1. INTRODUCTION At various stages in its development Buddhism incorporated Brahmanical and Hindu deities, but in its Tantric form Buddhism has also influenced the Hindu pantheon. The Tantric period is characterized by mutual influences between the two religions. A. Sanderson has provided evidence for the influence of the Tantric ´ Saiva canon on the Buddhist Yog¯nuttaratantras or Yogin¯tantras. a ı Sanderson 1988, pp. 146–147 and 1994, pp. 94ff. demonstrates ´ that passages from the yet unpublished Saiva Tantras, such as the ¯ ¯ ı . ¯ Brahmayamala (Picumata), the Tantrasadbhava, the Yogin¯samcara of ¯ ´var¯ the Jayadrathayamala and the Siddhayoges ımata, were incorpor´ ated with little or no modification into Buddhist Tantras of Samvara, . ¯ ¯ ¯ such as the Laghusamvara (Herukabhidhana), the Abhidhanottara, the . Samputodbhava, the Samvarodaya, the Vajradaka and the Dakarnava. . . . . ¯ ¯ . .¯ Sanderson shows that it is unnecessary to explain existing similarities ´ between Tantric Saivism and Buddhism by postulating a common source (often referred to as ‘the Indian religious substratum’) from which the two traditions are assumed to have derived. Addressing the influence of Brahmanical iconography on Buddhist Tantric iconography, Banerjea ´ 1956, pp. 558–561 highlights similarities between the forms of Siva a ı and the Bodhisattvas Simhan¯da, N¯lakantha and others. As is well . .. a known, Buddhist Tantric texts such as Abhay¯karagupta’s eleventh¯ century Nispannayogavali (NY) include Brahmanical deities, such as . a Gane´a, K¯rttikeya, the directional guardians and heavenly bodies, in . s the periphery of the deity mandalas they describe. .. The reverse, namely the influence of Tantric Buddhism on the later Hindu Tantric pantheon, is studied by B. Bhattacharyya.1 However, Bhattacharyya 1930, p. 1277 and 1932, p. 109 goes too far when he draws the general conclusion that the Buddhists were the first to write
Indo-Iranian Journal 42: 303–334, 1999. c 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.



Tantric texts and that the Hindu Tantras are borrowed from the Buddhist Tantras. Bhattacharyya addresses not only the iconography but also the ¯ ¯¯ deity mantras on the basis of such texts as the Sadhanamala (SM). ¯ and the eight manifestations of T¯r¯ aa He concludes that Chinnamasta aa a a a aı ı known as T¯r¯, Ugr¯, Mahogr¯, Vajr¯, K¯l¯, (the Tantric) Sarasvat¯, a s ı aı K¯me´var¯ and Bhadrak¯l¯ were adopted by the Hindu pantheon from Buddhist Tantric sources (1930, pp. 1278–1279 and 1932, pp. 148– 149, 156–157). I summarize our present state of knowledge on the ¨ a adoption of Chinnamast¯ into the Hindu pantheon in Buhnemann 1999, ¨ section In Buhnemann 1996 I demonstrate on the basis of textual aa a ı aa evidence how a form of T¯r¯, called Mah¯c¯nakrama-T¯r¯, was adopted ´ as ¯ from an eleventh-century Buddhist Tantric sadhana by S¯´vatavajra into ¯ .¯ ¯ .¯ the Hindu Phetkarinıtantra. The Phetkarinıtantra’s description of the aa goddess as Ugrat¯r¯ – along with her surrounding deities and elements of typically Buddhist Tantric worship procedures and mantras – became the authoritative description of the goddess and was incorporated into many ¯ Hindu Tantric texts, such as Krsnananda’s Tantrasara. Bhattacharyya .. .¯ ¯ .a 1933 traces the adaption of Bhutad¯mara into the Hindu pantheon by ¯ .¯ examining the two extant Bhutadamara-Tantras, one belonging to the Buddhists and the other to the Hindus. Bhattacharyya 1930, pp. 1295– 1296, 1932, pp. 161–162 and Pal 1981, pp. 102–104 examine the ˜ adoption of Manjughosa by the Hindu pantheon. It is usually not easy . to determine when and how a deity was adopted from one pantheon ¯ .a aa into another. The importance of the cases of Bhutad¯mara and Ugrat¯r¯ lies in the clear understanding they offer of the process of adaptation of a deity from the Buddhist Tantric texts into Hindu Tantras. In this paper I am concerned with the influence of Buddhist Tantrism on Hindu Tantras as evident from the adoption of Buddhist deities, mantras and elements of typically Buddhist Tantric worship procedures. Many Tantric texts have not been edited at all or at least not critically. Often we have no information about the period in which they were written nor who their authors or compilers were. Since much work remains to be done before one can attempt to draw conclusions of a more general nature based on primary texts, it seems best to begin with a study of select Tantric texts. Part One of this paper examines ¯ Buddhist influences in two closely related texts, the Tantrasarasamgraha . ¯´¯ ´ ¯ and the Mantrapada of the Isanasivagurudevapaddhati. Part Two will address Buddhist deities and mantras in two later compilations, the ´ı ¯ . Sr¯vidyarnavatantra attributed to Vidy¯ranya Yati and Krsn¯nanda a . .. .a ¯ ¯ Agamav¯g¯´a’s Tantrasara. I will not discuss the origins of these deities a ıs nor address questions as to whether they were originally tribal or folk



deities who were assimilated into the Buddhist pantheon. I use the term ´ ´a ¯ ‘Hindu Tantras’ instead of Saiva, Vaisnava or S¯kta Tantras/Agamas .. to indicate the non-sectarian character of most of the texts I examine. ´¯ a The Tantras¯rasamgraha (TSS) is a compilation of mantrasastra by . ´ aa . N¯r¯yana, a Kerala Brahmin who resided in Sivapura on the banks of a aa . a the river Nil¯. He was the son of N¯r¯yana and his wife Um¯. The work, which is called a Tantra in the colophons of the chapters of the text (e.g., 32.67d, 70c), is divided into thirty-two chapters. It is popularly known as the Visanarayanıya, since its initial chapters (2–10) deal mainly with . ¯ ¯ .¯ mantras to counter the effects of poison (visa).2 Goudriaan 1977, p. 160 . ¯ ¯ .¯ a states that the TSS is not the Narayanıya quoted by R¯ghavabhatta in .. ´ ´¯ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ his commentary Padarthadarsa on the Saradatilaka (ST); however, this a turns out to be incorrect. The work referred to and cited by R¯ghava is 3 Since R¯ghava completed his commentary in 1493, indeed the TSS. a the TSS can safely be assigned to the fifteenth century (eliminating the possibility of the sixteenth century)4 or earlier. The TSS was printed ¯ ¯ ¯ with an anonymous commentary (vyakhya) which cites the Mantrapada ¯sanasivagurudevapaddhati. of the I ´¯ ´ ¯ ¯ This Mantrapada (MP) forms pada 2, patalas 15–52 of . ¯´¯na´ivagurudevami´ra’s Isanasivagurudevapaddhati (¯SP), which is ¯´¯ ´ Isa s s I´ ´ I´ also known as the Tantrapaddhati. The ¯SP is a Saiva manual of temple ¯ worship in four padas and is assigned to the last part of the eleventh (Dvivedi)5 or to the twelfth century (Unni 1987, p. 9). One should, I´ however, distinguish between the ¯SP and the MP inserted into it. At least part of the MP seems to be of a later date than the other parts I´ of the ¯SP. Since MP 47.20cd is cited (without specifying the text’s ´ a name) in R¯ghava’s commentary, p. 865, 22 on the ST, the MP must have been extant in its present form before 1493. Unni 1987, pp. 38–65 summarizes the contents of the MP, and Dvivedi 1995, pp. 189–190 I´ supplies a list of the texts quoted in the ¯SP. Most chapters in the MP correspond to chapters in the TSS. The I´ aa . relationship between the MP of the ¯SP and N¯r¯yana’s TSS is discussed in Goudriaan 1977, pp. 158–160 and by Goudriaan in Goudriaan/Gupta 1981, p. 128. Goudriaan considers it possible that either chapters 15–38 of the MP are recast and shortened in the TSS, and chapters 39–52 of the MP are based on the TSS, or that the MP and the TSS are based on one source. In addition, Unni 1987, pp. 19–22 has demonstrated that chapter 41.2 of the MP clearly refers to the TSS (cited as the ¯ ¯ .¯ Narayanıya) and that chapter 49 of the MP draws on chapter 30 of the

which otherwise resembles the one found in texts such as SM. .1–64 draw heavily on aa Buddhist material. (for Gaganaganja). The seer (rsi) of Vasudh¯r¯’s heart mantra om .. This confirms that the TSS is among the sources of the later part of the MP. and of Yam¯ntaka and his mantras. Vairocanaka. 49.13). The goddess’s name aa Vasudh¯r¯ means “a flow of wealth. nayamari . p.5a) ´ aa and the mantra’s presiding deity is Vasudh¯r¯ Laksm¯/Sr¯. of the god of wealth. p. .306 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN TSS. 12 – 50. Dvivedi inserts the titles Vasudhara-sadhana ¯ sadhana. pp. which include the names ˜ ˜ a. . I The TSS and the MP extensively describe the mantras of the earth aa goddess Vasudh¯r¯ and their ritual applications. The prac. 2.6 Amoghasiddhi. ı two texts. no. Ratnasambhava.” and is suggestive of her being a form of Laksm¯.e.1–39) from the only ¯ ¯ ¯ available edition of the MP. The sections TSS 22. Khagarbha. Yaks¯dhipa (i. Avalokite´vara).a ˜ Manjughosa and Viskambhaka. which Dvivedi does not consult. 18.8cd–10 as Aksobhya. Gaganaganja. Vajrap¯ni). s. Amit¯bha. Vajrap¯ni.8ab. He does not discuss . 36– 41 (= MP 26.. One of the eight Bodhisattvas is clearly . a describes the worship of the Buddhist deities Vasudha a The two sections are reprinted without changes in Dvivedi 1992. 184 believes that the mantra of Yam¯ntaka in the ¯ MP is taken from the Krsnayamaritantra (6. 42–44 (= MP 47. This is indeed supported by her classification in the . pp. . Several other Buddhist mantras in the TSS and the MP are included in an appendix. who is widely known as the Buddhist a counterpart of Kubera. a Dvivedi 1995. Taking Dvivedi’s discovery and his brief discussion of it as a starting point.. Viskambhin and Samantabhadra. Jambhala. . In this aa paper I discuss the adoption of the two-armed earth goddess Vasudh¯r¯. TSS 22. The five Buddhas are listed in MP 26. a.e.20c).5+) is specified as the Buddha (MP 26. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ vasudhara svaha (MP 26. missing from this list. Gagan¯digaja ˜ a. .19–41 and MP 26. Dvivedi 1992. . Samantabhadra. Manjughosa. I´ V. and the eight Bodhisattvas a . s a a a as Padmap¯ni (i. . . ı ı titioner is instructed to bow to the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas in the beginning of the worship ritual (MP 26. pp. Ksitigarbha. THE EARTH GODDESS VASUDHARA LAKSM¯ . I have identified additional material of Buddhist origin in the I´ MP of the ¯SP and in the TSS. which do not appear in the text of the MP.1–64) and 1992. Maitr¯tm¯ (Maitreya).. Maitreya. 35 draws attention to the fact that the ¯SP ¯r¯ and Yam¯ntaka. aa possible sources for the description of Vasudh¯r¯ and her worship.V. ¯ ¯ 2. ¯ and Kr.

