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Yoga and Children

Compiled by: Trisha Lamb Last Revised: April 27, 2006

2004 by International Association of Yoga Therapists (IAYT)

International Association of Yoga Therapists


P.O. Box 2513 Prescott AZ 86302 Phone: 928-541-0004 E-mail: mail@iayt.org URL: www.iayt.org
The contents of this bibliography do not provide medical advice and should not be so interpreted. Before beginning any exercise program, see your physician for clearance.

NOTE: See also the Education bibliography and the ADHD bibliography, as well as bibliographies for other specific disorders. Many of the resources cited in the Education bibliography also are cited in the present bibliography. In addition, for those focusing solely on adolescents, all citations in the present bibliography related to adolescents are gathered in a separate Teenagers bibliography.

Benefits of Yoga for Children*


Cultivates conscious awareness Increases self-awareness and self-confidence Teaches children to be gentle with themselves and others Develops focus and concentration Develops balance and mental equilibrium Develops discipline and a love of learning Improves performance in all areas of life, including schoolwork Relieves stress and provides a greater sense of general well-being Increases flexibility, coordination, and strength Assists in the performance of sports activities
* Adapted from the list Benefits of Yoga for Children at a Glance by Pamela Hollander, M.A., Indigo Yoga for Children, http://www.indigoyoga.com/aboutIY.htm.

The American Academy of Pediatrics does not have an official stance on the issue, but some doctors say the stretching and relaxation involved in yoga can be beneficial for children. As kids get older and their bones grow, they lose flexibility, says Dr. Hank Chambers, director of Sports Medicine at Childrens Hospital and Health Center in San Diego. This is one of the biggest causes of growing pains. Chambers, a pediatric orthopedic surgeon, says he often recommends yoga-like stretches to his patients. While yoga that is very physically demanding might not be good for kids, stretching and relaxation, he says, is fine: Ive never seen one injury from yoga in 20 years. From an article by Lindsay Boyd, Kids are Finding a Place on the Yoga Mat, The San Diego Union-Tribune, January 17, 2004

In a 2001 survey, the American Academy of Pediatrics asked some of its members about their recommendations to patients on the use of complimentary and alternative medicine . . . Of 733 respondents, 55 percent said they recommended yoga as part of an asthma treatment regimen, and 24 percent said they recommended it for children with ADHD. The idea he brought away from looking at the survey, said Dr. Fernando Rustia, 48, a pediatrician at the Aurora Health Care clinic in Mount Pleasant, was that many physicians are aware of yoga but are not that familiar with it. And Im not really that familiar with yoga, he said.

If youre considering putting your child in yoga, or any organized program, its important to
consider your childs physical and mental development; if theyre unable to comprehend the activity, or if theyre physically unable to perform it, they may feel like failures, Rustia said.

Activities of 20 or 30 minutes duration are best. Thats probably all that they can handle. And the activities should not be too rigid. They tend to do better with the unstructured,
spontaneous and kind of a free-flowing activity, Rustia said.

Only a disk or spinal problem might preclude a child from participating in one of his classes;
such problems should be checked with a physician first, [Yoga teacher Joe] Mayer said.

Rustia agreed. Any exercise for children should not include excessive flexing or extensions of
the neck the kind of exercise college football players dobecause childrens growth plates are not stable, he said. Yoga [asana] would be acceptable for children of about age 7 and older, he said . . . From an article by David Steinkraus, Yoga Isnt All about Muscles, Not Even for Kids, The Journal Times (Racine), April 20, 2005

Books, Articles, and Workshops


Abell, Tracy. Bear claw mama: Yoga with a youngster teaches a whole new way to relax. Mothering, Nov 1998. Available online: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0838/1998_Nov/54308997/p1/article.jhtml?term=yoga. ABC yoga series @ Carver Elementary School. United States Yoga Association. For more information: http://www.usyoga.org/kidphotos.html. The Yoga Science Box was written after a pilot program with K-12 teachers in the San Francisco Unified School District. Program content complies with California Department of Education curriculum guidelines. The 1999-2000 Yoga Science program includes Yogasthma: Seven Steps to Asthma Control. It is designed to empower the children with the knowledge and skills to control their asthma. It includes yoga breathing and stretching exercises, an indoor garden to produce fresh air and a series of fun workshops conducted with St. Lukes Hospital. Abrams, A. I. The effects of meditation on elementary school students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977, 37(9-A):5689. A childs garden of yoga. Available online: http://yoga.about.com/health/yoga/cs/childrenandteens/index.htm?rnk=r8&terms=yoga. Albin, Stacy. Yoga: Youth classes say "Relax! Strike a pose." Newsday, 8 Feb 2001.

Alexander, Karen. Yoga at school poses a learning opportunity. Classroom: Teachers note calming effect, better concentration among their students. Los Angeles Times, 28 April 2002. While adults are flocking to yoga classes in record numbers, these students are benefiting from a 5-year-old program in San Francisco that aims to teach schoolteachers yoga proficiency so they can take its benefits into the classroom. The brainchild of U.S. Yoga Assn. founder and San Francisco Yoga Studio executive director Tony Sanchez, the program has trained dozens of teachers so far. Sanchez and his wife, Sandy Wong, started the program pro bono, and it has expanded with grants from the San Francisco Education Fund and other foundations. Teachers from two additional schools will be trained starting in September, and the couple are applying for a federal grant that would enable them to reach every district school. School itself can be stressful, and a lot of these children come from dysfunctional families or one-parent families. The stress their parents experience transfers to them, said Sanchez. One of the basics of yoga is to be giving, and we decided that it was something we should do instead of just using yoga to make money. We felt we should be giving something back. Sanchez and Wong hope that their yoga regimen will become a model for schools throughout the Bay Area. Their program, called ABC Yoga, teaches children 12 poses. Some teachers take it a step further with the Yoga Science Box, a curriculum designed by Wong, which incorporates yoga into lessons on physics, geometry and anatomy . . . Gloria Siech, who heads the physical education program for the San Francisco Unified School District, says yoga is a powerful fitness tool for young people because it is low-stress and noncompetitive. Its individual, and each kid can do it as far as they can go. Theres no keeping score, and theres nobody telling them thats not good enough, Siech said. It helps to center kids and helps them concentrate. They are able to calm down and breathe, and the teachers see the improvement immediately . . . Its so helpful at this age, Camp said. They are finding their bodies, and their bodies are changing so much. This helps them appreciate the diversity around them. In one class you can have a very tall kid and a heavy-set kid and a kid with some physical limitations all doing the same poses. Its very unifying for them. Ambika. You can not pull at the grass to make it growbut the earth is enriched when children do yoga. Bindu, no. 6, pp. 6-7 Amenqual, Carolina. Kids yoga helps with mind, body and spirit. The Galveston County Daily News, 5 Jun 2005. Yoga carries out the sadness, the stress and the anger, she says. Its like taking a shower only inside.

King, who began teaching yoga 25 years ago, says bringing body, mind and spirit together helps break through mental, emotional and physical blocks. Studies have shown yoga helps develop body awareness, self-control, self-esteem, flexibility, coordination and concentration. Kids are under a lot of stress (and) yoga gives kids time out, says King, stressing that one of the benefits is that they get to express themselves in a noncompetitive environment. Once they begin to focus on mind, body and breathing, that trickles down into their choices. King and colleague Penny Scrutchin will teach yoga for kids between the ages of 6 and 12 throughout this month. Children will be taught basic breathing techniques and postures in an effort to equip them with lifelong stress management tools. Well try to teach them where they are in space, Scrutchin says. Its getting them to where they can control emotions. To adapt to their fairly short attention span, animal imagery, music and uplifting stories of characters seeking wisdom told in a playful manner will replace the Sanskrit terminology and more serious approach used in yoga classes for adults. Well keep it simple and fun for the kids, King says. Its not about perfection; its about development. Yoga helps you become all you can be. American Yoga Association disapproves of Yoga for children under 16. [Yoga Research and Education Center: We are not aware of any other organization with this same objection. Some Indian Yoga teachers recommend that children under the age of 5 or 6 not practice sana, and most Indian Yoga lineages recommend that prnyma, other than the bee breath and natural deep breathing, not be practiced by children.] From Charlotte Moore, Healthy Living: Seeking the Exercise and Stress Relief of Yoga, Some Kids Are Ready to Strike a Pose, The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 18 Jun 2002, Home Section, p. E1: The 30-year-old Florida-based American Yoga Association [AYA] disapproves of children younger than 16 practicing yoga. The associations stance: Growth is in large measure controlled by the glandular system. It is a vastly complicated process, and the powerful physical and mental effects of yoga positions may interfere with natural growth. But there doesnt appear to be anything inherent in yoga that is detrimental to a growing skeleton, said Stephanie Martin, orthopedic surgeon specializing in pediatric sports medicine at Childrens Healthcare of Atlanta. Because of their growing, immature skeleton, kids are just more at risk than we are for any type of phys ical activity, Martin said. Were trying to decrease the morbid obesity in kids right now. Its hugely important that theyre active. If done in moderation, I see nothing wrong with kids doing yoga, from a muscular or skeletal standpoint. Patricia Rockwood of the AYA insists that yoga places significant demands on a childs body. Yoga puts pressure on different glands, she said. It changes the bodys metabolism and structure and causes certain hormonal changes. Rockwood suggests that while kids can benefit from proper breathing and relaxation techniques, there are plenty of other exercises more suitable for children. Angus, Samuel F. Three approaches to stress management for children. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, Feb 1989, 23(3):228-233.

Abstract: Describes guided fantasy, yoga and autogenic phrases and thermal feedback as approaches to helping children manage stress. Provides guidelines for the use of these methods, followed by descriptions of each approach. Appleford, Cecilie. Children in yoga. Yoga Today, no. 1., pp. 12-13. Armstrong, Cole. Knees bent, diapers on, its time for yoga. The Oregonian, 30 Jun 2005. A delightful article about a baby Yoga class written from the babys perspective. It begins: . . . I know something special is happening when Mom hauls out matching outfits. We both wear gray sweat pants. She pulls on a pink tank top and puts me, predictably, in a light blue onesie. Across the river, Mom pulls into the parking lot of a strip bar on Northeast Sandy. Surely she thinks that, at just a few weeks of age, I am oblivious. But this wiggly, out-of-focus demeanor of mine is just an act. I see the curvy female silhouette on the sign, and I know it's not an ad for breast milk. But Mom has merely made a wrong turn. A minute later, she finds our destination and carries me onto the serene campus of the Nityananda Institute. We enter one of the brick buildings. A nice woman shows us to the classroom. She asks Mom to take off her shoes. I am wearing my bright blue tennies that Dad thinks are SO CUTE but that I think itch. I hope the woman wants me to take them off too, but she doesnt. We go into an airy room with a wood floor. Other moms with babies are there, too. The teacher, Kelly Ponzi, asks the moms to introduce themselves. I lie on my blanket and try to look wise beyond my weeks as Mom tells them that my name is Cole and this is our first Yoga for Mom & Baby class. Then the moms lay on their backs just like me. The room quiets as the moms breath deeply in unison. The baby boy next to me gurgles, so I figure it is OK to do the same. No one seems to mind. So then I decide that pooping in my diapercomplete with sound effectswill not be out of line. From the corner of my eye, I see Mom flinch. Kelly has the moms bend in various ways and use words like mulabandha to talk about the internal contraction that they should be doing. The teacher says its Sanskrit , but it sounds like baby talk, which I appreciate . . . Asencia, Teressa. Playful Family Yoga: For Kids, Parents and Grandparents. Princeton Book Co., 2002. From the publisher: Designed to involve every member of the family, the yoga program in this book focuses on those children who are ready for a challenging and fun group of movements that involve both mind and body. Children are guided, using pictures and words, into poses with siblings or friends, with parents, grandparents, or caring adults. Children are first encouraged to do a series of stretching postures that escalate into vigorous warm-ups to energize the body, focus the mind, and strengthen the spirit. Other exercises are designed to give children an experience of inner strength, allowing them to develop concentration and stimulate the creative abilities innate in every child. Parents are encouraged to play with their children rather than watch them play.

Teressa Asencia has practiced yoga since 1969 and has taught yoga for 20 years. She has written and produced several yoga videos and three yoga television series. Her series Welcome to Hatha Yoga was shown daily on CBC-TV in Canada. Her Yoga for Stress series was shown on the Womens Network across Canada daily for two years. She lives in Montreal, Quebec. Augenstein, Suzanne. Dienstags Mathe & Yoga. Yoga Aktuell, Oct/Nov 2003, pp. 67-68. [In German.] Yoga as part of the school curriculum. Australian teachers relating their experiences on yoga in the classroom. Yoga in Education, Aug 1997. Badger, Barbara. Tips for teaching yoga to teenagers. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bulletin, Summer 2000, 9(2):7. Baker, Toni. Transcendental Meditation lowers blood pressure in black adolescents. Medical College of Georgia press release, Apr 2004. Black adolescents at risk to be hypertensive adults can lower their blood pressure through daily transcendental meditation, according to research published in the April issue of the American Journal of Hypertension. [See research citation in this bibliography under Barnes, Vernon A.] A study of 156 inner-city black adolescents in Augusta, Ga., with high-normal pressure showed that teens who practiced 15 minutes of transcendental meditation twice daily steadily lowered their daytime blood pressures over four months and that their pressures tended to stay lower, according to Dr. Vernon A. Barnes, physiologist at the Medical College of Georgia and principal author of the paper. Allowing your mind to go to that state of inner quietness and be there for a time has an effect on the physiology by reducing stress hormone levels like cortisol and reducing activation of the sympathetic nervous system which controls the fight-or-flight response, says Dr. Barnes. In a short time, we can teach this standardized meditation method that has been taught all over the world for 50 years. That technique can then be used throughout a lifetime without side effects or additional expense. Adolescents in the study who practiced transcendental meditation experienced an average 3.5 millimeter drop in their systolic pressure, the top number that indicates the pressure inside blood vessels that the heart is pumping against, and a 3.4 millimeter decrease in diastolic pressure, the bottom number that indicates pressure while the heart is at rest. Participants in health education classes, who served as the control groups, experienced no significant change. Heart rate, probably one of the simplest measures of stress level reduction, also dropped in meditating students and remained consistent in the control groups, Dr. Barnes says. Even if your blood pressure comes down a few millimeters when you are young, if you can maintain that into adulthood, you can significantly reduce your risk for cardiovascular disease, he says . . .

Barnes first identified students with high-normal pressure based on three consecutive screenings in the Richmond County, Ga., school system, then randomly assigned them to the transcendental meditation program or a 15-minute health education program based on National Institutes of Health guidelines that included no intervention. The transcendental meditation group meditated for 15 minutes twice dailyonce at school and once at homeand twice daily at home during the weekend. To ensure an accurate measure of blood pressure as the adolescents went about their lives, both groups wore 24-hour monitoring devices to check their blood pressure every 20 minutes from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. and every 30 minutes from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. Researchers also looked at parameters such as body mass index, weight, body surface area and environmental stress so that other changes that might affect blood pressure would be noted. Once the program stopped, we had a follow-up at four months and their blood pressures were still down, Dr. Barnes says, but long-term studies are needed to see the impact of reduced pressure on disease development. He noted that underlying physiologic pathways that enable meditation to lower blood pressure are unclear and also need further study. However, the practice that transcends thought has been shown to reduce sympathetic nervous system response and stress hormone levels which ultimately reduces the workload on the heart. These events may result in improved myocardial and vascular function, leading to decreased (blood pressure) levels, thereby helping to prevent early onset of hypertension, he and his colleagues at MCGs Georgia Prevention Institute write. He says that the health benefits of transcendental meditation are becoming more accepted in the medical community as these types of studies document its impact on the body and mind. The willingness of the teens to practice meditation is evidence, although perhaps less traditional documentation, of its benefits as well. Bakke, Brenda. A physical therapists story: The benefits of yoga for special children. Yoga for the Special Child , Winter 2001, pp. 5-6. Balayogai Bhavanani, Ananda. Yoga and sports. Yoga Life, Dec 2001, 32(12):8-17. ___________. A brief history and introduction to yoga sport. Pondicherry, India: Pondicherry Yogasana Association. ___________. Yoga for health in children. Yoga Life, Jul 2005, 36(7):3-8. Author email: yognat2001@yahoo.com. Ballard, Sally. Health: Yoga for mums and babies. Birmingham Post, 8 Jun 2002, p. 47. On Francoise Freedmans Pregnancy Yoga classes and classes for mothers and babies. Bal Yoga M itra Mandal, Research Participation Group. [Efficacy of yoga practices on memory, creativity, self-esteem, self-discipline, and self-confidence in 702 children.] Munger, Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1999. Baptiste, Baron. My Daddy is a Pretzel: Yoga for Parents and Kids. Bridgewater, N.J.: Barefoot Books, 2004.

From the publisher: All the poses in this book are child friendly and lots of fun to practice. The story that links these poses together will also show you how yoga relates to everyday life. Barnes, Vernon A., Lynnette B. Bauza, and Frank A. Treiber. Impact of stress reduction on negative school behavior in adolescents. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, Apr 2003, 1:10. Author email: vbarnes@mail.mcg.edu. Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stress reduction via the Transcendental Meditation program on school rule infractions in adolescents. Methods: Forty-five African American adolescents (ages 1518 years) with high normal systolic blood pressure were randomly assigned to either Transcendental Meditation (n = 25) or health education control (n = 20) groups. The meditation group engaged in 15-min sessions at home and at school each day for 4 months. The control group was presented 15-min sessions of health education at school each day for 4 months. Primary outcome measures were changes in absenteeism, school rule infractions and suspension days during the four-month pretest period prior to randomization compared with the four-month intervention period. Results: Comparing the pretest and intervention periods, the meditation group exhibited a mean decrease of 6.4 absentee periods compared to an increase of 4.8 in the control group (p < .05). The meditation group exhibited a mean decrease of 0.1 infractions over the four months compared to an increase of 0.3 in the control group (p < .03). There was a mean reduction of 0.3 suspension days due to behavior related problems in the meditation group compared to an increase of 1.2 in the control group (p < .04). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the Transcendental Meditation program conducted in the school setting has a beneficial impact upon absenteeism, rule infractions, and suspension rates in African American adolescents. ___________, F. A. Tre iber, and H. Davis. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular function at rest and during acute stress in adolescents with high normal blood pressure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Oct 2001, 51(4):597-60. Author email: vbarnes@mail.mcg.edu. PMID: 11595248. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on cardiovascular (CV) reactivity in adolescents with high normal BP. METHOD: Thirty-five adolescents [34 African Americans (AAs), 1 Caucasian Americ an (CA); ages 15-18 years] with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) between the 85th and 95th percentile for their age and gender on three consecutive occasions, were randomly assigned to either TM (n=17) or health education control (CTL, n=18) groups. The TM group engaged in 15-min meditation twice each day for 2 months including sessions during school lunch break. Primary CV outcome measures were changes in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (CO) at rest and in response to two laboratory stressors, a simulated car driving stressor and an interpersonal social stressor interview. RESULTS: The TM group exhibited greater decreases in resting SBP (P<.03) from pre- to postintervention, compared to the CTL group. The TM group exhibited greater decreases from pre- to postintervention in SBP, HR, and CO reactivity (Ps<.03) to the simulated car driving stressor, and in SBP reactivity (P<.03) to the social stressor interview. CONCLUSION: The TM program appears to have a beneficial impact upon CV functioning at rest and during acute laboratory stress in adolescents at-risk for hypertension. ___________, Frank A. Treiber, and Maribeth H. Johnson. Impact of Transcendental Meditation on ambulatory blood pressure in African-American adolescents. American Journal of Hypertension, Apr 2004, 17:366-369. Author email: vbarnes@mail.mcg.edu. (See also the article about this research cited in this bibliography under Baker, Toni.)

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of stress reduction on blood pressure (BP) in adolescents by the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program. African-American adolescents (aged 16.2 1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month TM (n = 50) or health education control (n = 50) groups. Ambulatory 24-h BP measures were recorded at pretest, 2- and 4-month post-tests, and 4-month follow-up. Greater decreases in daytime systolic BP (P < .04) and diastolic BP (P < .06) in the TM group compared with the control group across the visits demonstrate a beneficial impact of the TM program in youth at risk for the development of hypertension. Barrett, Jennifer. The yoga of parenting: Everything that I ever needed to know about raising children I learned in my yoga class. Yoga Journal, Jun 2003, pp. 143-145. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/views/884_1.cfm?ctsrc=nlv95.

BBC News. Yoga to help children de-stress: Yoga lessons are being held in some south London schools to help pupils de-stress and improve their performance. BBC News, 23 Mar 2004.
Bellingen Yoga Education Project (Bellingen, NSW, Australia). Yoga in the Education Environment. URL: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yieresce.htm. An eight week course for students to enhance their learning skills. ___________. An experience of Yoga in education: A summary of an interview with Ray Rixon, high school teacher. URL: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yieresce.htm. ___________. Articles from RYE (UK) giving information on Yoga practices in education and practical techniques regarding Yoga for children. URL: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yieresce.htm. Bending it like yoga. The Times of India (City Supplements: Lucknow Times), 28 Jan 2005. Article available online: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1004473.cms. Taking a cue from the yogis of TV channels related to religion and spiritualism, youngsters are attending yoga classes. They believe this will increase their concentration power. Not only can one find students inclined towards yoga but the faculty members and parents also believe that yoga will yield their students and kids good results in examinations. For that exam-time nirvana, when the stomach butterflies refuse to settle down, the best thing to do is yoga. Or so think certain schools and students. Mrs Smita Agarwal, a career counsellor and a coaching institute manager informs, Students deserve their peace of mind before they get cracking with their exams. Weve set up a meditation camp in some city schools where relaxation therapy and techniques are taught . . . Bendy Kids Yoga. Seattle Childrens Hospital and the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Contact: Alice Lyons, MSPT, anne.lyons@seattlechildrens.org Bendy Kids Yoga currently offers an inpatient program for critically ill children with cancer and is beginning an outpatient program in June 2005. The program is sponsored by the Lance Armstrong Foundation.

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Bengis, Gabriella, Erin Maile OKeefe, and Kevin OKeefe. Circus Yoga for Kids. Workshop for children taught at Kripalu Center, Lenox, Massachusetts. URL: www.kripalu.org. A web page for Circus Yoga will soon be added to www.circusminimus.com. See also the article below by Elizabeth Neuse entitled Send in the Clowns. Benson, H., M. Wilcher, B. Greenberg, E. Huggins, M. Ennis, P. C. Zuttermeister, P. Myers, and R. Friedman. Academic performance among middle school students after exposure to a relaxation response curriculum. Journal of Research and Development in Education, Spring 2000, 33(3). Abstract: The relationship between exposure to a relaxation response curriculum and academic achievement was examined among middle school students. Teachers were trained in how to teach relaxation response exercises and self-care strategies to their students. In addition, trainers modeled for teachers how to teach relaxation and self-care strategies to the students in the classroom. Four measures of academic outcomes were analyzed: grade point average, work habits, cooperation, and attendance. Students who had more that two exposures to semester long classes in which teachers had been trained in the relaxation response curriculum had higher grade point averages, work habits scores and cooperation scores than students who have two or fewer exposures. In addition, students who had more exposures to the relaxation response curriculum showed an improvement in academic scores over the course of a two-year period. Benson, Nicky. Yoga for the special child. Yoga Therapy Ireland Newsletter, Aug 2000, no. 3, p. 9. Berra, T. K., M. V. Rajapurkar, and S. K. Ganguly. Effect of yogic training on body density in school going boys. NIS Scientific Journal, 1990, 13(2):23ff. Bersma, Danielle, and Marjoke Visscher. Yoga Games for Children: Fun and Fitness with Postures, Movements, and Breath . A SmartFun Book for ages 4-12. Hunter House, 2002. From the publisher: This introduction to yoga for children contains variations on traditional yoga postures that help children develop physical strength, flexibility, emotional calm, and selfexpression. The games involve relaxation, trust, and cooperation. Included are over 50 illustrations and 16 completely structured lessons based on themes like the seasons, rain, snow, and animals. Blair, Roma. Yoga for the Fa mily. Sydney, Unimex Marketing Co., 1966. Bloom, Claire. Yoga classes designed for kids offer strength and focus. LA Parent Magazine, May 2003. Excerpt available online: http://www.miniyogis.com/la_parent_may2003.htm. Bodhananda Saraswati, Swami. Yoga therapy for emotionally disturbed children. In Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Yoga Education for Children. Munger, Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1985, pp. 91-97. Bocquet-Walker, Free. Revolutionizing education at the speed of breath. YOGItimes. Article available online: http://www.yogitimes.com/pages/Current/Kids-on-the-mat.html. Boey, Elaine. Teaching with an open mind. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Summer 2002, p. 5.

