (ratio) 1. density ρ = 3E-4 lb*hr2/in4. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters DV1 DV2 DV3 Volume Fatigue Usage Factor Displacement (Ures) Stress (von Mises) Initial Value(s) and Bounds 3<5<5 1<2<2 0. The material constants of the nozzle are given as: Young’s modulus E = 3E7 psi. a nonlinear elastoplastic analysis is performed. coefficient of thermal expansion α = 8E-6 1/°F. The problem is solved in three steps: 1.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Find the thickness parameters T1.2E-4 150 Design Variable Objective Function Constraints In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-47 . Poisson’s ratio υ =0. A transient thermal analysis is performed with the initial temperature T0 equal to 60 °F.2 hours.01 7. The input data regarding optimization as well as the converged results are listed in the following table. With the stresses obtained from the nonlinear analysis. thermal conductivity Kx = 0.5E-3 0.

displacement. shape/sizing optimization. minimum volume design. frequency. and stress constraints. post-dynamic analysis (modal time history). fatigue analysis. Initial Problem Geometry Initial Finite Element Mesh In de x 5-48 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPSFDSFT1: Fatigue Analysis of a Curved Pipe Under a Cyclic Pressure Loading KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. (see page 5-2). dynamic stress analysis. SHELL4 elements. multidisciplinary optimization. fatigue usage factor.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Pressure Variation Cycle Fatigue Design Curve (S-N Curve) In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-49 .

25 ≤ 1 ≤ 1 0.07713 ≤ 0.28 ≤ 150 0 ≤ 0.05 sec are recorded.1122 ≤ 0. The input data regarding optimization as well as the converged results are listed in the following table.E-4 0.05 ≤ 0.0739 2. A varying internal pressure loading is applied to the pipe which is expected to occur 10000 and 2000 times during its service life. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters DV1 DV2 DV3 Volume Frequency (1st) Fatigue Usage Factor Displacement (Ures) Stress (von Mises) Initial Value(s) and Bounds 1.1 ≤ 0. and thickness THICK of a curved pipe.930 50 ≤ 146.01 7.1085 0.0.05 sec).5E-3 5.15 0 ≤ 0. The responses during a total range of time 0.5 ≤ 2.E-3 500 Design Variable Objective Function Constraints In de x 5-50 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .05 is assumed for the first 5 modes. The problem is solved in two steps: 1.5 0.01 (ratio) 1 1.5 ≤ 2.3 0 ≤ 2. Note that the constraint.5E-3 3. fatigue usage factor. One complete cycle of this loading is shown in the figure.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Find the dimension parameters CURL. A specified fatigue design curve (S-N curve) is shown in the figure.25 0. is the extreme value among all the nodes and the resultant displacement and von Mises stress are defined as the extreme value within the desired range of time (0 . A modal damping 0.3012 2.7786E4 ≤ 5E4 Final Value(s) 1.882 0.5789 50.5 0. A modal time history analysis of the pipe is performed with the prescribed pressure loading.1 14.8889E4 Tolerance 0. With the stresses obtained from the dynamic stress analysis. 2. a fatigue analysis is performed. RADIUS. The pipe is made of A_STEEL.

Sizing Optimization Problems In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-51 .

00001 In de x 5-52 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . E = 5 psi F = 10 lbs Area = A 1 (see page 5-2).Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST1: Minimum Volume of a 1-bar Truss Subject to Stress Constraint KEYWORDS: Sizing.5 ≤ 10 ≤ 20 Final Value(s) 0.001 (Ratio) 0.0 1. The length of the bar is 1 in.50005 0. minimum volume. The initial values and bounds of design variables. static analysis.25 ≤ 1.0075 0. and stress constraint. 1" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find the minimum volume of a 1-bar truss subject to a concentrated force of 10 lb. TRUSS2D. and modulus of elasticity is 5 psi.0 ≤ 1.998 Tolerance 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below.50005 19. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints A1 Volume Max stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.0 0.

static analysis.25 ≤ 1. Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find the minimum volume of a 1-truss element subject to a concentrated force of 10 lb.0 1. The initial values and bounds of design variables.0 1≤2≤4 Final Value(s) 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST2: Minimum Volume of a 1-bar Truss Subject to Displacement Constraint KEYWORDS: Sizing. constraints and the objective function are shown below. minimum volume.03 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-53 . TRUSS2D. The length of the bar is 1 in.018 Tolerance 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints A1 Volume Max displacement Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.49776 0. and displacement constraint.0 ≤ 1. E = 5 psi F = 10 lbs Area = A 1 1" P roble m G e ome t ry (see page 5-2).49776 4.001 (Ratio) 0.0075 0. and modulus of elasticity is 5 psi.

179 20. static analysis. and stress constraint.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST3: Minimum Volume of a 3-bar Statically Determinate Truss Subject to Stress Constraints KEYWORDS: Sizing. 2 σx 3 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.071 ≤ 20.0 76.001 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below.025 (Ratio) 150 150 A1 20" (see page 5-2). The initial values and bounds of design variables. The modulus of elasticity is 1E7 psi. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints A1 = A2 A3 Volume σx 1.073 Tolerance 0.0 ≤ 4.5685 -15.001 0.000 lbs P roble m G e ome t ry In de x 5-54 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . PROBLEM: Find the minimum volume of a 3bar truss subject to a concentrated force of 20.70394 0. minimum volume.0 ≤ 4.000 Final Value(s) 0.50 ≤ 1.66342 33.0 0.000 lb.090 -15. A3 A2 10" 20.50 ≤ 2. TRUSS2D.000 ≤ -10.000 ≤ 20.000 ≤ 7.000 -15.

0 ≤ 100 4.612 ≤ 20000 Final Value(s) 0.6665 2.01 0.001 (Ratio) 150 150 150 10" A1 A2 A3 = A1 10" 10" (see page 5-2).0 ≤ 100 0.000 lb applied in two distinct load cases.025 Tolerance 0.10 ≤ 1.8284 -15000 ≤ 12. constraints and the objective function are shown below. The initial values and bounds of design variables.10 ≤ 2. 20.224 ≤ 20000 -15000 ≤ 12.01 0.025 12. PROBLEM: Find the minimum weight of a 3-bar truss subject to concentrated forces of 20. TRUSS2D.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST4: Minimum Weight of a 3-bar Statically Indeterminate Truss Subject to Stress Constraints – Multiple Load Cases KEYWORDS: Sizing. minimum weight. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints A1 A2 Weight σx 1 σx 2 σx 3 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. The modulus of elasticity is 1E7 psi.000 lbs (Load Case 1) P roble m G e ome t ry In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-55 .7147 0. and multiple load cases. and stress constraint.612 ≤ 20000 -15000 ≤ 5. static analysis.000 lbs (Load Case 2) 20.6881 20.068 20.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters A1 A2 A3 A4 Weight σx 1 σx 2 σx 3 σx 4 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.879 -25 ≤ -12.360 ≤ 25 -25 ≤ -16. TRUSS3D. and Z directions.001 0. Y.165 ≤ 25 -25 ≤ -21.530 ≤ 25 -25 ≤ -11.25 0.001 ≤ 1.10 lb/in3.163 -25.2703 -25. and stress constraint.25 0.0 ≤ 2 0.0 ≤ 2 0.0 ≤ 2 101.4708 1. constraints and the objective function are shown below. minimum weight.2976 0. PROBLEM: Find the minimum weight of a 4-bar truss subject to concentrated forces in X. The initial values and bounds of design variables.001 ≤ 1.207 Tolerance 0.001 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST5: Minimum Weight of a 4-bar Statically Indeterminate Truss Subject To Stress Constraints KEYWORDS: Sizing.001 (Ratio) 0.25 60 K 20 K 10 K A3 A2 A4 A1 Y 120" Z P roble m G e ome t ry X 60" 144" 96" (see page 5-3). The modulus of elasticity is 1E4 ksi and the material density is 0.001 0.25 0. 72" Design Variables Objective Function Constraints In de x 5-56 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .001 0. static analysis.89 ≤ 25 Final Value(s) 0.7078 1.0 ≤ 2 0.001 ≤ 2.4873 65.001 ≤ 2.205 -25.18 -25.