¯ Buddhist Tantric texts.13–14. ¯. Y¯ge´vara TSS) and the ¯ni (MP. ¯ carubhujam tanutaravaramadhyam /</ 20a> ı. The TSS (22. hemakir¯tam kanakaman imayair . The samayamudra is ¯ and vajramudra ¯ defined. The goddess places one foot on a vessel which showers wealth. Among the surrounding deities of Vasudh¯r¯ are the yellow a s a s Amit¯bha Buddha. TSS 22. candramukh¯m alikularucikes¯m </> ı ˜ ¯˙ ı . ¯.21ab).25–27ab) confirms the above description and adds that the lotus in the goddess’s hands is red. ¯. ¯ abharanaih sucinivasanagandhair </> . ´ .” This recitation is followed by the contemplation of ¯ ı the four Brahmic states (brahmavihara).15–17ab. . for example.24–26. which transforms into Mt. I am intrins.thantam (Miyata 1988. sampadyantam (MP. 16–17). ¯ ¯ compassion (karuna). the white Loke´vara (MP. . . ¯ ¯´ s . ¯ adhitis. The dark Vajrapa . anonymous commentary on the TSS states that the Buddha should be visualized clad in a robe as described in the Buddhist scriptures (TSS.20–22 describes Vasudh¯r¯ as a yellow colour. Our texts classify mantras according . om svabhavasuddhah . a lotus is mentally produced. Sumeru. ¯ ¯.thantam TSS). 218. 5–7. om sarvatathagatah samsitah sarvatathagatanam . and equanimity (upeksa) (MP 26. 314. TSS 22. all dharmas are intrinsically pure. ´amsitah sarvasattvanam sarvasiddhayah sampadyantam tathagatas ca ¯.11–12. hemanibham p¯varakucakalasam ´ı . ı ´¯ . ¯ ¯ ¯.BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 307 ¯. which are well-known from . holding a ¯. The iconographic passages in the two texts are: MP 26. The practitioner then visualizes the seed syllable tram. sarvatathagatas catis. to the categories hrdaya and upahrdaya. . ¯ ¯ ¯´ ¯ ¯ sarvasiddhayah sampadyantam TSS) / sarvatathagatas cadhitis.thantam . samtosa MP) . yam MP) . p. ¯. .20–22: ¯. . . . sympathetic joy (mudita. aa 3. TSS 22. Buddhist Tantric mantra (cf. Vajrin TSS) (MP 26. This mantra is recited by ¯ contemporary Japanese Shingon practitioners as: om sarvatathagata (sic) . p. SM. . 7 and the vajramudra in SM. TSS 22. From the syllable vam (TSS. 4. 8–9). ically pure. In her right hand she holds a lotus which contains a small vessel showering jewels. The prac. ¯ ¯ ¯. ¯ ¯´ ¯ . p. aa MP 26. kanculikang¯m kuvalayanayanam ¯ ¯. pomegranate (dadima) in her left hand which is resting on her left knee. and refer to the hand gestures samayamudra ¯ (MP 26. . p. He then recites the widely used ¯ ´ ¯. TSS.¯ ¯ ¯ ¯.23). loving kindness (maitr¯). on which the practitioner visualizes himself (MP 26. ¯ ´ ´ sarvadharmah (sarvasamah MP) / svabhavasuddho (sarvasuddho MP) ’ham – “Om. 16). ¯ (MP. ¯ . .21ab+). ´ ˜ ¯ ancitamalyair adhigatavapus am . .28–30). in SM. titioner recites the mantra om sarvatathagatanam sarvasiddhayah . ¯. p. .

¯ a ˜a s ı Tarunin. who is (so to say) a creeper growing out of the neck (of the vessel). ¯ ı ratnavarsighat¯garbha<m> nalanirgatavallar¯m / 27ab . ¯ ¯. ¯ ˜ ¯˙ ¯ ¯ ¯. . .ı . whose body is covered with golden and jewelled ornaments. generous. In addition. who is often described as the consort of Jambhala. But in as ı accompanied by Srı aa MP 26.” . Vajraraksa (v. who stands. ı . a very slender excellent waist.ı .ı . . aa The description of the worship ritual of Vasudh¯r¯ in the two Hindu Tantric texts is clearly based on Buddhist material. beautiful arms. ¯. who is placid. has a golden lustre. ¯ ı syandamanarthadharadhyanalanirgatavallar¯m // 22 aa “Bow down to beautiful Vasudh¯r¯. whose pitcher-like breasts are fleshy. / 24a) ¯ ˜ ¯. According to MP 26. ¯ vasuvarsighatasthanghrim10 vamajanvattapanina / . whose hair resembles a flight of (black) bees. Sarasvat¯ and “all Bodhisattvas. The elements of the practitioner’s visualization pattern summarized above are charac¯ teristic of Tantric Buddhist sadhanas. Buddha. ¯ ¯ ¯. . who resembles gold (in colour). This is reminiscent of aa the Buddhist Tantric Vasudh¯r¯. whose body (is covered with) a bodice. with pure garments and fragrant substances (and) beautiful flowers. who carries a pomegranate with her (left) hand which is placed on her left knee and with her right hand a red lotus which contains a small vessel which showers jewels. having placed (her) foot on the opening of a small vessel showering wealth.308 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN ¯ ¯ ¯ kantimat¯m7 pranamata vasudharam // 20<b>8 ı. ¯ ¯˙ tis. ¯ akuncitanghrijanusthavamapanisthadadimam9 // 21 ratnavarsighat¯garbham utpalam capare kare / . whose foot rests on a vessel showering wealth. which addresses another mantra of the goddess.l. ¯.31–34ab. . In MP 26. .48.25–27ab: ¯ ¯ (avahayed . the god of wealth. aa “(One should invoke [Vasudh¯r¯]) who (wears) a shining bodice. . ¯.49+ the goddess’s surrounding deities are listed as Dharma. ¯ ¯ . . S¯garanirghosa. nos. ¯ bhasvatkanculikam citravasanam makutojjvalam / . vahant¯m dadimam savyapanina11 carunotpalam // 26 . Vajrayaksa). Ary¯valoke´vara. a blazing crown. . hant¯m vinidhayanghrim vasuvarsighat¯mukhe / t ı. the god of wealth (e. “Sahya” a (corrupted for samgha). SM. who has a moon-like face. Prajn¯. 285 and 289). . who is (so to say) a creeper growing out of the neck (of the vessel) which abounds in flows of riches issuing forth. ¯. . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯. Vasudh¯r¯ Laksm¯ is aa . who (holds) a pomegranate in her left hand which rests on the knee of (her) bent foot (= leg) and (holds) in her other (= right) hand a lotus which contains a small vessel showering jewels. who has lotus-like eyes. aa The iconographic description of Vasudh¯r¯ in the two Hindu texts is . ¯ saumyam udaram hemabham sakalakalpabhusitam // 25 ¯˙ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯.27+ and TSS 22. ¯ ¯.. the names of the aa deities surrounding Vasudh¯r¯ leave no doubt that the above ritual aa application of Vasudh¯r¯’s mantras is taken from a Buddhist source.” TSS 22. beautiful garments. Vasudh¯r¯ is s accompanied by Dhane´vara. . . is adorned with all (kinds of) ornaments. (wears) a golden crown. ı ´ ¯ and Mah¯´r¯ and the seven jewels (ratna).g. .

iconographic descriptions of a a Vasudh¯/Vasundhar¯ differ from the one found in the MP and the TSS. Jambhala’s description is immediately followed by that of mantras and rituals for Kubera and Jambhala and Kubera share some of the same surrounding deities (MP 32. However. However. the god of wealth. a form of Siva. the goddess is on a ¯ s a. .108cd–109ab). In the Hindu tradition. Jambhala’s mantra. Agni-Purana 120. pp. the goddess’s iconography does not correspond to that of ¯ aa Vasudh¯r¯ described in the rather brief sadhanas in SM. JAMBHALA. (cf. Jambhala is visualized on a lotus on which a hexagon-like mandala is inscribed. . ´ in one description found in the Vasundharoddesa. 35–36. icono.17–35) which mainly ´ addresses Mrtyumjaya.138) and Vasundhar¯ ¯. It is unlikely that the MP and the TSS would have replaced the iconographical description of the Buddhist goddess with a description of the earth goddess from their own tradition while adopting the Buddhist goddess’s mantras and their ritual applications. pp. ¯ ˜ ı according to which the goddess holds a rice shoot (dhanyamanjar¯) and displays the wish-granting gesture. From the . The TSS presents Jambhala in chapter 26 (26. s ´ who is identified with Siva.38–39). nos. Preceding Jambhala’s iconographic description in the two texts are instructions for the worshipper’s visualization.. 3. 441–442 and in Bhattacharyya 1974. THE GOD OF WEALTH The TSS and the MP describe rituals for Jambhala. from . seed (b¯ja) syllable hr¯m a lotus appears. vessel of plenty (bhadraghatoparisthita) and Loke´vara and Vajrap¯ni . graphic description and connected rituals are immediately followed by a description of the mantras of Kubera. 213–216. It also does not correspond aa to the iconography of a (six-armed) Buddhist Vasudh¯r¯ recorded in ´ the Vasundharoddesa whose text is discussed in both De Mallmann 1986. The MP presents Jambhala in chapter 32 (32. however.90–103) following the description of Cande´vara. are among the surrounding deities of the goddess just as in the MP and the TSS. Such a source may be found once additional iconographic material has been made available from yet unedited Buddhist texts. ı ı. who is widely known as the Buddhist counterpart of Kuvera/Kubera. the earth goddess a ´ a is also known by the names Vasudh¯ (ST 15..BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 309 most likely based on Buddhist sources as well. on top of the lotus. As in the TSS. I am not aware of a textual source for the goddess’s iconography.

