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Hardware Lab 1: Half Adder, Increment, and Two’s

Complement Circuit

Jason Crews
249892606
MW 11:40
CSE 120

October 12, 2002


1.0 Introduction
The purpose of this lab it gain experience writing and physically building combinational
and logical circuits. By:
• Describing and constructing truth tables to describe and characterize the addition of two
single bit numbers. 1
• Write Boolean algebra expressions to describe the functions of a half-adder. 2
• Realize the SUM and CRY functions using TTL hardware. 3
• Debug TTL circuits using LED and Logic Probe testing instruments. 4
• Write the Boolean algebra expression for the SUM and CRY functions of the full-adder. 5
• Build and Debug a full-adder. 6

2.0 Experimental Results


2.1 Build the 1-bit half-adder
2.1.1 Task Statement
Build a half adder using the design provided in the lab manual in figure 1-
10 on a digital prototyping board.

2.1.2 Description of work performed


Following the schematic provided in figure 1-10 on pages 211 of the lab
manual the half adder was constructed using the POS form of the functions.

2.1.3 What I Learned


I learned how to carefully follow a schematic to implement logical
functions on a bread board.

2.2 Test the Sum and CRY of the 1-bit half adder using the LED’s
2.2.1 Task Statement
Use the led display on the board to test every possible combination of A
and B to determine if the functions are working correctly.

2.2.2 Description of work performed


During this step ever input was tested and compared to the proper outputs
to determine if each function was working correctly. Table 1 shows the proper outputs for
each all possible input combinations, Table 2 shows the output received on the first trial,
Table 3 the second, and Table 4 the third.

1
D.J. Tylavvski, Digital Design for the labritory: Hardware and Simulation (Using LogicWorks). Version 3. 3rd
Edition. Centerpoint Publishing, Tempe, AZ 2001
2
Ibid
3
Ibid
4
Ibid
5
Ibid
6
Ibid
2.2.2.1 Try One
Try one resulted in the outputs seen in Table 2. As it shows, all
outputs for SUM were 0’s. From this we started tracing all A inputs. This led us to
discover one gate had an A and a B connecting to the same pin in one of the AND
gates and nothing in the other. This was corrected by moving the incorrect wire to the
empty pin.
2.2.2.2 Try 2

A B SUM CRY
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1

Table 4.
1. SUM
2.
3. Properand
SUMCRY
andoutputs
CRY outputs
for try two.
one.
for all combinations of A and B.
Once we discovered what we thought was causing the problem we
tested the outputs again using the same method as Try One.
This resulted in the outputs seen in Table 3. It shows, again, that
all outputs for SUM were 0’s. Again we began by tracing all A inputs. This did not
allow us to find and errors in the circuit. Next, we traded all the B inputs, and we
found no errors. How
A B
A B SUM CRYSUM CRY ever we bumped the
A
00 00 B SUM
00 CRY
00 wire that connects the
00 101 100 00 SUM output the LED
101 010 100 00 and the light for SUM
11 101 100 100 turned on
1 1 0 1
2.2.2.3 Try 3
Once we had tightly secured the wire we retried the tested received
the results in Table 4, which are the expected results.

2.2.3 What I learned


I learned that the only way to completely debug a circuit is to test every
possible input and compare the output to the expected output. Depending on the circuit
this can be a complex and arduous process, however, the only way to insure the proper
results.
I also learned seemingly small problems in the circuit can cause major
problems with the output, as seen in Try 1 and Try 2.
2.3 Debugging

2.3.1 Task Statement


Have your lab partner alter the circuit while your back is turned. This
provides experience debugging circuits.

2.3.2 Description of work completed


One my lab partner had introduced an error into the circuit I began by
quickly glancing at the connections to each of the various pins to see if any were missing.
This proved to be a wise decision because he had removed the A input wire completely.

2.3.3 What I learned


I learned that it is can be good to look for quick problems before doing
detailed and intricate debugging. If it turns out to be something simple a lot of
time can be saved, and if not much time has been lost.

2.4 Completely test the half-adder using a logic probe


2.4.1 Task Statement
Test every connection on the circuit for various inputs with the logic probe
to determine that ever point has the expected output.

2.4.2 Description of Work Completed


Using a Logic probe every connection was tested with different input
values to ensure every component of the circuit was working correctly and remove
logical errors.

2.4.3 What I learned


I learned it is important to check every detail if there is an error. Major
problems can result in small errors in the circuit. I also learned that a logic probe can be
a very valuable tool for debugging because it quickly can evaluate the value at any given
point in the circuit.

2.5 Build and Debug a 1-bit full adder


2.5.1 Task Statement
Build, debug, and test the full adder using the schematic in Figure 1-15 in the Lab
Manual.
2.5.2 Description of Work Completed
From the schematic provided in the lab manual in figure 1-15, we
constructed the diagram in Figure 1. From their, it was only a matter of connecting wires
between the correct pins.
LED (S UM)

LED (CRY)

p1 3
p1 2
p1 1
p1 0
p9
p8
74F86
p2
p3
p4
p5
p6
p7
A

Ci n
p1 3
p1 2
p1 1
p1 0

p1 3
p1 2
p1 1
p1 0
p9
p8

p9
p8
74F08 74F32
p2
p3
p4
p5
p6
p7

p3

p5
p6
p2

p4

p7
Figure 1. Implementation using chips described in the lab manual. (Power and Ground not shown)

Once the circuit was completed, the power and ground was connected to each
chip, and the functions were tested with all combinations of A, B, and Cin, and the output
(Table 6) compared to ideal results (Table 5) for a Full Adder. This proved that our
circuit was working correctly on our first try.

A B Cin SUM CRY A B Cin SUM CRY


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Table 5. Ideal output for all possible combinations Table 6. Actual results after first test of the circuit.
of A, B, and Cin7.

7
D.J. Tylavvski, Digital Design for the labritory: Hardware and Simulation (Using LogicWorks). Version 3. 3rd
Edition. Centerpoint Publishing, Tempe, AZ 2001
2.5.3 What I learned
I learned how to construct a logic circuit using IC’s without the aid of a diagram,
and that if you are careful while constructing the circuits then you can save a lot of time.

3.0 What I Learned


I learned how to Describe and construct truth tables that describe and characterize the
addition of two single bit numbers, write Boolean algebra expressions to describe the functions
of a half-adder and a full-adder, how to realize the SUM and CRY functions using TTL
hardware, debug TTL circuits using LED’s and Logic Probes, and all of the above for a full-
adder.