and material density is 0.001 0. modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi.344 Tolerance 0.. B1 Z X 100 5" 5" 50" Finit e E le me nt Me s h 50" B2 P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: A cantilever beam is subject to a concentrated load at the tip.4614 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints B1 B2 Displacement UY Weight Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. Find the beam widths (in each half) maintaining a uniform height of the beam.5 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-57 .001 0.01 ≤ 1.01 ≤ 0. Y (see page 5-3).55234 0.2640145 50.1 lb/in3.25 ≤ 50 Final Value(s) 1. constraints and the objective function are shown below. The beam length is 100 in.0 ≤ 5 0. static analysis. The initial values and bounds of design variables. and weight constraint..25 ≤ 5 0. BEAM2D.001 (Ratio) 0. minimum displacement.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST6: Minimum Displacement of a Cantilever Subject to Weight Constraint – Beam Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.44 1 ≤ 31. height is 5 in.

93745 10. static analysis.1 lb/in3. and stress constraint. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints B1 B2 Weight σx 1 σx 2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. height is 5 in.001 0. The beam length is 100 in.070 Tolerance 0.. Y Z X B2 5" 5" 50" Finit e E le me nt Me s h 50" 100 P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: A cantilever beam is subject to a concentrated load at the tip.01 ≤ 3 ≤ 5 0.01 (Ratio) 100 100 In de x 5-58 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . constraints and the objective function are shown below. modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi.01 ≤ 3 ≤ 5 150 -10000 ≤ 800 ≤ 10000 -10000 ≤ 400 ≤ 10000 Final Value(s) 0. minimum weight. B1 (see page 5-3)..070 10. BEAM2D. and material density is 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST7: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Subject to Stress Constraint – Beam Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.001 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables.11917 8.23833 0. Find the beam widths (in each half) maintaining a uniform height of the beam. beam width.

01 0.070 Tolerance 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints H1 H2 Weight σx 1 σx 2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. minimum weight.070 10. BEAM2D. constraints and the objective function are shown below.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST8: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Subject to Stress Constraint – Beam Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. and material density is 0. modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi.1 lb/in3. The beam length is 100 in.588 10.7719 46.01 ≤ 2 ≤ 10 100 -10000 ≤ 3000 ≤ 10000 -10000 ≤ 1500 ≤ 10000 Final Value(s) 1.01 ≤ 2 ≤ 10 0. Find the beam heights (in each half) maintaining a uniform width of the beam.. 5" Z X 1 2 5" H1 50" Finit e E le me nt Me s h 50" H2 100 P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: A cantilever beam is subject to a concentrated load at the tip.001 (Ratio) 100 100 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-59 . and stress constraint.0916 0. Y (see page 5-3). width is 5 in. static analysis.01 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables. beam height.

minimum weight. The initial values and bounds of design variables.002 In de x 5-60 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Y Z X B H = 2B 100" 50" Finit e E le me nt Me s h P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: A 3D frame is subject to a concentrated load at the tip. The modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi.10 Final Value(s) 3. (see page 5-3). BEAM3D.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST9: Minimum Weight of a Frame Subject to Displacement Constraint – Beam Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.7370 7. and material density is 0.1 ≤ 6 ≤ 10 — 1080 -0.1018 Tolerance 0.96 -0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints B H = 2B Weight UY Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.01536 ≤ 0.001 (Ratio) 0.01 — 0. static analysis.1 lb/in3.4740 418.10 ≤ -0. and displacement constraint. constraints and the objective function are shown below. Find the frame height and width given that width-to-height ratio is equal to the initial ratio.

01 ≤ 50 ≤ 100 Final Value(s) 0. minimum stress. and weight constraint. bending. PROBLEM: Find the thickness of a 100 x 50 inch plate subject to pressure of 1 psi.01 ≤ 0. static analysis. Poisson's ratio is 0.001 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) von Mises stress Weight Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. The modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi. SHELL3.001 (Ratio) 1.7 Tolerance 0. and material density is 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST10: Minimum Stress of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate Subject to Weight Constraint – Shell Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.0 50" P = 1 psi T = Thickness (see page 5-3).649 100.1 ≤ 1 132.432 0.3. 100" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-61 . The initial values and bounds of design variables.1 lb/in3.2014 32.

08 ≤ 1700 Final Value(s) 0.1 lb/in3.001 (Ratio) 20.9 Tolerance 0. and stress constraint. The modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi.388 1714. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: P = 1 psi T = Thickness 100" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Weight von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.87877 439. constraints and the objective function are shown below. PROBLEM: Find the thickness of a 100 x 50 inch plate subject to pressure of 1 psi. The initial values and bounds of design variables. static analysis. SHELL3.3. and material density is 0. Poisson's ratio is 0. minimum weight. 50" (see page 5-3).02 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST11: Minimum Weight of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate Subject to Stress Constraint – Shell Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.01 ≤ 2 ≤ 2 1000 10 ≤ 331.0 In de x 5-62 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Weight Displacement UZ Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.3. static analysis.1 lb/in3. The initial values and bounds of design variables.10 Final Value(s) 0.87757 438.002 (see page 5-3).Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST12: Minimum Weight of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate Subject to Displacement Constraint – Shell Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. PROBLEM: Find the thickness of a 100 x 50 inch plate subject to pressure of 1 psi. 50" P = 1 psi T = Thickness 100" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-63 .01 ≤ 2 ≤ 5 1000 -0. constraints and the objective function are shown below.001 (Ratio) 0.1017 Tolerance 0.01 0. and material density is 0.10 ≤ -0. The modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi. SHELL3. minimum weight. Poisson's ratio is 0.0086 ≤ 0.78 -0. and displacement constraint. bending.

5" 1 2 50" P roble m G e ome t ry 50" Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find the cantilever plate thickness for each half. 100 lbs (see page 5-3).069 Tolerance 0.01 ≤ 2 ≤ 2 100 -10000 ≤ 1200 ≤ 10.86944 10.01 ≤ 2 ≤ 2 0.001 (Ratio) 100 100 In de x 5-64 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .11628 8.001 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below.1 lb/in3..23850 0. and stress constraint. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints B1 B2 Weight von Mises 1 von Mises 2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. 8-node PLANE2D. minimum weight.001 0. The cantilever length is 100 in. height is 5 in. static analysis. and material density is 0.. modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST13: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Plate Subject to Stress Constraint – Quadrilateral Continuum Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.000 -10000 ≤ 600 ≤ 10.000 Final Value(s) 0. Poisson's ratio is 0.070 10. The initial values and bounds of design variables.