Dhanada. a Purnabhadra. M¯nibhadra. Purnabhadra. TSS 26.. ¯ . . s NY. Vai´rama(for: . no. deities immediately surrounding Jambhala are the Yaksas M¯nibhadra. The . . 63. . a. These six . ¯ ¯ . an . Vai´ravana. 27 each of these Yaksas holds . 16–20). and Carendra (SM) ı a for Calendra (NY). on top of the . This visualization ¯ follows patterns found in Buddhist Tantric sadhana texts.. 19–26 lists Purnabhadra.. 7–8): namo ratnatrayaya namo ¯. ¯ . no. for Sibikundalin). According to NY. Vicitrakundalin (SM) for Civikundalin (NY). . 295 (p. Narendra and Carendra. Kelim¯lin. identical attributes. Caranendra (Mitra 1961. Two Jam¯ bhala sadhanas in the SM (nos. 5–9): M¯nibhadra.. Mukhendra. 284 (p. A similar mantra ¯ appears in SM. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ manibhadraya mahayaksasenapataye om jambhalajalendraya svaha.. prepared by Mongol artists in circa 1810 (Chandra 1991. . a. . but has Varendra instead of Carendra.¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ jambhalaya jalendraya svaha (MP 32. ◦ va◦ )na. epithet which is also found in his mantra which addresses him as the lord ¯. ¯ of the great army of the Yaksas: manibhadramahasenayaksadhipataye12 . Jambhala. The variants in the names are limited to .16+. 158. ¯ ¯ ¯ om manibhadraya svaha / . . Ratnagiri) for Sukhendra (NY). Sukhendra and Calendra. portrays Jambhala embracing a consort and surrounded by eight Yaksas. M¯nibhadra and s a a.101. . (Ratnagiri). p. on top of it a moon disc and on it – produced from the syllable jam – the deity . 1–4 gives the same names. no. Cilikundalin. see Illustration 1). Mukhendra and .. Siddhaikav¯ramah¯tantra. the fruit of the citron tree (in the right hand) and the mongoose (in the left).90–91ab). p. with a consort. . Vikundalin (most likely for Civikundalin or.. Mukhendra (SM. each . a. Kelim¯lin. p.100c). 570.. 40). The MP identifies Jambhala as the lord of the Yaksas (32. s a Dhanada. with a relief of Jambhala gives these names as Purnabhadra. then appears. 820. Varendra (Siddhaikav¯ramah¯tantra) or Caranendra . p. Cilikundalin (Ratnagiri). ˙ A xylograph from the Rin ’byun. p. deity Jambhala (MP 32.31cd–32ab). no. a Civikundalin. ¯ . ´ with TSS 26. . ¯ ¯ o<m> jambhalajale<n>draye svaha / . 284 and 288) enjoin that the Yogin ´ visualize an eight-petalled double lotus (visvapadma).310 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN the syllable am. ı a Carendra (cf. from the syllable jam (which is Jambhala’s seed syllable) the . . Vai´ravana. A slab from Ratnagiri . Dhanada. Kelim¯lin. p.. also SM. Vicitrakundalin. a moon disc appears. lotus. 310. names. 566. These are Jambhala’s characteristic attributes. 298. The mantra inscribed below the picture invokes the eight male Yaksas as follows: . . 63. such as SM. names appear to have been taken from a Buddhist source listing eight ¯ . 561. Celim¯lin.

74 . om . Dpah-bo chig sgrub-las byun-bahi dzambha-la lha-man. ¯ ¯ ¯ purnabhadraya svaha / ¯ ¯ dhanadaya (!) svaha / ´ ¯ ¯ baisravanaya (!) svaha / . om . om . ¯ ¯ ¯ kilimaliniye (!) svaha / .BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 311 Illustration 1. 820 Many-deity Jambhala from a S¯ dhana a Ekav¯ra s¯ dhana-vinirgata Bahudeva Jambhala ı a ˙ ˙ T. NW. om . . ¯ .

96–97) he is yellow. a a at N¯land¯ and preserved in the National Museum. three faces and (one) tawny eye.21: ´ ¯ ¯ svetapadmasthito harapat.96–97: ´ svetapadmasthitam saumyam p¯tabham dvibhujam prabhum / . . has (one) tawny eye. ¯ raktakalpasphuranmauliman ikundalamanditam // 96 . 41). b¯japuram ca nakulam dadhanam tam caturbhujam / . . is adorned with red ornaments. ¯ raktakalpapriyo devah pingaksas trimukhas13 tripat // . The deity’s deformities correspond to those of Kubera in Hindu mythology (see Hopkins 1915. 147). ¯ ¯ ¯ om mukhendraya svaha / . According to the first description (MP 32. . seated on a white lotus. .. etc.102ab: (. . wears necklaces. The Yaksas are positioned around Jambhala and constitute the . ¯ ¯ harakeyurakatakakatisutradyalamkrtam / . 142. the mongoose in their left and. ¯ ¯¯ tripadam tundilam dhyayet pujadau mantrasiddhaye // 97 . . jambhalam // 101d) ¯ .. in addition.21) adds that Jambhala has three feet. The second description is: MP 32. who is adorned with necklaces.62). The parallel description in the TSS (26. three faces (and) three feet. armlets. bracelets of gold. they hold the fruit of the citron tree in their right hand. ¯ ¯ . ear-rings. Jambhala is described twice in the MP and the TSS.. The first iconographic description in the two texts is: MP 32. ı ¯ ˙ ¯ . . . a shining crown and jewelled ear-rings.t . akeyurakundal¯ / . “For the perfection of the mantra one should meditate at the beginning of the ¯¯ worship (puja) on the lord who is on a white lotus. . pp. is fond of red ornaments. place one foot on a vessel full of jewels. As described . p. Except for the red ornaments on the deity’s body. surrounding deities of his mandala (Mitra 1961. a waistband. . a diadem. no. New Delhi (acc. has three feet and is corpulent. bracelets. smaret / 101b .” . 47.. ı ¯ . has two arms. “(One should recall) the four-armed (Jambhala) who holds the fruit of the citron tree and the mongoose. two-armed. . .312 ¯ ¯ om picikundalini (!) svaha / . who has three feet (and) is corpulent. ¯ ¯ ¯ om carendraya svaha / .. is tranquil. ı ¯ . in the NY.” TSS 26.. no attributes held in his hands are described. ¯ . ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN This group of Yaksas is also seen in a sculpture in the round excavated . “The god is on a white lotus. has a yellow lustre.

jambhalam / 32b) ¯ . .32cd–33a) specifies the gestures of protection and wish-granting as the two other attributes. Since in the second description the number of Kubera’s faces is unspecified. SM. This is also substantiated by the fact that Jambhala is unknown in the Hindu Tantric pantheon. and none of these texts give an identical description of Jambhala. which is often said to spew forth precious stones. while Jambhala and Kubera appear in Buddhist Tantric pantheons. we have to assume that the deity has one face. The following piece of information may be useful for identifying the source. etc.102a). on the other hand. ¯ ¯ caturbhujam imam dhyatva . The parallel description in the TSS (26. To alleviate his pain one should offer water libations on his head. . often with similar characteristics. . ¯ Even though none of the Buddhist sadhana texts I examined give exactly the visualization pattern found in the two Hindu Tantric texts. This . . no. The MP and the TSS state that the deity “was once for some reason injured by a wheel on his head” (the MP adds: by Hari). has six arms and represents a different iconographic type (cf.32cd–33a: (. However. whereby he will be pleased. the deity has only one face and not three faces as specified in the TSS’s description.BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 313 TSS 26. This may be due to a confusion of the four-armed form of Jambhala with the previously described two-armed form. it is likely that they were meant to describe two different iconographic types. / 33a . “Having meditated on that four-armed (Jambhala) who holds the mongoose along with the fruit of the citron tree (and) who is endowed with the wish(-granting gesture and the gesture of) protection . the description of the deity and the rituals associated with his worship in the MP and the TSS are clearly of Buddhist origin. . Jambhala is four-armed. which makes for a total of four attributes. ” According to the second description (MP 32. . Since the two descriptions of the Hindu Jambhala appear in connection with two different rituals. ¯ ı ¯ .14 The adoption of Jambhala by the Hindu texts is based on material (textual or otherwise) that is yet unidentified. but only two attributes are specified in the MP: the fruit ı¯ ¯ of the citron tree (b¯japura) and the mongoose (nakula). but through the course of time were blended together. The Buddhist three-faced Jambhala. sab¯japuram nakulam dadhanam savarabhayam // 32cd . 286). ¯ Buddhist sadhanas in the SM describe a form of the yellow Jambhala with two arms holding the fruit of the citron tree and the female ı mongoose (nakul¯).