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On teaching Yoga to 14-15-year-old girls at Stockport Grammar School in England. Bonet, Elizabeth. Yoga for kids and parents. Enlightened Practice, May/Jun 2005, p. 28. Boone, Lisa. With the kids: Stretching bodies, horizons: Parents take children to yoga class to instill noncompetitive skills. The Los Angeles Times, 3 Apr, 2003. Article available online: http://www.latimes.com/features/health/alternative/la -wk-kids3apr03001438,1,4735950.story. Instructor Michel Bayan, who hosts a family class at Maha Yoga in L.A., believes that yoga helps kids get over the fear of trying something new at an early age. We make the play the yoga, says Bayan. Yoga is a great opportunity for parents and kids to do something together. Sometimes the parent motivates the child or vice versa. A lot of parents who have [difficulty] wit h certain poses work harder to do it so their child isnt afraid to try it too. Bayan says parents are more open to yoga if they come with their kids, especially when they see their kids trying it. Its a built-in support system. Yoga classes for kids are now a staple of nearly every studios repertoire [in Los Angeles]. Parents can find Ashtanga, Bikram and transformative yoga class descriptions mixed with Mommy and Me (dads too) classes, kids and teen groups, even family classes. In addition, many studios now host parallel classes so parents and kids can exercise in the same place at the same time . . . While the benefits of yoga are well knownit is said to help develop focus, balance and motor skillsteachers agree that it is especially beneficial for children in developing self-confidence. The differentiation between yoga and every single other thing that a child is going to do in their life is that its entirely noncompetitive, says Shana Meyerson, founder of Mini Yogis Yoga for Kids in Los Angeles. A kid will never be told in yoga Youre wrong, youre not good enough, go sit on the bench, or be the last kid picked for a team. Its huge for their self-esteemespecially for kids who arent athletically inclined, Meyerson says. In yoga, you try it, youve done it, youre perfect. Its great to have a place where a kid can go, release some stress, release some tension and get in touch with their bodies. Boyd, Lindsay. Kids are finding a place on the yoga mat. The San Diego Union-Tribune, 17 Jan 2004. Brahinsky, Rachel. Childs play. My Yoga Mentor, Apr 2005, no. 17. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/teacher/1555_1.cfm?email=mail@iayt.org&ctsrc=nlt17. It may be intimidating to consider teaching yogawith its sometimes-enigmatic spirituality and precise rules of alignmentto young children. Our experts say it starts with cultivating an open mind and a loving sense of play. Brav, Diane Pomante. Tips for teaching yoga to children. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bulletin , Summer 2000, 9(2):6.

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Briddell, Moo and Don. The Adventure of Yoga. Dallastown, Pa.: Wood-Mountain Makings, 1997. Ages 3-8. From a review in the May 1997 Hinduism Today: . . . a delightful book written and illustrated by Moo and Don Bridde ll. The main characters, Magnolia and her brother Doon, are led on a journey with their hatha yoga master and guide, Ijimaws (for fun, read that backwards). Their goal is to reach the top of the Mountains-at-All, or simply All. On the way, they must perfect asanas . . ., in order to please the animal or plant each pose represents. Only then are they allowed to pass through each kingdom. The journey teaches them philosophical principles, such as seeing the great Love Force in all things. Here is truly an innovative, interactive approach for teaching hatha yoga and spiritual values to children, ages 3-8. British Wheel of Yoga. Yoga for Children Yoga Teacher Module. URL: http://www.bwy.org.uk. Provides an opportunity to give support, encouragement, and confidence to existing qualified Yoga teachers who are interested in taking yoga in to this valuable and rewarding are of teaching. The module comprises five one-day seminars held over a six-month period. It offers the necessary skills to set up and run yoga classes for children to enable them to practice yoga creatively and also to introduce to school children the concept of yogas role in the classroom. Brown, Patricia Leigh. S.F. schools find peace of mind via yoga break: Sixty classroom teachers make it an integral part of physical education as well as regular classes. Contra Costa Times, 24 Mar 2002. Article available online: http://www.bayarea.com/mld/cctimes/living/education/2925933.htm. Also published as Latest way to cut grade school stress: Yoga in the 24 Mar 2002 issue of New York Times. When youre mad, you go do yoga and you feel much better, said Frederick Nettles, 10, a monitor who was coaching first graders in the intricacies of the new moon, a forward-bending yoga posture. It calms your nerves. At seven public schools herewith more on the waythe yoga break has taken its place beside typical school rituals such as recess and the Pledge of Allegiance. Yoga Journal, a Berkeley-based bimonthly, calls it Om Schooling. Besieged by budget cuts most of Californias elementary schools no longer have a physical education teacherschools like Rosa Parks are finding their own center. With free teacher training by Tony Sanchez, a yoga master, yoga is becoming an integral part of the physical education classes and the regular classroom as well. Sanchez founded the United States Yoga Association, a nonprofit organization. Students in Elaine Gees fourth-grade Chinese bilingual class spent 10 minutes the other day doing yoga before a big grammar test. A favorite is the cocoon, which involves relaxing the head, spine, arms and legs on the floor and breathing to release tension . . . Yoga is not common in the American classroom yet. But it is increasingly becoming part of the physical education curriculum nationwide, along with other nontraditional activities such as weight training, biking and in-line skating . . . The San Francisco schools have gone further than most by training teachers to include yoga as a regular part of the dayin the classroom, when theyre scrambling, said Sandy Wong Sanchez, program director for the United States Yoga Association, a nonprofit organization that is training the teachers . . .

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[The article provides several additional examples of Yoga in public and private schools and for youth at risk.] Brown, Richard. Listen to a childs cry. Shambhala Sun, Jan 1995, p. 9. . . . so often we do not hear the childs voice, but our own . . . To transform the world of children, adults must begin by transformin g themselves. We must become whole adults, not perfect adults . . . Brug, Femmy. Salute to the sun: The perfect practice for children. Yoga & Health, Jun 2002, pp. 8-9. Brunhoff, Laurent de. Babars Yoga for Elephants. Abrams Books for Young Readers, 2002. Babar the elephant demonstrates and provides step-by-step instructions for basic yoga techniques and positions, then shows how he and Celeste use them to relax and have fun as they travel around the world. Buckley, Annie. The Kids Yoga Deck: 50 Po ses and Game. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2003. From the publisher: Get kids bending, breathing, and stretching with The Kids Yoga Deck. Playful poses such as Airplane, Tree, and Floweras well as partner poses that can be performed with friendsteach kids the basics of yoga. Easy enough for children to do on their own, The Kids Yoga Deck engages both childrens bodies and minds to help them build strength, flexibility, and balance. There is a How to use The Kids Yoga Deck section for school teachers and parents and some sample activities at the publishers website, www.chroniclebooks.com. Annie Buckley has created a yoga program for grades K-5 at the Los Angeles Accelerated School, which has been used as a model for other elementary schools throughout the United States. Buckley, Sarah J. Yoga and motherhood. Australian Yoga Life, 2003, no. 7, pp. 25-29. Buddhist Studies for Primary and Secondary Students curriculum. Buddha Dharma Education Association and BuddhaNet. Available online: http://www.buddhanet.net/elearning/buddhism/index.htm Budilovsky, Joan, and Eve Adamson. Yokids; Turn off the TV and play!; Finding your animal nature; Lessons yoga teaches children. In Joan Budilovsky and Eve Adamson, The Complete Idiots Guide to Yoga. New York: Alpha Books (Macmillan), 1998, pp. 253-258. Buitron, Sage. Asanas are for everyonechildren are natural yogis. Enlightened Practice, Jun/Jul 2003, pp. 28-29. Bullard, Maria. Yoga with the mentally handicapped and other disabled people. The Yoga Review, 1985, 5(1&2):1-13.

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Burack, Charles. Returning meditation to education. Tikkun, Sep 1999. Available online: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1548/5_14/56065507/print.jhtml. Burke, Pat. Baby Yoga: An interview with Helen Garabedian [originator of Baby-Yoga with Helen, www.baby-yoga.com]. Available online: http://www.omplace.com/articles/BabyYoga.html. Burke, Savita. Nurturing the whole child: An introduction to teaching yoga to children. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Summer 2003, p. 23. Busch, Colleen Morton. Its cool to be grounded. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 2003, pp. 94-99, 153156. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/views/1006_1.cfm. More and more teens are finding out that the calming, centering practice of yoga can help them find self-acceptance and confidence. Many teens report that yoga endows them with patience and tolerance, which helps them get along with their families. It can also help them hear their inherent inner wisdom. Yoga created a total turnaround in Matt Harriss life. Suffering from chronic depression and social anxiety in his early teens, Harris tried yoga at his therapists suggestion. Within four months, says Harris, I was off medication, which was just taking away my symptoms temporarily. Yoga helped me figure out what was going on underneath it all. It showed me what was right with me rather than what was wrong. Butler, Donald. Doing yoga with teenagers. Yoga Biomedical Bulletin, 1986, 1(4):85-88. Butler, Kevin. Yoga at Cabrillo High: Elective class at Cabrillo gives students relief from stress. Long Beach Press Telegram, 18 Dec 2004. . . . The students enrolled in the Westside high schools yoga class are exercising their minds, as well as their bodies. Yes, the yoga craze has stretched from private studios across town onto campus. I think they are filled with so much pressure as teenagers, said teacher Tanya Boulton, who also works as a certified yoga instructor at a private Santa Monica studio. I think this kind of class allows the opportunity to calm down and just be connected within themselves. The 40-student elective is designed to quiet those anxieties . . . For freshman Danielle McCoy, 14, the class doesnt just relieve stress, it relieves pain. She has to use crutches because of a callous-like sore on one foot. If Im in pain, it helps me breathe, she said. I know how to relax my breathing. Karina Vasquez, a 16-year-old junior, is so relaxed during class that she sometimes falls asleep for brief periods. She often brings her yoga mat home to practice . . .

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Many of the students would find it difficult to afford private yoga classes, which can cost $15 each, Boulton said. The students are able to buy their mats at a discount, for $13.75, and take the class for free. In addition to the emotional stresses of school work, family conflict or dating troubles, high school students also must cope with the physical stress of sitting for most of the day, which can strain the back and abdominal muscle s, she said. But yoga is as much of a philosophy as a physical activity, emphasizing meditation as well as stretching. Kids take time to grasp that mental component, she said. I think they are just starting to shift a little bit, but it takes awhile , she said. Cartmell, Connie. Yoga classes for kids offers fun. Marietta Times, 7 Jul 2005. Author email: ccartmell@mariettatimes.com. Yoga for children has many of the same benefits that adults experience. What yoga does for children is it helps them relax and to be more confident with their bodies, Stobart said. It provides an opportunity to explore creativity and offers interconnection with the world around them. Allyshia Stobart, 8, of Athens, has been working with her aunt learning the practice of yoga. She never misses an opportunity to practice. It makes me feel happy, Allyshia said. A greater perspective of the world, an open mind, and ways to think more creatively are all positives of the program, Stobart said. My kids love it, Beckey Stobart, of Athens, Michelles sister and Allyshias mother said. My 8-year-old daughter especially loves yoga. Its more of an adult thing and it makes it exciting. She exercises and practices all the time. Castleman, Michael. Making the grade: San Francisco yoga teacher Tony Sanchez is teaching inner city students an important life skillstress management. Yoga Journal, Dec 2002, pp. 9195. Yoga works best for elementary teachers if its connected to other subjects they teach.

Catholic church Cabrale, Simone. How I came to yoga. Yoga & Health, Nov 97, p. 15. (On
Simones discovery of Yoga as a teenager.) Can somersaults and headstands injure my child? Parents, Aug 1996. Carr, Rachel. Yoga for children. In Rachel Carr, Yoga for All Ages. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972, pp. 113-140. ___________. Rachel Carrs Creative Yoga Exercises for Children: Be a Frog, a Bird, or a Tree. New York: Doubleday, 1973. Poses: How to Begin, Flying Bird, Frog, Cat, Woodchopper, Rabbit, Stork, Rocking Horse, Balloon, Tree, V, Swallow, Cobra, Fish, Slide, Camel, Bicycle, Grasshopper, Wheelbarrow,

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Bridge, Mountain, Swimmer, Tortoise, Swan, Wheel, Archer, Bow, Arrow, Bumblebee, Arc, Crow, Notes to Parents and Teachers ___________. See and Be: Yoga and Creative Movement for Children. 1980. Preschool. From the publisher: This is a delightful way for parents and teachers to help preschool children develop self-awareness and self-confidence through creative movement. See and Bee makes exercising an adventure that promotes health and creativity and inspires hours of fun. The book teaches body development techniques that instill confidence, strengthen young muscles and encourage expressive movement. Easy-to-follow directions and clear explanations, with photographs that show children imitating animal movements and forming alphabet letter shapes. And delightful verses that children will love reciting as they move. Carroll, Cain, and Lori Kimata. Parents and kids; Kids stuff. In Cain Carroll and Lori Kimata, Partner Yoga: Making Contact for Physical, Emotional, and Spiritual Growth . Rodale Press, 2000, pp. 201-202; 202-203. Castleman, Michael. Making the grade: San Francisco yoga teacher Tony Sanchez is teaching inner city students an important life skillstress management. Yoga Journal, Dec 2002, pp. 9195. Catalfo, Phil. Raising Spiritual Children in a Material World. New York: Putnam/Berkley, 1997. ___________. Family spirituality. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 1997, pp. 84-85. Reprinted from Phil Catalfo, Raising Spiritual Children in a Material World. New York: Putnam/Berkley, 1997. ___________. Life-affirming asanas. Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 2004, p. 24. The nonprofit Jenna Druck Foundation (www.jennadruck.org) offers free Yoga classes to bereaved parents to help them cope with the death of a child. Catholic schools urged to introduce yoga. NewKerala.com, 31 Aug 2005. Health Minister Anbumani Ramadoss Wednesday urged Catholic -run schools [in New Delhi] to take the initiative in introducing yoga and AIDS awareness activities. I would urge the Catholic leadership to introduce yoga in their schools, AIDS awareness for children during their most vulnerable age, 13 to 29, and compulsory physical activities on a regular basis, Ramadoss said while launching the new health and HIV/AIDS policy of the Indian Catholic Church here. Ramadoss, who applauded the Christian communitys contribution in the health sector, said 60 percent of the budget money could be saved if health awareness among the public increased. We have successfully controlled many communicable diseases except AIDS. Now noncommunicable diseases such as diabetic, cardio vascular problems, mental illness are going to pose a major threat for us, he said. The minister said these diseases could be eliminated if yoga and physical activities were introduced in the curriculum.

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Minister of State for Statistics and Programme Implementation Oscar Fernandes also agreed with him. Speaking from personal experiencethe minister himself is a yoga practitionerFernandes said: If you want to come down on the health budget, I must tell you, yoga should be made part of the curriculum. No child will get any health problem if he/she does yoga . . . Celemencki, Jacqueline. Soft armour: Youth at risk learn to protect themselves from within. Ascent, Spring 2004, pp. 28-34. On teaching Yoga to youth at risk in [Canada] . . . The kids range from thirteen to eighteen years old, and are in very challenging social, economic and emotional circumstances. Chakras: The Colors in You . . . Are the Colors in Me poster. Available for purchase from Indigo Dreams, http://www.indigodreams.net/posters.htm. From the website: Chakras are renamed so that children can connect and relate to their own energy centers. [A] tool for teaching chakras to children of any age. Children of various nationalities show that although we may look different on the outside we all share the same inner colors. Chanchani, Swati, and Rajiv Chanchani. Yoga for Children: A Complete Illustrated Guide to Yoga Including a Manual for Parents and Teachers. New Delhi, India: UBS Publishers Distributors Ltd., 1997. This book is particularly interesting because it covers the eightfold path of Patanjali and provides stories/legends relating to each limb of the path, as well as for several of the asanas in the book. Contents: Foreword by B. K. S. Iyengar, The Beginning, Sage Patanjali, Ashtanga Yoga [i.e., the eightfold path, not American Power Yoga], Important Dos and Donts, The Standing Poses, The Sun-Salutation Poses, The Inverted Poses, The Cross Legged Poses, The Forward Bending Poses, The Twisting Poses, The Backward Bending Poses, The Miscellaneous Poses, The Human Body, Practice Routines Parents and Teachers Manual: Stretch Like a Dog, The Role of a Yoga Teacher, Little Children, Adolescents, The Yoga Syllabus, The Dynamic Approach for Children, Pranayama, Shatkriyas and Bandhas Are Not for Children, More Asanas for Children, Yoga Props for Children, Yoga Theory for Children Chaudhary, L. Effectiveness of Vipassana meditation as a technique of stress management and reformation among adolescent prisoners. Unpublished dissertation. 1999. Chavis, Melody Ermachild. In the eye of the storm: Yoga and meditation are finding a home in Americas inner citie s. Yoga Journal, Mar/Apr 1998, pp. 64-71, 142-144, 149. Cheney, Sally. Teaching Yamas and Niyamas to Children. Prescott, Ariz.: Granite Mountain Yoga, 1997. (Booklet.)

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___________. Two Flower Breaths: The Art of Teaching Yoga to Children. A Teachers Guide. Prescott, Ariz.: Granite Mountain Yoga, 1997. For information on ordering call 520-445-2012 or email yogimom@hotmail.com. Contents: INTRODUCTION: Why teach yoga to children, Why Kripalu Yoga, TUNING IN TO THE CHILD: The childs perspective, The adults perspective, Creating balance, WHAT TO TEACH: Forming an intention, Assessing needs and abilities, Implementing a plan, Evaluating the experience, Self evaluation, LESSON FORMAT: The purpose of a lesson plan, Welcome, Centering, Context 18, Warm-ups, Teaching the postures, Pranayamas, Meditation and visualization, Relaxation, Discussion and sharing, ADAPTING ASANAS FOR CHILDREN: Why change it?, Whats in a name? PROGRAM ENHANCEMENT: Yoga as metaphor, Partner yoga, Yoga games, Parent/child yoga, Hand-outs and goodies, IT REALLY IS A BUSINESS!: Where to find students, Improvising on a budget, Liability insurance and other necessities, A SELECTION OF HELPFUL BOOKS ___________. Why teach yoga to children? Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bulletin , Summer 2000, 9(2):6. (Adapted from Two Flower Breaths.) Chevrier, Claire D. G. Yogic parenting through the eyes of the child. Enlightened Practice, May/Jun 2005, p. 60. Children of Yogaville. Hatha Yoga for Kids, by Kids. Buckingham, Va.: Integral Yoga Publications, 1990. From the January 1995 issue of Wilson Library Bulletin: The instructions and comments for each pose are written by the children themselves. Covers front bending, back bending, inverted poses, and meditation technique. Childrens yoga classes gain popularity: Instructor: Yoga can improve study habits. Click2Houston.com, 13 Jun 2002. Article available online: http://www.nbc4.tv/health/1510543/detail.html. Childs, John P. The use of Transcendental Meditation program as a therapy with juvenile offenders. In David W. Orme-Johnson, and John T. Farrow, eds., Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers, Vol. I. Germany: Maharishi European Research University Press, 1976, pp. 577-584. Chinmoy, Sri. A Childs Heart and a Childs Dreams: Growing Up with Spiritual WisdomA Guide for Parents and Children. Jamaica, N.Y.: AUM Publications. ___________. Death and Reincarnation. Jamaica, N.Y.: AUM Publications. Topics include: Insuring your childs spiritual growth, Education and spiritualitytheir meeting ground, Answers to childrens questions about God, A guide to meditation Chodzin, Sherab. The Wisdom of the Crows and Other Buddhist Tales. Tricycle Press, 1998. Specially compiled for children of all ages, these thirteen traditional tales introduce the Buddhist themes of generosity, humor, compassion, and life after death.

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Chopra, Deepak. Fire in the Heart: A Spiritual Guide for Teens. New York: Simon & Schusters Childrens Publishing, 2004. Christenson, Elise. Books: Knot for kids? Newsweek, 21 Oct 2002, p. 11. Who would have guessed that a yoga book could cause so much stress? Babars Yoga for Elephants, released this month, has the American Yoga Association in knotsand not for therapeutic reasons. Im shocked by it, says AYA president Alice Christensen, who believes yoga shouldnt be practiced by kids under 16. She says yoga positions put pressure on the bodys glandular region, which affects a childs growth system. However, Reginald Washington of the American Academy of Pediatrics says theres no data on any negative effects for kids. Meanwhile, kiddie yoga is on the upswingand there are filled classes to prove it. Proponents say yoga destresses kids and boosts self-esteem. Babar author Laurent de Brunhoff says the books exercises can benefit children, but advises adult supervision. Its the books back page, however, that clears Babar. This book is intended for elephants interested in yoga, it reads. Humans and other animals should consult books written specifically with them in mind. But will the warning keep kiddies away? Thats a stretch. Christensen, Kristin Amy. A creative approach introducing meditative techniques through bibliotherapy. Psy.D. dissertation. San Francisco Bay: Alliant International University, 2004. Abstract: There is a large body of research encompassing juvenile delinquency. It includes information about the causes and correlates of delinquency and the costs and effectiveness of interventions, preventions, and treatments. A number of conventional (behavioral or cognitive) and unconventional (mentor, retreats, meditation, or bibliotherapy) treatments are available to and utilized by adolescents. Although research suggests that treatment outcomes are quite similar for either type of treatment, an important dimension of treatment involves the use and effectiveness of personalized treatments for adolescents. This topic has often been cited in delinquency research; adolescents seem to participate more and show more favorable outcomes when interventions are personalized and the adolescents are interested in the intervention (Mulvey, Arthur, & Reppucci, 1993). This project explores the idea that an adolescents interest(s) might best be established through his or her own personal research. That is, an adolescent could become interested on an intervention on his or her own. This idea is expanded by considering the recent popularity of bibliotherapy with adolescents and its positive research outcomes. Research suggests that bibliotherapy may be a suitable approach to introduce and educate adolescents about an unconventional treatment such as mantra meditation. This project involves the introduction of mantra meditation to juvenile delinquents using a comic book, a bibliotherapeutic technique. Participants found the comic to be readable and enjoyable and seemed to understand the underlying theme of the story. The participants commented on the good and bad characters in the book, and were able to follow the comic storyline. The consequences of the characters actions appeared to make impressions on the participants (based on their feedback) and they seemed to relate to the moral of the story as well. Participants reported that they understood that meditation was being used as an alternative to fighting, and seemed to find interest in its use in the story. Cirone, Marianne Woods. Yoga for kids: Yoga for children and preteens. Article available online: http://www.yoga-for-health-and-fitness.com/Kids-Yoga.htm. Describes various resources.