01 ≤ 0. 1" T = Thickness 1 psi Finit e E le me nt Me s h 1" P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: Find the plate thickness. The plate length is 1 inch. (see page 5-3).4 Final Value(s) 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST14: Minimum Volume of a Plate Subject to Displacement Constraint – Triangular Continuum Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.2 ≤ 0.50025 0. modulus of elasticity is 5 psi.1 ≤ 1 ≤ 2 1.01 0. static analysis.50025 0.001 (Ratio) 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables.0 0. height is 1 inch. and displacement constraint. 3-node TRIANG. constraints and the objective function are shown below.3998 Tolerance 0. minimum weight. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Volume Displacement UX Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. and Poisson's ratio is 0.001 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-65 .

SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Volume Stress σx Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. and stress constraint.1 ≤ 1 ≤ 2 1.499 0.1 ≤ 1.01 In de x 5-66 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . and Poisson's ratio is 0. modulus of elasticity is 5 psi.001 (Ratio) 0.004 Tolerance 0.0 Final Value(s) 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below. 1" T = Thickness 1 psi Finit e E le me nt Me s h 1" P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: Find the plate thickness.0 ≤ 2. (see page 5-3).Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST15: Minimum Volume of a Plate Subject to Stress Constraint – Triangular Continuum Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. 3-node TRIANG. height is 1 inch.0 0. minimum weight.01 0. static analysis.499 2. The initial values and bounds of design variables. The plate length is 1 inch.

5 -2 ≤ 1. and stress constraint. and Poisson's ratio is 0. height is 1 inch.01 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-67 . minimum volume.7512 1. (see page 5-3).Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST16: Minimum Volume of a Plate Subject to Stress Constraint – Quadrilateral Continuum Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T1 (Thickness) T2 (Thickness) Volume Stress σx 1 Stress σx 2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.0034 0. modulus of elasticity is 5 psi. 8-node PLANE2D.9932 2.004 Tolerance 0.1 ≤ 1 ≤ 2 1. The plate length is 1 inch.0 ≤ 2 -2 ≤ 1.499 0.01 0. Thickness T1 Thickness T2 1 psi 1" Finit e E le me nt Me s h 0.0 ≤ 2 Final Value(s) 1. static analysis.01 0.01 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables. constraints and the objective function are shown below.1 ≤ 2 ≤ 2 0.5" 0.5" P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: Find the plate thickness for each half.001 (Ratio) 0.

T = Thickness 1 psi 1" Finit e E le me nt Me s h 1" P roble m G e ome t ry PROBLEM: Find the plate thickness.50126 0.0 0 ≤ 1. minimum volume.0 ≤ 2.50126 1. constraints and the objective function are shown below. height is 1 inch. (see page 5-3).001 (Ratio) 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables.001 In de x 5-68 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .01 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST17: Minimum Volume of a Plate Subject to Stress Constraint – Quadrilateral Continuum Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. static analysis.995 Tolerance 0. The plate length is 1 inch. modulus of elasticity is 5 psi. and Poisson's ratio is 0.0 Final Value(s) 0. 4-node PLANE2D. and stress constraint.1 ≤ 1 ≤ 1 1. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Volume von Mises stress Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.

The initial values and bounds of design variables.28E-4 Final Value(s) 0. static analysis.01 ≤ 2 ≤ 5 1000 2. constraints and the objective function are shown below.0E-5 ≤ 2.01 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Weight Effective Strain Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. bending.001 (Ratio) 1. PROBLEM: Find the thickness of a 100 x 50 inch plate subject to pressure of 1 psi. and material density is 0.3.1 lb/in3. and effective strain constraint.87699 438.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST18: Minimum Weight of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate Subject to Effective Strain Constraint – Shell Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.08E-6 (see page 5-3).47E-5 ≤ 1.495 1. Poisson's ratio is 0. SHELL3.287E-4 Tolerance 0. 50" P = 1 psi T = Thickness 100" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-69 . The modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi. minimum weight.

1 lb/in3.00059 (see page 5-3).01 ≤ 2 ≤ 5 1000 0 ≤ 0.550 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below. and strain energy density constraint.3. Poisson's ratio is 0.01 0.059 Final Value(s) 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Weight Strain Energy Density Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. 50" P = 1 psi T = Thickness 100" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h In de x 5-70 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . SHELL3. The modulus of elasticity is 1E07 psi. bending. and material density is 0. PROBLEM: Find the thickness of a 100 x 50 inch plate subject to pressure of 1 psi. The initial values and bounds of design variables.0022 ≤ 0. minimum weight.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST19: Minimum Weight of a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate Subject to Strain Energy Density Constraint – Shell Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.8771 438.05941 Tolerance 0.001 (Ratio) 0. static analysis.

and Poisson's ratio is 0.000 ≤ 6. radius of cross-section.000 Final Value(s) 1.000 -10. The initial values and bounds of design variables. Radius Average Radius 1 Average Radius 2 100 (see page 5-3). SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints RAVE1 RAVE2 Volume σx1 σx2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.140 Tolerance 0.015 0.30. Find the pipe radii (in each half).6 ≤ 2 231. objectives function and constraints are shown below. 50" Thickness P roble m Ge ome try 50" Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: A cantilever pipe is subject to a concentrated load at the tip.015 0. minimum volume.5 ≤ 1.302 ≤ 10.2994 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZST20: Minimum Volume of a Cantilever Pipe Subject to Stress Constraint – Pipe Radius KEYWORDS: Sizing.6 ≤ 2 0.01 (Ratio) 200 200 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-71 .6925 -10. The cantilever length is 100 inches. PIPE.5 ≤ 1.151 ≤ 10.100 10.21 10.9650 158. static analysis.000 ≤ 3. modules of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi. and stress constraint.

The cantilever length is 100 inches. modules of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi. 50" P roble m Ge ome try 50" Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: A cantilever pipe is subject to a concentrated load at the tip.01 (Ratio) 200 200 In de x 5-72 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . and Poisson's ratio is 0.000 Final Value(s) 0. Find the pipe thickness (in each half).000 -10.3418 -10. minimum volume.149 10.005 0. Thickness 100 T1 T2 (see page 5-3). The initial values and bounds of design variables.005 0.000 ≤ 3.01 ≤ 0. PIPE.000 ≤ 4.1644 0.5 304.701 ≤ 10.68 10.5 0.25 ≤ 0.01 ≤ 0.50 ≤ 0. thickness of cross section.170 Tolerance 0.643 ≤ 10. and stress constraint. objectives function and constraints are shown below. static analysis.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZST21: Minimum Volume of a Cantilever Pipe Subject to Stress Constraint – Pipe Thickness KEYWORDS: Sizing. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T1 T2 Volume σx1 σx2 Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.07497 107.30.