a The mantras of Yama/Yam¯ntaka are to be inscribed in a yantra which ´ ¯ is employed in black magic (abhicara). In the MP and the TSS the second mantra is identified as a mantra of Yama. ¯ vyadhi). .17 ¯ bhrama). not a a Yam¯ntaka.e. ¯ntaka found in the Moreover.17d. (cf.1–39). which also appears in Laksmanade´ika’s ST 24. ¯ (4) liquidation (marana). also R¯ghavabhatta. ´ ´ ´ı ¯ . . According to sources from Bali which will be discussed below. and in texts citing the ST. Yama. it is only one of two mantras of Yama MP which are obviously borrowed from a Buddhist source. .18 .9cd–10ab) also .. These two texts seem to confuse Yama and Yam¯ntaka as can be seen from the instances discussed below. MP 47. ¯. Both the TSS and the MP address the mantras and rituals for ¯ a Yama/Yam¯ntaka in the context of the abhicara15 rites (TSS 17. 172. These rites are briefly defined in the anonymous commentary on the TSS.1b). While the texts usually refer to a group of six acts ¯. 20).22cd specifies a a yantra of Pretar¯ja. also Agni-Purana 306.. the following seven abhicara rites are listed in the TSS . ¯ 4. 233). this is ´ 24.1– 29. ST ¯ .11) I´ a cites a Yam¯ntaka mantra which he believes is borrowed from the ¯ Krsnayamaritantra. 16 (6) destruction (utsadana) and (7) creating illness (roga. . the god of death.1 with v. i. 865. (stambha). drawing on p. (3) eradication (uccata). According to ST 24. especially fever.e. p. a its use in the rite of liquidation (marana) (cf. since the TSS does not give precise information.. while the anonymous commentary on the TSS. such as the Sr¯vidyarnavatantra (SVT). (5) creating confusion or madness (bhranti. the Buddhist mantras appear in the section of the MP ¯ which promotes the rites of black magic (abhicara) which are said to be revealed for the sake of the protection of the (Vedic) dharma (47. MP 47.. 10 states that the yantra is perhaps to be used in the rite of causing dissension.314 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN information could provide a clue as to the mythology connected with this deity. . It must be added that the TSS (17. Ironically. charts on pp. 204–205 and remarks on p. 238. ¯ (sat karmani). . p. (2) causing dissension (vidvesa). the first of the two mantras is also inscribed in the squares of a yantra (Hooykaas 1973.5a) from the enemies of the dharma and the Veda (47.l) and the MP: (1) immobilization ¯. YAMANTAKA a) Introduction Dvivedi has drawn attention to the fact that the ¯SP (i. which include the Buddhists. ´ s records this mantra. ¯ .

849. Guard 1990. ´ ´ ¯ ya di yo ni ra pa (ya ST3) kse ya ya kse ya va (pa kse ya ca ST2. 296 reports that the Vajrabhairava cycle continues to be practiced under the name Mahisasamvara in Nepal. along with the Trikalpa and a a the Saptakalpa (see below). . Guard 1991. ¯ da ya yo ni ra ya kse ya ya kse sa sca ni ra ma yah // . 184 states. ritual manuals based on older texts. T¯ran¯tha credits Lalitavajra (tenth century) . 3) ni ra ma ya // .11 is: ¯ ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ya mo yo ru na yo da ya / . 66 and Sharpa Tulku/R. . . 8. 866.BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 315 b) The Thirty-Two-Syllabled Mantra a The first mantra is in Anustubh metre. . a ga la so me sa ya me do ru na yo da ya // s¯ . the author of which is familiar with the MP. ´ ´ The version found in TSS 17. Its wording according to the three editions of the text is: ¯ ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ya me do ru na yo da ya / .9cd–10ab is distorted and differs mainly in the first quarter of the verse: ´ ´ sa ma . 25 classify the mantra as Vajrabhairava’s root mantra. 243).18 Decleer 1998. volume 2. and continues to be recited in the Tibetan dGe lugs pa tradition up to the present. . of the tenth century or first half of the eleventh century). p.18 (last part s .. p. This Tantra is referred to in T¯ran¯tha’s History of . ¯ ¯ ¯ p. gives a version closer to the one in the MP: ¯ ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ya me do ru na yo da ya / . 237. gives the following reading of the mantra: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ya ma ra ja sa da me ya ya me da sa ja ra ma ya / ya da yo ni ra pa kse pa pa kse pa ra ni yo da ya // . Buddhism (Chattopadhyaya 1970. p. p. R¯ghavabhatta’s commentary. quoting the ST. ´ ´ SVT. ˜ ¯ ya da yo ni ra ya kse ya ya kse pa nca ni ra ma ya / . ¯ ´ p. . . 12. . p. ´ ¯ ya da yo ni ra ya kse ya ya kse ya sca ni ra ma ya // . The anonymous commentary on the TSS. such as Sharpa Tulku/R. 18 refers to it as the yamarajasloka. the mantra appears in the (Sarvatathagatakayavakcitta-) ¯ a a Krsnayamaritantra. a classification which is supported by two ancient Vajrabhairava texts cited below. . ´ The mantra also appears in Laksmanade´ika’s ST 24. especially of his form Vajrabhairava. . p. As Dvivedi 1995.. The version in MP 47. . Contemporary .. The above mantra is known in Buddhist Tantrism as the mantra a of Yam¯ntaka. .

6–13 in . . ¯ ya da yo ni ra ya kse ya ya ksa ya cca ni ra ma ya // .. ˜ with having brought these texts from the library of Dharmaganja in ¯ Uddiy¯na. 585 Samksipta Bhairava T. Hjigs-byed bsdus-pa . .. . Illustration 2. .316 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN ˙ . The mantra is referred to in Krsnayamaritantra 1. a an encoded form and appears in full in 6.13: ¯ ¯ ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ya me do ru na yo da ya / .

118 with a variant in the fourth quarter. 291.19 The reading kse better suits the . p. but with a short a at the end of ¯ the compound yamaraja. . 290. p. which is to be extracted from the alphabet syllable by syllable. identified with the ´ Saptakalpa by Siklos 1996.. with . Siklos 1996. the variant ya kse yac cha. ya kse . . p. . see Illustration 2). They are preserved in Archipelago Sanskrit. the mantra is found in chapter 1 of the Three Chapter verse.23 In this text we also find ¯ the short a at the end of the compound yamaraja and the spellings ¯ ya ccha (for yac ca) and ni ra ma ya (for ni ra ma ya) in the fourth quarter of the verse. Different versions are recorded in Hooykaas 1964. ¯ ¯¯ Note the long a at the end of the compound yamaraja in the versions of the two texts. 941 and Hooykaas 1973. which are ¯ mostly hymns of praise which the editors have named Yamarajastavas. is inscribed on a xylograph from the Rin . The same version. the mantra a is classified as the root mantra of the buffalo-headed Vajramah¯bhairava ´ and appears in an encoded form. no. ˙ ’byun (Chandra 1991. which is identified with the Trikalpa22 by ´ Siklos 1996. In his translation of the relevant passage he also omits syllables. p. 9 and Decleer 1998. 293. This text confirms that the mantra is the deity’s root mantra. p. note 1) on .BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 317 ¯ This mantra is also found in the Vimalaprabha commentary (cited ¯ in the introduction to the Krsnayamaritantra. 63 and p. p. no. 36 does not attempt to assemble the syllables of the mantra. p. In chapter 3 of the Vajramahabhairavatantra. Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971. p. The above mantra verse appears in Buddhist texts from Bali. 585. Tantra of Vajrabhairava. verse 10 and no. parallelism in the verse and appears in several other texts cited below. ya cca instead of the above ya ksa ya cca. which is ungrammatical unless it is supposed to be combined with an a at the beginning of the next word. p. where the deity is called Samksipta-Bhairava. 19. 210 (part of a ritual application). 229. p. 66.20 This mantra also appears in a text referred to ´ as The Myth in Siklos 1996 and as The Mythological Antecedents under one heading in Decleer 1998. This mantra with the same variant in the fourth quarter also appears in three Vajrabhairava ¯ texts. with the variant yac ccha (for yac ca) and ¯ ¯ the reading ni ra ma ya (for ni ra ma ya) in the fourth quarter of the 21 Lastly. ¯ Kalacakratantra 4. 9 and Decleer 1998. 815. The versions gathered by these two scholars can be listed as follows: 1ab) 2ab) 3ab) 4ab) 5ab) ya ya ya ya ya ma ma ma ma ma ¯ ra ¯ ra ¯ ra ¯ ra ¯ ra ja ja ja ja ja sa sa sa sa sa do do do do do me me me me me ya ya ya ya ya ya ya ya ya ya me me me me me do do do do do ro ra ro ro ro da da da da da yo yo yo yo yo da da da da da ya ya ya ya ya / / / / / .

Hooykaas 1964. . ¯ The first quarter of the verse. ¯ ¯ (for yamaranı). 942. sa nca n¯ ra ma ya // . which is the female reversal of yamaraja (Hooykaas 1964. the author suggests. Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971. .¯ ¯ ˜ ya ksi sa nca nı ra ma ya // .” In these different versions of the stanza we can identify the epithet ¯ yamaraja. ya me do sa ya me do ro ya da yo da ya da yo ni / ¯ ¯ . 941 in Goudriaan/Hooykaas: ¯ ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ya me ro do da yo da ya / ˜ ¯ ya da yo ni si ra pi ya ya ksi pa nca ni ra ma ya // .” and – in some of the Balinese versions – the word yaksi. In his earlier publication. p. but it also arranges the syllables in such a way that the second quarter of each half of the verse is the exact reversal . 67) and appears clearly at the end of stanza 2 of hymn no. .¯ ¯ ya pi ra si ni ra ya ma // ˜ ya ksi pa nca ni ra ma ya // ˜ ya ksi pa nca ni ra ma ya // 1cd) 2cd) 3cd) 4cd) 5cd) 6cd) 7cd) 8cd) ya ya ya ya ya ya ya ya da da da da da da da da yo yo yo ya yo yo yo yo ni ni ni ni ni ni ni ni ra ra ksi ya . . “one who always exerts himself.ı . p. a wood sculpture of a dog is identified as Sadomeya in Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971. no.ı ¯ ya ksi sa nta nı ra ma ya // . . 24+. Since Sa logy. .318 ¯ 6ab) ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ¯ 7ab) ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ¯ 8ab) ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN ya me ro do da yo da ya / ya me ro do da yo da ya / ya me no do da so da ya / ya ksi sa nti n¯ ra ma ya // .¯ ¯ ˜ ya . also appears independently in a number of other Balinese hymns. . ra ya ksi ya . ´ ´ of the yaksas.ı ¯ ˜ ya ksi sa nca nı ra ma ya // . Not only does it have some readings that are not found in the ¯ other versions (◦ sadameya). “king Yama. yu ra ksi ya ya ksi ya ksi ya ma ra ja ya ma ra ni // . even less convincingly. yamarajasadomeya. 544 and Hooykaas 1973. One version ¯ ¯ reads yamarajasarameya (Goudriaan/Hooykaas 1971. ¯ ¯ The last word niramaya in inverted order of syllables reads yamarani ¯. 2–3: om . . p. 51. p.” expressions such as yaksesas ca. ra ya ksi ya . 67. ¯ ya ma ra ja sa do me ya ya me du ru da yo da ya / ˜ ı ya da yo n¯ ra ya ks¯ ya yaksi sa nca na ra ma ya // . ja ra ma ya ja ra ma ya si ra pi ya si ra pi ya si ra pi ya Another variant of this mantra from Bali is found in a hymn entitled e Yamastava and published in L´vi 1933. verse ¯rameya is the name of Yama’s dog in Indian mytho1a). photograph. Accordingly. ´ ´ Of the versions listed above the one from the ST cited in the SVT is peculiar. . a derivation of sadomeya from sadodyama. “and the lord . p. 203 a (note) assume that Sadomeya is a variant of the name S¯rameya. . p.