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Clance, P. R., M. Mitchell, and S. R. Engelman. Body cathexis in children as a function of awareness training and yoga. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1980, 9(1):82-85. Clarke, Karen. Yoga for teens. Yoga World , Jun-Dec 2001, nos. 18-19, pp. 13-14. Clough, Rosemary. Teaches Yoga for Kids. Contact: rtclough@ix.netcom.com. (Rosemary is Kripalu certified.) Rosemary uses props such as Yoga mat dots, scarves, Physio Balls, cones, cushions, and a drum, along with the following music: - Contrast & Continuum, Music for Creative Dance, Vol. 1-4, by Eric Chappelle - Songs Children Love to Sing, by Ella Jenkins - Bodywise, by Kidzup - Magical Child; After the Rain, by Michael Jones - Amber, by Michael Jones & David Darling Cohen, Ken. Imagine ThatA Childs Guide to Yoga. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Ross-Erickson Publishers, 1982. (Integral Yogabased.) From the publisher: The magical poems and illustrations in this book of Yoga postures will capture the imagination of children, as well as introduce them to Hatha poses, relaxation, pranayama . . ., and meditation. A section of guidelines for parents will help them explore Hatha Yoga with their child through the beautiful natural imagery in this . . . book. ___________. Imagine thata childs guide to yoga. Yoga Journal, Nov/Dec 1982, pp. 12-15. Constantine, Sandra E. Students learn meditation, yoga reduce stress. The Republican, 1 Jun 2005. Author email: sconstantine@repub.com. Psychologist Paul C. Roud starts off his substance abuse prevention class at Granby JuniorSenior High School by running a wooden pestle around the edge of a Tibetan singing bowl, filling the library with a soothing, metallic sound. As the sound fades, bring your focus to your body, Roud said to the dozen eighth-graders relaxing on the librarys carpeted floor. Notice the air le aving your chest and your nose. He guided them into a meditative state, getting them to pay attention to different parts of their bodies and their breath. This state of relaxation can be yours whenever you want it . . . You can achieve this state on your own at any time, Roud said. Roud went on to explain many people use drugs and alcohol, because they cannot stand what they are feeling and want to change their state of consciousness. This is the second year the psychologist has taught transcendental meditation to eighth graders at the school. Research has shown students are prone to start using drugs and alcohol between eighth and ninth grade, according to student assistance counselor Charlene M. Korza, who said that is why the course is offered to all eighth graders at the school.

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The class also includes sessions on yoga led by school psychologist Ira Band. Its rela xing. Its fun to get away from the stress of school, 13-year-old Amanda E. Kershaw said of the class, which meets once a week. Kershaw said she has done some of the meditation and yoga she learned in the class at home. A psychologist with River Valley Counseling Center Inc. in Holyoke, Roud said learning to meditate or use yoga shows people how to get through a feeling, and also that life and feelings keep changing, he said. Its about empowerment, Roud said of meditation. Korza said the course was developed and paid for through a Safe and Drug-free Schools and Communities grant from the federal Department of Education. Roud said there is considerable research that shows meditation reduces stress and that the school system is very enlightened by allowing its students to learn meditation and yoga. Cooper, Evan. Um, Like . . .OM: A Girl Goddesss Guide to Yoga. New York: Little Brown & Co., 2005. Corn, Seane. [Teaches Yoga to adolescent prostitutes at a shelter in Southern California called Children of the Night] Email: seane@seanecorn.com; URL: www.seanecorn.com. Cuda, Amanda. Mat time: Yoga gives special-needs children self-confidence, more socialization. Connecticut Post, 14 Jul 2005. Author email: acuda@ctpost.com. Take a big deep breath, yoga instructor Maxine Lobel tells her class, all crouched on the floor of the gymnasium at St. Lukes School in New Canaan. The class obliges, still quiet. Lobel, 55, of Norwalk, tells them to be aware of their bodies. Can you feel your heart beating? she asks. With its quiet introspection and focus on physical awareness, it seems like a typical yoga class. Then, suddenly, the mood changes. In a second, the class is on its feet, dancing along to the song Animal Fair, pretending to be monkeys, and other zoo animals. When thats done, Lobel and her charges wiggle along to a song about fish. Then, suddenly, theyre playing a version of the schoolyard game Red Rover, in which the students ask each other to assume different yoga poses. Clearly, this is not your typical yoga class. And these are not your typical students. The class, Yoga-Play Therapy was part of ArtsExpress, a summer program that uses art, music, drama and other creative outlets to foster self-confidence and socialization in special needs kids. All of Lobels students have special needs, including such issues as Downs syndrome, verbal impairment and impulse control. Yoga-Play Therapy is the latest addition to ArtsExpress, itself a program of the New Canaanbased Arts for Healing, which was founded in 2000 as a way to bring arts to the special needs population of Fairfield County.

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Kids with special needs often have processing problems or la nguage development problems, said Arts for Healing Founder and Director Karen Nisenson. Things like music and art [are good for these kids because they] dont have to be processed the same way as academics in the brain. The latest ArtsExpress session began June 27, and Nisenson said that, so far, Yoga-Play Therapy has been a good fit with the program. Yoga-Play Therapy is a great addition. she said. Its fun. Its something kids can do in a group so that socialization is encouraged. Lobel co-founded Yoga-Play Therapy earlier this year with yoga instructor Michal Gover, 29, of Cos Cob, whose background includes teaching yoga to special needs children and adults. During each ArtsExpress session, Lobel leads yoga classes throughout the day. Many of the activities involve repetition, which Lobel said makes them more familiar and, consequently, more comfortable with the movements . . . Curran, Kathy. Bringing baby along. Yoga Journal, Nov/Dec 1982, pp. 46-48. (On post-partum Yoga.) Cushman, Anne. Standing on your own feet. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 1993, pp. 38-39. On Holiday Johnsons Yoga program for teenage girls. Cushman, Anne. The spice of life: Anne Cushman discovers the seamlessness between dharma practice and the messier parts of our lives. Tricycle , Summer 2003, pp. 83-85. On being a yogini and a mom. Daleo, Morgan Simone. Curriculum of Love: Cultivating the Spiritual Nature of Children. Charlottesville, Va.: Grace Publishing, 1996. Das, Baba Hari. A Childs Garden of Yoga. Santa Cruz, Calif.: Sri Rama Publishing, 1980. Contents: Teachers Introduction, The Five Centers, The Three Locks, Deep Breathing Exercises, Meditations, Asana, Asanas for Children from the Ages of Three to Six, Asanas for Children from the Ages of Six to Twelve, Asanas for Fun, Love of a Lotus, Deep Relaxation, Glossary ___________. Yoga for kids. Body, Mind, Spirit, Nov 1995, 14(6):44. Dash, Manoj, and Shirley Telles. Yoga training and motor speed based on a finger tapping task. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oct 1999, 43(4):458-462. Also in H. R. Nagendra, R. Ragarathna, and S. Telles, Yoga Research & Applications: Proceedings of the 5 th International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research and Applications. Bangalore, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, 2000, pp. 298-302. Abstract: A finger tapping task was used to assess motor speed (MS) of both hands in 53 adults and 152 children before and after yoga training and in 38 adults of a non-yoga (control) group. All subjects were right hand dominant. The 30-second tapping speed (TS) test was considered as three time intervals, i.e. 0-10 second (TS1), 10-20 seconds (TS2) and 20-30 seconds (TS3). There was a significant (Students t-test) increase in all three TS values following 10 days of yoga in children and 30 days of yoga in adults. However for both groups at baseline and final assessments, TS2 and TS3 were significantly lower than TS1. Hence the TS was increased after yoga training during the first 10-seconds of the test but not during the next 20 seconds. These

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results suggest an increase in motor speed for repetitive finger movements following yoga training, but not in strength or endurance, as the increase was not sustained over 30 sec. Day, Jennifer. Creative Visualization with Children. Element Books. Dayton, Brandt. The Swami and Sam: A Yoga Book. Yoga Instruction by Tian Dayton. Glenview, Ill.: Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy, 1976. Fictional story about a little girl that meets a Swami and learns about Yoga. The last half of the book has photos of the little girl doing basic Yoga exercises. Postures include: backward bend, standing head to knee, side bend, tree, head to knee, frog, lion, locust, boat, bow, camel, childs pose, cat cobra, wheel, crow, shoulder stand, plow, bridge, fish, headstand, easy pose; plus breathing. DeChillo, Suzanne. Yoga in kindergarten? Sure, its calming. The New York Times, 14 Dec 2002, p. B16. Article available online: http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/14/education/14YOGA.html. Joseph Spitalieri, a kindergartner at the Todd Elementary School [in Briarcliff Manor, New York], likes to move fast and talk constantly. But when yoga class starts, he calms himself. Yoga makes me strong, he says. It makes me feel happy. Yoga is part of the curriculum for 120 kindergarten students here. Through a grant from the Briarcliff Manor Educational Foundation, Claudia Teicher, a former kindergarten teacher at the school and a yoga instructor, teaches postures, stretches and breathing exercisesin the cafeteria. So many times, we tell children to calm down, Mrs. Teicher says, but we dont give them any tools to get there. Yoga does. Deife, Julie. Teens and yoga: I saw it with my own eyes!. LA Yoga, Jul/Aug 2004, pp. 16-17. On Everardo Silvas Kundalini Yoga class for teens in La Crescenta, California. Dent, Jenny. Yoga for children. Yoga Today, Dec 1980, 5(8):14-15. Includes asana, pranayama, and meditation. ___________. More yoga for children. Yoga Today, Mar 1981, 5(11):18-19. Includes asana, pranayama, and meditation. ___________. Growing up in yoga. Yoga Today, Jun 1981, 6(2):40-41. Conveying the spiritual message of yoga to children is a feat that would give many of us pause. Jenny Dent . . . offers some practical suggestions. ___________. Never too young. Yoga Today, Mar 1983, 7(11):28-29. One of the most valuable things we can do for our children is to help them establish a daily time of meditation and prayer.

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___________. Childrens class. Yoga Today, Jan 1982, 6(9):30-31, 41. The author suggests an approach for communicating the Law of Life. Deranja, Michael Nitai. Sharing Values with Children. Education for Life, 2001. For information about the book, see http://www.livingwisdom.org/HTML/sharevalue.htm. ___________. Sharing Yoga with Children workshop. Ananda Village, Nevada City, California. From the website: Have you ever thought: My life would have been so much easier if only someone had introduced me to yoga when I was a child! This training prepares you to provide exactly this service to children aged 612 by offering them a well-rounded, transforming experience born of your own understanding and creativity. Youll learn to: Lead a complete after-school program. Bring a broader, more fulfilling dimension to your classroom or youth group. Share the power of yoga with your own children.

Whatever your goal, youll find this program filled with helpful insights drawn from Anandas 30+ years of family life and education. Teaching asanas to children is just a small part of this program. Its wide-ranging experiences are based on the broader wisdom of Raja Yoga, showing you how to: Introduce timeless principles of character development through games. Present child-sized meditation and visualization exercises. Use stories, drama, music & art as tools for self-discovery. Adapt Energization Exercises to meet kids needs . Provide appropriate, effective discipline to help children reach their higher potential. Cultivate spiritual sensitivity through nature activities. Recognize and develop the unique potential for growth in each child. Understand the stages of spiritual unfoldment in childhood. Develop loving, uplifting relationships with children. Involve children in service projects as a means to enhanced self-esteem and sensitivity to the needs of others. Make use of the specific skills for balanced living outlined by Yogananda. Improve your own spiritual magnetism as the most important means of inspiring childrens growth.

Derezotes, David. Evaluation of yoga and meditation trainings with adolescent sex offenders. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, Apr 2000, 17(2):97-113. Evaluates the efficacy of Yoga and meditation as a program intervention for adolescent sex offenders: impact of the program on the ability of offenders to focus at school and control impulses, support of offenders parents for the program, need to create a flexible program format to meet individual needs, provision of immediate reinforcements such as relaxed state of consciousness. Dermond, Susan. Raising your child with spirit: Eloquence in silence. Article available online: http://www.livingwisdom.org/html/art_susan_d.htm.

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Desmond, Lisa. Baby Buddhas: A Guide for Teaching Meditation to Children. Riverside, N.J.: Andrews McMeel, 2004. From the Publisher: It may be true that children between the ages of 18 months and three years can lead generally happy, contented lives, but most parents will probably attest in some degree to the veracity of the stereotypical terrible twos, that is, the often difficult second year in a childs life, when separation anxiety, selfishness, and aggression become possible. In this selection, preschool teacher and meditator Lisa Desmond presents a unique method of meditation for children, which retains meditations traditional goal of personal transformation while adapting the method to meet the toddlers need for a variety of visual, aural, and tactile learning strategies. Children learn to love themselves and others, to respect all living things, and even to deal with death, through a series of progressively scaled meditative affirmations. Baby Buddhas gives parents and children techniques they can use to overcome the mundane and exceptional challenges that families encounter, while simultaneously providing them new ways to bond and share their love. Desai, A. N. Suggestion on a Yoga syllabus for teaching Yoga. Journal of the Yoga Institute , Jan 1981, 27(6):86-87. Desai, Gayatri, Rubina Razvi, and Pavan and Birj Datta. Growing up with yoga. Yoga Rahasya, 2003, 10(1):60-63. The authors range in age from 12-14 and have grown up with Yoga, as their mothers started learning Yoga under B. K. S. Iyengar at a very young age and were teaching it by the time these children were born. Gayatri, Pavan, and Brij are third-generation Iyengar Yoga practitioners. Desai, Nima A. Health for teens: Yoga. Article available online: http://teenhealth.about.com/teens/teenhealth/library/weekly/aa103000a.htm. Desikachar, Kausthub. The Yoga of Vinyasa Krama: Pascimatana workshop. . 6th Annual Yoga Journal Convention, 27-30 Sep 2001, Estes Park, Colorado. When T. Krishnamacharya taught youngsters in the early 1930s, he introduced sequences of dynamic postures called vinyasa karma. This workshop will look into understanding and experiencing sequences that lead to forward bends. For youth and teachers of young people. ___________. Shaping the future: A workshop for children, young adults and their teachers. Contact Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, 31 (old no. 13) Fourth Cross Street, Ramakrishna Nagar, Chennai-600 028, India, tel.: + 91 (0)44 4933092, fax: + 91 (0)44 4613341, email: director@kym.org, URL: www.kym.org. About the workshop: Traditionally, Yoga was introduced at an early age to create a foundation for a lifetime of physical, mental, and emotional strength and flexibility. This discipline is also an effective tool for improving and maintaining the memory and concentration needed for education. More importantly, Yoga is a means for children and young adults to continually rediscover their own true nature . . . playful, creative, full of energy and joy. Utilizing the young persons own resources through dynamic postures and focused breathing, Yoga can result in a healthier body and sharper mind. These are precisely the tools required to face lifes challenges with confidence, equilibrium, and the strength of character needed to create a better tomorrow.

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[The] objective [of the workshop] is to explain and demonstrate the core principles of Yoga instruction for children, adolescents, and young adults. The workshop is designed to be appropriate and beneficial for children 7-12 yrs., adolescents 1216 yrs., young adults 17-30 yrs., Yoga teachers, parents, teachers, sports educators, and therapists. Kausthub has been working with young people since the age of thirteen. He has written a book on teaching yoga to children, which will be published in French and English this year. After completing his masters degree, he obtained a post graduate diploma in Yoga from the Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram (KYM), in Chennai India, an internationally recognized institution founded by his father. Kausthub teaches privately, and at the KYM, and has traveled to Europe each year since 1997 to conduct workshops and seminars. Developing self control. Research on Yoga in Education Newsletter, Jun 1993, No. 5. Development of human potential in the child through yoga. Yoga Links, 1996, 4:3,16. Yoga Links, Box 101, Campbell Town, South Australia, 507. Devi, Yogacharini Kalavathi. Being a mother: Your dharma . . . your sadhana, and the biggest exercise in Karma Yoga! Yoga Life, Aug 2002, 33(8):12-14. Devi Bhavanani, Meenakshi. Bringing order into chaos: Taming childish anarchy with Yoga. Yoga Life, Jan 1994, 25(1):33-40. ___________. Taming the anarchists! Practical advice on teaching Yoga to children. Yoga Life, Jun 1994, 25(6):17-26. ___________. The Yoga of motherhood: My own experience. Yoga Life, May 2005, 36(5):3-11. Author email: amma@icyer.com. Bearing, delivering and raising my son Ananda Balayogi has been the single most significant spiritual experience of my life, my first real initiation into the blissful state of Yogaa Oneness and communion with the Universe on a nearly mystical level . . . Dinsmore -Tulli, Uma. Parent and baby yoga. Article available online: http://www.yogauk.com/YogaUK/inspiration/babyyoga.htm. A typical session includes baby stretches to take small bodies through a full range of movement which often astonishes (and inspires) their mums; breathing with movement for the mums, and postures-for-two to give mums and babies new ways to relate to each other. The babies respond with evident delight to the use of gentle sounds, so chanting and humming helps everyone to wind down. By the end of the class, peaceful relaxation comes quite easily. Many of the Brixton baby yogis mums report that their babies are calmer and sle ep more soundly after yoga sessions. They also observe their babies delight: She really enjoys her yoga! At a more visceral level, some of the practices often provide babies with immediate audible relief from wind and constipation. Diskin, Eve. Yoga for Children. New York: Warner Books, 1976.

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Contents: Foreword from a Psychologist to Parents, Letter from a Pediatrician, Preface, Note to Parents, Note to Teachers, What the United States Government Says about Good Health, What is Yoga?, Introduction, How to Find the Exercises You Want, Beginning Exercises (Rag doll, Strong man, Kitty cat, Happy feet, Giraffe, Pretty eyes, Frog, Sleeper, Tailor, Triangle, Elephant trunk, Lion, Twig, Rowboat, Jelly roll, Tree, Balloon), Intermediate Exercises (Back scratch, Curling leaf, Ballet dancer, Eagle spread, Half locust, Rabbit sit, Rocking horse, Twinkle toes, Star, Royal hen, Lotus bud, Candle, Cat, Snorting bull, Cobra, Stork, Seesaw, Slide), Advanced Exercises (Fly away bird, Lotus flower, Nosey clown, Octopus, Pyramid, Pretzel, Ringing bell, Plow, Praying mantis, Full locust, Head stand, camel, Bow, Tummy lift, Bridge, Wheel, Salute to the sun, Pecking chicken, Bunny tail, Hand stand), Special Problems (suggests which exercises to do for ankles, arms, back, bal nce, breathing, chest, circulation, constipation, energy, eyes, face, a feet, fingers, head, headaches, hips, legs, lungs, neck, nervous system, posture, scalp, shoulders, sleep, spine, thighs, throat, toes, tummy, waist, weight), Index of Exercises, Exercise Chart Dryer, Suzanne. Yoga for the special child. Healing Retreats & Spas, May/Jun 2000. Article available online: http://www.healingretreats.com/hrs-site/archives/may_jun_00/yoga/yoga.html. Duffey, Jeanne. Yoga relaxes kids, makes exercise fun. The Springfield News-Leader, 22 May 2005. Author email: jeanned@mail.sgcl.org. Article available online: http://springfield.newsleader.com/columnists/duffey/20050522-Yogarelaxeskids.html. Janie Wilson, a former elementary school teacher and now a yoga instructor at Drury University . . . will teach a free yoga class for upper elementary students at 4 p.m. Thursday at the Library Station. The program, for kids in grades 3-6, will introduce six basic standing poses, three basic sitting poses, a relaxation pose and proper breathing techniques . . . Wilson finds that teaching children poses that imitate the movement of animals is particula rly effective: Showing them how to pose like a dog or a flamingo or a crow engages their imagination. They hardly know they are also getting exercise and a good workout." Another reason Wilson thinks yoga is better than other types of exercise for children is the la ck of competitiveness: You can get exercise from competitive sports, but its also stressful. With yoga, you are competing against yourself and the stress of competing is not there. Durand, Jennifer. The Yoga Garden Game [a board game]. San Francisco, Calif.: Jennifer Durand. For more information, visit http://www.theyogagarden.com. Jennifer Durand, a San Francisco Yoga teacher who specializes in teaching Yoga to children, created The Yoga Garden Game to help her students learn. The game is designed for having fun together rather than being in competition. The objective of The Yoga Garden Game is to plant a flower garden before night falls. As players move the bumblebee marker around the board they learn classic yoga poses, as well as have the chance to make up their own. Durkin, Barbara. Relax with yoga & your baby. Article available online: http://www.lamaze.com/parent/health/articles/0,9474,159779_269746,00.html. Eastoak, Sharon, ed. Dharma Family Treasures: Sharing Mindfulness with Children: An Anthology of Buddhist Writings. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1994.

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Edgerton, Barbara J. Reaching outyoga classes for Polinsky Center making a difference for today and tomorrow. Article available online: http://www.yogaeducationsociety.org/articles%20reaching%20out.htm. Recently, a man who works as a counselor at Polinsky [Childrens] Center [in San Diego, California,] came to my yoga class looking for some relief from symptoms of stress due to his job. After class, we talked and he told me that what he had experienced in the yoga class would be of real benefit to the other staff and residents of Polinsky Center. He further stated that it was extremely stressful to work in a community where children had been removed from their homes and families mostly due to physical and/or emotional abuse. He said the center is over-crowded and some children, especially the older or more challenged youth, are there for as long as a year. We discussed the possibility of bringing yoga classes into Polinsky on a regular basis for the staff and the residents. I had actually talked to others previously about the possibility of offering programs at Polinsky, and it had been well received. I told him I would explore this possibility further. Although we derive income from yoga classes, it is also through volunteer activity that we are able to make a difference for all people. In reaching out to serve others, especially those who cannot attend or pay for classes, we receive much more than we give. I have been a volunteer yoga teacher to the visually challenged at the Braille Institute for over 4 years, and I receive tremendous energy and love through this activity. That one-hour class per week is worth more than anything money can buy. I am committed to making yoga classes available at Polinsky on a volunteer basis to the staff and residents. This will require that we yoga teachers come together in a spirit of community and cause this possibility to become a reality. To provide one class per day, 5 days per week, it would require 20 yoga teachers. That would mean a maximum of one yoga class per teacher per month, and with sufficient volunteer teachers, it could be as little as one yoga class every other month. I invite you to join with me in creating an extraordinary yoga program. What a gift this will be, and what a difference our yoga community will make in the lives of those at Polinsky Center. Lets do it now. Please e-mail me, at tlcyoga.barbara@juno.com and provide me with your name, address, telephone and e-mail address so we can get together soon. Edmistone, Leanne. Yoga youngsters bend over backwards to impress. The Courier-Mail, 14 Aug 2004. Ms Thomas, from Silkstone State Preschool in Ipswich, said her little charges loved doing their weekly yoga sessions, and were quite excited at having an audience to show off their abilities. The children have already put on a display for their school and next week will give a demonstration as part of the Health Promoting Schools and Child Care Expo at Ipswichs Bremer State High School. Ms Thomas said she had been practising yoga for three years and thought it would be a positive, beneficial and healthy activity to introduce to her class.