6135 ≤ 4 Final Value(s) 4.8 ≤ 1. The initial values and bounds of design variables. constraints and the objective function are shown below. and fundamental frequency constraint.7924 Tolerance 0.01 (Ratio) 0. 1" (see page 5-3). BEAM2D. width is 1 inch. frequency analysis.10 lb/in3.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZFQ1: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Subject to Frequency Constraint – Beam Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.01 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-73 . The beam's length is 100 inches. E = 10 7 psi Cros s S e c t ion 100" P roble m G e ome t ry H Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find the height of a cantilever.1 ≤ 10 ≤ 20 100 0.109 0. modulus of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi and material density is 0.9109 49.01 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints H (Height) Weight Fundamental frequency Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. minimum weight.

The cantilever length is 100 in. and frequency constraint.24676 0.18494 9. minimum weight. frequency analysis.001 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below.01 (Ratio) 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables. and material density is 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints DV1 Weight Fundamental frequency Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.029989 Tolerance 0.03 ≤ 0.3243 ≤ 1 Final Value(s) 0.1 lb/in3.0001 In de x 5-74 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . (see page 5-3). SHELL4.1 ≤ 2 ≤ 3 100 0. modulus of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi. 5" 100" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find the cantilever plate thickness. height is 5 in.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZFQ2: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Subject to Frequency Constraint – Shell Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZFQ3: Minimum Weight of a Pipe Cantilever Subject to Frequency Constraint – Pipe Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints R Weight Fundamental frequency Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. The initial values and bounds of design variables.5 ≤ 2 21.1 lb/in3.. The cantilever length is 100 in.1 ≤ 1.018 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-75 .2 ≤ 0. and frequency constraint. PIPE. 100" P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find the pipe radius.063443 0. minimum weight.59846 0.5432 ≤ 2 Final Value(s) 0.57467 7. R (see page 5-3). radius of cross-section.18381 Tolerance 0.01 (Ratio) 0. constraints and the objective function are shown below. modulus of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi.019 0. frequency analysis. and material density is 0.

01 (Ratio) 0.000 lb Cros s S e c t ion 100" H P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find the height of a cantilever beam subject to a concentrated compressive force of 1000 lb The beam's length is 100 in. The initial values and bounds of design variables. buckling analysis. and buckling load factor constraint.101 21.10 lb/in3.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZBK1: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Subject to Buckling Load Factor Constraint – Beam Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. width is 5 in. constraints and the objective function are shown below.1 ≤ 5 ≤ 10 50 2 ≤ 25. BEAM2D.9060 Tolerance 0. minimum weight. E = 10 7 psi F = 1.001 0.007 1. modulus of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi and material density is 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints H (Height) Weight Buckling load factor Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. 1" (see page 5-4).702 ≤ 50 Final Value(s) 2.1 In de x 5-76 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

constraints and the objective function are shown below.001 0. SHELL4. height is 5 in. 250 lbs/ Node (see page 5-4). 5" 100" P roble m G e ome t ry Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Find the cantilever plate thickness.01 (Ratio) 0. and minimum weight. The cantilever length is 100 in. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Weight Buckling load factor Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. and material density is 0. buckling analysis.1 lb/in3. buckling constraint.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZBK2: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Subject to Buckling Constraint – Shell Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.9115 Tolerance 0.2604 ≤ 50 Final Value(s) 1. modulus of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi.2279 61.393 1. The initial values and bounds of design variables.1 ≤ 2 ≤ 3 100 2 ≤ 8.01 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-77 .

and buckling constraint. minimum weight.13 6. modulus of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi. 250 lbs/ Node 100" (see page 5-4).1 psi. The cantilever length is 100 inches. constraints and the objective function are shown below. The initial values and bounds of design variables.001 (Ratio) 0. and material density is 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints T (Thickness) Weight Buckling load factor Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0. height is 5 inches.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZBK3: Minimum Weight of a Cantilever Plate Subject to Buckling Constraint – Quadrilateral Continuum Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing. 5" P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find the cantilever plate thickness.66 ≤ 50 Final Value(s) 0.001 0.1 ≤ 1 ≤ 2 50 2 ≤ 14. buckling analysis. 8-node PLANE2D.1 In de x 5-78 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .50 1.906 Tolerance 0.

9624 Tolerance 0. R 1. radius of cross-section. 100" P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Find the pipe radius. modulus of elasticity is 1 x 107 psi.1242 15.000 lbs (see page 5-4).019 0. and linearized buckling constraint.1 lb/in3. buckling analysis.5 ≤ 2 21. minimum weight. PIPE.04 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-79 . The cantilever length is 100 in. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints R Weight Buckling load factor Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.0732 ≤ 6 Final Value(s) 1. constraints and the objective function are shown below. The initial values and bounds of design variables.598 2 ≤ 5.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZBK4: Minimum Weight of a Pipe Cantilever Subject to Buckling Load Constraint – Pipe Elements KEYWORDS: Sizing.1 ≤ 1. and material density is 0.696 1.01 (Ratio) 0.

θ]s Graphite-Epoxy laminated composite plate which is subject to a uniaxial edge pressure loading 1 psi. tensile and compressive strengths in the first material direction F1T = F1C = 2. Four cases are studied in which the aspect ratios of the dimension A to B are equal to 1. shear strength in the material first and second plane F12 = 9.49E6 psi.17E5 psi. Note that the optimum design is achieved without applying any constraint. 2.87E3 psi. SHELL4L elements. The material constants are given as: modulus of elasticity in the first material direction Ex = 26.27E6 psi. maximum buckling load factor λcr. 3. In de x 5-80 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . sizing optimization (ply orientation).Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZBK5: Maximum Buckling Load Design of a Graphite-epoxy Laminate KEYWORDS: Buckling analysis.57E4 psi. The input data regarding optimization as well as the converged results are listed in the following table. and 4.81E3 psi and F2C = 3. (see page 5-4). Poisson’s ratio υ = 0.28. modulus of elasticity in the second material direction Ey = Initial Problem Geometry and Finite Element Mesh 1.04E6 psi. shear modulus in the material first and second plane Gxy = 1. The total thickness of 8 plies is 1 inch. PROBLEM: Find the ply orientation θ of a 8-layer [θ / -θ / θ / . tensile and compressive strengths in the second material direction F2T = 5.

9 0.9 0.96 1. θ − Objective Function.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variable.146 948.01 (ratio) A/B Tolerance In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-81 .58 1.9 0.9 0.01 (ratio) 0.E-16 < 30 < 90 846.E-16 < 30 < 90 888.1 0.985 1062.E-16 < 30 < 90 965.96 41. λcr Initial Value(s) and Bounds 1 2 3 4 1.6 46.E-16 < 30 < 90 860.0 44.42 Final Value(s) 45.986 1193.01 (ratio) 0.768 1126.01 (ratio) 0.81 1.

