Flag of Peru
Peru i/pəˈruː/ (Spanish: Perú; Quechua: Perú; Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of
Peru (Spanish: República del Perú, pronounced: [reˈpuβlika ðel peˈɾu] ( listen)), is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty, which included most of its South American colonies. After achieving independence in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is  a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 28.7 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles. The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians,Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.
Organization relied  on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.History
The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9. The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion  and other revolts. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy. In the early 19th century. Ten years later. a series  of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty. The oldest known complex society in Peru. by the 18th century. while most of South America was swept by wars of independence. independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of José de San  Martín and Simón Bolívar. However. In response. However. the country was heavily  indebted. the Norte Chico civilization. endemic struggles for power between military  leaders caused political instability. the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms. camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Andean societies were based on agriculture. In the 15th century. a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa. the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of Peru. Nazca. Chavin. as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American  Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral. Leguía. Peru was defeated by Chile in the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific. with silver  mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce. ViceroyFrancisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s. During the early years of the Republic. the Incas emerged as a powerful state which. which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. in the span of a century. and Chimú. formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian  America. flourished along the coast of  the Pacific Ocean between 3.000 and 1.000  years BCE.
Independence was proclaimed by José de San Martín in 1821. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far  as Europe and the Philippines. Wari. and political in-fighting was again on the rise. using techniques such as irrigation and terracing. Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under  the Civilista Party. Peru remained a royalist stronghold. declining silver production and economic  diversification greatly diminished royal income. these resources had been depleted. ceding the provinces ofArica and Tarapacá in the treaties of Ancón and Lima. which included most  of its South American colonies. by the 1870s. all of which were quashed. Between the 1840s and 1860s. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period. In December 1532. Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla through increased state revenues  from guano exports. Paracas. The Great
. Mochica. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures such as Cupisnique.800 BCE.
In 1975. he or she is elected for five years and can only seek re-election  after standing down for at least one full term. Peruvian foreign relations have been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries. During the 1980s.4% of valid votes) over Keiko Fujimori of Fuerza 2011(48. Fuerza 2011 (37 seats). and massive political violence. General elections held in 2011 ended in a second-round victory for presidential candidateOllanta Humala of the Gana  Perú alliance (51. they become law after being   passed by Congress and promulgated by the President. renewed political turmoil.  corruption. however. though  political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues today. the President is the head of state and government.Depression caused the downfall of Leguía. Congress isunicameral with 130 members elected for a five-year  term. a surge in drug trafficking. led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado. Under the presidency of Alberto Fujimori (1990–2000). Congress is currently composed of Gana Perú (47 seats). Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth. The President designates the Prime Minister and. Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch. staged a coup against president Fernando Belaunde. Peru is a presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Currently. Peru faced a considerable external  debt. most of which  were settled during the 20th century. with his advice.  the rest of the Council of Ministers. Alianza por el Gran Cambio (12  seats). In 1968. Under the current constitution. and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy. ever-growing inflation. paralyzed  reforms. Since the  end of the Fujimori regime. The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military  defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades.
Main articles: Government of Peru and Politics of Peru
Congress sits in the Palacio Legislativo in Lima. The new regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development. The judiciary is nominally independent. and the emergence of the American Popular  Revolutionary Alliance (APRA). and human rights violations forced his resignation after the controversial 2000 elections. Alianza Parlamentaria (20 seats). but failed to gain  widespread support. accusations of authoritarianism. General Francisco Morales Bermúdez forcefully replaced Velasco. and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70. The Peruvian government is directly elected. the Armed Forces. Solidaridad Nacional (8 seats) and Concertación Parlamentaria (6 seats). the country started to recover. Peru disputes its maritime limits with Chile in the Pacific
The Peruvian military is composed of an army. Conscription was abolished in  1999 and replaced by voluntary military service. The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief. a navy and an air force. its primary mission is to  safeguard the independence. It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Peru
Ama zonas Ancash Apurímac Arequipa Ayacucho Caja marca Cusco Huánuco Huanca velica Ica Junín La Libertad Lamba yeque Lima
. Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country.Ocean.
Lima Province Callao Loreto Madre de Dios Moquegua Pasco Piura Puno Tacna Tumbes San Martín Ucayali Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima.285.
Amazonas Ancash Apurímac Arequipa Ayacucho Cajamarca Callao Cuzco Lambayeque Lima Loreto Madre de Dios Moquegua Pasco Piura Puno San Martín Tacna Tumbes Ucayali
Huancavelica Huánuco Ica Junín La Libertad
Main article: Geography of Peru Peru covers 1. The province of Lima is  administered by a city council. Each region has an elected government composed of a  president and council that serve four-year terms. execute public  investment projects.Bolivia to the southeast. Brazil to the east. These governments plan regional development. It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north. Chile to the south.225 sq mi) of western South America. and the Pacific Ocean to the west.216 km (496. and manage public property. promote economic activities. The Andes Mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean. they define the three regions traditionally used to describe
a mountain peak in the Huascarán National Park. have a much larger flow. theMantaro. is a narrow plain. The costa (coast). largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. Right: Manú National Park. Almost 60 percent of the country's  area is located within this region.
Left: Alpamayo. except for its southernmost part. Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins.the country geographically. the Marañón. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes. and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the  Andes. thePutumayo. does not have an exclusively tropical climate. Because of its varied geography and climate. flowing only intermittently. Lima. Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali. rain is frequent during summer. depicts the Peruvian rainforest. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are  generally short and have a large flow.855 of them endemic. a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. it includes the Altiplanoplateau as well as the  highest peak of the country. the influence of the Andes and theHumboldt Current cause great climatic diversity within the country. to the west.462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003. the Urubamba. except for its warmer. the 6. In the sierra. The third region is the selva (jungle). wetter northern reaches. the Huallaga.