All versions of the mantra verse listed above show the repetition of similar syllables.24 give ´ aı the following mantra of K¯l¯ and PS 13. . a ma / t t t ı ı t t .ta mo . The inversion of syllables in a mantra in a somewhat similar fashion ˜ ¯ is attested to in Hindu Tantric texts.73: . which is known as yamaka in Indian poetics. In the following scheme they are represented with the symbol : abc ihg def jkl fed lkj ghi / cba // Based on this scheme the following reading of the verse is suggested.. This arrangement is termed pratilomayamaka in ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ Dandin’s Kavyadarsa 3. however.51. the syllables are repeated in reverse (pratiloma) order.56 and ST 24. A yamaka in which the last syllables of a verse quarter are repeated (in regular order) at the beginning of the next quarter is termed samdas. the underlying scheme seems to be that the last three syllables of a verse quarter are repeated in inverted order at the beginning of the next verse quarter. a . Each verse quarter contains two syllables which are not repeated. a // ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ST1 reads va mo (for pa mo) and mo va (for mo pa) in the third quarter of the verse. a mo . An avagraha has been inserted before meya in the first quarter of the verse: .BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 319 of the first quarter. In the scheme of this verse. a (=) .tayamaka . a pa ma ya ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ pa mo bhu ri (=) ri bhu mo pa ¯t ¯ ma . ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ in Dandin’s Kavyadarsa 3. Each verse quarter consists of four syllables in regular order and the same four syllables in inverted order. Leaving aside the distortions in the different versions. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ya ma ra ja sa da me ya (=) ya me da sa ja ra ma ya / ya da yo ni ra pa kse pa (=) pa kse pa ra ni yo da ya // . ´ In the ST these two mantras appear in the same chapter as the above thirty-two-syllabled mantra: Mantra of K¯l¯ aı ¯ ı ¯ ¯ ı ¯ ka l¯ ma ra (=) ra ma l¯ ka ¯ ¯ ma mo de ta (=) ta de mo ma l¯ na mo ksa (=) ksa mo na l¯ / ı ı .25 provide the following mantra of Yama. PS 13.ta (=) . Mantra of Yama ¯ ¯t ¯ ¯ t ya ma pa . which resembles the pratilomayamaka illustrated above. ra ksa ta ttva (=) ttva ta ksa ra // . . a r¯ stva (=) stva r¯ .. . such as the Prapancasara (PS) ´ ´ (most likely tenth century) and the ST. . a .55 and ST 24. .

ya ma ¯ ra ni ca ya kse .320 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN ¯ yamarajasado’meya yame doradayodaya / ¯ yad ayonirayaks eya yakseya ca niramaya // . Considering that the choice of syllables in the mantra is obviously dominated by sound-effects at the expense of grammar and sense. taken as a gerundive from the root ksi (to destroy) and yakseya as the . Fourteen. undefeatable) (ameya) by the assembly (= troups) (sadas) of king Yama! Having arms (dor) in which there is no (a-) rise (= production) ¯ (udaya) of mercy (daya) towards Yama! Since (you) can destroy (= stop falling into) the iron hell (ayo-niraya-kseya). the mantra praises not Yama – as the editors of the Balinese texts cited above assume –. ¯ Purana 5. . I would desire to worship (you). ¯ (nir-amaya)!” In this attempt at translation.. Bhagavata¯. Atmanepada of the desiderative (without reduplication) from the root yaj (to worship). the form kseya is . The syllables in bold font are repeated in the scheme and the syllable ya in each corner must be read each time one begins a new line.26.7 for the hell named ayahpana). which takes into account that the text compromises in grammar and meaning of words. the following meaning could perhaps be extracted from this reading of the verse: “O you immeasurable (i. O disease-killer . the text of the mantra could be inscribed on the sides of a square and read in clockwise direction beginning from the upper left corner. In a graphic form.e. optative. untranslated and is considered an expletive particle to fill in the metre. . ya ma ¯ ra ja sa do me kse . ¯ first person singular. The word ca is left . In this interpretation. ya ra ni yo da ya me do ra da yo da ya c) The Twelve-. The iron hell (ayo-niraya) ¯ would refer to one of the many hells described in texts (cf.or Ten-Syllabled Mantra The thirty-two-syllabled mantra is immediately followed in the MP by this twelve-syllabled mantra: . but the enemy of Yama. who ´ aa could be identified with either Siva in his manifestation as K¯l¯ri24 (for the Hindus) or with Vajrabhairava (for the Buddhists).

. ı..tr¯m dams. . This version resembles the . s. ¯ be inserted (e. p. . . NY. ı. ¯ . . volume 2. ¯ ¯ ¯ ananaya vadhur vahner ¯ ´¯ . 165. . . and . ¯ ¯ Buddhist version of the mantra given below. . . The verse in ´ ´ ´ ST1 (with readings in ST2. . 14–15. (s.tra tatparam vikrtam tatah (vikrtantatah ST 1.. ¯ ¯ version of the mantra. ˙ a It is followed by a description of the six limbs (angas) of Yam¯ntaka. ¯. . r¯m vikrtananaya svaha. (= hr¯m) s. 278–280. ¯ . the mantra is the deity’s heart (hrdaya) . 37. ı. ¯ . ¯ . . According to NY. nos. p.tra vikrta+ananaya (= vikrtananaya) vadhur vahner . ı. . 849. .t ı. p. . .BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS ¯ ¯ ¯ om hr¯m vikrtananaya hum phat svaha. ¯ a This mantra is also found in sadhanas of the red and the dark Yam¯ri in SM. 9–10) is: ´ ´ ´ ´ı ´ pranavah (pranavam ST3) str¯ . . p. 31. in which it is ¯ occasionally classified as the deity’s root (mula) mantra. For hum the variant hum (with the short vowel) is also found. 321 In the MP. It also appears ¯ a in Guhyasamajatantra 15.20 in an encoded form. a mantra (p. before hum/hum other words. can . The individual syllables of the mantra in the code are given as: pranava . ´ The mantra appears in ST 24. ı. . e.tr¯m dams. .travikrtananaya svaha. The mantra is not found in the TSS. ¯ ¯ om hr¯h s.. . ¯ . . but appears in the commentary on TSS. . 4. ı .. . R¯ghavabhatta adds that instead of the above .tr¯h vikrtanana hum hum phat phat svaha. a specified as the mantra of Yam¯ri: ¯. . ı. ¯ a a R¯ghavabhatta’s commentary specifies this mantra as the Yam¯ntaka . in which it has fourteen syllables and is . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (= svaha).g.. usually imperative forms of verbs. ¯ mantra as well as the mantra for all actions (sarvakarmikamantra). . . . this mantra is identified as a mantra of Yama (47. ¯ appended to the edition of the Krsnayamaritantra. . 3 and SVT. ı. sr¯ ST2. nayamaritantra. 268–272. 21).tr¯m vikrtanana hum phat svaha. . 11–12 as the mantra of Yama in the following form: ¯ ¯ ¯ om s. This latter term implies that all ritual applications can be performed with it (cf. . The mantra is inscribed on a xylograph of the . This mantra appears frequently with small variants in the Buddhist ¯ Kr.thr¯m ST1.23+). ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (= om) s. ¯. 238. 14. 3) / .g. ´ ¯ s ¯ dam. Variants of the mantra employed in abhicara rites described in the Tantra are recorded in the list of mantras. ım . p. pranavo ‘gram SVT) tato . ¯ . . .. nos. which yield the mantra: om s. p. . . some authorities recite pranava (= om) maya .18+ and in Abhay¯karagupta’s NY. mantro ‘yam dvadasaksarah // . ¯. 37. 866. 13–14).14. 274–276 and nos. . 1.12ab).