ν R b θ R θ b θ Finite Ele me nt Find the thickness Me sh of a thin cylindrical shell.10 Rad (see page 5-4). PROBLEM: P = 1.7611 3. SHELL4. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Thickness Volume Limit Point Load Factor or Linearized Buckling Load Factor (userdefined) Initial Value(s) and Bounds 5 ≤ 10 ≤ 10 6.75 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.3.151 1.451412 x 105 50 ≤ 588. constraints and objective function are shown below. linearized buckling.10 0. and user-defined constraint.0 Thickness b E = 3102. The curved edges of the shell are free while the straight edges are hinged and immovable.0 In de x 5-82 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . snapthrough/snapback.Chapter 5 Additional Problems OPZNB1: Snap Buckling of a Thin Hinged Cylindrical Shell Under a Central Point Load KEYWORDS: Sizing. arc-length.39 ≤ 10. minimum volume. The modulus of elasticity is 3102. limit point.75 N/mm 2 = 0.01 (Ratio) Constraints 49. The initial values and bounds of design variables.7167E5 Tolerance 0.30 = 2540 mm = 254 mm = 0. nonlinear analysis.000 Final Value(s) 5.

post-dynamic analysis (time history analysis). multidisciplinary optimization. sizing optimization. (see page 5-4). SHELL4 elements. minimum strain design. frequency and mass constraints. dynamic stress analysis.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization OPZFDS1: Modal Time History Analysis of a Simply Supported Shell Structure KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. Initial Problem Geometry Initial Finite Element Mesh In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-83 .

6 sec). The input data regarding optimization as well as the converged results are listed in the following table.0 .9598 100. Final Value(s) 0. Note that the objective function.1 ≤ 1 5.01 (Ratio) 0. The material constants of the shell are given as: Young’s modulus E = 1E7 psi. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Optimization Parameters Design Variables Objective Function Constraints DV1 Effective Strain Frequency (1st) Mass Initial Value(s) and Bounds 0.7323E-4 3.Chapter 5 Additional Problems Pressure Loading versus Time Curve PROBLEM: Find the thickness t of a simply supported shell structure which is subject to an impulsive pressure loading 1 psi. effective strain.09 1. is defined as the extreme value within the desired range of time (0.6057E-4 1 ≤ 31560 ≤ 10 0.0 In de x 5-84 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .0.70 Tolerance 0.1927 2.01 ≤ 52.001 0.255 ≤ 100.01 ≤ 0. Poisson’s ratio υ = 0.1 lb*sec2/ in4.3. and Density ρ = 0.

Dominantly Shape Sensitivity Problems In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-85 .

modulus of elasticity is 200. Y 7 tw tr 2 dint tr1 140 Py I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of the steering control arm to changes in the thickness of the shafts.324 4.10 -0. size and location of the cutout.3 = 31 N/mm 2 20 30 X Internal surfaces fixed in all directions 20 (see page 5-4). stress response quantity.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNSST1: Sensitivity Study of a Steering Control Arm in Linear Stress Analysis KEYWORDS: Shape. The arm outer thickness is 20 mm. local sensitivity.000 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio is 0.10 +0. TETRA4.1946 -11. Z Note: All dimensions in milimeters.131 1. Perform a local sensitivity study by perturbing the design variables by a ratio of 0.10 Gradient of Maximum von Mises Stress -1.10.3820 In de x 5-86 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . static analysis.30 SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variables 1 2 3 4 Name TR1 TR2 TW DINT Initial Value 24 19 8 6 Perturbation Ratio -0.10 -0. Y TE TRA4 E LE ME NTS E ν Py = 2 x 105 N/mm 2 = 0.

Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SNSST2: Sensitivity Study of an Engine Bearing Cap in Stress Analysis Under Multiple Load Cases KEYWORDS: Shape. TETRA10. primary and secondary load cases.30 (see page 5-4).7975 0.6238 1.7547 -14.4428 -12.0633 0.10 -0. The bearing cap modulus of elasticity is 200.555 -2.000 N/mm2 and Poisson's ratio is 0. TWEB 1 0 -Node Te tra Me sh HUMP Symmetry Boundary Conditions Fixed E ν = 2 x 10 5 N/mm 2 = 0. and stress response quantity. SUMMARY OF RESULTS Design Variables Set No. Height Initial P roble m Ge ome try ECCENT Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of the bearing cap to changes in its dimensions. static analysis.10 Gradient of Max von Mises Stress Load Case 1 0.318 -1. 1 2 3 4 Name ECCENT TWEB HEIGHT HUMP Initial Value 75 10 70 15 Perturbation Ratio -0.10 -0.03275 2 1.6491 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-87 .10 -0.7607 0.30.10.4751 51 1. local sensitivity analysis. Perform a local sensitivity study by perturbing the design variables by a ratio of 0.1395 1.

frequency response quantity.0 3 .5 1.5 1. 1.662 In de x 5-88 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .5 T2 3.0075 Kg/cm3 (see page 5-4).6495 10. frequency analysis. modulus of elasticity is 2 x 107 N/cm2 Poisson's ratio is 0.5 – – – – T2 1.0 2.491 13.0 of the I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h fundamental frequency of the control arm bracket to changes in design variables.5 Note: All dimensions in centimeters.30 0.5 – – – – Fundamental Frequency (Hz) 8.0 r = 2.0 5.5 2.0075 Kg/cm3.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNSFQ1: Sensitivity Study of a Control Arm Bracket in Frequency Analysis KEYWORDS: Shape. and mass density is 0. Use the global sensitivity option by changing only one design variable at a time in 5 increments.5 1. 15.029 13.3 cm 2 x 107 N/cm2 0.0 PROBLEM: Y Fixed Study the sensitivity Fixed 5. SUMMARY OR RESULTS: Design Variables T1 0.5 Fundamental Frequency (Hz) 13. r = 1.798 12. The bracket thickness is 0.5 2.0 3.170 13.662 Design Variables T1 2.035 13.119 13.0 t2 X t1 1.5 3.329 13.0 t1 0.3 cm. SHELL3.0 2.0 1.3.Node Tria ngula r Me s h ( S iz e = 1 ) Thickness E ν ρ = = = = 0. global sensitivity.

32h I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h 0. linearized buckling analysis.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SNSBK1: Sensitivity Study of a C-shape Column in Linearized Buckling Analysis KEYWORDS: Shape.73 x 10 lbf sec /in 0. SHELL3.25 inches. and material density is 0.32h T2 C = 3" h = 120" 0. global sensitivity. 25 in A_Steel 3 x 107 psi (see page 5-4).28. buckling response quantity.18h p= 5. In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-89 .18h T2 T1 A = 6" 0. modulus of elasticity is 3 x 107 psi. The column thickness is 0.73 x 10-3 lb. B = 20" T2 = 0. Poisson's ratio is 0.28 -3 2 4 = 0.000 psi PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of the column's buckling load factor to changes in design variables. Fixed T1 Fillet (T2 /4) Element Size Thickness Material E T1 ν ρ S HE LL3 = = = = 3 in 0. sec2/in4. Change the design variables one at a time in 5 increments.

00 Linearized Buckling Load Factor 2.5992 2.00 6.4502 2.00 16.50 28.8069 2.8069 2.00 10 — — — — T2 5 — — — — 5.75 35.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SUMMARY OR RESULTS: Design Variables T1 10.25 12.5103 In de x 5-90 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .75 8.50 10.5432 2.7425 2.6475 2.25 22.7630 2.6785 2.