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The 50 students spend about 20 minutes once a week perfecting the different positions on the carpet . . . Effect of 10 days of yoga (special memory development) techniques on memory in children. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, http://www.vkyogas.org.in. Ehrich, P. Family meditation. Journal of Family Counseling, 1976, 4:40-45. Elthink, Merle. Yoga and the young musician. Yoga Awareness, Feb 1980, 4(1):27-31. The ability to avoid tension and to exert mind control in situations of performance requires considerable skill on the part of the student. This process of mind-discipline is a further desirable addition to the childs activities. When we consider these needs of (a) flexibility and harmonious muscle development, (b) breath control, and (c) mind-discipline, we find that the one activity which will involve these three aspects is the practice of Hatha-yoga . . . Energy balancing in the classroom. Yoga in Education, Jan 1998. Epstein, Mark. Why we hate our parents. Yoga Journal, Mar/Apr 2002. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/wisdom/440_1.cfm?ctsrc=nlv40. Western parents feel it is their job to make their children into who they should be rather than relate to who they already are. Epstein, Randy Hutter. Hardly out of diapers and now into yoga. The New York Times, 15 Jun 1999, Health & Fitness, Late Edition - Final, Section F, Page 8, Column 1. Abstract: Randi Hutter Epstein describes taking yoga exercise class with her five-year-old son; notes yoga, no longer just for stretching an adults muscles or relieving stress of hard days work, has rewards for children as well. EYE (Early Yoga Education). Contact Shauna Levy, AHIMSA Productions, 247 Davenport Rd., Ste. 301, Toronto, Ontario M5R 2K9, Canada, tel.: 416-962-3636. For more on EYE, see http://www.theyogashow.com (click on EYE). A newly established Canadian nonprofit whose aim is to bring Yoga into the Canadian educational system. Faller, Mary Beth. Yoga class allows parents and children to work out together. The Arizona Republic, 3 May 2005. As 5-year-old Max Becker stretched out, he looked more wobbly than warrior-like, until his mother, Maureen, steadie d him in her own warrior pose. Mother and son were part of a family class at Yoga for Everyone in Anthem. The kid-friendly session incorporates music, dancing and stuffed animals with yoga poses. Jennifer Kelber, the teacher and owner of the studio, started the family classes in February. The one-hour class starts with soothing music, stretches and classic yoga poses, such as CatCow. Kelber lines up stuffed animals in a row across the studio to represent the different yoga

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poses. When you put yoga poses together, you create flow, she says. But its hard for kids to get the flow of one pose to the next, so I use Beanie Babies. Everyone steps from one mat to the next, doing Elephant, Duck, Eagle and so on. With an adult, you want to get the exact pose. But with kids, I dont adjust because it doesnt have to be perfect, she says. Next is favorite cla ss activity, Untie the Knot, a cooperation game in which everyone joins hands in a knot and must untie it until they are in a circle. Kelber gets the kids moving to a rap song by LL Cool J, in which they repeat the refrain Never give up! in different Warrior poses, which builds arm strength. Class winds down with story time and relaxation poses . . . Fanciful poses help draw kids to yoga. Florida Today, 29 Mar 1998, FINAL/ALL, Issue: PSA2065, PEOPLE section. Farrer, Frances. Gently does it. Times Educational Supplement (England), 29 Oct 1993. Analyzes the effect of a Yoga program entitled You and Me, founded by Cheryl Kelly of Woodcroft School in Essex, on improving awareness and concentration in children with learning difficulties. The program is available in the curricula of several schools. Faye, Laura. Kids and yoga: Pre- and postnatal yoga with Gurmukh. LA Yoga, Mar/Apr 2003, 2(2). Article available online: http://www.layogapages.com/issue4/departments/kids_and_yoga_w_gurmukh.htm. ___________. Karmaforkids, LA Yoga, Jul/Aug 2004, p.18. If you practice yoga and want to serve, you can integrate selfless service into your yoga practice or yoga studios program through karmaforkids, a program developed to raise money to send children with cancer to camp. Fennimore, Jillian. Stress-relieving yoga helps youngsters thrive. Scituate Mariner, 31 Mar 2005. Author email: jfennimo@cnc.com. Doreen Duarte believes theres no better way for children to relieve stress from school and everyday life, than through the art of yoga. Duarte, who has been a student of yoga for 30 years and a teacher is sharing her love for the discipline with youngsters through a 12-week, recreation department program.The program began March 15 and will continue every Tuesday through the end of May and Duarte said interested students can sign up anytime. The goal of her class, said Duarte, is to give children in grades 3-12 and special needs students an outlet away from the intensities of youth and society. Its giving them tools to cope, she said about the exercises that involve breathing, stretching and awareness of ones own body . . . Fields, Nerissa. 7-way stretch for children. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Autumn 1998, p. 8.

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First U.S. Conference on Childrens Spirituality. 4 6 Oct 2002, Atlanta Georgia. For more information, see: http://www.childspirit.net/conference.html. Fischler, Marce lle S. For relief of childhood stress, try yoga. The New York Times, 25 Mar 2001, Late Edition - Final, Section 14LI, Page 4, Column 3. Long Island Journal column: YMCA recreation center in East Hampton opens yoga classes to help local children release stress. Fitton, Mary Lynn. The Art of Yoga: Young Women Creatively Expressing Their Relationship with Yoga. In progress. Contact: 541-482-6127 or email theartofyoga@aol.com. From Yoga Journal, Mar/Apr 2002, p. 26: Mary Lynn Fitton has seen the empowering benefits of yoga for teen girls firsthandfor the past six years, she has practiced yoga with high-risk girls. Watching their self-esteem rise, boy inhibitions fall away, and confidence blossom has inspired Fitton to collect their stories. Fitton, a family nurse practitioner and yoga instructor is putting together [the above book], which will include collage, painting, journal entries, poetry, and photography. My hope is that girls will recognize themselves and perhaps feel less alone. This union is what yoga is about. Flak, Micheline. Attaining Psychophysiological Balance for Teachers and Students in a Classroom Context, parts 1 and 2. Two audiotapes. Available from Quikopy Audio Recording Services, P.O. Box 361, Padstow, NSW 2211, Australia. ___________. Teaching yoga to children. Yoga (Sivananda Math), Feb 1978, 16(2). ___________. New ways in education. In Eddie and Debbie Shapiro, The Way Ahead: A Visionary Perspective for the New Millennium. Element Books, 1992. Micheline Flak describes the day she was first moved to begin using Yoga in her classroom in 1973. There were thirty breathless, crimson-cheeked, howling [twelve-year-old] youngsters, hurling their satchels and crashing down on their seats [having just come from a physical training period] . . . My former training in yoga had come to a mature point. I was giving vent to it on this professional ground for the first time. In the volcanic occurrence I have just described . . ., I felt perfectly calm and heard myself saying gently in the midst of turmoil: Now while sitting on your chairs, you are going to relax for a little while. Put your elbows on your table and your palms on your eyes. You may keep them open if you like. Or if you feel like it, place your head in your folded arms, as birds do in their nests when they go to sleep; you will be feeling very heavy on your chairs but you are not going to fall asleep, just listen to your teachers voice (pause). Now listen to the tiny sound of your breath in your nose, like the sound of waves rising and unfurling on the beach in sunlight. Incredulous at first, they yielded to this proposition and I experienced the beauty of an indordinate silence. Not the absence of noise only, as when the pupils leave the classroom after a tiring day, but a living silence inhabited by the joyful blending of vigilance and receptivity in the group . . . Flisek, Lidia. Yoga in an inner city primary school. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Autumn 2001, pp. 24-25.

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Following the Buddhas Footsteps: Curriculum from Instilling Goodness School, City of Ten Thousand Buddhas. Available online: http://online.sfsu.edu/~rone/Buddhism/footsteps.htm. Fontaine, Wendy M. Yoga helps students unwind, get fit. Bangor Daily News, 30 Mar 2005. Article available online: http://www.bangornews.com/news/templates/?a=111244. Once a day, . . . students at Mount Desert Island High School lay their mats on the wooden floor of a room usually used for music class. They stretch, breathe and relax during a new course at the high school, Introduction to Yoga. Angela, a junior who is also on the school's swim team, said the hour-long sessions are a chance to take a break from the whirlwind of homework, tests, college applications and after-school obligations. I like the calm atmosphere, she said. And it just feels good. A centuries-old practice, yoga combines physical poses, called asanas, with breathing techniques, called pranayama. Lyn Gatz, who teaches the new course in addition to her regular Spanish classes, said it helps the teenagers focus, manage stress and stay fit. There is so much going on in their lives, she said this week after a cla ss. Yoga is a time for them to tune in to their thoughts and feelings, to be with themselves and not be comparing themselves to others. The school is among few in Maine that offer yoga during the academic day. Another is Wassookeag School in Bangor, an independent school with only 15 students. Ive been here 10 years and weve always done it, said Debby Bell-Smith, Wassookeag Schools head teacher. She will lead the students through some poses when they need to move around or take a break. Centering, or meditation, is particularly useful after recess, she said. It allows the children to collect their thoughts and prepare for the rest of the afternoon. The younger children sit in a quiet, meditative state for about a minute, while the older students stay for closer to five minutes. Well do yoga informally, Bell-Smith said. I dont think the kids understand all the benefits. But some of the kids do incorporate it into their la ter lives. Michelle McLaughlin, a senior at Mount Desert Island High School, never had tried yoga before taking Gatzs class. Now she practices every night at home. Yoga helps her feel grounded during the most stressful parts of her day, she said. The breathing and the meditation is what I like best, she said. It makes you not sweat the small stuff. The class originated last year, when Gatz asked former principal Rob Liebow about using her planning period to offer a yoga course. Besides being a Spanish teacher, Gatz is also a certified instructor at Cattitude, a yoga studio in downtown Bar Harbor. When one of her Spanish classes had too few students enrolled, she used the time slot for yoga.

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Students who take the nine-week class earn a half-credit to use toward the 23 credits they need to graduate. They keep journals as part of the course, and participation is a large part of their grade. During class, Gatz instructs the students from her own mat, where she does the poses alongside the teens. She reminds them to breathe and guides them through the asanas. As the session winds down, she places small pillows over their eyes as they lie in savasana, or relaxation pose. The students lie quietly on their mats until the bell rings, signaling the end of the period. Jim Willey, director of guidance, said the class has become quite popular. He already has received requests from nearly 100 students interested in taking yoga the next time it is offered. We knew it was popular because we had a waiting list last year, but the waiting list was less than five [people], he said. We are overwhelmed by the response this year. We have more people than we can possibly schedule for yoga. Gatz said she already has noticed changes in some of the students, physically as well as mentally. I think all of them have gained strength and flexibility, she said. Some of them have said it helps with their sleeping patterns, mood and concentration. Sixteen-year-old Kaili Irvin said she enjoys the physical aspects of the class, particularly some of the inversion poses where she is upside down. She also has incorporated some of the breathing techniques into her daily life. In particular, ujjayi breath, or ocean-sounding breath, helps her focus during tennis matches, she said. The class is also a welcome break after her two hardest courses of the day, Advanced Placement history and honors English. The thing yoga has taught me the most is I have such a better concentration for things, she said. And its such a big sense of accomplishment when you can hold a difficult pose. Fontana, David, and Ingrid Black. Teaching Meditation to Children. London: Element Books, 1998/Thorsons, 2002. From a review in the July 1998 issue of Yoga & Health: Aimed at parents, teachers and other adults who work with young people, this is an excellent practical guide, full of useful information to suit children of all ages. The book also examines ways in which meditation can be used specifically to help with psychological and social problems such as anxiety, tension, shyness, hyperactivity, aggression, anti-social behaviour, asthma, insomnia and depression. Forget, Madame. Le Hatha yoga laide des dficients mentaux. Nos Enfants Inadapts (Revue de lU.N.A.P.E.I), 70:9-10. [In French.] Fostering healthy chakras in children. Article available online: http://www.sacredcenters.com/articles/childrenchakras.html. Foucard, Mireille. Arriving back in ones shoes. Yoga in Education, Mar 2000.

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These exercises help to keep the child in touch with the body and create a calming effect on the nervous system. ___________. Relaxation for children. Yoga in Education, Mar 2001. Foulkrod, Patricia. Meditation in Motion program. Patricia Foulkrod, 1864 Pandora Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90025, email: pfoulkrod@aol.com. Meditation practice with a Tibetan emphasis and Yoga for incarcerated juveniles in the Los Angeles area. Fowler, Paul. Turning their world upside down: Yoga with teens suffering from depression. YOGAChicago, Nov-Dec 2002, pp. 17-18, 35. Fox, Sue. Teaching yoga to the transitional year. Ireland, Autumn and Spring 1995/96. A report on RYE techniques. Franklin, Thomas E. Taking yoga with baby. The Bergen County (N.J.) Record, 22 May 2005. Article available online: http://www.ocregister.com/ocr/2005/05/22/sections/health_family/family/article_525203.php. Elissa Rosch is a registered nurse, certified doula and a yoga instructor. She has a ne w take on the ancient Hindu discipline of enlightenment, designed specially to help mothers and their babies achieve spiritual bonding . . . Yoga is a philosophical and physical way of achieving harmony with the mind, body and spirit. The mother-and-baby version is designed to help the mother get some gentle exercise and build a stronger bond with her newborn. Its a way for moms to be with other moms, Rosch says. And a way to strengthen the body after pregnancy. It promotes bonding. Its a support group. Frazier, Deborah. School attorney says yoga no legal stretch. Denver Rocky Mountain News, 20 Sep 2002, p. 25A. Relaxation in the form of yoga stretches has joined the other three Rs at Aspen Elementary School. Chris Gdowski, attorney for Aspen schools, has reviewed complaints from parents that yoga was Eastern spiritualism by definition and has checked the revised curriculum with all religious references deleted. He said Thursday that yoga doesnt violate the Constitution. It can be taught. The revised curriculum meets all the legal standards, and they can move forward, Gdowski said. So, yoga will be used to relax students between reading, writing and rithmetic beginning next Wednesday or Thursday, said Tom Farrell, Aspens superintendent of schools. Steve Woodrow, pastor of the First Baptist Church of Aspen, along with church members and other residents, had objected to the programs use, saying it would violate the separation of church and state. Woodrow also objected to the Hindu and other Eastern religion terms in the 2-inch-thick curriculum, the use of nonteacher yoga instructors who view the exercises as spiritual, and the lack of an alternative program for his two elementary school children. By taking out the religious language from the curriculum, the school admitted there is religious content in yoga, Woodrow said Thursday. A court here or somewhere needs to deal with it. In fact, a court has ruled on school yoga, specifically on the Yoga Guy in Bedford, N.Y., Gdowski said. A religious Sikh named Agia Akal Singh Khalsa, who trademarked the name Yoga Guy, led yoga stretching and breathing

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exercises in 1998 at a Bedford school. He wore the traditional beard and turban of Sikhs. A group of Catholic parents sued, saying that having a Sikh conduct the sessions was an endorsement of Eastern religions. The group also challenged the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program, a lesson about the Aztec serpent bird Quetzalcoatl and other school activities they viewed as New Age. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in New York ruled in 2001 that the yoga exercises did not violate the Constitution because although the presenter was dressed in a turban and wore the beard of a Sikh minister, he did not, in his yoga exercise presentation, advance any religious concepts or ideas. Woodrow disagreed because some of the Aspen yoga instructors who are not certified teachersparticipate in a Sunday worship service involving yoga. You cant separate the stretching from the spiritual message, he said. He said he and other parents will ask the school for a separate and nonreligious program for their children when other youngsters are doing yoga exercises. Freedman, Francoise Barbira. Baby Yoga. Barrons Educational Series, 2000/Gaia Books, 2000. From a review at Amazon.com: This thoroughly enjoyable exercise book for new parents and their babies uses yoga as an approach to body toning and general physical fitness. Its the perfect guide for moms who want to exercise soon after childbirth but realize that they should do so with care. Exercises are designed to tone arms, legs, and abdominal muscles, and there are even breathing exercises to help parents renew energy at the same time they are soothing an irritable baby. Infants also share in these exercises. Parents will find instructions for gently manipulating their babys limbs to maintain their natural suppleness, and to ease colic and other digestive problems. At the same time, theyll be reinforcing the loving bond between parent and child. Dads are also encouraged to share in the exercises. ___________, and Doriel Hall. Yoga for Pregnancy & Mothers First Year. Lorenz Books, 2004. ___________. Yoga in the first year of life. Yoga & Health , Feb 2004, pp. 3-6. Includes Aqua Yoga and family Yoga. Fuchs, Nancy. Our Share of Night, Our Share of Morning: Parenting as a Spiritual Journey. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1996. Furniss, Val. Yoga and learning. Yoga in Education, Mar 2001. On using Yoga techniques in high school to help students write creatively and as a lead-in to drama classes. Gaiam Yoga for Life program. Conscious Wave, Yoga for Life Program, 360 Interlocken Boulevard, Suite 300, Broomfield, CO 80021, 800-522-8705, yogaforlife@gaiam.com, http://www.gaiam.com/gaiam/1,1267,ArticleDetail:learn:105:433,00.html. From Gaiams 2000 Annual Report: With the shared belief that yoga has the power to change lives, Gaiam and the Yoga House have combined resources and expertise to create Gaiam Yoga for Lifea comprehensive non-profit program designed to support and assist schools to create a self-sustaining yoga program as part of their physical education curriculum. Rather than teaching children to compete with each other, yoga teaches children to access their own inner resources by helping them develop a mind-body connection. With this connection, they

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will be able to live their lives from a place of inner wholeness and balance, relying on their own strength, guidance and support throughout their lives. From Gaiam Lifestyle catalogue, 2001: In addition, the program will provide training for yoga teachers and assistants, and in the future, aims to expand the philosophy of yoga and holistic living into teaching and school communities. From the Gaiam website: Gaiam Yoga for Lifewill: 1. Develop a standard curriculum for a yoga program in collaboration with public school teachers, physical education specialists and internationally recognized yoga teachers. 2. Identify visionary and innovative schools across the nation for possible implementation of the Gaiam Yoga for Lifeprogram. 3. Provide curriculum, materials and resources to implement an in-school yoga program as part of the physical education program. 4. Develop and oversee teacher training for school yoga teachers and assistants. 5. Provide schools with the tools to maintain an ongoing yoga program. 6. Offer a program to bring a holistic approach to teaching based on the principles of yoga to all schools. The Accelerated School, an innovative charter public school located in South Central Los Angeles, has been chosen as the recipient of the pilot Gaiam Yoga for Lifeprogram. The program will last one year and will be the basis on which the program model and curriculum will be established for schools across the nation. The Accelerated School was chosen because of its innovative and holistic approach to education for children in the inner city. The schools philosophy is centered on the belief that every child has the ability and desire to learn and deserves the proper tools and direction to help them succeed in life. The Accelerated School has already shown that yoga for children does work. Two years ago, in conjunction with The Yoga House, the school instituted a small-scale yoga program. Over this period of time, fitness levels and academic achievement reached new heights. Seeing such positive results, the school sought to expand their program. Currently, The Accelerated School serves 270 students grades K-8. The long range goal is to develop into a pre-K-12 state -of-the-art academy able to accommodate up to 900 students. Since its inception five years ago, The Accelerated School has become one of the most successful public schools not only in greater Los Angeles, but also the nation. It will continue to grow and teach healthy children with the help of Gaiam Yoga for Life program. Gallagher, Trace. Yoga for kids? Los Angeles: Fox News, 3 Jun 2002. Article and video available online: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,54379,00.html. How in the world do you slow down a sixth grader these days? Some schools say yogas the answer. Advocates say the ancient mind-body meditation practice helps kids focus, but others complain the programs are ineffective. So are these yoga and stress release classes a good alternative to drugs like Ritalin, or just a waste of money?

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A Yoga class at the Accelerated School in Los Angeles is conducted in the background, while two Yoga teachers (and one of the sixth graders) explain Yogas benefits for school children and a Libertarian educator says that children should stick with academic studies, and a child psychologist says that it takes more than Yoga to help children with ADHD. Gallanis, Beth. Innovations in Yoga for children. YOGAChicago, Mar/Apr 2004. Article available online: http://www.yogachicago.com/mar04/children.shtml. Magical is not an overstatement to describe Bubbles Academy, the first yoga studio in the city devoted to children. Kristine Swano, an early childhood development educator, and her husband, Gregoire Johnson, an entrepreneur, turned a dream into reality last September, when Bubbles opened in a 10,000 square-foot loft that once was home to a film production studio. Kristine, a lifelong yogini, developed the programming that incorporates yoga, art, music and drama for children from infancy through seven years. Gregoire drove the design and build-out that transformed a cavernous space that echoed the slightest whisper into a fantasy playground. One step into the studio and you think you have landed in Oz, the part of the movie where the color starts. Lime green carpeting, plush purple drapes and multi-media projections envelop children in a fantasy world where enormous butterflies and dragonflies dip from the sky, dogs fly and tiny animals live in trees. The rich, stimulating environment would be only window dressing if it wasnt supported by a sound yoga program. Bubbles yoga classes for infants and moms focus on poses that strengthen their new bondand the moms abdominal and pelvic muscles. Once children are walking, Kristine stretches their imaginations and their limbs in classes that emphasize their connection to nature. Kristine is committed to using the enchanted forest atmosphere to teach compassion for animals and the environment. Meanwhile, there are art, music and imagination classes in separate rooms. Healing Power Yoga in Highland Park expanded into a second space to deepen its commitment to community with a healing center and Radiant Child program. Yoga teacher Lisa Weber runs the Radiant Child program, which embraces the spiritual well-being of the entire family. The class schedule includes prenatal yoga, family yoga, baby and mom yoga, toddlers and preschoolers yoga, ashtanga yoga for tweens and teens, and couples yoga. ___________. Marsha Wenig: YogaKids International grows up. YOGAChicago, Mar/Apr 2004. Article available online: http://www.yogachicago.com/mar04/yogakids.shtml. Garabedian, Helen. Itsy Bitsy Yoga: Poses to Help Your Baby Sleep Longer, Digest Better, and Grow Stronger. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. From the publisher: If you ve been searching for an excellent way to bond with your baby and improve his or her health , Itsy Bitsy Yoga is the solution youve been looking for. Helen Garabedian, a certified instructor in yoga and infant massage, has developed over seventy yoga postures and thirty-five series for moms and dads to enjoy with their growing babies. You dont need any previous yoga experience. Learn the many benefits of yoga, posture by posture, in this accessible guide, with seventy beautiful black-and-white photos, at-a-glance reference charts, and memorable Itsy Bitsy Yoga rhymes. The book also features seven Magic Poses that can sooth fussy, upset babies within minutes.

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___________. Itsy Bitsy Yoga facilitator training and certification program. Tel.: 978-443-8468, URL: www.ItsyBitsyYoga.com. In this 5-day training, you will learn to teach the postures, benefits, precautions, variations, and sequences of over 70 Itsy Bitsy Yoga poses for babies from age 0 to 24 months. You will learn anatomy, physiology, developmental movements, reflexes, cues, and psychology as it relates to babies, toddlers, and yoga. With yoga, you can help babies sleep better and develop healthy bodies, focused minds, and creative spirits. Itsy Bitsy Yoga is also a wonderful way for parents to meet others and deepen the bond with their babies. All yoga practitioners who treasure babies may attend and certify. Gardner-Anopol, Marita. Yoga for Classroom Management certificate training. CEUs 1.5. Contact: marita@yoga4kids.us. From the website: This course is uniquely designed to empower public school teachers with a basic knowledge and understanding of yoga and its facilitation in the classroom. Some of the benefits will teach school age children concentration, focus and improving attention spans, prepare students for the TAKS test, foster discipline, stamina and self-esteem among students, help students achieve higher test scores, address and defuse student anger and other debilitating behavior. Garner, Joe. Parents take uneasy posture on school yoga. Denver Rocky Mountain News, 29 Aug 2002, p. 5A. ___________. To posture or pasture; Yoga in Aspen school: Some like new twist; others say retire it. Denver Rocky Mountain News, 19 Dec 2002, p. 6A. Garth, Maureen. Starbright: Meditations for Children. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. ___________. Moonbeam:A Book of Meditations for Children. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. ___________. Earthlight: New Meditations for Children. San Francisco/HarperSanFrancisco, 1997/London: Newleaf, 1998. ___________. Earthlight: New meditations for children. Yoga & Health , Dec 1998, pp. 12-13. Gates, Barbara. Snakebird in the potty. Presence: A mothers practice. Inquiring Mind: A SemiAnnual Journal of the Vipassana Community, Spring 1992, 8(2):12-13. Gelineau, Kristen. Parents flocking to baby fitness classes. The Associated Press, 14 Jun 2004. I have this little mantra and it goes like this: fit baby equals fit toddler equals fit child equals fit teen equals fit adult, said Helen Garabedian, author of Itsy Bitsy Yoga: Poses to Help Your Baby Sleep Longer, Digest Better, and Grow Stronger. She also teaches an Itsy Bitsy Yoga class in Marlborough, Mass. Yoga comes naturally to babies, who often learn the positions independently as they develop, said Garabedian, who works with babies as young as three weeks old. Babies will commonly move into downward dog just before they begin crawling, she said . . .