¯ The mantra appears in a ten-syllabled form (in code) in chapter 3 of ¯ ¯.322 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN Illustration 3. The mantra is spelt out in full with minor variants in chapter 1 of the above-mentioned Three Chapter Tantra of Vajrabhairava. . ¯ . ı.tr¯h vikrtanana hum hum phat.25 . p. 584. ¯. . no. G´ed dmar s ˙ red Yam¯ntaka from the Rin ‘byun (Chandra 1991.26 It appears in . 229. ı. Red Yam¯ ri a Rakt¯ ri/Rakta Yam¯ ri a a T. see a Illustration 3) with the spelling kri instead of kr in vikrtanana. the Vajramahabhairavatantra: hr¯h s. .

tr¯m) are ¯. . 4) to his and Dvivedi’s edition of the ¯ Krsnayamaritantra. . Contemporary ritual manuals of the dGe lugs pas. . ı. such as Sharpa Tulku/R. ¯ ı. 11–12 gives the mantra as om . nayamaritantra] can be judged from the fact that . the nasal (hr¯m . in an anusvara followed by a visarga: om . ¯ . .tr¯m). . ı. . .” Samdhong Rinpoche . . . ¯ ¯ of bursting or breaking and svaha is an exclamation already known ´ from Vedic times. ¯ ¯ hum phat svaha. dams. .. . Hum (hum)...” The syllables hr¯h (hr¯m) and .thr¯m hr¯mh mahanagni . hr¯mh jn¯h vikrtanana hum . s ı. Manjusr¯mulakalpa. 29. ´ ¯´¯ ´ a Saivite Tantra called Isanasivagurudevapaddhati has borrowed some ¯ of its materials from the Krsnayamari Tantra.travikrtananaya .tra).BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 323 somewhat corrupted form with seed syllables having short vowels and. ¯. svaha. . 20 in ¯ Pramod¯. Dvivedi does not address . . Guard 1990. .. phat phat svaha. the second mantra. Phat imitates the sound . . . ¯ ¯ ı. In his statement Samdhong Rinpoche echoes Dvivedi 1995. p. . . the Kr. 574. . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ anusvara (for originally anunasika) to which a visarga is added (= mh) . .27 The only translatable word in this mantra is the vocative vikrtanana. p.. The occurrence of an ı . . The occurrence of the thirty-two-syllabled mantra in the ¯ Krsnayamaritantra cannot be taken as proof that this Tantra constitutes . p. svaha to the one whose face is deformed by fangs (dams. phat and svaha are each classified in . ¯ as above. which accompanies an offering in the fire. .” . ¯ this work [i. s ı. Samdhong Rinpoche states that the “importance of . translates . follow this ˜ ´ı ¯ classification. . . ¯ In the Vajramahabhairavatantra and in the Three Chapter Tantra of Vajrabhairava the mantra is classified as the action mantra. the spelling kri for kr in vikrtanana: om hrih s. d) The Eight-Syllabled Mantra (of Yama) In the preface (p.. . ¯ Hindu Tantras as closing words (jati) of mantras. ¯ ¯ ı seed (b¯ja) syllables.. ˜ı . 66 and Sharpa Tulku/R.tr¯h). 25. . .tr¯h (s. . Guard 1991. . . p. ¯. s. ¯ . the corresponding seed syllables in the Buddhist ı.trih vikritanana . refers here to the inclusion of the thirty-two-syllabled mantra in the MP. p. ¯ . who believes that the author of the ¯SP borrowed the thirty-two¯ syllabled mantra from the Krsnayamaritantra. I´ 184. s ı. . ¯ While the Hindu versions of the mantra have some seed syllables end in ı. in this version is occasionally attested to for other mantras in Tantric texts. A string of seed syllables similar to ˜ ´ı ¯ those in the above mantra appears in Manjusr¯mulakalpa. The ST’s ¯ ¯ ¯ version of the mantra. . ı . ¯ ¯ ¯ as “.. .e. texts end in the visarga (hr¯h s. one of the seed syllables ends a a mantra invoking the Yaksinı . “O you of deformed face. hum phat.

the dharma and the samgha). as well as the second one which Dvivedi does not address. 184 considers the source for the thirty-two-syllabled a mantra of Yam¯ntaka in the MP. p. This mantra is not found in the Buddhist texts examined above.. 25. e) On the Iconography a We do not find iconographic descriptions of Yama/Yam¯ntaka in the TSS a or the MP. 38–41). The Kr. De can be identified as a form of Yama Mallmann 1986. 15–16. which he extracts and reprints from the ¯ a a MP. sixteen legs and thirty-four arms in chapter 4 of the above-mentioned ¯ ´ Vajramahabhairavatantra (Siklos 1996. also appears in three Vajra´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ bhairava texts. it seems that the TSS and ´ the MP (as well as the ST) did not borrow the two mantras directly ¯ from the Krsnayamaritantra or from the Vajrabhairava texts cited above . 400–401).23a+) ¯ntaka called Vajrabhairava (cf. This mantra. syllabled mantra. dhumandhakaraya ¯ ¯ svaha. “salutation to the three jewels” (i. as opposed to . pp. which . .11+ refer to the deity’s deformed face. as the sadhana of the dark Yam¯ri (Krsnayam¯ri). This mantra is also referred to in MP 47. R¯ghavabhatta. ¯ a a that of the red Yam¯ri (Raktayam¯ri). Therefore. his dark (krsna) colour. These mantras include fragments of typically Buddhist Tantric offering mantras.19c as the eight-syllabled mantra of Yama. . speak of his nine faces and reddish-brown hair mass. but referred to in its commentary.. s.. also MP 47. It is not included in the TSS. also as the mantra of Yama. .324 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN the source from which the TSS and the MP have borrowed. to the Buddha.28 5. 42 labelling the section describing the deity’s yantra. . APPENDIX: OTHER MANTRAS OF BUDDHIST ORIGIN In addition to the above mantras. . 238.e. The mantras of the deity’s limbs (anga) found in MP 47. 866. especially since no entire passage (except for the two mantras) from the Tantra can be identified in the TSS or the MP. This nine-faced dark Yam¯ntaka (cf.19 provides a third mantra. states that the visualization of the deity should be learnt ˙ from one’s preceptor.. as well as epithets employing the prefix .. nayamaritantra. Invocations such as namo ¯ ratnatrayaya. commenting on the thirty-two. That deity is described with nine faces. the TSS and the MP include a few other mantras of Buddhist origin. in which a third mantra was included. but rather from another unidentified source. which is to be inscribed in the same yantra. These references most likely have contributed to Dvivedi 1992. Dvivedi 1995. p. pp. ST 24. p. p. does not describe a nine-faced form a a of Yam¯ri.

˙ a Vajras. .¯ ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ¯ ajnapayati hum phat svaha / . candasidhara (cf..thaya cintitaya rupaya (?) lambodaraya mahajnanavaktraya bhrukutikamaya . . .indicate their Buddhist origin. also MP 43. ´. ı is known as a Yaksin¯ in the Jain pantheon (Misra 1981. ¯ ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ¯ candasidharadhipatirudro jnapayati hum phat svaha / . raya karalaya mahavikrtarupaya vajragarbhaya ehy ehi kayam . Rudra and “the lord of the edge of the fierce sword” . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ı namo bhagavati mahavajragandhari anekasatasahasraprajvalitad¯ptatejayai ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ´ı ı ı ı. . She also figures as a gate keeper in deity mandalas described in . ı ı .BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 325 vajra. (candasidharapati). . This Khadgar¯vana. ... ¯ ¯ ´¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ cirayasi / devadanavagandharvayaks araksasabhutabh¯.ı ¯ ¯ ¯ ´¯ ¯ . ¯ ¯ namo bhagavate ratnatrayaya </> namas candavajrapanaye mahasattvasenapataye ¯ . . ..¯ following dharanı from SM. The mantra invokes Candavajrap¯ni.. In addition to Candavajrap¯ni.ı ¯ ¯ ¯ . ˙ ¯ ¯ ´¯ ı ¯ ı (for mahayaksa◦ ) </> namas candasrnkhalaya prad¯ptaya prajvalitarpitad¯ptakesaya ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ı n¯lakan.t ¯ ¯ ´ ´ ehy ehi kayam anupravisya sirasi grhna / caksus¯ calaya / hiri bhiri kim .¯ which attack children The MP inserts the following long mantra between 43. ´r ˙ ¯ ¯ namo ratnatrayaya </> namas candavajras.. anekarupavividhaves adharinıyai / ehy ehi bhagavati mahavajragandhari trayanam ¯ ¯. hanti tan . ¯ . ¯ siddhadevadanavagandharvayaks araksasapretanagapisacams trasaya kampaya . . ´ a . 205.¯ .” The mantra includes the epithet candasidharadhipati. a fierce form . . . . . 174).52ab and cd. ´rnkhala.¯ . aa a) The candasidh¯r¯-mantra for the destruction of evil demons (graha) . In the following. 404. . . . ´ . . ¯ . ¯ . 5–16: ¯ ´ ¯.l. ana pretanagapisacapasmaran ıs . who may be the male counterpart of Vajra´rnkhal¯ who ˙ s. . ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ mulu culu culu dhama dhama raksa raksa raksapaya raksapaya puraya puraya avisa .. ¯ . ¯ ¯ ¯ ratnanam satyena akata akata baladevadikam ye canye samaye na tis.ı . . p.. mantra is followed by another mantra which addresses Khadgar¯vana. as Cande´vara. haya krtantarupaya lambodaraya mahajnanavaktraya .. ¯ ¯ ¯¯ ¯ . ¯. ¯ trasaya kampaya samayam anusmara hana daha paca matha vidhvamsaya . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ caturdam. ¯ . ¯ . . ¯ ¯ ¯ bhrukut¯mukhaya caturdams. ¯ ¯ samayam anusmara hana jaha paca matha vidhvamsaya candasidharadhipatir . st ¯ ´ ´ ¯ anupravisya sirasi grhna caksus¯ calaya hari (v. . a Abhay¯karagupta’s NY.¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯. . p. s ¯ ¯ a.t ¯ ´ı avarttayisyami / s¯ghram grhna grhna grhna om ala ala ala ala hulu hulu mulu . p. 128. ugrabh¯mabhayanakayai yogin¯yai bh¯smabhagin¯yai dvadasabhujayai vik¯rnakes¯yai ¯ ´ ¯ . means “the edge of the . bhiri) kim cirayasi . rakaralaya mahavikrtarupaya vajragarbhaya / . no. the TSS’s version of the mantra invokes a. .¯ . ¯ namo ratnatrayaya / namas candavajrapanaye mahayaksasenapataye / . .52c). .¯ ¯ ¯ fierce sword.44ab+ is: ¯ ´ . of the Yaksa Vajrap¯ni. . . ¯ . The version in TSS 13. nkhalaya prad¯ptaya prajvalitahastaya ı ¯ ¯ ´¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ı ı prajvalitarcitad¯ptakesaya n¯lakan. who is known as a form of Siva. . a..¯ “overlord of the edge of the fierce sword. is also addressed . ..t ¯ ¯ ¯¯ ¯ .. ¯ ´ .¯ . . I refrain from a detailed discussion of each mantra for reasons of space. Compare parts of this mantra to parts of the ¯ .” In the MP and the TSS this a . ¯ ¯ Its name. ¯ .