1 W/mm 2 Convection 0. Heat Flux 0.1 W/mm 2 5 (see page 5-4). global sensitivity.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SNSHT1: Sensitivity Study of a Circular Disk in Heat Transfer Analysis KEYWORDS: Shape and sizing. SHELL3. thermal analysis. temperature response quantity.0005 W/mm2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C Radius 5 5 25 10 Initial P roble m Ge ome try 25 Heat Flux 0.0 W/mm 2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C 3 .Node S he ll Me s h ( S iz e = 2 ) Thickness = 2 mm Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-91 . 10 5 5 10 Convection 0.

2878 77. The heat source regions (heat flux of 0.6308 In de x 5-92 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .250 1.875 1.6651 108.6308 111.8095 77.055 92.1 W/mm2) is assumed to have a convection of 0 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50° C. SUMMARY OR RESULTS: Design Variables Temperature Radius 30 40 50 60 70 70 – – – – Thickness 2 – – – – 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of the circular disk temperature to changes in thickness and radius of the model.000 144.324 91. The disk conductivity is 0.°C with an ambient temperature of 50°C is applied to the entire model except for the heat sources.5067 80.57 W/mm-°C.0005 W/mm2 .6635 82.2412 84.500 0. A convection of 0. Use the global sensitivity feature and change one design variable at a time.625 2.

nonlinear analysis. yield stress is 17.4911 17. automatic time stepping.3580 17.32 psi and tangential modulus is 866 psi. The modulus of elasticity is 86. global sensitivity. Poisson's ratio is 0.50 von Mises Stress 25.666 psi.50 1. von Mises plasticity.3962 17.75 2. (see page 5-4).Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SNSN1: Sensitivity Study of a Thick Walled Pipe in Nonlinear Analysis KEYWORDS: Shape. Rint Rout Initial P roble m Ge ome try Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of the pipe to changes in the outer radius. Use the global sensitivity feature for 5 increments. PLANE2D.3.25 2.0 2.3420 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-93 .0516 17. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variable: ROUT 1. and stress response quantity.

Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNSTSF1: Sensitivity Study of a Circular Disk in Thermal. static analysis.Node S he ll Me s h ( S iz e = 2 ) Thickness = 2 mm Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh In de x 5-94 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . Heat Flux 0. local sensitivity. frequency analysis.0005 W/mm2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C Radius 5 5 25 10 Initial P roble m Ge ome try 25 Heat Flux 0.0 W/mm 2 -°C Ambient Temperature 50°C 3 . Stress and Frequency Analyses KEYWORDS: Shape. SHELL3. 10 5 5 10 Convection 0. TEMPREAD. displacement and frequency response quantities.1 W/mm 2 5 (see page 5-4). thermal analysis.1 W/mm 2 Convection 0. temperature.

8 Perturbation Ratio -0.003120 -0.10 Gradient of Response Quantities Temperature -0. Perform a local sensitivity study by perturbing the design variables by a ratio of 0.04806 +0.57 W/mm-°C.0005 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50°C is applied to the entire model except for the heat sources. SUMMARY OF RESULTS Design Variables Set No.1 W/mm-°C) is assumed to have a convection of 0 W/mm2-°C with an ambient temperature of 50°C.5076 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-95 .1. 1 2 Name Radius Thickness Initial Value 70 1. A convection of 0. The heat source regions (heat flux of 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of the circular disk response to changes is its thickness and radius.3049 Resultant Displacement +0.10 -0.4415 -6.01540 Fundamental Frequency -0. The disk conductivity is 0.

TEMPREAD.18h T2 T1 A = 6" 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNSTSB1: Sensitivity Study of a C-shape Column in Thermal. buckling load factor. SHELL3. buckling analysis. Stress and Buckling Analyses KEYWORDS: Shape.32h T2 C = 3" h = 120" Fixed 0.32h I nit ia l P roble m G e ome t ry I nit ia l Finit e E le me nt Me s h 0. static analysis. 25 in A_Steel 3 x 107 psi (see page 5-4).28 -3 2 4 = 0. displacement and temperature response quantities. B = 20" T2 = 0. Fixed T1 Fillet (T2 /4) Element Size Thickness Material E T1 ν ρ S HE LL3 = = = = 3 in 0.18h In de x 5-96 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . global sensitivity.73 x 10 lbf sec /in 0. thermal analysis.

00 10. Change design variables one at a time in 5 increments.50 10.00 10.25 22.939 88.325 90.01306 Buckling Load Factor 1.00 16.25 inch.402 89. The material's coefficient of thermal expansion is 7.25 12.00 10.8406 1.00 10.02327 0.316 89.50 28.7903 1.7771 1.8271 2.7E-4 BTU/in/s °F. 0.316 89. The material conductivity is 6.1557 2.75 35.1636 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-97 . modulus of elasticity is 3 x 107 psi.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of the C-Shape column to changes in the cutouts sizes.4E-6/°F.00 T2 5 5 5 5 5 5.321 88. The cross section thickness is 0.275 90.00 6.01232 0.005 BTU/sec in3 are applied for the entire model.01235 0.8271 1.0001 BTU/sec in2-°F with an ambient temperature of 50°F and a volume heat of 0.02204 0.674 Response Quantities Max Resultant Displ.713 90.28.00 Max Temp 88.00 10.905 89.01294 0.01299 0.75 8. A convection of 0.01941 0.01739 0. SUMMARY OR RESULTS: Design Variables T1 10.8015 1.5762 2. and Poisson's ratio is 0.9213 3.01299 0.

1 BTU / (sec in in °F) Element Heat = 0. convection.9 View Factor = 0.140625 BTU / (sec in in in) Temperature = 70° F Thick (see page 5-4).Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNSTN1: Sensitivity Study of a Cylinder in Intransient Thermal and Nonlinear Analyses KEYWORDS: Shape. von Mises plasticity. Steel alloy and aluminum materials are used. Radiation Source = 500° F Emissivity = 0. transient thermal. stress. In de x 5-98 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . strain and temperature response quantities. prescribed temperatures. nonlinear analysis. heat flux.8 Heat Flux = 0. element heat. radiation. Convection _ Ambient Temperature = 200° F Firm Coefficient = 0. multi-disciplinary global sensitivity study. Change the design variables one at a time in 5 increments. Loa ds a nd Bounda ry C onditions Thic k ROUT Initia l Finite Ele me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of a cylinder to changes in its outer diameters and thickness. Axisymmetric PLANE2D.0125 BTU / (sec in in) Initia l Ge ome try.