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At Christine Roberts Nurturing Pathways class in Kirkland, babies as young as two months participate in various movement and stretching activities. The class uses music and props to keep the babies focused and helps improve their eye tracking and coordination, Roberts said. Its so good for them, she said. We try to make it the whole meal deal for the brain and the body . . . Even though such classes are fun, medical experts say they do little to make babies physically fit. Very young children arent capable of the sustained exercise needed to improve cardiovascular health, strength and flexibility, said Dr. Eric Small, chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics committee on sports medicine and fitness, and author of the book, Kids and Sports. Fitness is an adult concept, Small said . . . Genis, Rina. Teaching the second generation. Yoga in Education, Oct 1998. On teaching Yoga to children ages 6-12. Gervon-Kessler, Ari. How I meditate. In Sandy Eastoak, ed., Dharma Family Treasures: Sharing Mindfulness with Children: An Anthology of Buddhist Writings. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1994, pp. 183. (Ari was twelve years old when he wrote this.) Getting centered. Body & Soul, 2002, p. 9. The 250 5th - through 12th -graders at the Ross School in East Hampton, New York, recently built their Center for Well-Being and start their day with a breakfast of locally farmed, organic foods and then join in meditation sessions, practice Yoga, study Tai chi or learn Native American chants and dances. The Center also has a small gymnasium acoustically designed for community meetings, concerts, and lectures. All events are open to the public. For more information about the Center, call 631-907-5555 or visit www.rossinstitute.org. Gharote, M. L. A psychophysiological study of the effects of short term yogic training on the adolescent high school boys. Yoga-Mimamsa, 1971, 14(1&2):92-99. ___________. Effect of short term yogic training programme on the physical fitness of school boys. Avagahan, 1976, 1(1):9-15. ___________. Effect of every day and alternate day yoga training on the physical fitness of school children. Ayurveda & Yoga, 1987, 7:9-15. ___________, and S. K. Ganguly. Survey of minimum muscular fitness on school children. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1975, 63(9):1242-1250. Gibbs, Bel. Yoga for Children: Stretching and Strengthening Exercises for 3-11 Year Olds. Lorenz Books, 2003. From the Amazon.UK synopsis: Describing yoga postures in the form of fun exercises, this book [provides] an introduction to yoga for children. They should enjoy doing the various animal poses

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such as a lion, a tortoise or dragonfly and will be able to take a Jungle Walk, a Dolphin Dive or a Moon Meander. As well as postures from basic warm ups to information on holding yoga parties, seasonal yoga and yoga to make me feel better, the book also includes interesting facts about the history of yoga and an explanation of the philosophy behind the art. With specially commissioned photography . . . Gitananda, Swami. Making men out of monkeys: The evolutionary concepts of Hatha Yoga as applied in the teaching of Yoga to children. Yoga Life, Jun 1994, 25(6):11-16. Going ballistic over a little yoga: Religious roots dont make yoga religious. Denver Rocky Mountain News, 9 Sep 2002, p. 34A. What do U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day OConnor and Detroit Lions defensive end Tracy Scroggins have in common? They practice yogaalong with millions of other Americans, most of whom never give a thought to its roots in Hinduism. Let that put some perspective on the current flap in Aspen, where the school district planned to introduce a yoga program for elementary students and a local pastor objected that it would in effect be teaching religion. The school board said last week it would decide today. If the board believes students will benefit which is a different question entirelyit should approve the program. Gordhamer, Soren. Accident prone: What happens when some of New York Citys toughest teens start doing yoga? Ascent, Summer 2001, no. 10, pp. 28-37. On teaching 14-16-year-old teen boys incarcerated in New York City Juvenile Halls in the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Harlem. ___________. Just Say Om! Your Lifes Journey. Avon, Mass.: Adams Media Corp., 2001. From the publisher: Peer pressure, school, jobs, friends, parents, rules . . . Being a teenager is one of the toughest things youll ever have to do. It seems as if you have tons of questions about life and no one has the answers. For centuries, Buddhism and Zen meditation have taught millions of people worldwide how to cope with life and follow their true paths. Just Say Om! teaches you how to bring the wisdom of those teachings into your life and help you navigate the craziness of your teenage years. Featuring such topics such as: Balance Finding your potential Raising parents Compassion True friends The perfect mate Community

Just Say Om! is an honest, unique, and invaluable guide to Buddhist teachings that validates your feelings and guides you to a more balanced, peaceful life. ___________. Soren Gordhamermeditative healer. Spirituality & Health, Spring 2002. Article available online: http://www.spiritualityhealth.com/newsh/items/article/item_4278.html.

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Gordon, J. S., J. K. Staples, A. Blyta, and M. Bytyqi. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovo high school students using mind-body skills groups: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Apr 2004, 17(2):143-147. Author email: jgordon@cmbm.org. Abstract: This preliminary study examined whether the practice of mindbody techniques decreases symptoms of posttraumatic stress in adolescents. Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index questionnaires were collected from 139 high school students in Kosovo who participated in a 6week program that included meditation, biofeedback, drawings, autogenic training, guided imagery, genograms, movement, and breathing techniques. Three separate programs were held approximately 2 months apart. There was no control group. Posttraumatic stress scores significantly decreased after participation in the programs. These scores remained decreased in the 2 groups that participated in the follow-up study when compared to pretest measures. These data indicate that mindbody skills groups were effective in reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms in war-traumatized high school students. Study conducted by Dr. James Gordons team from The Center for Mind-Body Medicine in Washington, D.C. Gordon, Neil. The pity of live. Children and dharma: An introduction. Tricycle , Spring 2002, pp. 68-69, 107-113. Neil Gordon realizes that to love your children is to lose them again and again, in each moment. Gorgone, Jennifer. Strong minds, youthful bodies, and bright spirits. Article available online: http://www.yoga.com/ydc/enlighten/enlighten_document.asp?ID=320&section=9&cat=0. Govea, Boomer. All the mats a stage. Yoga Journal, Nov 2002, p. 23. On Laurie Miller, Benjamin Tollefson, Michael Weiss, and Rebecca Traces Ohmland Live, a New York City-based interactive musical performance to help kids learn Yoga poses in a fun, lighthearted way. Ohmland Live is the story of a curious butterfly named Poof and her animal friends learning to free themselves from worries. Imitation of animal movements is natural for children, says Miller. ___________. Aspen schools approve yoga. Yoga Journal, Jan/Feb 2003, p. 28. Goyeche, John R. M. Yoga as child psychology. Journal of the Yoga Institute , 1971, 16(9):143148. Green, Karen. Yoga youngsters. YOGANorthwest, Jul-Aug 2002, 1(2):9-10. On teaching Yoga to the students and working as a school counselor at Harold Oliver Intermediate School in Portland, Oregon. Greenberg, Mark. Schooling for the good heart. In Daniel Goleman, ed., Destructive Emotions: How Can We Overcome Them? A Scientific Dialogue with the Dalai Lama. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell, 2003.

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An enlightened proposal for a school-based program of social and emotional learning that can help our children increase self-awareness, manage their anger, and become more empathetic. Griffiths, Subhadra. Yoga Angels Level One Teaching Training Course. Los Angeles. URL: http://www.yogaangels.com/level-1.html. The Level One Teacher Training Course begins with a Yoga class and meditation and covers: Benefits of Yoga for Children Appropriate practice for different ages Balancing an effective program with a fun environment Yoga sequencing Proper adjustment methods Using love to discipline Anatomy Yoga philosophy Course completion provides: Yoga Angels Teacher Training Manual Yoga Angels Video/ DVD Certificate of Level One completion Opportunity to advance to Yoga Angels Level Two Teacher Training Program Apprenticeship in Yoga Angels classes ___________. Yoga Angels Level Two Teaching Training Course. Los Angeles. URL: http://www.yogaangels.com/level-2.html. Level Two delves deeper into anatomy and philosophy, provides practical ways to develop a successful Yoga program, and gives registrants the tools needed to handle the endless challenges of teaching children ages 3-18. The Training Manual will again be used as a guide. Your ability to use music, art, storytelling, and Yoga props as tools for a fun and successful program will be refined and tested. Children will be in attendance on the third training day to give registrants an opportunity to teach mini-classes. Review of these mini-classes after the children leave give registrants the added opportunity to discuss their performance and experiences and to receive immediate feedback. The course will cover: Overview of level one course outline Ways to teach anatomy in a stimulating way Strategies for keeping kids interested in your program When and what kind of new sequences to introduce to your program Long term practice/commitment for both teacher and children How to teach at-risk and disabled children Teaching kids how to practice safely What to do when you are tired/low energy Yoga as a business/marketing yourself and classes Course completion provides: Certificate of Level Two completion Opportunity to advance to two-month certification program

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___________. Yoga Angels Publication. URL: www.yogaangels.com A magazine composed completely by children from the Yoga program and performing group Yoga Angels. The first issue of Yoga Angles Publication will be an insert in LA Yoga Magazine, Nov/Dec 2004. From the publisher: Yoga Angels Publication, or YAP, is not just a Yoga magazine, but also a unique, informative, and inspiring forum for the creativity and individuality of young minds to flourish. Yoga Angels Publication features an array of youth-oriented and -produced Yoga articles, art, poetry, games, astrology, Children star profiles, and much more. Subhadra is the founder of YAP and of the Yoga Angels program performing group. She is the mother of YAPs fourteen-year-old editor Radha Ruiz. Gruber, Christina, and Christiane Rieger. Entspannung und Konzentration: Meditieren mit Kindern. Germany: Ksel-Verlag. [In German.] Guha, Auditi. A peaceful easy feeling: Medway woman teaches children yoga. Westwood Press, 10 Mar 2005. Once upon a time there was a big mountain, with beautiful tall trees and a gorgeous bird," said yoga teacher Diane L. Burstein, leading a group of 9-year-olds through a charming folktale and acting it out in yoga poses. Eagerly following her moves, the children looked to be enjoying an evening of what they thought was fun and play. Really the children were enjoying yoga, an exercise known for its ability to stretch and calm. After the class ended, students cross-legged on their yoga mats, with a period of silence and three chants of "om." "My favorite thing is the peaceful moments (when) we relax and take breaths," said Grace Thorney, 9, of A former school teacher looking for a different way to work with children,[Diana] Burnstein stumbled on to the international YogaKids program a year ago and immediately knew it was what she wanted to do. I wanted to bring all the gifts yoga offers to kids, she said. It keeps them healthy, teaches them to relax and builds self-esteem. According to the YogaKids Web site, the program incorporates a fun and simple method, using both yoga and education theories to tap into the senses and enhance the learning experience for children. Proponents of the method say it helps develop strong limbs and healthy bodies, sets a lifelong foundation for well-being, fosters creativity and imagination. Details on the program can be found online at www.yogafun4kids.com. Teaching about 12 classes a week, the Medway resident is now a YogaKids associate, holding dance and art classes and organizing workshops for Scouts and libraries in several local towns. Her classes are full of music, math, dance, art, picture cards, literature and story-telling incorporating yoga moves and teachings.

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A six-week Yoga Pajama Party program at the Medway Public Library last summer was a huge hit with local families. Like Bursteins classes, it incorporated story-telling, music, art and games with yoga poses, breathing and meditation. Library Director Patrick Marshall said the first class started with 10-15 participants and the last had about 40 children. Diane did a fantastic job with the kids and designed the program herself, he said. The program was wonderful. I would certainly have her back to do programs here again. Burstein also teaches yoga at local preschools. Director of Just A Wee Day, Dannielle Byrne, said the classes at the day care in Mendon are fun. Burstein is energetic and has a great personality, she added . . . Bergemann said that yoga is the only method she can see that teaches young children empowerment and makes them aware of their bodies. Its a different concept, its hard but its something that hasnt been taught in sports, she said. Yoga is very helpful for kids and I think there should be more (of these classes). It should be embraced by all. Unfortunately, I understand from my children its not cool to take yoga, but it should be, she added . . . Besides working with preschool children and teens, Burstein also conducts weekly classes at home in Medway for a group of special needs kids. Burstein said this is certainly a career she sees herself in for many years to come. With classes in Holliston, Westwood, Medway and Northborough, she continues to look for ways to expand. I have such a great time teaching because I am able to incorporate so many of my passions, she said. These include storytelling, theater, childrens literature, expressive arts and music. It ties everything in my life together. Gunstone, Maria, ed. Learning Difficulties and Associated Conditions Explained with Yoga Case Studies. URL: http://www.youandmeyoga.com/teachingaids.htm. There are many other books offered at this site on Yoga for children with special needs. Guruji [Sri B. K. S. Iyengar] answers queries on introducing yoga to children. Yoga Rahasya, 1999, 6(4). Gurupremananda Saraswati, Swami. Mother as First Guru: A Guide to Natural Womanhood and Spiritual Mothering. NSW, Australia: Swami Gurupremananda Saraswati, 2002. Includes 2, 80-minute audiotapes or CDs. URL: http://www.hinet.net.au/~birthing; http://www.tarayoga.net/mafg.html Contents: The First Guru, Yoga & Tantra, Food & Diet, Yoga & Womens Health, Conception, Pregnancy, Birthing, Motherhood and Lifestyle Changes, Development of The Child, Growing Up As a Parent, Getting Started with Yoga, The Yoga Practices, Index of Yoga Practices, Index of Topics, Glossary, Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide, Appendixes (Birthing Plans, Charts and Tables, Resources and Contacts, Suggested Further Reading)

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Guthrie, Julian. Om Schooling: Schools reach for yoga to calm and collect students. San Francisco Chronicle, 25 Feb 2002. Article available online: http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?f=chronicle/archive/2002/02/25/MN165066.DTL. As reported by Hindu Press International 6 Mar 2002: At a school in the heart of a San Francisco housing project, children and teachers take time from math and reading to breathe and balance. Children inhaled through their noses and exhaled through their mouths. They balanced on one leg, concentrating on poses. When they finished, they lay on the classroom floor, still and quiet. As researchers study whether yoga leads to improved learning, the prevalence of school-site yoga has led to the coining of the term Om Schooling. Teachers say the exercises work wonders in calming kids and helping them to focus. In San Francisco, that inner peace is sought in more than a half-dozen elementary, middle and high schools. The hatha program used in these schools was created in 1997 by respected yoga teacher Tony Sanchez, who founded the nonprofit United States Yoga Association and runs the San Francisco Yoga Studio. Sanchezs program, called ABC Yoga, combines mind and matter. Teachers incorporate yoga into lessons on physics, anatomy and geometry. While careful not to discuss yogas religious aspects, teachers do explore the history of yoga and its exercises. Within ABC Yoga is a program called Yogasthma: Seven Steps to Asthma Control. Designed to teach children how to control their asthma, it includes yoga breathing and stretching exercises and a series of workshops done in partnership with St. Lukes Hospital. Yoga allows kids to become more aware of themselves, of their posture, and to grow into healthier adults, said Sanchez. Kids also develop the ability to concentrate, to relax at will and to overcome stress. ___________. Karma for Kids yogathon stretches dollars for charity participants in position to help kids with cancer. San Francisco Chronicle, 27 Sep 2002. Article available online: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/27/PN185673.DTL. Habib, Marlene. Stretching bonds of love. The Toronto Star, 24 Mar 2000. On mother and baby Yoga classes. Haldane, David. Gym class enters a new age in O.C. district. Los Angeles Times, 8 Jun 2002. Article available online: http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la -000040191jun08.story. See also the follow-up letter to the editor by Lynn Chaldu, Assessing schools fitness programs, 16 Jun 2002, http://www.latimes.com/editions/orange/la -000042293jun16.story. On the pros and cons of introducing Yoga and other lifelong fitness skills to the Laguna Beach Unified School District. Hall, Celia. Yoga for happy babes: Thirteen tiny bodies are firmly swung and rhythmically bounced, and the smiles on their faces show they love it. The Daily Telegraph, 5 Dec 1998, p. 21. [Francoise] Freedman, a social anthropologist at the University of Cambridge, has been teaching yoga for many years. She developed specialized yoga classes for pregnant women and more recently she has adapted classic yoga exercises for babies. Even Dr Freedman doesnt know how it works. I still find it totally marvelous myself. At the start of a set of classes there may be 16 screaming babies and I really dont believe I will do anything. But within a few weeks there are major changes. I really cannot explain how it happens, she said.

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Hamilton, Stephanie Renfrow. Mindful parenting. Yoga Journal, Mar/Apr 1999, pp. 56-60, 150-152. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/wisdom/444_1.cfm?ctsrc=nlv65. Han, Michelle. Stretching muscles and minds: Yoga classes gain toehold in North Jersey schools. The Record (Bergen County, New Jersey), 8 Nov 2002, p. L01. The Community School, where [Laura] Stevens teaches yoga three times a week, is part of a growing trend in yoga classes for children. A Teaneck woman teaches yoga to children at two private schools in the area, and a number of centers in Bergen County offer classes for children. But The Community School, a school for special education students, is unique in that it is using yoga to help children overcome learning disabilities. The classes began three years ago when Stevens, a Bronx resident whose two sons attend the Teaneck school, started with fewer than 10 pupils in a class that met once a week . . . Now more than 40 children are practicing yoga during different sessions, each held once a week in the school gym, and Stevens holds a meditation and relaxation class after school Thursdays for the teachers . . . Hanauer, Craig. Taking kids to the mat: Structuring yoga classes for children. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Bulletin , Fall 2004. Author email: craig.hanauer@verizon.net. Article available online: http://www.kripalu.org/kyta_artcl.php?id=158. Craig Hanauer, a Kripalu Yoga teacher, board-certified art therapist, and longtime director of Kripalu childrens programs, has designed and implemented a full-time Yoga program at The Parkside School, a special education elementary school on New York Citys Upper West Side. Craig also teaches a workshop entitled Every Kids Yoga: Teaching Yoga to Children with Varied Abilities and Needs. Haney, Erene Cheki, and Ruth Richards. Yoga for Children. Indianapolis/New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1973. Contents: Introduction, Sequence of Postures, Things to Remember When Practicing Yoga, Positions for Resting, How to Do It (Rabbit, Frog, Cat, Camel, Rooster, Stork, Eagle, Monkey, Deer, Butterfly, Lion, Cobra, Little Grasshopper, Fish, Swan, Sponge) Hanh, Thich Nhat. Meditation practices for children. In Sandy Eastoak, ed., Dharma Family Treasures: Sharing Mindfulness with Children: An Anthology of Buddhist Writings. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1994, pp. 176-182. Hanson, Sarah. Teaching yoga to children. YOGAChicago, Nov/Dec 2002. Article available online: http://www.yogachicago.com/nov00/servingcommunity.shtml. Hari, Swami. Yoga in Tasmanian schools. Yoga in Education, Aug 1997. Harlem, S. H. The effects of psychophysiological relaxation upon selected learned tasks in urban elementary school children. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1976, 36(8a).

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Harris, Chandra. Yoga for the younger set provides some self-realization. Redding Searchlight, 20 Jan 2003. Article available online: http://archive.redding.com/story.asp?StoryID={479A8516B41F-4F9B-82E5-AE48B5C6BC7D}. The exercise, she said, builds concentration, self-esteem; the benefits are so positive. Why wouldnt you want a child to do it? said [Kelly] Genna, [owner of the Center of Rehabilitative Education Family Yoga Center in Knoxville, Tennessee]. Harrison, Rosanne. Yoga in two Chicago high schools: Lessons to be learned. YOGAChicago, Jul-Aug 2005, pp. 18-19. URL: www.yogachicago.com. Hassanagas, Pavlos K. Application of yoga to children with speech problems. Athens, Greece: International Association of Yoga Science Centres, 1982. Email: yogscience@otenet.gr, URL: http://www.yoga.org.mk. ___________. Yoga for school children. Athens, Greece: International Association of Yoga Science Centres, 1994. Email: yogscience@otenet.gr, URL: http://www.yoga.org.mk. ___________. Possibilities for application of yoga techniques to normal psychophysical development of children and youth. Athens, Greece: International Association of Yoga Science Centres, 1997. Email: yogscience@otenet.gr, URL: http://www.yoga.org.mk. ___________. Yoga for school children. Athens, Greece: International Association of Yoga Science Centres, 1997. Email: yogscience@otenet.gr, URL: http://www.yoga.org.mk. ___________. Possibilities for application of yoga techniques for proper psychophysical development of children and youth. Athens, Greece: International Association of Yoga Science Centres, 1999. Email: yogscience@otenet.gr, URL: http://www.yoga.org.mk. Hassed, Craig. Meditation for Secondary and Tertiary Students audiotape. Available from Quikopy Audio Recording Services, P.O. Box 361, Padstow, NSW 2211, Australia. Hayes, Ron. Students stretch, bend, relax with yoga exercises. The Palm Beach Post, 19 May 2002, p. 2C. Most of the children who attend Potentials Charter School cannot walk, have trouble communicating or may be mentally retarded. But thats no reason not to do yoga. Since August, the school, which is run by The Association for Retarded Citizens, has included a weekly yoga class in its curriculum, thanks to Oprah Winfrey. I was home with a back injury and saw an Oprah show on yoga, remembers Principal Rosemary Portera, and I thought, We could do that. Many of our children have problems with their sensory processing systems, and yoga is very sensory-based. Plus, many cerebral palsy patients have problems with very tight muscles, and its relaxing. Heffley, Lynne. Look and listen: A relaxing, positive way for kids to fall asleep. Los Angeles Times, 7 Feb 2002. Available for purchase online at www.latimes.com (search the Archives). A review of Patti Teels The Inside-Out Sleep Game CD, Buena Vista Records, ages 3-7.

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If nightmares, fear of the dark or just plain restlessness make bedtime a battle, help has arrived. Patti Teel, a special-education and music teacher, has come up with a soothing mix of yoga exercises, guided imagery, storytelling, and sweet, soft music and vocals to ease youngsters to sleep . . . Hemaavathi, Yogacharini (Mrs. Paul Riley). Yoga education for children: Thoughts and inspirations after observing Yoga Education for Children at Yoganjali Natyalayam. Yoga Life, Jul 2003, 34(7):7-14. Herriott, Eva. Raising Cain, ably: As a parent, you know no two kids are alike. Ayurveda can show you how to adapt to their individual needs. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 1997, pp. 40-47. Hill, Barrie Page. The child within: Class explores teachings of Buddhism. The Dallas Morning News, 24 Jun 2001, Religion section. Summary by Hindu Press International, 28 Jul 2001: When 12 year-old Nikki Meyer visited the dentist to have a tooth filled, she used the meditation techniques she learned in class to relax. Nikki and her brother, Michael, 11, are among the children who attended the Introduction to Buddhism and Meditation for Children class at Vajradakini Buddhist Center last week. Instead of soccer camp or swimming lessons, children spent five mornings at the center learning about Buddhism. The class, open to ages 9 through 13, included meditation techniques, arts and crafts, teachings on love and compassion and how to overcome anger and jealousy. One mornings activities began with the children reciting a mantra of compassion. The children then made prayer flags, carefully lettering their good wishes for the world on brightly colored felt . . . Hindu Press International. Dont call it yoga, but relaxation techniques work for school kids. 15 Nov 2000 Hindu Press International news summary. Based on an article in the 9 Nov 2000 Boston Globe. Hollander, Pamela. The Fine Art of Teaching Yoga to Children workshop. Ashtanga Yoga Center, Encinitas, California. 8-hour certificate program. Contact information: pamela@indigoyoga.com, 760-633-3098, www.indigoyoga.com. Indigo Yoga empowers children to take responsibility for themselves, to maintain equanimity in the face of lifes challenges, and inspires a peaceful attitude toward themselves and the world. The workshop includes: Classical Hatha Yoga: Theory and technique specific to children, Asana for children of all ages, Yamas and niyamas for children, Pranayama for children Teaching a Healing Practice: Supporting and nurturing the whole child on all four levels: mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual; Help ing children develop respect for gentleness and the healing practice; Creating a safe, interactive, loving environment where children can heal, learn, and grow; Using positive parenting techniques Imagination Games: Affirmation, visualization, and meditation techniques for children; Exploring your creativity with playful cooperative games, songs, storytelling

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Kids Yoga Business: Successful methods for bringing yoga into schools, community centers, studios, and the home; How to best market yoga for children and your classes; Parent and community communications Home practice suggestions for moms with small children. Enlightened Practice, May/Jun 2005, p. 61. Honeycutt, Shaaron, and Karen Clarke. Girls Yoga. Yoga World, Jun-Dec 2001, nos. 18-19, p. 16. (Yoga for teenage girls.) Huber, Cherie. Regardless of What You Were Taught to Believe . . . There Is Nothing Wrong With You for Teens. Keep It Simple Books, 2001. URL: http://www.thezencenter.org/tinwwyft.html. Zen teacher Cherie Hubers book is a self-help book specifically written for teens. [It] demonstrates to teens how we all are the products of our social conditioningwe are our own worst critics. Readers are shown how to move past the self-hate we have been socialized with which to regard ourselves and to embrace their real, authentic selves. They are encouraged to treat themselves with the compassion and acceptance they extend to their best friends. There Is Nothing Wrong With You For Teens includes effective tools and techniques for being good to and supportive of oneself, as well as for ending self-hating communication with parents and others in ones life. Iacovou, Maria. A pain in the neck [and shoulders]? The importance of pelvic positioning. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Winter 2002, pp. 26-27. See also the followup letters to the editor in the Spring 2003 issue, p. 35. Are there one or more students in your yoga class with the following characteristics? Long-term pain and tension in the neck and shoulders whic h is temporarily relieved by stretching and relaxing, but which is resistant to long-term improvement. Round-shouldered slouch appearance with the head held forward. Protruding and weak-looking abdomen; Small and/or flat bottom. Short and tight hamstringsdifficulty with forward bends. Pelvis held very far forward, usually with the tailbone tucked under. The author provides recommendations for correcting these imbalances [which she refers to as teenage posture.] Iding, Doris, and Silke Wilz. Kinder Yoga. Yoga Aktuell, Oct/Nov 2003, pp. 61-65. [In German.] Improvement in audio and audio visual memory following yoga training of high school children. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, http://www.vkyogas.org.in. Influence of 10 days of yoga training on psychophysiological indicators of stress in children. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, http://www.vkyogas.org.in. Influence of yoga practice on exercise tolerance in healthy adults and children. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundatio n, http://www.vkyogas.org.in. Iniew, Suwanna. Effects of neo-humanist based asana and meditation practices on aggressive behavior of Mathayom Suksa 3 students. Abstract available online: http://www.chiangmai.ac.th/abstract1998/Abstract/edu/abstract/edu980668.html.