Main article: Economy of Peru
Left: Buildings in the financial district of San Isidro.  low precipitations. a biosphere reserve. Peru. The costa has moderate temperatures.  the Yavarí.  which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall. Peru has a high  biodiversity with 21.
. Right: The Callao seaport is Peru's main outlet for exports. The selva is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures. 5. and are less steep once they exit the sierra. and the Amazon. and high humidity.768 m (22. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short.205 ft) Huascarán. unlike other equatorial countries. Tributaries of the Amazon River are longer.
7%). and most state  ownership of companies. protectionism.  improved terms of trade. which provide hard currency to finance imports and  external debt payments. Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades.3% of its total population is  poor. one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to the economic boom  experienced during the 2000s. the expropriation of foreign companies. except for a slump  after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. followed by manufacturing (22. including 9. Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Peru and Metropolitan areas of Peru
Afro-Peruvian association football athlete Jefferson Farfán. textiles. France. Historically. Despite these results. its major trade partners are the United States. according to historian Noble David Cook their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600. Britain. Nobel laureate writer Mario Vargas Llosa.3%).000 in 1620 mainly because  of infectious diseases. and rising investment and consumption. Gradual European immigration from Italy. the introduction of an economic planning system. as of 2011. Ex-President of Peru. Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability. extractive  industries (15%).752 based on 2011 data. Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993. restrictions on foreign direct investment. According to 2010 data. Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product. Peru's main exports are copper. replacing slave workers. Trade is expected to increase further after  the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United Statessigned on April 12. the country's economic performance has been tied to exports. most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s. and the creation of a large state-owned sector. The 1968–1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms.The economy of Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the  world. which included agrarian reform. gold. and fish meal. 2006. Peru is. It has a high Human Development Indexof . Spaniards and Africansarrived in large numbers under colonial rule. economist Alejandro Toledo. and taxes (9. 31. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed  nations. Although they have provided substantial revenue. Peru is a multiethnic country formed by different groups over five centuries. self-sustained growth and a more  egalitariandistribution of income have proven elusive. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish Conquest of the 16th century. zinc.
.8% that lives in poverty.  and Germany followed independence. Spain. Brazil. Chinese arrived in the 1850s. and have since  greatly influenced Peruvian society.  and Chile. China. mixing widely with each other and indigenous peoples. when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls.
Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in
. 12. white (4. and "Others" (6. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. all reported more than 250. Asian. Black/Mulatto (1.Piura. With about 29.The last Peruvian census that attempted to classify persons according to ethnicity was in 1940. Cusco.5 million inhabitants.8%). Primary and secondary education  are compulsory and free in public schools. Other native and foreign languages were spoken at that time by 2. Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% between 1950 and 2000.5%).3% as of other denominations. the most common of which is Quechua.3%). In the 2007 census.000 inhabitants in the 2007 census. Iquitos. 3. Chimbote.6%). spoken by 13.  though modified by native traditions. Aymara (2. Yet. followed by mestizos. the first language of 83. the majority of the people in Peru are Amerindians.9% in  2007. and European ethnic groups.  respectively. Literacy was estimated at 92. Baroque dominated colonial art. jewelry.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas. most art focused on religious subjects. 75. though it has also been influenced by various African.
Main article: Culture of Peru
Anonymous Cuzco Schoolpainting. this rate is lower in rural areas (80.1% of Peruvians. and 2.2% of the population. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery.  and Huancayo.5%  as Evangelical.9% as non-religious. the Peruvian population self-identified primarily as mestizo (59.9% of Peruvians aged five and older in 2007.Amazonian (1. Arequipa. and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. There are  15uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru.7%).3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic. It coexists with several indigenous languages. followed by  Quechua (22. Spanish. During this period.3%) than in urban areas (96.7%). the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of  the Cuzco School are representative. in a 2006 survey from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI). population is expected to reach approximately   42 million in 2050.9%). Peru is the fifth most populous country in South America.  mostly Quechua and Aymara. Major cities include Lima (home to over 8 million people).7%). is the primary language of the country.6% to 1. textiles. Trujillo. 81. when 53% of the population was found to be white or mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) and 46% was found to be  Amerindian. As of 2007. According to the CIA World Factbook. Chiclayo. 18th century Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions.7% and 0.
andhuayno. Common dishes include anticuchos. musical expressions varied widely  in each region. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century.  currents. a leading member of  the Latin American Boom. Peruvian art has beeneclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art
Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spanish.
. a percussion   instrument. the quena and the tinya were two common instruments. The early 20th century's Indigenismo movement was led by such writers as Ciro   Alegría and José María Arguedas. Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa. which led to the development of crossbred instruments like  the charango. and pachamanca. and African roots.
Ceviche is a popular lime marinated seafood dish which originated in Peru Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from African. César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Arab. After independence. Italian. colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón. Peruvian folk dances include marinera. such as the guitar and the harp.  and Japanese cooking. tondero. In pre-Hispanic times. Spaniards introduced new instruments. Peru's varied climate  allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking. Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres. Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking  techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim. zamacueca.the early 20th century. as exemplified in the  works of Ricardo Palma. Chinese.ceviche.
Since the 1950s. Peruvian music has Andean.