2525E-2 0.2569E-2 0.259 44.4670E-2 0.297 413.875 1.495 30.634 Eff.3472E-2 0.2109E-2 0.500 0.634 260.563 57.987 44.877 47.4247E-2 0.50 10.249 345.935 470.415 30.217 Response Quantities Temperature 570.3012E-2 0.00 12.039 39.25 12.000 von Mises 1 57.724 27.250 1.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variables ROUT 5.040 22.1085E-2 0.625 2.911 52.3896E-2 2 0. Strain 1 0.75 8.1371E-2 0.2109E-2 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-99 .00 – – – – Thick 2.1782E-2 0.5043E-2 0.817 413.2536E-2 0.2025E-2 0.801 382.130 30.292 509.00 6.377 439.283 30.551 29.894 28.3896E-2 0.000 – – – – 0.315 30.0839E-2 0.361 30.3051E-2 0.386 304.5094E-2 0.040 2 31.217 22.577 34.4254E-2 0.

post-dynamic analysis (harmonic response). shape. offset sensitivity. frequency. and stress response quantities. 4-noded PLANE2D elements. displacement.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNSFDS1: Sensitivity Study of a Culvert in Harmonic Response Analysis KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. (see page 5-4). dynamic stress analysis. Initial Problem Geometry Initial Finite Element Mesh In de x 5-100 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

3.0 1.0803 0.3333 Response Quantities Frequency (1st) 16. Poisson’s ratio υ = 0.015 is assumed for the first 10 modes.0398E4 1.55 1. lb*sec2/in4.4 1.1177 0. displacement and stress.181 14.3871E5 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-101 . A modal damping 0. A harmonic pressure loading with constant amplitude 500 psi within the desired range of frequency (1 rad/sec .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of a culvert due to changes in the design variables. and Density ρ = 1. The material constants of the culvert are given as: Young’s modulus E = 30E6 psi.5110 6.7188E4 5. are defined as the extreme values within the desired range of frequency.0429 0. radius R and slope s. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variables Set Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 DV1 (R) 20 23 26 29 32 35 DV2 (s) 2.851 13.2790E5 2.7 1. Six sets of design variables and their respective results are listed in the following table. Note that the response quantities.0575 0.3807E4 6.400 rad/sec) is applied to the top of the culvert.86 1.684 9.8929 Displacement (Uy) 0.354 11.1948 0.2323E4 8.4574 Stress (von Mises) 4.

shape. frequency. (see page 5-4). and stress response quantities. 6-noded TRIANG elements.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNSFDS2: Sensitivity Study of a Lever Arm in Random Vibration Analysis KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. Initial Finite Element Mesh Initial Problem Geometry In de x 5-102 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . dynamic stress analysis. global sensitivity (one-by-one). post-dynamic analysis (random vibration). displacement.

0 in. The arm is made of A_STEEL and has a uniform thickness 1. Both harmonic pressure loading and base excitation (acceleration) in the y-direction are applied to the structure as shown in the figure. Changing one design variable In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-103 . A modal damping 3% is assumed for the first 5 modes.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization Base Excitation versus Frequency Curve Pressure Loading versus Frequency Curve PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of a lever arm due to changes in the design variables. hyperbolic arc parameter RATIO and thickness T2.

Chapter 5 Additional Problems at a time in 5 increments.1321E4 In de x 5-104 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .563 87.3734E4 1. Note that the response quantity.0 23.2498E4 1.75 32.1740E-4 3.7 1.1188E-4 2.0 15.1832E4 1.75 0.5625 0.5 DV2 (T2) 40.917 92.524 91.242 85.206 Displacement (Uy) 3.1621E-4 3. displacement.059 92.5 0.7617E4 7710. their values and the respective results are listed in the following table.0 Response Quantities Frequency (1st) 92.956 89.806 75.4710E-4 3.2949E-4 3.3235E-4 1.7408E-4 4.813 69.6545E-4 2.5 41.1664E-4 2. is defined as the extreme value of PSD within the desired range of frequency and the stress is the extreme value of RMS.25 50.6875 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variables DV1 (RATIO) 0.2683E-4 Stress (von Mises) 1.6 9111.351 81.1198E4 1.625 0.5190E4 1.1834E4 1.

shape. and stress response quantities. Initial Problem Geometry Initial Finite Element Mesh In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-105 .Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SNSFDS3: Sensitivity Study of a Trophy in Response Spectrum Analysis KEYWORDS: Frequency analysis. SHELL4 elements. frequency. dynamic stress analysis. post-dynamic analysis (response spectrum analysis). local sensitivity. displacement. (see page 5-4).

the gradients of the response quantities are listed in the following table. H3.0393 9.8388 -2. are defined as the extreme values by using the SRSS mode combination method.0626E-3 4. The trophy is made of A_STEEL and has a 5% critical damping.05 +0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variables Set No. R3.4585 -1.Chapter 5 Additional Problems Acceleration Spectrum Excitation PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of a trophy due to changes in its dimensions.50 219. Note that the response quantities.05.12 116. and H4. 1 2 3 4 Name R2 R3 H3 H4 Initial Value 5 10 10 21 Perturbation Ratio +0. Performing a local sensitivity study by perturbing all the design variables by a ratio +0.1406E-3 Stress (von Mises) -1241.05 Gradients of Response Quantities Frequency (1st) 9.3791E-4 8.4151 -0.05 +0.92 In de x 5-106 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . displacement and stress.1676 Displacement (Ux) -0.05 +0. R2.5 475. The base of the trophy is experiencing an acceleration spectrum excitation as shown in the figure.

Sizing Sensitivity Problems In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-107 .

250 5.000 Response Quantities U2 60.750 10. TRUSS2D.500 7.7419 6.909 7.750 10. global sensitivity. U2 A1 1 2 A2 3 F = 10 lbs U3 (see page 5-4).500 7.000 U3 120.000 In de x 5-108 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .923 21.000 3.000 3.000 18. The length of each bar is 30 inches and modulus of elasticity is 5 psi. and A2. static analysis.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNZST1: Global Sensitivity of a 2-bar Truss: All Design Variables Incremented Simultaneously KEYWORDS: Sizing. 30" 30" P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh PROBLEM: Study the behavior of the 2-bar truss for different values of cross sectional areas A1.818 15.000 36. The design variables are to be changed simultaneously in 5 increments.462 10.000 A2 1. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Run Number 1 2 3 4 5 Design Variables A1 1.250 5.484 12.

static analysis.0 1.0 3.000 18.000 78.0 1.000 U3 120.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SNZST2: Global Sensitivity of a 2-bar Truss: Design Variables Incremented One at a Time KEYWORDS: Sizing.75 10.0 1.75 10.0 1. PROBLEM: Study the behavior of the 2-bar truss for different values of cross sectional areas A1. TRUSS2D. 1 U2 A1 2 A2 3 F = 10 lbs U3 (see page 5-4).0 A2 1. The design variables are to be changed one at a time in 5 increments.742 66.909 67.000 120. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Run Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Design Variables A1 1.462 70.000 60.000 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-109 .000 60.000 60.0 1.0 1.50 7.742 66.909 7.000 78.909 67.462 70.462 10.000 60.0 3.50 7. and A2.00 1. global sensitivity. The length of each bar is 30 inches and modulus of elasticity is 5 psi.0 1.0 1.000 60.00 30" 30" P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh Response Quantities U2 60.25 5.0 1.25 5.7419 6.

0 12. A1 U2 A2 2 3 F = 10 lbs 1 U3 (see page PROBLEM: Study the behavior of the 2-bar truss for specified values of cross sectional areas A1.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNZST3: Offset Sensitivity of a 2-bar Truss KEYWORDS: Sizing.0 6.0 10.0 Response Quantities U2 60.0 12. TRUSS2D. Four different sets are used to specify design variables. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Set Number 1 2 3 4 30" 30" P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh Design Variables A1 1.0 U3 66. offset sensitivity.0 66.0 1.0 10. The length of each bar is 30 in and modulus of elasticity is 5 psi.0 In de x 5-110 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .0 6. and A2. static.0 A2 10.0 5.0 24.0 5.0 10.