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The purpose of this research was to study the effects of Neo-Humanist based asana and meditation practices on aggressive behavior of students. The sample comprised 30 Mathayom Suksa 3 students of Ban Na In School, Uttaradit Province, who enrolled during the second semester of 1997 academic year. The samples were drawn by using simple sampling method and pairing the experiment group of 15 students with their counterparts in the control group. The experiment group practiced nineteen consecutive 40-60 minute-long sessions of asana and meditation program in 4 week period. The instruments used in this research were: (1) aggressive behavior test, (2) asana and meditation practice program based on NeoHumanism, (3) practice evaluation form. Statistics used to analyze the collected data included means, standard deviation, and ttest. The findings were as follows: 1. After the experiment, aggressive behavior of students decreased at .01 level of significance. 2. Students who had practiced Asana and meditation had lower aggressive behavior than students who did not practice at .05 level of significance. Irvine, Beth. Yoga for the whole family. Yoga & Health , Dec 1999, pp. 18-19. Irvine, Elizabeth. Yoga for the whole family. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Spring 2001, pp. 18-19. (On teaching Yoga to children.) ___________. Yoga for Healthy Mother & Child: The Perfect Way to Spend Quality Time with Your Child! Walton on Thames Surrey, England: Truewellbeing, 2002. URL: www.truewellbeing.co.uk. From the website: Through my education as a registered nurse, author and childrens yoga instructor I feel passionately about passing on my knowledge to Mothers and children. My video Yoga for healthy Mother and Child was made to share my personal experience and knowledge in achieving better health. I believe Mothers and children throughout the world share similar problems and stresses. Several small steps in the right direction are often the key to success and that is why I have offered a combination of ideas to get one started. Irwin, Alison. Yoga for children. Reaching Out with Yoga, no. 6, p. 6. Isaacs, Nora. Margaret Hee. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 2003, p. 28. On 16-year-old dedicated Yoga practitioner Margaret Hee. Hee states, I think a lot of kids my age would be helped by yoga. Her Yoga instructor, Sarah Powers, remarks, Yoga not only brings teens a way to honor their bodies while promotion suppleness and strength, it also educates them about their inner world and how to manage their emotions. Ito, Saveke. Techniques for the classroom. Research on Yoga in Education Newsletter, Jun 1995, No. 10. Iyengar, B. K. S. The need for Yoga in educational institutions. Yoga & Health, Jan 1973, pp. 49-51. ___________. Yoga for educational institutions. Yoga Rahasya, 1998, 5(1):4-6. Also in Proceedings ICYR, 1984-1985, article no. 11, pp. 91-97. Article available online: http://www.skys.com.au/children_schools.html.

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___________. Guruji answers queries on introducing yoga to children. Yoga Ra hasya, 1999, 6(4):4-21. Iyengar, Geeta S. Yoga for school children. Yoga Rahasya, 1998, 5(1):7-17. Article available online: http://www.skys.com.au/children_schoolchild.html. Topics covered: Yoga asanas should be introduced in schools, The role of the yoga teacher, Should yoga in schools be compulsory or voluntary?, Varying attitudes of children towards yoga, At what age should children commence yoga practice?, Syllabus, Asanas that can be taught to children, Static vs. dynamic asanas for children, Sequences of asanas that can be taught to children, Tips for teaching children, The introduction of yoga theory in schools, On teaching children yama and niyama, Pranayama is not for children, Shatkriyas are not for children, Bandhas are not for children, Summary and conclusion ___________. Starting the childrens therapy class at the Institute. Yoga Rahasya, 1999, 6(4):2230. Includes statements and poetry by children about why they like Yoga. Jacobs, Susan. Super yogi. Yoga Journal, Nov/Dec 1982, pp. 29-31. (On John Burstein, who played the role of Slim Goodbody on the television program Captain Kangaroo, and his practice of Yoga.) James, Faith. The Yoga Arts Program for Children and Youth. URL: http://www.yogaloca.net/Faith/description.html, email: f.james@attbi.com. See also press release cited under Reich, Leah, below. The Yoga Arts Program for Children will bring weekly half-hour integrated yoga classes to Marin County children in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The classes will take place in the individual home rooms of each grade level and periodically in the multipurpose room for performances. The Yoga Arts Program for Children and Youth teaches yoga through the practice of various asanas (postures) and breathing techniques. It also shares the spirit of yoga through the study of its history and traditions. The yoga classes are based on a California compliant curriculum called The Yoga Science Box and integrated with music, art, literature (including classical Indian tales and mythology), science and physical education . . . Curriculum themes are incorporated with the use of songs, movement games, rhythm instruments, literature (modern, classical Indian tales, poetry, etc.), journal writing, individual practice and group sharing of poses and experiences, and expressions of the poses and experiences through different art media (e.g., painting, drawing) . . . Classes start with songs (guitar, drum or tambourine accompaniment) or simple chants. Each child is then invited to share a thought or recent experience related to yoga. After this group sharing the students are guided through various warm-up breathing/centering exercises, then through sequences of yoga postures mostly related to nature of animals. Pictures, stuffed animals and other 3-D replicas of animals are shown and described to the children (and kept in view during class) to insure their knowledge or frame of reference of what the poses portray. The rhythm instruments add interest and sound effects to the performance of the asanas and individual students are often asked to play them for others in these poses. After poses are practiced, new ones introduced and old ones reviewed, another group sharing time occurs where each student is allowed to come to the center of the circle to demonstrate a pose or breathing exercise. The class ends with children coming to silence in a prone savasana and simple meditative state. They are encouraged to relax, focus on their breath and then given simple positive affirmations and

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creative visualization exercises. The exact scope and sequence of The Yoga Arts Program depends on the individual classes curriculum and the age of the participants. Jaskevich, Marianne. Yoga for children hits the mainstream. The Atlanta Journal - The Atlanta Constitution, 26 Nov 1998, Local News Section. Jervidalo, Franz. Children and shoulderstand. In the article Shoulderstand, Bindu, no. 6., p. 18. Johnson, Diane. 6th-graders finishing year-long yoga classes. Morning Sentinel (Kennebec, Maine), 3 Jun 2005. Despite the cloudy day, they are making sunshine in the Gymnasium of the Cape Cod Hill School in New Sharon. Every Tuesday morning, since September, the students of Katie Perrys fifth grade class meet with Megan Roberts of Megans yoga Studio in Farmington and practice yoga techniques like sunshine. Two half circles of bright blue yoga mats are lined up on the floor awaiting a talkative, giggling, impatient group of students. But, beginning with some deep breathing exercises, the students start to quiet and before long Roberts has their rapt attention. It wasnt always this way according to Perry. They (the students) had a hard time in the beginning, Perry said. There is a big difference between fall and now. She (Perry) almost gave up, said Roberts. But they are just normal fifth graders and I felt they would get better. Roberts is a Level I certified registered yoga Instructor which required more than 200 hours of instruction. Roberts also is certified to teach K through 12 grades in Physical Education. The idea first came to Perry when she was teaching the history of India to sixth graders last year. I was really impressed by them, said Perry. The results prompted Perry and Roberts to try it again this year. An anonymous donor funded the class until January. By that time Perry and Roberts had received an MBNA Grant for the remainder of the year. That grant helps provide the mats and pillows for the students to use. Roberts teaches the physical parts of this Indian life style to help with relaxation and concentration. It also helps with anger management and control of emotions. Many of the moves mimic those Roberts teaches to her adult studentsonly with a little fun mixed in. Students can be hissing like a cobra, mooing like a cow, or meowing like a cat at any one moment in the routine.

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The routine ends with a meditation walk. The lights are dimmed and one by one students file along the half court line, hands behind their backs, heads bowed, concentrating on the movement of each muscle in their feet. Musical instruments sound in other parts of the school, and trays clatter in the kitchen, but the concentration of the students is not broken. Once theyve made the walk they lie on their mats and visualize, with the help of their instructor, the sun and sand and water until there is total silence in the room. Every little movement stops as if suspended in time, and then class is over and a much quieter group leaves the room. That (the meditation walk) is what I enjoy the most, said Danielle Ames. I feel the class makes me calmer, with more control over my body. Sam Richardson said he felt the yoga experience made him feel better for class. It helps me think about things more clearly, Richardson said. Perry conducted a survey and most of the students said they made use of the yoga techniques taught to them. Perry said it (yoga) helped the students learn to be quiet and focus during the day. It has definitely been well received, he said. Johnson, Holiday. Standing on Your Own Two Feet: Yoga for Young Women 11-17 class. Holiday is a member of the International Association of Yoga Therapists and can be contacted at: Holidays Health and Fitness Yoga Center, 510 SW 3rd - Suite 210, Portland, OR 97204, 503224-8611, holiday@teleport.com, www.teleport.com/~holiday. ___________, and Jodi Tanner. Standing On Your Own Two Feet. Yoga World , Jun-Dec 2001, nos. 18-19, pp. 14-15. Discusses class format (discussion and asanas), teaching strategies, and benefits for teens. Joseph, Nicole. Uniting body, mind, spirit: As yoga increases in popularity among children, pediatricians should be prepared to answer questions from parents. AAP [American Academy of Pediatrics] News, 6 Dec 2004, 25(6):320. Excerpts from article: Yoga, which refers to the union of mind, body and spirit, is becoming increasingly popular among children. As more adults become involved with yoga, some want their children to begin this form of relaxation and exercise at an early age. Yoga also is used as therapy for children with special health care needs. For pediatricians, this increase in popularity might lead to questions from parents about the benefits and effectiveness of yoga for children, especially those with special needs.

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While little research has been done on the risks and benefits of yoga, intuitively it is an activity that can improve flexibility and help in relaxation, said Eric W. Small, M.D., FAAP, chair of the AAP Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Still, pediatricians should assess whether yoga is suitable for an individual patient as they would with any other physical activity, Dr. Small advised. Yoga includes stretching postures, breathing and meditation techniques, which reduce stress, increase muscle tone and flexibility, and build awareness of ones body. One yoga method, which involves diaphragmatic breathing (belly breathing), is a helpful tool for relaxation, reducing anxiety and increasing focus in children, according to Wendy L. Wornham, M.D., FAAP, assistant professor of clinical pediatrics at Harvard Medical School who has practiced yoga for the past 25 years. The concentration involved with physical yoga postures (asanas) and breathing exercises (pranayamas) can help children relax and seems to decrease their anxiety, according to Dr. Wornham. Dr. Wornham has taught yoga classes to teens with migraine headaches, eating disorders, dysmenorrhea, depression and chronic fatigue. The results of the weekly sessions have been favorable, she said. Yoga also has been touted as an activity to help manage conditions such as autism, asthma, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Down syndrome and Aspergers syndrome. According to a 2001 survey by the AAP Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (TFOCAM), more than half of pediatricians recommend yoga or swimming to complement standard biomedicaltreatments for asthma. Nevertheless, the benefits of yoga for treating various health conditions have not been wellstudied in the United States. Most of the research on yoga can be found in Middle Eastern scholarly journals. It is important for pediatricians to establish collaborations and partnerships (with parents) to identify these new treatments and ensure that parents arent going into them with incorrect expectations, said Edward Cox, M.D., FAAP, chair of the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine. In addition, pediatricians should make sure patients take safety precautions when practicing yoga. For example, children might overstretch themselves and not be able to determine when they should stop or ask for assistance, said Dr. Small. Children might not be able to localize pain. Dr. Small also cautioned that yoga should not replace other forms of exercise, especially cardiovascular activities. Despite these caveats, yoga can benefit children of various ages. Yoga is a wonderful practice for children, Dr. Feldman said. It is not simply a physical practice, but also an ethical and emotional practice.

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Preschool students, for example, take best to playful, introductory classes that allow them to use their imaginations. With young children, it is helpful to play games that will hold their attention or use themes. Older children can try breathing and meditation exercises that require them to remain quietly i n one position. Unlike sports, yoga is a non-competitive activity, Dr. Feldman said. You learn to accept yourself. You get judged a lot in life, such as your grades in school, she said. Its nice (for children) to have a place and activity where the point is to do what you can do, as best as you can. Joshi, Dimple. Email: joshid@unbc.ca Her thesis topic at UNBC was Yoga and its effects on improving childrens concentration. Contacted IAYT 11/8/01. Judith, Anodea. How to foster healthy chakras in children. Article available online: http://www.sacredcenters.com/articles/childrenchakras.html. Just loving yoga. The Star (Kuala Lumpur), 19 Jul 2005. Article available online: http://thestar.com.my/lifestyle/story.asp?file=/2005/7/19/lifeliving/11440713&sec=lifeliving. When housewife Bronagh Tucker saw a newspaper ad for kids yoga, she promptly enrolled her girls for it. In Britain, there are no yoga lessons for children, she says, adding that her family came to Malaysia last December. They are from Bristol in the south-west of England . . . Kabat-Zinn, Jon and Myla. Everyday Blessings: The Inner Work of Mindful Parenting. New York: Hyperion, 1997. ___________. Twelve exercises for mindful parenting. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 1997, p. 81. Reprinted from Jon and Myla Kabat-Zinn, Everyday Blessings. New York: Hyperion, 1997. Kalaivani, C., H. R. Nagendra, R. Nagarathna, and S. Telles. Influence of yoga on manual and tweezer dexterity in children. In H. R. Nagendra, R. Ragarathna, and S. Telles, Yoga Research & Applications: Proceedings of the 5 th International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research and Applications. Bangalore, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, 2000, pp. 273-275. Kalikamurti. Mothers, babies, and yoga. Available online: http://www.yogalinks.net/Articles/MothersBabiesAndYoga.htm. Kalish, L., and T. Guber. Yoga Ed K-8 Yoga Program and Curriculum. 2001 Unpublished manuscript. For information on the Yoga Ed. Program see: http://www.yogaed.com. Kantiratna Saraswati. Preschool yoga & relaxation: A collation of techniques and activities from preschool teachers and special education teachers. Yoga in Education, May 1999. Article available online: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yedn5.htm.

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___________. Maths can be fun: Preparing students for a maths class. Yoga in Education, Mar 2000. How one high school math teacher achieves the perfect environment for leanring. ___________. Tratak and spelling. Yoga in Education, Mar 2000. ___________. Sensory deficits affect learning skills: Considering movement, balance, and body awareness as essential for optimal classroom performance. Yoga in Education, Mar 2001. The author notes that all of the above are developed through the practice of Yoga. ___________. Relaxation in the classroom. Yoga in Education, Feb 2002. Karr, Grace. Cats, plums and recorders: Growing up in a Zen center. Inquiring Mind: A SemiAnnual Journal of the Vipassana Community, Spring 1992, 8(2):23. Written by the 18-year-old daughter of a Berkeley Zen Center couple. Kater, Judy. Smily feet. Yoga in Education, Mar 2000. Author email: judy_yoga@hotmail.com. In the month of August 1999 I taught movement to music, including yoga postures, to a group of up to 12 three-to-five year olds for one hour once a week. [These children] really enjoyed the hour, and the feedback from the parents was that their children were less needy and a little calmer for the rest of the day. The use of music, sound, and making up stories about the movements and yoga postures was largely what kept the childrens interest. Katz, Alex. Juvenile inmates learn to chill out with yoga. Alameda Times-Star, 29 Aug 2004. Kaur, Deva. Answers the question: I have two teenagers, a boy and a girl. This is a challenging time for our family. Can yoga help my teenagers as much as it has helped me? Enlightened Practice Magazine E-Newsletter, Sep 2004. Kaushik, Y. P., Y. Paul, and M. Gupta. Yoga for memory development of school-going children. In H. R. Nagendra, R. Ragarathna, and S. Telles, Yoga Research & Applications: Proceedings of the 5 th International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research and Applications. Bangalore, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, 2000, pp. 285-288. Keil, Beth Landman. Better than Ritalin? New York Magazine, 13 May 2002. Article available online: http://www.newyorkmag.com/page.cfm?page_id=6002. New York parents believe in giving their kids a healthy head start (Mozart in utero, French lessons at trois). And now theyre getting them a leg up on relaxation. This week, classes for children ranging from 2 to 7 kick off at Yoga Zones new Upper East Side location, while Crunch is starting up at schools for the 4-and-up set. Kellam, Teddy and Jacqueline. Yogadoodles. San Francisco, California. URL: http://www.yogadoodles.com/home.htm.

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From the website: Teddy and Jacqueline Kellam both feel that theres something missing in yoga classes todayfamilies! Together [they[ have created YogaDoodles to allow children and their parents to share playful, engaging child-centered yoga classes together. [They] welcome the energy of children, and teach lively, colorful classes full of puppets, instruments and singalongs. Kemper, K. J., E. C. Vincent, and J. N. Scardapane. Teaching an integrated approach to complementary, alternative, and mainstream therapies for children: A curriculum evaluation [see comments]. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Jun 1999, 5(3):261-268. Author email: kemper_k@a1.tch.harvard.edu. MEDLINE PMID: 0010381250. BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of patients seek information about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) from their primary physicians. We sought to evaluate our 4-year old curriculum integrating mainstream and CAM care for common outpatient pediatric problems within a family medicine residency. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Subjects included current (1998) third-year residents and recent graduates from our program and nearby University of Washington-affiliated family medicine residency programs. The survey included items on training experiences, knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding CAM. RESULTS: Among the 18 respondents from our program and 21 from comparison programs, the average age was 32 years and one-third were male. Over 80% of respondents felt that residencies should provide training in CAM. Substantial numbers of respondents from all programs recommended CAM therapies to patients in the past year. All respondents had recommended special diets and nutritional supplements; more than 50% recommended herbal remedies, acupuncture, meditation or progressive relaxation, massage or home remedies. Respondents from all groups had similar attitudes and knowledge about integrative medicine; those from the intervention program were more likely than comparison respondents to agree that their residency training had prepared them to answer patients questions about CAM (50% vs. 19%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Primary care residents increasingly seek training to answer patients questions and are already recommending a variety of CAM therapies. Primary care residencies need to develop and evaluate responsible, evidence-based curricula integrating mainstream and CAM therapies. Kent, Sara. Special needs: Babies and children. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Spring 2001, pp. 12-13. On Saras participation in Sonia Sumars Yoga for the Special Child training at Yogaville in Virginia. Khalsa, Bibi Bhani Kaur. Mother and baby yoga. Arizona Networking News, Feb/Mar 2000, p. 14. Khalsa, Shakta Kaur. Fly Like a Butterfly: Yoga for Children. Portland, Ore.: Rudra Press, 1998. See also Shakta Kaur Khalsas website: http://www.childrensyoga.com, including information about the Radiant Child Yoga Teacher Training Program. Contents: For Parents and Teachers, Welcome to Your Very Own Yoga Book!, Tune in to Begin, Lets Warm Up, The Yoga Mountain Story, An Animal Adventure, WhatMore Animals?!!, Crazy, Mix-Up Yoga, For Two or More, To Be Is to Breathe, Deep Relaxation Time, Wake-Up Exercises, Five Meditations, The Long Time Sun Song, How Does It Help Me?, Appendix, Resources

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___________. New mother & baby. In Shakta Kaur Khalsa, Yoga for Women: Health and Radiant Beauty for Every Stage of Life. DK Publishing, 2002. ___________. The Cat, the Cow, and the Camel: Yoga for healthy, happy children. Mothering, Mar-Apr 2000. Available online: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0838/2000_MarchApril/60072805/p1/article.jhtml?term=yoga. ___________. Helping our children during times of crisis. Article available online: http://www.childrensyoga.com/frames4.htm. ___________. Yoga for children? Yes! Washington Parent (D.C.) Magazine. Slightly edited version reprinted in YOGAChicago, Jul-Aug 2003, pp. 14-15. Article available online: http://www.yogamovement.com/resources/kidyoga.html or http://www.yogachicago.com/jul03/children.shtml. Kids benefit from Yoga, say parents. Channel 17, KGET-TV, Bakersfield, CA, 11 Mar 2005. Some might think getting young kids to stretch, breathe, and relax is impossible. But a group of youngsters is mastering the art of Yoga. You have to see where the kids are at that day, said Inner Body Works Owner Antoinette Ontiporda. If theyre wild, you make them do forward folds and make them be calm. If the kids need to move, then give them backbends. As a Yoga instructor you know how to stimulate specific energies in the body. The kids are anywhere from 8 to 13 years old at Inner Body Works, and the Bakersfield Play Center welcomes 5 year olds with open arms. Yoga is sometimes considered an exercise for adults, but the practice is for everyone. In fact, some argue kids need it the most. The schools are moving towards test-based classrooms where you have to be very focused, not a lot of time to pla y, very structured, said Ontiporda. Yoga gives kids an outlet. Third grader Scotty Beeman would rather be doing Yoga than playing video games. Its fun and I can get away from my brothers because they annoy me a lot, said Beeman. Kids Yoga Instructor Maire McGlasson said Yoga teaches kids valuable assets they will need later in life. I think they learn patience with themselves, said McGlasson. They learn self-control, which is hard at this age. Yoga also teaches you to have respect for other people, what they do, and what you can do for yourself. McGlasson takes her kids to class with her. She said she knew if Yoga was making her feel good, it would be great for her kids as well.

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Kimble, C. J. Transcendental Meditation in the youth authority. California Youth Authority Quarterly, 1975, 28:1. KIN-Yoga mailing list pranayama and children thread. 21 Jul - 27 Jul 2001. (The KIN-Yoga mailing list is run by the Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association.) Kirkland, Rana. A child yoga class. Living Practice, Nov 2001. Article available online: http://www.yogaweverywhere.com. Kirtidananda, Swami. Half a decade in the enchanting environs of Along: Part 3: The curtain comes down. Prabuddha Bharata, Jun 2003, pp. 18-23. Kiss, Michaeline. Yoga for Young People . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973. Contents: How to Practice, Sitting Positions, Deep Breathing, Leg Exercises, Coming Up to Standing, Balance, Standing Stretches, Coming Down to Sitting, A Routine, A Trio of Symbolic Poses, The Cat Stretch, Inverted Postures, The Lion, Headstand, The Dead Mans Pose, Sitting Quietly for Meditation, Suggested Exercise Plan. Kleiner, Carolyn. Tiny poses: Not your parents yoga. U.S. News & World Report, 13 May 2002, p. 55. Melissa Scheinberg and Talia Shoshany are tangled up in two, perfecting the worlds latest yoga posea complicated stance that involves shaking hands while grasping your partners foot. Nice to meet you, giggle the 10-year-olds. This is not your parents poseand thats the point. The benefits of this kid-oriented exercise, a mix of basic yoga and creative activities, include enhanced flexibility and strength; children also learn to relax and focus . . . Koch, Isabelle. Like a Fish in Water: Yoga for Children. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International, 1998, 1999. Contents: Rag Doll, Palm Tree, Triangle, Frog, Lion, Yoga Mudra, Maha Mudra, Autumn Leaf, Shiva Mudra, Fetus, Boat, Plough, Fish Stretching Cat, Bow, Cobra, Flying Bird, Zig-Zag, Lying Rag Doll, Anuloma Viloma, Breathing and Relaxation Exercises Koch, Liz. Childhood conditioning. In Liz Koch, The Psoas Book. 2d ed. Felton, Calif.: Guinea Pig Publications, 1997. Kocian, Lisa. Yoga kids bend over backward: Class boost flexibility, eases stress. Boston Globe, 7 Mar 2002. Available for purchase online at www.bostonglobe.com (search the Archives). John ODonnell couldnt stop giggling as he transformed his body into a snake, an elephant, a mountain, a washing machine, even a crab. Oh, I love this one, he exclaimed several times during the class. Judging by his enthusiasm, the butterfly and bicycle were among his favorite poses . . . Komitor, Jodi B. Benefits of yoga for kids. Article available online: http://www.nextgenerationyoga.com/benefits.html.