85 – 86. 205. ı. In this mantra we encounter the name Vajrag¯ndh¯r¯. .t . p. ˙ ˜ ¯ ˜ ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ¯ janghe munca padau munca candapanir ajnapayati hum phat svaha / .¯ ¯ ¯ the dharanı from the SM. Parts of . ¯.¯ ¯ dharanı is part of SM. ¯ . . It is found several times as part of a dharanı ¯ ¯ ¯ a of Mah¯bala in the Chinese version of the Aryamahabala(nama¯ ¯ ¯ mahayana-)sutra as reproduced in Bischoff 1956. hanti tannamavartayisyami / s¯ghram grhna / om . 266. 174. ¯ The invocation namas candavajrapanaye mahayaksasenapataye. ¯ . ¯ ´. ¯. p.326 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯. . who figures a aı ı as a Yaksin¯ in Jainism (see Misra 1981. ¯ ¯ phat svaha / . ¯ ¯ the surrounding deities in Mahavairocanasutra. ¯.55+) The presiding deity of the following mantra is the Buddha ¯ (buddhadhidaivato mantro). ¯ ¯ which is found in the candasidhara-mantra as well as in the initial part of .. ¯ ¯ ı.72+) ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ı. which is the only sadhana in the SM. ¯ ¯. . 81. ı. ´¯ ¯ . .t . ¯ ´ ı. ı. p. 199. 48. ¯. . 171. ´¯ a aı b) The vajrag¯ndh¯r¯-mantra for protection from Pisacas. 56 ¯ and p. idehim coktajikadha omkar¯m (?) katyayan¯m (?) nairrtyam kal¯m mahakal¯m ı.. 260.. .tham munca uro munca hrdayam munca udaram munca katim munca . p. indran¯m yaksakauber¯m mahesvar¯m vaisnav¯m camund¯m raudr¯m varah¯m kauber¯m . .. pp. . . ¯.¯ ´ ¯ . ¯ namo ratnatrayaya namas candavajrapanaye mahayaksasenapataye. . . It e also found in the Balinese Buddhaveda (L´vi 1933. 24): namo ¯ ´ . a aı which is dedicated to Vajrag¯ndh¯r¯. ¯ ¯. . 114 and the phrase kim cirayasi only appears in a mantra of . 100: ¯ ´ . ¯ ´¯´ .2+ gives a similar mantra: . ¯. . ı ¯.¯ Prajnaparamita (p. ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ¯ ı. . ¯. ¯ ı . ¯ ı. ¯ . . no. also appears in texts such as the Satasahasrika ˜¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ . . ¯ ˜¯ ´ bho bho jvara srnu hana garda charda sarvajvara cata vajrapanir ajnapayati / siro . . 175). ¯´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ı yas canya mama samaye tis. ¯ .. ¯ . 3. c) Mantra against fever (jvara) (MP 45. . pp. 2. om ras. ¯. ¯ ¯ keeper Abhimukha in Mahavairocanasutra (Yamamoto 1990). evil demons (graha) and fever (MP 43. ¯ ratnatrayaya namas candavajrapanimahayaksasenapati. ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ lala culu puraya dhara anaya subhage / avisa bhagavati / mahavajragandhari ¯. TSS 15. . . .. . That ¯ . p. ¯. ı. 5–6. . ¯ . . 3 and p. 80. The expression samayam anusmara is found several times in texts such as the ¯ Sarvatathagatatattvasamgraha. 128. ´ ¯ı ¯ ¯. 2). ´ . ˙ ´ vajrakal¯m yasasvin¯m sukal¯m agneyam vayavyam kalikam panktisaktim santaks¯m ı. . p. ı . . ¯ ˜ ¯ avisa bhagavati mahavajragandhari siddhacandavajrapanir ajnapayati hr¯h hah hum ı. 2.¯ this mantra are similar to the dharanı cited from the SM in a). siddhacandravajrapanir ajnapayati hr¯m hah ham ham ham hum phat svaha / . .ı. . The phrase ¯ ¯ ¯ kim cirayasi samayam anusmara svaha is part of a mantra of gate . ¯ namo saratnatra (for ratnatrayaya?) sasam (for jvara?) hrdayam avartayisyami / . ¯ ı. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ munca kan.

. ¯ ˜¯ ´ ˜ ˜ charda sarvajvara avata vajrapanir ajnapayati mama siro munca kan.7cd+. and the vocative vajrini with cakrini. . e) Mantra to protect cattle (TSS 30. i. ¯ . . whose name appears in the invocation part of . 6. 317. . 257). ¯ ¯ asmin grame gokulasya raksam kuru santim kuru svaha / . the ¯ ¯ ´ a year in which R¯ghavabhatta completed his Padarthadarsa commentary . . whose mantra is taught in ¯. namo ratnatrayaya </> jvarahrdayam avrtayisyami bho jvara s. CONCLUSION Both the MP inserted into the ¯SP and the TSS incorporate descriptions I´ aa of Vasudh¯r¯ and Jambhala. .37+) ¯ ¯ ¯ iti miti timi kakatundini svaha / . ¯.e. version of the mantra shows corrupt forms of words. the above one appears in Agni-Purana 302. ¯ ´ ´ ¯ tryambakayopasamayopasamaya culu culu mili mili bhidi bhidi gomanini ¯ . no. In addition. originally Buddhist deities. . . chapter 137 of the Agni-Purana and other texts. ¯ ˙ ¯ ´¯ ¯ ¯ namo ratnatrayaya pingalaya anale kunale grhna pindam pisacini svaha // . .. . . Siva. ¯. The mantra contains a salutation to the three jewels.. phat / asmin grame gokulasya raksam kuru santim kuru ¯ ´¯ . I have made no attempt to correct the text of the mantra: ¯ ´ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯. the goddess of pestilence. Vajrahumk¯ra. . is known as a deity of the Buddhist Tantric pantheon ¯ (cf. cakrini hrum . .t . The vocative gomari may refer to a form of a aı (Mah¯)m¯r¯. ¯ . kuru kuru svaha. ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ ¯ .29–30: om namo bhagavate . ¯ ´ ¯. .. ¯ ¯ ¯. d) Mantra accompanying a bali offering (TSS 30. ˜ bahum munca udaram munca katim munca guhyam munca urum munca janum munca . A mantra similar to ¯. p. ¯.. . ˜ ¯ . ¯ meli siddhi gomari vajrini hum phat / . . ham munca . a this mantra. . nu hana garja . ´r .29 It is important to note that in the Agni-Purana the ´ a name Vajrahumk¯ra has been replaced with that of Tryambaka. ¯ ´¯ .BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 327 ¯ ¯ .. ´ ¯ ¯ om anale kundale mahapisaciniye svaha / om grhna mahabhanda pisaciniye svaha / . 842).6ab+) ´ ¯ ¯ namo bhagavate vajrahumkaradarsanaya (vajramuka◦ MP) om cuku (vila MP) mili . . along with the procedures for their ritual worship which include typically Buddhist Tantric elements. ¯. MP 49. SM. . . the Agni-Purana’s . no. The two texts must have been extant before 1493. The text following the invocation resembles the following mantra inscribed on a xylograph ı entitled “the three sisters (bhagin¯traya) dByug gu ma” from the Rin ˙ ‘byun (Chandra 1991. . ˙ ˜ ¯ ˜ ¯ ˜¯ ¯ ¯ janghe munca padau munca candapanir ajnapayati hum phat svaha / . .

232. the deity is four-armed and holds the fruit of the citron tree and the mongoose and makes the gestures of protection and wish-granting. This description aa does not correspond to that of Vasudh¯r¯ frequently found in Buddhist texts. holds a pomegranate in her left hand and a red . The number of his faces is not specified and must therefore be taken as one. which were then transferred to Siva and reinterpreted as “the ender of death. The relationship between the two texts is briefly addressed in the introduction to this paper. most likely the ¯ . has three feet and is corpulent. while chapters 39–52 of the MP are based on the TSS. Jambhala is described twice. Neither description has so far been identified in Buddhist texts. aa The worship procedures for Vasudh¯r¯ and Jambhala described in these texts clearly show Tantric Buddhist elements. ı lotus with a vessel showering jewels in its interior in her right and has her foot placed on a vessel from which wealth flows. are common attributes of the two-armed Jambhala. is applicable here. but their sources have not yet been identified in Buddhist texts. While the MP does not mention the number of his faces. fourteen. In the second description. the fruit of the citron tree and the mongoose. according to which a aa Yam¯ntaka and K¯l¯ntaka. however. a The mantras of Yam¯ntaka appear in connection with a yantra of ¯ Yama used in the rites of black magic (abhicara). Vasudh ¯r¯. In the ritual applications of the MP and a the TSS both the names Yama and Yam¯ntaka (elsewhere known as a Yam¯ri) appear. is seated on a white lotus. The iconography of the two deities is likely to be Buddhist as well. the sections of the two texts studied in this paper seem to confirm Goudriaan’s hypothesis that chapters 15–38 of the MP are earlier than the TSS. rite of liquidation (marana). a While the texts of the Yam¯ntaka cycle of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition . not conclude that an observation made by O’Flaherty 1976. An identification of these deity descriptions may be possible when additional text material is aa made available in edited form. is yellow. who is classified as a form of Laksm¯. The attributes held in his two hands are not given.or ten-syllabled. even though the two attributes. the TSS specifies three faces. the ender.” The cause of this confusion is that mantras of the Buddhist a Yam¯ntaka were incorporated into a yantra of Yama. in which they are cited. While this issue requires further examination. “death. The first mantra is thirty-two-syllabled and the second twelve-.328 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN ´ on the ST. I would. p. where the goddess holds a rice shoot and makes the wish-granting gesture.” were originally epithets of ´ Yama. According to the first description he is yellow.