0 U5* -18.1818 -18. TRUSS2D.1818 0. local sensitivity.0 in.0 0.0 0. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variable A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 U1* -18.0 U3* -18.1818 -18.1818 0.1818 -18.0 0. Each design variable is perturbed by 10%.1818 -18.1818 0. The cross-sectional area of each bar is 1. length is 10 in (each) and modulus of elasticity is 5 psi.1818 -18.1818 -18. static.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SNZST4: Local Sensitivity of a 5-bar Truss KEYWORDS: Sizing.0 U4* -18.1818 -18.1818 -18.1818 0.0 0. PROBLEM: Study the effect of changing (perturbing) design variables on the response of a 5-bar truss.1818 -18.0 U2* -18.0 0.1818 -18.1818 A1 1 2 U2 A2 3 U3 A3 4 U4 A4 5 U5 A5 6 F = 10 lbs U6 (see page 10" 10" 10" 10" 10" P roble m Ge ome try Finite E le me nt Me sh *Derivative of Response Quantity with Respect to Design Variables In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-111 .0 0.

tensile and compressive strengths in the 1st material direction F1T = F1C = 2. Initial Problem Geometry and Finite Element Mesh PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of a 6-layer [-θ / 0 / θ]s Graphite-Epoxy laminate due to changes in the ply orientation θ. size (ply orientation).28. 0.87E3 psi.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNZST5: Sensitivity Study of a Graphite-epoxy Laminate KEYWORDS: Linear static analysis. (see page 5-4).17E5 psi.0 where Nx = 100 psi. maximum failure index response quantity. global sensitivity.81E3 psi and F2C = 3.57E4 psi.04E6 psi. shear modulus in the material first-second plane Gxy = 1. SHELL4L elements. Changing the ply orientation in 10 increments. modulus of elasticity in the second material direction Ey = 1. their values and the respective maximum failure indexes are listed in the following table. A biaxial tensile loading is applied to the edges of the structure with the ratios of the transverse load (Ny) to the longitudinal load (Nx) equal to 0. shear strength in the material first-second plane F12 = 9.27E6 psi. In de x 5-112 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . and 1.5. Poisson’s ratio υ = 0. tensile and compressive strengths in the second material direction F2T = 5.49E6 psi. The material constants are given as: modulus of elasticity in the first material direction Ex = 26. The total thickness of 6 plies is 1 inch.

5160E-3 2.1198E-3 2. q 1E-16 (=0) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Response Quantity.0689E-3 7.2468E-3 -1.2275E-4 -1.6914E-3 2.9831E-3 4.3938E-3 1.8222E-4 1.9231E-3 2.2559E-3 2.3987E-4 -8.1705E-3 2.1912E-3 Ny/Nx = 0.2160E-3 6.5 7.3923E-3 2.6199E-3 1.01446 0.0304E-3 2.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variable.7210E-3 1.3621E-3 1.4606E-3 1.7899E-3 5.1236E-7 -2.8906E-3 2.01384 0.01167 7. Maximum Failure Index Ny/Nx = 0 2.4743E-3 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-113 .3327E-3 Ny/Nx = 1 0.4160E-3 3.

3475" 0. contact. Top Steel Plate Rubber Ring Bottom Steel Plate 0. Initial P roble m Ge ome try 2 R Cross Initial Finite E le me nt Me sh In de x 5-114 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .3" 0. rubber.5615" 0. friction. automatic time stepping.278" 0.Chapter 5 Additional Problems SNZN1: Sensitivity of a Rubber Circular Ring to Coefficient of Friction in Nonlinear Analysis KEYWORDS: Shape. nonlinear analysis.5615" 0. prescribed displacement. Mooney model.3" (see page 5-4). and stress response quantity. axisymmetric PLANE2D.

21 0. the Mooney's constants are 175 and 10 psi.218 217. and the Poisson's ratio is 0.Part 2 OPSTAR / Optimization PROBLEM: Study the sensitivity of circular ring response to the friction coefficient value.037 In de x COSMOSM Advanced Modules 5-115 . and Poisson's ratio is 0.13 0.550 233.170 226. the Young's modulus is 30 x 106 psi.01 0.17 0.09 0.952 230. SUMMARY OF RESULTS: Design Variable: FRICTION 0.391 229.25 von Mises Stress in Rubber Ring 209. For steel plates.3. For rubber.05 0.49. Use the global sensitivity option.667 232.

In de x 5-116 COSMOSM Advanced Modules .

5-63. 5-114 convection 5-35. 5-112 N natural frequency 5-1 nonlinear 5-1. 5-58. 5-114 COSMOSM Advanced Modules I-1 . 5-70 buckling 5-1 buckling response quantity 5-89 C contact 5-24. 553. 5-26. 5-100. 5-93. 5-114 multidisciplinary design optimization 3-6 multidisciplinary optimization 526. 5-94. 5-48. 3-11. 5-59. 5-96. 5-105 friction 5-114 112 76 M mass constraint 5-83 modified feasible directions 1-7 Mooney model 5-24. 5-48. 5-83 frequency response quantity 5-88. 5-100. 5-87. 2-2– In de x E effective strain constraint 5-69 element heat 5-98 F failure index response quantity 5frequency analysis 2-8 frequency constraint 5-14. 542. 5-55 G global sensitivity 2-8. 5-73. 5-39. 5-98 converged 3-11 convergence 1-7. 5-35. 5BEAM3D 5-60 behavior constraints 1-2. 5local sensitivity 5-86. 5displacement response quantity 5-94. 5-42. 5-98. 5-28. 5-37. 1-5. 5-108. 5-96. 5-45. 5-33. 5-73. 5-102. 5-105 33. 5-102. 5-82. 5-39. 5-63. 5-82. 5-98. 5-83 multiple load cases 5-13. 1-5 bending 5-61. 5numerical techniques 1-7 45. 5-60. 524. 5-91. 574. 5-42. 5-65 2-11 H heat transfer 5-1 L limit point 5-82 limits 1-8 linearized buckling 5-79. 1-8.Index A analysis 1-4 approximations 1-7 arc-length 5-82 automatic time stepping 5-23. 5-102. 5-23. 531. 5-89. 5-24. 5-48. 5-88. 5-37. 5-69. 5-45. 5-105. 5-57. 3-10. 5-114 displacement constraint 5-31. 5-109. 5-75. 5-39. 5-31. 5-93. 5-93. 5-94. 5-111 89 B beam height 5-59 beam width 5-58 BEAM2D 5-57. 3-32 curves 3-20 D design optimization 2-1 design variables 1-2. 5-37.

5stress response quantity 5-86. 5-93. 3-11. 2-5 optimization loops 3-5. 5-100. 5-105. 5-114 61 P PLANE2D 5-6 prescribed displacement 5-24.Index O objective function 1-2. 5-102. 5-96 In de x I-2 COSMOSM Advanced Modules . 3-32–3-35 singular value decomposition 1-7 sizing 5-1 static 5-1 stress constraint 5-37. 3-6. 1-6. 3-29. 1-8. 5114 R restart 1-7 restore 1-7 S sensitivity 1-7 shape optimization 5-1 shape sensitivity 5-1 T temperature response quantity 5trimming factors 3-10 truncation 3-10 types of sensitivity 2-8 W weight factors 3-8 91. 5-42. 310. 3-8. 5-87. 5-39.

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