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___________. Yoga for kids. Article available online: http://thriveonline.oxygen.com/serenity/yoga/branches_of_yoga/hatha/kids.html. ___________, and Eve Adamson. The Complete Idiots Guide to Yoga with Kids. New York: Macmillan, 2000. Contents: Why yoga is great for kids; Health benefits of yoga for kids; Developmental benefits of yoga for kids; Kids on the eightfold path; Energized, focused, and carefree kids; Kids choose!; Setting up a yoga space; Practicing yoga with kids; Find the right yoga teacher or class; Chanting and breathing; Nature: You be a mountain, Ill be a tree; What animal are you? Exploring the desert; Exploring the wild; Kids on the move; Super yogini!; Yoginis on top of the world; Yogini fun and games; Quiet time; Yoga for postpartum moms and brand-new dads; Yoga with infants and toddlers; Hey, kids: Do yoga with your little brother or sister; Eating for strong minds and bodies; Yoga to make kids feel better; Yoga for kids with special needs; Yoga for teens; Surprise: A yoga kids party! Kornfield, Jack. Respect for parenting, respect for children. Inquiring Mind: A Semi-Annual Journal of the Vipassana Community , Spring 1992, 8(2):1, 8-10. ___________. Bringing up Buddha. Shambhala Sun, Nov 2001, p. 53. We must care for every child as if he or she wee the Buddha. Kortan, Kevin. Yoga for youth. Article available online: http://www.evolutionaryyoga.com/articles/youth.htm. From the website: Yoga for Youth is a proposal to integrate Yoga into the educational landscape ... Vision: To provide an alternative to typical physical education which is neither violent, nor competitive, nor hierarchical, but rather, is supportive of each individuals growth, selfintegration, and socialization. Evolutionary Yoga is a unique synthesis of western and eastern methods that provides a culturally relevant and effective approach to education that is vastly lacking in todays educational landscape. Long-term goal: Full integration into the curriculum of the worlds schools, starting with preschool on . . . Kramer, Gregory. Lovingkindness practice with children. In Sandy Eastoak, ed., Dharma Family Treasures: Sharing Mindfulness with Children: An Anth ology of Buddhist Writings. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1994, pp. 210-216. Kramer, Jacqueline. Buddha Mom. New York: Putnam, 2003. From the publisher: . . . illuminates the ways in which motherhood can be intricately woven into the spiritual life. Drawing upon her twenty years as a practicing Buddhist, as well as many other wisdom traditions from around the world, she offers powerful insights into cultivating a more spiritual attitude toward parenting. In chapters organized around central Buddhist themes

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Simplicity, Nurturance, Joyful Service, Unconditional LoveKramers personal experience of pregnancy, birth, and then raising her daughter to adulthood serves as a guide to integrating the roles of parent and spiritual being. She reveals how powerful an opportunity for growth each step along the path of motherhood can be, from the first pangs of pregnancy through the time when a child leaves home. Kramer, Susan. Meditation for children. http://www.susankramer.com/ChildMeditation.html. ___________. Meditation for teens. Article available online: http://yoga.about.com/health/yoga/cs/childrenandteens/index.htm?rnk=r8&terms=yoga. ___________. Radiant Yoga for Children. Creations in Consciousness, 2000-2001. For more information, see http://yoga.about.com/health/yoga/cs/childrenandteens/index.htm?rnk=r8&terms=yoga and http://www.mothersnature.com/toddlers/info/yoga.html. ___________. Radiant Yoga for Teens and Adults. Creations in Consciousness, 1999-2001. For more information, see http://www.susankramer.com/RadiantYoga.html. Krishnamacharya, Sri. Answers the question: Coming now to teaching of yoga, can we teach any asana to children or are there restrictions? See the article Yoga of Sri Krishnamacharya, The Yoga Review, 1984, 4(3&4):73-74. Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram. Teaching yoga to the mentally retarded. The Yoga Review, 1985, 4(1&2):43-64. Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram with Vijay Human Services. Teaching Yoga to the Children with Special Needs. Contact Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, 31 (old no. 13) Fourth Cross Street, Ramakrishna Nagar, Chennai-600 028, India, tel.: + 91 (0)44 4933092, fax: + 91 (0)44 4613341, email: director@kym.org, URL: www.kym.org. The KYM in collaboration with Vijay Human services (VHS)an institution specializing in handling children with special needsstarted introducing yoga to these children and has witnessed enormous progress in them. KYM now continues this commitment towards helping these children. An outcome of this commitment is a publication in association with the VHS titled Teaching Yoga to the Children with Special Needs. The KYM has also sponsored seminars and trains teachers to handle the mentally handicapped. Kriyananda, Goswami. Answers the question: How can I make time for yoga and meditation when I am burdened with work and family responsibilities? YOGAChicago, Jul-Aug 2001, p. 9. Kumar, Prasanta. Doing what comes naturally: How asana unfolds in children. Yoga International, Sep/Oct 1993, pp. 34-40. Kumar, Vikas. Bal Yoga Mitra Mandal (Childrens Yoga Fellowship). Yoga (Sivananda Math), May 2001, 12(3):31-33. Bal Yoga Mitra Mandal is an organization with 1,500 children in its yoga teaching group and 45,000 in its yoga learning group. Its divisions include: Yoga training group, Yoga learning group, Personality development group, Research participation group, and Parent-teacher group.

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Labi, Nadya. Om a little teapot . . .: For stressed-out kids, yoga offers the road to inner peace. Time, 19 Feb 2001, p. 61. Landau, Meryl Davids. All in the family: These kid-friendly camps and retreat centers welcome yogis of all ages. Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 2000, pp. 116-117. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/travel/277_1.cfm. ___________. Yoga: The newest twist in parent-child bonding: Fun family fitness that stretches the options for at-home activities. Child, 2001. Article available online: http://www.child.com/kids/health_nutrition/yoga_it.jsp?page1. The chimes rang outside our cabin door at 6:30 a.m. I dont want to get up, I moaned, preparing to continue my sleep. But I do, Mommy, came a tiny voice from the other bed. It was my 3-year-old daughter, Kelsey, already sitting up, eager to join me in a morning class during our week of yoga camp at Satchidananda Ashram-Yogaville in Buckingham, VA. Kelsey isnt the only member of the preschool set trying yoga and loving it. More kids than ever are taking to the ancient practice of uniting mind and body by performing posesat home, at school, and at the growing list of yoga studios offering kids classes . . . Many parents who practice yoga are sharing it with their kids. Thats what happened in Kelseys case. Before my husband and I had children, we benefited so greatly from yogawith calmer minds, increased energy, more strength and flexibilitythat we became certified to teach it. We figured a week at Yogaville would be a chance to make yoga a family affair. Yoga isnt only fun, its great for building self-esteem. Unlike other sports, with yoga theres no chance of a child feeling bad if he cant get the ball over a net, says Kathi Kemper, M.D., an associate professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. Plus, doing yoga can help kids keep the flexibility they have naturally when theyre young, says Russell Greenfield, M.D., assistant clinical professor of medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson. Equally important, yoga provides a great opportunity for a parent and child to connect. When you practic e yoga with your child, you cant help but deepen the bond that exists between the two of you, explains Leela Lipscombe, co-owner of the Body*Mind*Spirit yoga center in Charlottesville, VA. Lark, Liz. Yoga for Kids. Carlton Books, 2003. From the Amazon.UK synopsis: Liz Lark, an experienced yoga teacher with a degree in the performing arts, takes a team of children through various stages of a yoga session, from sun salutations through standing and seated postures, to the relaxation phase. Animal and nature poses, chosen for their particular interest to children, enable theatrical possibilities, and many of the photographs are taken outdoors with the childrens faces painted in various themes. Each exercise is introduced by a brief story about the inspiration for the pose followed by easy-tofollow step-by step-instructions. ___________. Yoga for Young People: Essential Yoga Poses to Help Young People Get Fit, Flexible, and Healty . Flowmotion Series. Rebound by Sagebrush, 2003. From the Amazon.UK synopsis: Using the revolutionary Flowmotion system of displaying movement on the page, this step-by-step guide shows all the essential yoga poses to help young

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people get fit, flexible and healthy . . . Stop-action photography shows every part of every move so you can get into the flow right away. Even if you are a beginner, you will be able to learn moves quickly and easily . . . Flowmotion Yoga for Kids also includes guidelines on warm-up routines and how to practice safely and effectively. Larson, Jyothi, and Ken Howard. Yoga Mom, Buddha Baby: Th e Yoga Workout for New Moms. New York: Bantam, 2002. From the publisher: Based on her work with hundreds of women and their babies, Jyothi Larson shares the specially adapted yoga poses she teaches in her popular prenatal and postpartum yoga classes at several New York City yoga studios. Moms new to yoga and those experienced can follow these series of gentle asanas with their babies at home . . . This complete guide, with stepby-step instructions and . . . photographs, includes twenty routines, with chapters on: prenatal yoga, with a focus on the last trimester; what to do after birth through the first six weeks, with special poses for women who had had c-sections; modified yoga poses for mom that respect her changing body and give all of yogas benefitsstretching, strengthening and relaxingthrough her babys first year; fun yoga moves for babies to encourage their natural flexibility and growth; and breathing exercises and partner poses . . . Lasater, Judith Hanson. Swami mommy: Like yoga, parenting is a balancing act that requires love, compassion, and the dedication to get back on the mat and try again. Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 2000, p. 113. Lawlor, Michael. The revival of RYE (UK) [Research on Yoga in Education]. Report of Seal Seminar held in October 1990. Micheline Flak, who has firmly established RYE in the French school system, provided a wealth of ideas for introducing it into schools in the U.K. She focused on the development of creativity in the classroom, and her seminar fell naturally under the headings of the first six limbs of Patanjalis eight limbs of Yoga. She outlines exercises pertaining to each of the limbs. Lawlor, Vera. Moving into adolescence. The Record (Bergen County, New Jersey), 23 Oct 2001, p. f01. Leschin-Hoar, Claire. Seeking yogas soothing touch: Many say children with medical issues benefit from its use. The Boston Globe, 20 Nov 2003. Article available online: http://www.itsybitsyyoga.com/bostonglobe.htm. Discusses the benefits of Yoga for individual children with asthma, allergies, apraxia, obsessivecompulsive disorder, ADHD, and Aspergers syndrome. Lesh, Terry. Meditation for Young People . New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard, 1977. . . . This book, the first of its kind for young people, explains the different methods and what they do for youmentally, physically, and spiritually. Meditation for Young People takes the mystery out of TM, est, zazen, yoga and other popular techniques. With simple diagrams and with descriptions of what you experience at each stage . . . Levin, S. The Transcendental Meditation technique in secondary education. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1977.

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Levine, Noah. Dharma Punx. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. Follows the journey of the author, son of meditation instructor and author Stephen Levine from a drug-addled, punk-rock adolescence in Santa Cruz to juvi hall and jail and then on to spiritual awakening. Lewis, Leah K. Yoga for the Special Child(TM): Effects on physical and social development in preschool children. Reno, Nev.: University of Nevada, 2004. Abstract: An ex-post facto, correlational design was used to explore the health benefits of Yoga for the Special Child on the development of gross motor skills and prosocial behavior in 5 year old preschool children at risk for developmental delays. The research consisted of a secondary analysis of existing data collected for program evaluation by an early intervention program. A non-probability sample of preschool children from two classrooms was selected. Each group received Yoga classes for an entire school year. One group received weekly Yoga classes and the second group received monthly Yoga classes. The data was analyzed using the Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test. Post-test scores increased significantly in both groups for objectives indicating the development of gross motor skills and prosocial behavior. There were no significant differences between the weekly and monthly Yoga groups. Study limitations, nursing implications, and recommendations for further study are discussed. Lichs, Esther Martina. Yoga for Children. Minneapolis, Minn.: Paulist Press, 1970. Linden, William. Practicing of meditation by school children and their levels of field dependence-independence, test anxiety, and reading achievement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Aug 1973, 41(1):139-143. Also in D. H. Shapiro, and R. N. Walsh, eds., Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives. New York: Aldine Publishing, 1984, pp. 89-93. Lineage Project. Soren Gordhamer, 651 N. Terrace Avenue, #4J, Mt.Vernon, NY 10552. Provides awareness-based practices to youth, with an emphasis on at-risk/incarcerated teens. Works in juvenile halls, youth prison camps, and other youth centers. Linnon, Nancy. Adjusting to motherhood: (How I found a place for yoga). Yoga International, Dec/Jan 2004, pp. 34-40. Lite, Lori. The Childrens Awareness Curriculum. Available for purchase at: http://www.indigodreams.net/books.htm. From the website: Lessons based on meditation/relaxation techniques designed to decrease stress and anxiety while increasing self-esteem and self-awareness. Children become active participants in creating their own healthy, heart driven, peaceful lives. This turnkey curriculum creatively integrates stories, songs, movement, artwork and visual aids to make it easy for any teacher or parent to implement. Children learn to apply the empowering techniques of breathing, visualizations and affirmations to their lives in a safe, fun and interactive environment.

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Basic Curriculum Package contains: Awareness Lessons complete with detailed step by step instructions plus . . . $84.00 worth of additional products including 4 books: A Boy and a Bear, The Goodnight Caterpillar, The Affirmation Web, A Boy and a Turtle, plus Indigo Dreams CD/audio book and the Rainbow Flag set, all packaged in a sturdy storage case. Deluxe Curriculum Package contains: Awareness Lessons complete with detailed step by step instructions plus $122.00 worth of additional products including 4 books: A Boy and a Bear, The Goodnight Caterpillar, The Affirmation Web, A Boy and a Turtle , plus Indigo Dreams CD/audio book, Rainbow Flag set, Chakra Bear with Rainbow coloring book and Rainbow Sun Catcher, all packaged in a sturdy storage case.

Living Wisdom Schools and Resources. URL: http://www.livingwisdom.org. From the website: The [Living Wisdom] schools offer a balanced curriculum for learning academics, values, and character development in a nurturing, supportive environment based on a 12-1 student-teacher ratio. As well as providing traditional academics, these schools follow many of the principles outlined by the book, Education for Life, by J. Donald Walters [Swami Kriyananda]. Teachers in these schools have completed teacher-training from the Education for Life (EFL) Foundation, and continuing education from Living Wisdom Teacher Workshops. Each school is unique in staffing and curriculum focus. Lloyd, Jean. The yoga option: Secondary school pupils choose to learn yoga. Spectrum, Summer 1996. Lloyd, Jenny. Lessons for childen. Yoga Today, Oct 1981, 6(6):40-41. Includes asana, pranayama, and meditation. Lockhart, Maureen. Yoga for Youth: A Young Peoples Guide to a Healthy Life. Bombay: India Book House, 1986. Loewenthal, Lisa. Teaches Yoga for street youth and transsexuals in Portland, Oregon. Lisa volunteers at two different places for street youth ages 15-22 years old, which includes teaching them Yoga. They deal with issues of homelessness, addiction, trauma, effects of the cold and rain , depression, etc., as well as all the turmoil of teenagehood. Lisa also indicates that there are several transsexuals (male to female) who have requested specific Yoga sequences to help them as they metamorphose. They have heightened estrogen in their bodies from hormonal therapy, and she would appreciate any suggestions other teachers may have. Loh, Laura. Kids get head start on yoga. Program: Children who attend the Meade Village Head Sgtart learn yoga poses and relaxation in a program tailored for youth. The Baltimore Sun, 7 Apr 2003. Article available online: http://www.sunspot.net/news/local/annearundel/bal ar.yoga07apr07.story.

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[Yolanda] Oliver, a mental health coordinator for Head Start, teaches yoga to more than 400 Anne Arundel County children enrolled in the federal preschool program for low-income families. Doing yoga helps the children gain self-awareness and achieve a sense of calm, Oliver said. They have stressors in their life, too, the 29-year-old instructor said after a class last week. I want them all to respect each other. . . . I want them to see that everyone has a light that shines within them. The class is one of the few of its kind nationwide for Head Start, but Oliver hopes others will follow her example. Three hundred people have signed up for a workshop she is scheduled to give about the yoga program and other mental wellness strategies next month at the annual Head Start training conference in New York. Yoga has always been something associated with more affluent families who can pay for lessons, said Michael McGrady, deputy director of the National Head Start Association, which runs the annual conference. The idea that we can bring something like that to Head Start children is great. . . . [Olivers] interest [in yoga] was piqued a few years ago when she was working as a special education teacher in southern California. One day, she heard deep breathing sounds coming from beneath her desk and discovered one of her pupils, an 8-year-old boy, sitting under it. He said, Im having a meltdown. Ive got to do my yoga breath, she recalled. Oliver began taking yoga classes after that and became certified to teach a childrens version of yoga. The technique, developed by Virginia -based yoga guru Shakta Kaur Khalsa, uses storytelling and songs to lead children through breathing exercises and yoga poses. Longaker, Kiranjit K. B., and Gabriel Tornusciolo. Yoga group therapy with traumatized adolescent males. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 2003, no. 13, pp. 75-82. Abstract: This paper describes how Yoga groups have been implemented as a form of interpersonal group therapy with adolescent males who have experienced severe trauma in their lives. It discusses how over time these groups have evolved to exhibit 11 therapeutic factors that are necessary for effective interpersonal group therapy. It then describes the ways in which these groups help the members begin to cope with and heal from the effects of their trauma without having to rely on traditional talk therapy. Loundon, Sumi, ed. Blue Jean Buddha: Voices of Young Buddhists. Somerville, Mass.: Wisdom Publications, 2001. From a revie w by Brian Bruya at Amazon.com: . . . Loundons cadres find the relevance of Buddhism atop a sheer cliff face; in the throbbing heart of New York City; strung out on crack; in relationships good and bad; in tragic accidents; and in social activism. Some are monks, others punks; some meditate, others chant; some teach the dharma, others just live it. In this group, Buddhism is neither exotic nor a panacea. For many, it is a feeling of coming home and a proven method of coping while remaining open to the vic issitudes of life. Anyone who has felt the pull of Buddhismthe compelling arguments of its philosophy or the quiet expansiveness of it practiceswill quickly identify with the personal experiences in this collection. Like Douglas Couplands, Generation X, Blue Jean Buddha could well become a book that defines and binds a group growing in self-awareness.

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___________. Buddhas Apprentices: More Voices of Young Buddhists. Somerville, Mass.: Wisdom Publications, 2005. Luby, Thia. Childrens Book of Yoga: Games & Exercises Mimic Plants & Animals & Objects. Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Lights, 1998. Ages 3-12. Presents six complete Yoga workouts designed for children from three to twelve years of age. Contents: What is yoga? Why should children do yoga? Things to remember about doing yoga; Guidelines; Breathing and relaxing; Natures world; All kinds of birds; Four-legged animals; Things that move; Things that stay still; Desert creatures; For parents and teachers (How to get the most out of this book; Poses to stretch or strengthen specific areas; Poses to relieve common physical ailments) From a review by Barb Lawler, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Beginning with the easiest exercises and progressing to the more difficult, the instructions and descriptions are brief but clear. The physical benefits of the poses are stated and the few positions not recommended for children under six are noted. Various ethnic groups and boys and girls are shown practicing. ___________. Yoga for Teens: How to Improve Your Fitness, Confidence, Appearance, and Health and Have Fun Doing It! Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Light Publishing, 2000. Excerpt available online at: http://www.beliefnet.com/index/index_1004.html. Contents: Yoga and you, Benefits of yoga during the teen years, The chakras, Getting started, Connection to wild (animal poses), Connection to the sky and earth (insect poses), Creating shapes (strength and courage poses), Partner poses and races, Sample workouts, Summaries of poses __________. Benefits of yoga during the teen years. Available online: http://yoga.about.com/health/yoga/cs/childrenandteens/index.htm?rnk=r8&terms=yoga. (Excerpted from Yoga for Teens.) Luchs, Esther-Martina. Yoga for Children. London: Search Press/New York: Paulist Press, 1977. A translation of Yoga fur Kinder. Mnchen: Goldmann, 1970. Contents: Yogahealthpersonality, Why children should do yoga, An episode in a yoga lesson, Children and their environment, Calmsource of strength, The importance of correct breathing, Exercises and instructions, Breathing control, Breathing exercises, Rest positions, Starting positions, Appendix A: Exercises (Yoga-mudra variation, parvatasana, pavanmuktasana, vakrasana, gomukhasana, ardha chandrasana I, trikonasana and variations, ardhabhudshangasana), Appendix B: Exercises (several unnamed asanas, hastha-padasana, pastshimotana, tree position, strangusthasana, vadshroli-mudra, bhudshangasana, viparitakarani, twisting exercises), Appendix C: Exercises (padmasana, halasana, ustrasana, kaa-kaasana, dshanusirasana, supta-vadshrasana, gokarnasana, pashva-padakalanasana, chakrasana, dhrityasana, katikasana, twisting exercises) Luedtke, Ulrike. Development of human potential in the child through yoga. Yoga Links, 1996, 4(4):3-4.

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A report of a seminar given to Research on Yoga in Education (Germany) by Micheline Flak of Research on Yoga in Education (France). Lynem, Julie. N. Education for the soul: More parents look for schools to help kids cope with stress. San Francisco Chronicle , 13 Oct 2000, p. A21. On alternative schools in the San Francisco Bay Area that utilize yogic and meditative principles and techniques to help students cope with stress, practice kindness, and so on. MacInerney, Charles. Teaching kids. Article available online: http://www.yogateacher.com/text/bio/kids.html. (Has worked extensively with at-risk youth.) ___________. Yoga for kids. http://www.yogateacher.com/text/yoga/specialprojects/children.html. MacLean, Kerry Lee. The Family Meditation Book. On the Spot Books, 2004. From a review by Andrea McQuillin in Shambhala Sun, Nov 2004: Twelve years ago Kerry MacLean and her husband instituted a daily meditation session for their blended family of seven. They found that with regular meditation came improved communication and kinder interactions. While MacLean admits that outcomes varied over timesometimes the meditation sessions didnt happen as scheduled and, regardless, bickering still occurredshe does provide helpful suggestions on how to set up a time and format for meditation and how to get buy-in from the kids. For the members of her family, meditation was simply an ordinary and necessary part of the everyday self-care routine. Maharshi Vinod Research Foundation. Effect of training in Ashtanga Yoga on attention, numerical memory, concentration and reaction time in youth. Yoga-Mimamsa, 1986. Mainguy, Veronique. As one lives itas one speaks about it: Teachers from Versailles were asked to describe their yoga practices in the classroom. Yoga in Education, Mar 2001. Mainland, Pauline. Yoga with children. Yoga Today, Jul 1981, 6(3):14-16. . . . the teacher who began Britains first childrens group recounts its beginnings and discusses some of the things she has learn[ed] from her experience. ___________. A Yoga Parade of Animals: A First Fun Picture Book of Yoga. London: Element Books, 1998. From a review in the July 1998 issue of Yoga & Health: A most beautifully illustrated and presented Yoga book for children, full of information and encouraging practice in a fun and safe way. Written by an experienced Yoga teacher . . . whose enthusiasm and love for animals and Yoga shine through every page. Maisch, Gretchen. Children and yoga. Article available online: http://www.mayayoga.org/children.htm. On Skakta Kaur Khalsas workshops Giving Children the Gift of Yoga.