This nine-faced form of Yam¯ntaka is not described in ¯ ¯ the Kr. ˙ a The mantras of Yam¯ntaka’s limbs (anga) listed in MP 47. nayamaritantra but in chapter 4 of the Vajramahabhairavatantra. nayamaritantra.. The third mantra is identified as a mantra of Yama.. s. In the case of the other mantras. are said to have originated in Uddiy¯na. the two mantras are said to be inscribed in the yantra along with a third eight-syllabled mantra which cannot be identified in the Buddhist texts examined in this paper. The second mantra addresses the (deity) with a face a deformed (by fangs). which were believed to be powerful. but rather from another source which . the compilers apparently did not want to exclude popular mantras. which were transmitted as part of a series of mantras to cure diseases..23a+) who is identified as a Vajrabhairava. who could be identified either as Siva in aa his manifestation as K¯l¯ri (for the Hindus) or as Vajrabhairava (for the Buddhists). According to the Hindu Tantras. s. does not indicate a connection to Tantric Buddhism. . even though they carried traces of the . . The main texts of the Yam¯ntaka cycle in which these two mantras appear. Unlike other groups in Hinduism who included the Buddha among Visnu’s . the Hindu Tantric texts examined in this paper identify the second mantra as a mantra of Yama. also the references to his nine faces in MP 47.11+ address a dark deity with nine faces and reddish-brown hair. a a a Uddiy¯na/Oddiy¯na is normally identified with a province in the Swat . The two Yam¯ntaka mantras are inscribed in yantras. present-day Pakistan. On ¯ the one hand. they could not easily be omitted. they describe the rites of black magic (abhicara) for use against the enemies of the (Vedic) dharma and the Veda. Since they were transmitted as part of a ritual procedure which included the drawing of a powerful yantra. This a description suggests a nine-faced form of the dark Yam¯ntaka (cf. for ¯ example the Kr. The compilers of the MP and the TSS seem to have had an ambivalent attitude. The wording of the two mantras. Valley in the north-west of the subcontinent. which continue to be recited by Tibetan Buddhists up to the present. the compilers of these two texts made a distinction between a their own tradition and that of the Buddhists. ¯ avataras.. they incorporate mantras from these very enemies.BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 329 a a employ both of these mantras as mantras of Yam¯ntaka/Yam¯ri. On the other hand. The first one seems to be in praise ´ of the enemy of Yama. The question that arises is what attitudes the compilers of the MP and the TSS had toward the Buddhist material they included. . It appears as though texts such as the MP and the TSS did not borrow the three mantras directly from Buddhist Tantric texts. where Tantrism once flourished. included the third mantra.

749. For some information. Buhnemann and M. In their subordinate . 12). 9 ◦ dadimam MP. . 15 = TSS 25. see Aiyangar’s preface to his . 748.. whose names are invoked in some of the mantras of Buddhist origin listed in the appendix of this paper. . 589.6. ¯ of the text dates from 1168 CE (see The Hindu Deities Illustrated according to ¨ the Pratis.330 ¨ GUDRUN BUHNEMANN Buddhist context from which they were taken. 12 = TSS 25. p. Dvivedi’s remarks in connection with the Prapancasara in the introduc¯. = TSS 25.t ¯ . 750. . 147ff. ¯ . 4 Both the preface to the edition of the TSS. 5 ˜ ¯ See V. . p. ı (Garudapancaksar¯kalpa).24cd–25ab. p. Other mantras were inserted between descriptions of ritual procedures for similar Hindu aa deities for the sake of completeness.14–15ab. 10 ¯˙ Suggested emendation.39ab. 593. precedes that of different forms of Durga followed by the presentation of the mantras of the traditional Hindu ¯ ı earth goddess Bhudev¯. Tachi. volume 2. p. and p.. 24–26 = TSS 25. 592. ´ ¯ . 1932. edition of the TSS. 15 = TSS 23.” 8 The edition of the MP takes verses 20a and 20b as one stanza.9a.7cd–8ab. ı Isa s V¯r¯nas¯ 1968). 27–28 = TSS 25.t ¯ . 592. positions they were apparently not felt to interfere with the compilers’ sectarian affiliations. 593. a 7 MP signals variant readings in the text. .44cd. but it is not entirely clear which reading ¯ ı ı they are replacing: “kantimat¯. . halaksanasarasamuccaya. p. p. p. .51a–c. 13–14 . ˙ a of Vajra´rnkhal¯). p. Some of the mantras explicitly invoke the lord of the Yaksas. . 1 .29cd. and his introduction to his edition of ¯ ¯¯ the Sadhanamala. a. which is numbered ¯ a a as 20. halaksanasarasamuccaya and Its Illustrations by G. p.V. 3 ¯ ¯ . ˜ ¯ . Tokyo 1990). 2 ¯´ ¯ This section of the TSS shares identical passages with the Kasyapa-Samhita . 591. p. p.ı In the following I identify a number of citations from the Narayan¯ya in ´ ´¯ ¯ a R¯ghavabhatta’s commentary on the Saradatilaka (ST1) that are from the TSS: . 19–20 = TSS 23. pp. The metre of both verses is M¯tr¯samaka (16 matras per quarter). 18 = TSS 23. The description of Jambhala is followed by that of Kubera. cxxxvff. ¯ a a.t ¯ . 128 give the date as the fifteenth or the sixteenth century. 5 = TSS 25. ˙ Vajrap¯ni and possibly Vajra´rnkhala (if he is the male counterpart s. 1 and Goudriaan in Goudriaan/Gupta 1981.3d. ◦ ghatasyanghrim TSS. Buhnemann. 589. 25 = TSS 25. p. ¯. p. pp.7ab. The oldest manuscript . . halaksanasarasamuccaya.23ab. Compiled by G. tanv¯ti kecit. In the above discussed texts the Buddhist deities do aa not occupy the positions of major deities. 18–19 = TSS 25. ¯ kawa (The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies. ¯ and is directly for example. NOTES See Bhattacharyya 1930. 8. p. ¯ 6 The MP erroneously reads Amit¯gha. p. p. The description of Vasudh¯r¯. a R¯ghavabhatta. Vasudh¯r¯ and a aı Yama are all associated with the Yaksa cult as well as Vajrag¯ndh¯r¯. 590. 20 = TSS 25. part 1: The ¨ Pratis. ¯´¯na´iva of the Mattamayura lineage was the teacher of Vairocana who wrote the Pratis. s. 41. Jambhala. tion to his edition of the Nityasodasikarnava (Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishvavidyalaya. 592.

p. . 668. p. According to NY. 138 and for the Mongolian text. the edited Tibetan text. The MP erroneously reads ksayadhipataye. ´ ¯ The fruit of the citron tree appears as an attribute of Kubera in Rupamandana 2. 145 and the Mongolian text in Siklos ´ 1996. p. 375) the title Trikalpa also appears as part of ¯ ¯ the title of another text. also the ´ translation section. and the seed syllable hr¯mh in NY. 37. note 24 and the discussion in Decleer 1998. 69 (see also Figure 9). . as well. 20 ´ Cf. Jambhala’s characteristic mongoose and the fruit of the citron tree. 145 for the Tibetan text. volume 2.4c) were considered to be a special group of . 172 (no. . p. 235. p. which is distinguished . 31–32. 61. 21 ´ For the Tibetan text.. 89. see also the translation section. pp. Kubera holds a mace and a noose. ¯.. above cited mantra of the Yaksin¯ Pramod¯ from the Manjusr¯mulakalpa. . 23 ´ ´ See the Tibetan text in Siklos 1996. 91–92. .31) . pp. 356 opts for the meaning “wandering. ¯ abhicara rites. 3–4. 388) includes a block-print of the Buddhist Kubera from the Pantheon of the Mongolian Kanjur. the gestures of wish-granting and protection as attributes of Kubera ¯ are also recorded in the Amsubhedagama (cited in Rao 1914–1916. p. vamapanina TSS. the syllables hum hum phat phat svaha.37 . no. pp. Kubera holds.tr¯h vikritanana (!) hum . 263). p.ı ´ s seed syllable gamh for Gane´a in SVT. 65. According to Blom 1989.” 17 The MP erroneously reads yoga instead of roga. cf. p. phat follows. p. ı . ¯ which gives the synonym unmada for bhrama. . 8 (interpreting TSS 24. The mantra hr¯h . which is a variant of the mantra addressed in section 4c of this paper. 92–93 and the translation. . 186–187. see ´ Siklos 1996b. 1996. Perhaps the seven . manifestation Ka a 25 ´ See the Tibetan text in Siklos 1996. ¯. NY.l. Siklos 1996. p. 12. the Krsnayamaritantraraja-Trikalpa. the mantra is prefixed with the syllable om and appended with . 65. also Siklos . p. 9–10.BUDDHIST DEITIES AND MANTRAS IN THE HINDU TANTRAS 11 12 331 ¯ ¯. Siklos 1996. while NY. p. ksudras (also referred to in TSS 18. see see Siklos 1996. among other attributes. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ´ from the above cited (Sarvatathagatakayavakcitta-) Kr. 293–294. a mongoose and a lotus. volume 2. 16 Here I follow the explanation given in the commentary on TSS. a p. p. p. ¯ ¯l¯ri according to several Agamas. s. described in Misra 1981. which ¯ ´ reads ni ra ma ya (for ni ra ma ya). Chandra 1991. An icon of Kubera from Mathura. p. Siklos 1996. who addresses depictions of Kubera from Nepalese sketchbooks. 93. holding the citron and the mongoose. 217. p. the deity holds a mace. see Siklos 1996. 73. 18 For the importance of the Vajrabhairava cycle in the dGe lugs pa tradition. one form even steps on Kubera to demonstrate his superiority (cf. ¯ 13 ´ trisiras v. ¯ Suggested emendation. In texts of the Hindu tradition. p. TSS. According to NY. represents a six-armed Kubera. . nayamaritantra. 27 ˜ ´ı ¯ Cf. a jewel. 89. pp. 210. p. 70 for the translation. s ı. . ı. 70. in which Kubera holds Jambhala’s attributes. 18. 156ff. 217 for the Mongolian text and See Siklo p. 15 ¯ The TSS uses the term ksudra as a synonym of abhicara. the a . pp. 24 ´ See Rao 1914–1916. SM. 1 use the epithet Jambhala as a synonym of Kubera. p. 26 ´s 1996. displaying the gestures of wish-granting and protection and holding two other objects. volume 2. p. for the story of M¯rkandeya and Siva’s a . . 292). 14 Abhay¯karagupta’s NY gives different descriptions of Kubera. 20. 3–4 and p. 19 In the block-print. . Among the different iconographic forms of the Buddhist Jambhala. 22 In the Blue Annals (Roerich 1976. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯. 19–20 describes him as holding a mace and a female mongoose. Goudriaan 1978. p. causing to wander.. cf. pp.

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