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Make yoga compulsory in schools: Ex -MLA. Newindpress.com, 23 Jun 2005. Gulbarga, India: Senior JD(U) leader and former MLA Hanumanth Rao Desai has urged the State government to make learning Yoga and Pranayama compulsory in primary and high schools, as these Indian traditional methods have proved to be highly beneficial. In a letter to chief minister Dharam Singh, Desai and his bar colleague B S Jiragi said the government has already made physical education mandatory, and likewise yoga and pranayama should also be made compulsory. They said pranayama brings out the hidden energy in a man to realise his potential. Besides purifying, pranayama also helps produce new cells and frees a person from diabetes by strengthening the pancreas. Several diseases, including allergy, asthma and respiratory problems can be contained by yoga and pranayama. Pranayama is a natural remedy for any number of ailments. It also increases the immune system, Desai said. He pointed out that the government will not have any financial implications in introducing yoga and pranayama in schools, whereas it will benefit generations in the long run to become mentally, physically and spiritually strong. They stated in the letter to the chief minister that they were speaking from personal experience after participating actively in yoga and pranayama classes. Malan, DenisMalan, Denise. Star Wars, yoga among extra subjects at George Junior High. The Morning News, 16 Apr 2005. Teachers offered a three-week Star Wars course at the school during an extra period set aside for enrichment. Other fun subjects included roller coaster design, volcano making, yoga, crime scene investigation, rocket building, guitar, chess and mural painting. All these are taught during three-week sessions known as Enrichment Learning Labs for students with good grades. Labs expose students to possible hobbies or even careers. They get to explore some areas they might not get to see if it weren't for Enrichment Learning Labs, said Jana Starr, librarian and learning lab coordinator . . . Malkin, John. Going against the stream: Punk, Buddhism & the rebellion of waking up: An interview with Noah Levine. Ascent, Spring 2004, pp. 20-26. Malone, Zenji Kobutsu. Punishment. Article available online: http://www.stophitting.org/religion/buddhistPunish.php. I speak from the perspective of a simple Buddhist priestI have learned over the years through working with my own children, students, prisoners and my fellow human beings that any form of punishment, be it corporal or psychological, is injurious, causes pain and is counterproductive. Punishment involves the deliberate infliction of physical or emotional pain or injuryon a beingby another person or persons who exercise a power over dynamic toward that being. The deliberate infliction of pain on an individual in response to an action after it has occurred can

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in no way change the effect of the original action nor can it serve to educate or awaken the individual. The physical or emotional pain or injury of punishment done to a child or an adult creates only fear and trauma, it not only damages the person being punished but it damages and enslaves those who inflict the punishment. The abuse of physical vio lence visited on anyone is a deliberate act which scapegoats the person through lack of control over our burden of internalized oppression. The net result of any kind of punishment is internalized oppression, humiliation and degradation for both the giver and the receiver of the punishment. It is difficult indeed to really see the profound depth of this truth because we as individuals and collectively as a society live within an oppressive and coercive environment. Our vision is completely blocked to the truth by materialism in the physical, psychological and spiritual aspects of our lives. Arrogance and aggression permeate our society, our history, our relig ious traditions, our so-called judicial system to the point that we can not dare to even question the premise of punishment without drawing shocked response from our fellow citizens. We live in a nation surrounded by violence, we worship violence and the infliction of pain in our entertainment, in our day-to-day interrelationships with each other. We forget that this is a legacy of hatred and oppression that we have inherited from our parents and they from theirs. We forget that our country was founded on the violent conquest and enslavement of indigenous peoples. Our nation perpetrated the institution of racial slavery of African people for generations for the economic gain of the privileged. We forget that our religious traditions have been used to justify the perpetration of genocide and slaughter on indigenous people in the name of civilization. I submit that punishment is uncivilized and serves no purpose other than the perpetuation of oppressionI was punished, therefore it is justifiable for me to punish another. I was spanked as a childit did me no harmtherefore I can spank my children. However, deep introspection into our own experience reveals the painful and horrible truth. It is through the means of introspection and insight that we can begin to perceive our addiction to the assumption that punishment is acceptable. Each and every time we have ever been punished we have been socialized in punishmentwe learn to modify our behavior in the presence of our oppressor who wields power over us out of fear. We internalize our oppression out of more fear and carry it within us. When our oppressor, the one who punishes us, is no longer present, we allow ourselves to feel resentment. In time our internalized oppression builds into hatred for ourselves and others. In the long run our internalized oppression, our internal rage and anger result in depression and social alienation, or, when externalized, the oppression of others. We, in effect, have learned to become the oppressor, we pass on the cycle of violence to our families, our children and our society. Punishment, corporal or otherwise, no matter how it may be justified, is unacceptable and inexcusable, because it destroys any possibility for real healing. Punishment inflicted for the purpose of influencing others, the alleged deterrent effect, is nothing more that brutality by proxy, socialization in oppression by threat. Deterrence is a myth maintained by the powerful out of ignorance and arrogance and perpetrated on the powerless. People do not consider penalties when involved in illegal activity; their only concern is gettingover on those in powernot getting caught. The only truly effective and successful methods of dealing with correction of behavior comes through compassionate communication, comprehension of social responsibility, education, restraint and discipline. Punishment simply does not, and has never, worked.

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Mandatory yoga postures and education. News summary available online: http://www.yrec.info/yoga-news122.html. Poor academic performance in Madhya Pradeshs school has prompted the government of that Indian state to make Yoga postures and meditation compulsory in all primary and high schools in the hope that this will improve students concentration and thus also their academic achievement. This new regimen will start in July, after failing to find a sufficient number of Yoga instructors last year. In the meantime, some 4,000 school teachers have been trained in yogic practices, and each teacher was charged with training at least eight others. The government officials also expressed their intention to inculcate in students positive moral values. The driving force behind this innovative program is Andhra Pradeshs Chief Minister N. Chandrababu Naidu, who boldly broke with the mould of his secular states policies. Although he does not want to see religion imposed on anyone, he does believe that it is important to help people especially studentsto find inner peace in order to better deal with the many challenges of contemporary life. Naidu himself practices Yoga postures, breathing, and meditation daily and is encouraging his staff and colleagues to do the same. Manjunath, N. K., C. Satish, S. Telles, and H. R. Nagendra. Card sorting studies on students at school level undergoing personality development training through yoga. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. ___________. Maize learning tests show beneficial effects in school students undergoing IAYT. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. ___________, and S. Telles. Improved performance in the Tower of London test following yoga. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Jul 2001, 45(3):351-354. PMID: 11881575 Abstract: Twenty girls between 10 and 13 years of age, studying at a residential school were randomly assigned to two groups. One group practiced yoga for one hour fifteen minutes per day, 7 days a week, while the other group was given physical training for the same time. Time for planning and for execution and the number of moves required to complete the Tower of London task were assessed for both groups at the beginning and end of a month. These three assessments were separately tested in increasingly complex tasks requiring 2-moves, 4-moves and 5-moves. The pre-post data were compared using the Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test. The yoga group showed a significant reduction in planning time for both 2-moves and 4-moves tasks (53.9 and 59.1 percent respectively), execution time in both 4-moves and 5-moves tasks (63.7 and 60.3 percent respectively), and in the number of moves in the 4-moves tasks (20.9 percent). The physical training group showed no change. Hence yoga training for a month reduced the planning and execution time in simple (2-moves) as well as complex tasks (4, 5-moves) and facilitated reaching the target with a smaller number of moves in a complex task (4-moves). ___________, S. Telles, and H. R. Nagendra. Autonomic and respiratory measures in children with impaired vision following yoga and physical activity programmes. Submitted by Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation to Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine. Maniaci, Michelle. Pediatric Yoga therapy. Miami, Florida. Email: pediyoga@aol.com; URL: http://www.yogatherapy.com/peds.htm.

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Marleyn, Molly. Experiencing yoga with children. Research on Yoga in Education Newsletter, Jun 1995, No. 10. Marshall, Lyn. Yoga for Your Children. New York: Schocken Books, 1979/London: Ward Lock, 1978. Contents: SECTION FOR PARENTS: Introduction, Note, What is this thing called Yoga?, Where my style of Yoga differs, Why this style of Yoga is so easy for children to practice and understand, Some questions generally asked and their answers, Caution, Practice questions; SECTION FOR CHILDREN: Letter from Lyn, Meeting the children, Top ten tips for junior students, Triangle, Complete breath, Scissors, Body roll, Push-up, squat, Fish, Cat, Coil, Cobra, Twist, Sit up-lie down, Leg pull, Elbows, Fingers, Side bend, Head roll, Lion, Foot rotations, Practice sessions for eight, fifteen and twenty minutes, Note Marshall, Toni. Kids stretch their horizons: Yoga for young bodies and minds. Washington Times, 2 Sep 1995, Section: Saturday, p. B1. Available for purchase online: http://www.washtimes.com (search the archives). About Sarabeth Forster and Wendy Zeroths classes for children in Silver Spring, Maryland, including statements from children about the positive effects of Yoga in their lives. Ms. Forster is the host of the television program The 20 Minute Yogi and creator of the childrens Yoga video Yoga Is Not Yogurt. Martin, Melodie N. Comfort in formalities: Yoga instructor says etiquette helps kids be at ease around others. Richmond Times-Dispatch, 10 Aug 2004. Article available online: http://www.timesdispatch.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=RTD%2FMGArticle%2FRTD_Basic Article&c=MGArticle&cid=1031777203137&path=!news&s=1045855934842. Nancy Glenmore Tatum, owner and director of Glenmore Yoga & Wellness Center, and her son, Charles Igel, instructed the children on how to properly conduct themselves, especially around adults. This is a modern and practical version of cotillion. We take out the dancing and focus on the practical, Igel said. Tatum plans to incorporate the manners and etiquette lessons into a yoga program for children. Whereas yoga is a way of relaxing and becoming comfortable with oneself, Tatum said, manners and etiquette can help one feel comfortable around others. The session, which included role -playing exercises in making introductions and dining etiquette, was challenging for the children as they struggled to hold back silly outbursts and contain their tendency to run around the room. During several breaks, Tatum taught the students yoga poses to calm and refocus them. Several children breathed deeply in the dimly lit room, listening to the sound of a fountain bubbling in the corner. Massey, Joanna. Yoga devotees at an early age: At this school, third-graders employ ancient eastern discipline to reduce stress. Boston Globe, 25 Oct 2001. Article available for purchase online at www.bostonglobe.com (search the Archives).

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While his third-grade peers play tag and climb swing sets, 8-year-old Lucas Grey sometimes spends recess inside his Sippican School classroom, legs crossed and eyes shut. I like to do my yoga breathing and not always go out, he said. It relaxes me. He is not alone. Austin Gibbs, another third-grader, practices deep breathing and yoga stretches while he lays in bed at night. I used to be afraid of the dark, but I focus on my breathing and Im not [afraid now] . . . Mathewson, Ann. Yoga for Kids workshop. Fourth Annual Southwest Yoga Conference. Corrales, New Mexico, 8-11 Nov 2001, info@southwestyoga.com. Workshop description: . . . we will feel and imagine our way into our bodies, taking shapes and forms from nature . . . an adventure in playing and relaxing. Mathur, Monika. Yogas younger crowd. The Record (Bergen County, New Jersey), 10 Jul 2000, p. H01. The last thing Marita Gardner-Anopol wanted to do was something conventional when she volunteered to lead a class at her daughters school. Instead of reading or cooking, GardnerAnopol taught yoga to her daughter and her first-grade classmates. The kids in my daughters class loved it, and their teacher invited me to come back. It was then that I realized the potential yoga had for kids. When I told my yoga instructor about it, she begged me to start a class for kids at her school, Gardner-Anopol said. She opened a Kids Yoga class four years ago at the Iyengar School of Yoga in Waldwick. It started with a handful of kids but grew that first year to 30 students ranging in age from 7 to 14 . . . McArdle -Oquendo, Christine. OM Sri OM Childrens Yoga Teacher Training. Four days. Contact: 908-286-1160. The following topics are covered: Physiology & anatomy age 3 through adolescence Benefits to children: physical, mental, emotional and spiritual Serving the needs of Special Children & 21st Century Children Songs, chants, mantras, mudras & breath work Curriculum writing: 4 week class, 6 week, chakra, year-long Individual classes: sequencing, lesson planning Yogic activit ies: games, stories, poems, heart centered activities Meditation and visualizations with children Child psychology and teaching to each level of development Asana and asana modifications, partner yoga, warm-ups and assists Marketing your classes There will be assigned required reading plus homework/home practice. You must also attend and assist at Childrens Yoga classes of your choice.

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You will receive a Teacher Training Manual, OM Sri OM flash cards and certificate of completion. (You must purchase required reading books). If you are an RYT, you may receive continuing education credits for this course. McClatchey, Caroline. Nursery to stars given top report. Hampstead & Highgate Express, 11 Mar 2005. A Primrose Hill nursery where tots discuss their dreams and learn yogic principles has been given full marks by education watchdogs. Ofsted inspectors have vindicated the unorthodox methods at St Marks Square nursery school, saying it is a good school with a positive impact on the childrens overall development. The 50-pupil nursery in the crypt of St Marks Churcha favourite among celebrity parents encourages its two to six-year-olds to take part in animal yoga and meditation where they take a stroll around the garden repeating the weeks word of wisdom. Nursery founder Sheema Parsons, who says its holistic ethos is a mix of philosophy and yogic beliefs, concentrates on the whole child. She said: I want children to grow up into respectful, tolerant human beings, who look after the planet and society. I want them to read and write but if they are fundamentally decent people, I have really achieved something . . . Chris McMinn, who has two children at the school, loved St Marks so much, he started as a part-time administrator in January. The 41-year-old said: Friends of ours had children at the school and before I knew anything about it, I did think they were friendly and self confident but without being precocious. They dont talk down to the children herethey talk up to them. Its a stimulating environment and I want my children to enjoy learning. Sinead Hennessy was appointed deputy headteacher in September. The 30-year-old Irishwoman has been teaching in nursery schools for 10 years, and this is the first where she meditates for 20 minutes before the children arrive and again after they leave. She said: The meditation really clears your mind and also calms you down at the end of the day. St Marks is like a breath of fresh air. We do a principle a week. We explain it and then talk about everyday examples to help them understand it. What the children feed back is really amazing . . . McDougal, Liam. The solution to child obesity: Yoga, karate and skateboarding at school. Sunday Herald (Scotland), 13 Jun 2004. Physical education (PE) classes in schools should include martial arts, yoga, dancing and skateboarding, according to a major report into ways of tackling child obesity in Scotland. McDowell, Dimity. Baby ommmm: Postnatal yoga classes provide playtime for babies and metime for moms. Yoga Journal, May/Jun 2001, p. 20.

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McGregor, Yvonne. Meet the yoga babes. Daily Record, 19 Sep 2001, p. 14. In India, where yoga originated, children are taught postures from the moment they can walk. America is one step ahead with yoga sessions for babies while, over here, the Art of Health and Yoga Centre run Yoga Bugs classes for kids aged three to seven. The classes are non-competitive and are designed to allow children to work at their own pace. Childrens imaginations are inspired while they are taught to maintain their natural flexibility and understand how to relax their bodies. They are also encouraged to work together and enjoy exercise. Toddlers are transformed into hissing snakes and roaring lions, unawareas they imitate trees, animals, fish and birds as part of exciting games and storiesthat they are performing the classic yoga positions and breathing techniques. Fenella Lyndsell, who developed and runs the Yoga Bugs classes, said: Yoga is becoming an even more vital choice now that children spend less time exercising and playing outside and more time in cars and in front of computers. This can culminate in a loss of childrens natural flexibility and creativity. A childs flexibility begins to diminish from their first day at school due to long periods of standing in lines and sitting at desks. Yoga helps to retain flexibility and is beneficial for healthy spines and back muscles. Children in Yoga Bugs classes can benefit from knowing how to listen to their bodies and understanding they can feel their own energy through doing the postures and breathing properly. McGraw, Phil. Increasing Your Childs Intellectual Performance television special program. This Dr. Phils special aired on U.S. television September 21, 2004. URL: http://www.yogatales.com/pdf/article_dr-phil.pdf. The owners of the Yoga Tales Yoga studio for children brings excerpts of this program at their website and indicate how Yoga meets the requirements for increasing a childs intellectual performance. McIntosh, Maggie. Yoga baby report. IYTA News (N.Z.) Inc., Winter 2001, p. 11. McLaughlin, Lisa. A is for apple, Y is for yoga. Time, May 2003. . . . today the very hippest babies are relaxing from the trials and tensions of infanthood by taking up the age-old practice of yoga . . . they are led through yoga-influenced stimulation exercises, massage, games and a variety of rocking and balancing exercises, accompanied by their moms, who get into postpartum shape by doing more traditional poses . . . Yoga . . . stimulates the immune and circulation systems of a baby, aids digestion and can lead to better sleeping habits. McLean, Polly. Perceptions of the impact of meditation on learning. Pastoral Care in Education, Mar 2001, 19(1) :31ff, Mar 2001.

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Abstract: This paper is about teachers and primary school pupils who have led or taken part in meditation classes at school. It discusses their perceptions of the relationship between meditation and learning. Three different categories of perceived benefit are examined: readiness for learning, enhanced creative expression, and spiritual development. After this a case is made for the use of experiential learning models as a structure for enhancing the benefit gained through meditation. The paper concludes with some observations about the potential of meditation in the school setting. Much of what is said could apply to the secondary setting. McLoughlin, Mara. Taking yoga to the streets. YOGANorthwest, Jul-Aug 2002, pp. 12-13. You try sle eping on wet, cold concrete and see how your body feels the next day, challenges Marsha Mann, yoga instructor at P:EAR, a downtown [Portland, Oregon] nonprofit program for street youth ages 15-23 . . . P:EAR is an acronym for Program: Education, Arts, and Recreation. Its mission is to build positive relationships with homeless and transitional youth . . . to affirm personal worth and achieve meaningful lifestyles. . . . The yoga program at P:EAR, pioneered by instructor Marsha Mann and carried over from Greenhouse, a street youth center that recently closed where Mann used to teach, aims to help the kids recognize that the body is their vehicle, and if they respect and care for it, it will serve them, says Mann. Yoga can build their selfesteem, give them pride in their body, and help them to feel more comfortable in it. McMahon, Patrick. Family circle. Inquiring Mind: A Semi-Annual Journal of the Vipassana Community, Spring 1992, 8(2):16-17. Meditation course at Ma Niketan Home for Children, Mumbai. Article available online: http://www.vri.dhamma.org/archives/dsniketanrpt.html. Meditation course for children. Gulf Daily News (Bahrain), 9 Apr 2005. A one-day Anapana Meditation course for children, aged eight to 15 years, was held yesterday at the Bahrain Medical Society, Juffair. The purpose of the free course was to help improve childrens awareness, concentration and memory. Anapana is the first stop in the practice of Vipasana meditation, which means to see things as they really are. Vipasana is a logical process of mental purification through self-observation. The ideal time to begin the training is in childhood when children as young as eight can easily learn the technique. Meditation for children. YOGAChicago, Mar-Apr 1998, p. 5. Mehta, Arti H. Teaching children with specific learning difficulties, behavioural and emotional problems. Yoga Rahasya, 2003, 10(2):68-71. Melnde z, Mel. Finding beauty in diversity: Monks art in harmony with schools focus. The Arizona Republic, 9 Nov 2004. Article available online: http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/local/articles/1109tibet09.html.

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On the creation by Tibetan Buddhist monks of a sand Mandala at Central High School in Phoenix, which has one of the most diverse student populations in the state of Arizona. The translator for the monks stated, [The Mandala is] symbolic of how there is only beauty in the world when all people are united, he said, because its only when the mandala s different colors come together that you see true beauty. Menzie, Andrea. Meditation earns high marks: Preteens who learn to quiet their minds enjoy greater self-esteem, a recent study has found. Yoga Journal, Jan/Feb 2004, p. 29. From the article: A University of Michigan pilot study suggests that student who practice Transcendental Meditation (TM) at school may be happier and have higher self-esteem than their counterparts who do not meditate. The study, the first to involve African American children and TM, examined 83 sixth graders at two charter schools in the Detroit area. Students were given an individual mantra and taught how to meditate using it. They practiced twice during the school day10 minutes at the beginning and end of each day. Students in the control group did not meditate at all. Four months after the participants learned TM, researchers scored them and the nonmeditating students on several scales, including loneliness, emotional competence, selfesteem, positive affectivity, anxiety, and aggression. The meditators scored higher in the ares of emotional competence, self-esteem, and positive affectivity, though there was no significant difference between the groups in the other areas. Meyerson, Shana. Mini yogis teacher training. URL: http://www.miniyogis.com/teacher.htm. Tel.: 310.478.2266, email: shana@miniyogis.com. From the website: Focusing primarily on children ages eight and under, these weekend teacher trainings will give you all the tools you need to create your own yoga program for children. Through the use of themes, games, music, books, and other props, we will transform traditional practice into a creative, stimulating, andmost importantlyFUN yoga experience for kids. We will delve deep into the world of interactive asana and movement, and cover yoga fundamentals such as philosophy, breathing, and relaxation. You will experience a one-hour mini yogis yoga for kids class and learn how to design empowering kid-specific practices that encourage children to be strong, self-confident, and healthy in mind, body, and spirit. Shana Meyerson is founder of mini yogis and received her training and certification at Next Generation Yoga for Kids in New York City. She teaches yoga to children ages two to 20, privately and at schools, camps, and other activity centers around Los Angele s County. She writes (at her website): When I was growing up, every aspect of my life was a competition. School, sports, popularity, you name it. Maybe it taught me about being tough and excelling in the world, but it also made me approach life in a competitive and judgmental way. A way that made me stressed out and anxious. I always knew that inner peace existed out there somewhere, but it wasnt in here. It was only after I found yoga that I found myself and learned to be one with my true inner nature. When I look at kids today, I see an incredible amount of potential and so many opportunities for them to exercise it. But I also see a lot of unnecessary sadness, stress, and apprehension. I believe

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that yoga holds the magic that will allow all of todays kids to be healthy in mind, body, and spirit, and to believe in themselves above all else. ___________. Interviewed by Mom Central. Aug 2002. Article available online: http://www.miniyogis.com/momcentral_aug2002.htm. Shana answers the following questions: What are the general benefits kids gain by taking yoga? Mental benefits? Physical benefits? What are the typical qualities of kids who most excel in yoga classes? Do they need to have innate talent? Have you had any experience with hyperactive children or children with ADD? How do they benefit from yoga classes? What usually causes a child to struggle or to drop out of yoga classes? What is the best age for a child to start taking yoga classes? What should parents look for in a in a program before signing up their child for yoga classes? What type of yoga do you teach and why? Are any costs involved of which a parent new to the activity should be aware? Are there any common injuries youve observed? Safety precautions? What resources do you use to keep up to date in this field? ___________: A yoga master. Expert Questions & Answers, issue no. 4, Jul 2002, FITDV.com. Article available online: http://www.miniyogis.com/fitdv_july2002.htm. Shana answers the following questions: At what age can a child begin to practice yoga? What is the cost and how much equipment do they need? Why is the practice of yoga important for kids to learn? Most children are already fairly flexible, so how do you teach them to control their flexibility? How do you make yoga exciting for kids? Is it harder because of their short attention span? What is the difference between teaching yoga to adults and teaching yoga to children? Midley, Connie. Yoga leaves aches and pains behind: How [Mary Glover] reduced joint pain and stress. The Arizona Republic, 6 Apr 2004. Article available online: http://www.azcentral.com/health/fitness/articles/0405healthprofile06.html#. In addition to the ways in which she has personally been helped by Yoga, Mary Glover discusses how she has taught Yoga to the fourth and fifth graders at her school. She says that she has seen her students become quieter, calmer, more focused and more confident, qualities that help them personally and academically. Kids today are so overstimulated with visual and auditory input, its good for them to remember theres a place of stillness inside them. They can find it if they just stop and breathe for a minute. Milicevic, Barbara. Your Spiritual Child: Primer for Metaphysics and Yoga. Marina del Rey, Calif.: DeVorss, 1984. Contents: Mastery, The Adult/God, Brain Factories, Relating, The Mirror of Life, Healing, Adaptability, Yoga and Meditation, The Highest Goal Miller, Stephanie Gall. Were All Yogis: A Fun Introduction to Yoga Just for Kids. Milloy, Marilyn. Now take a deeeeep breath . . . NEA Today, Oct 2002, 21(2):36. On how Yoga becomes a ritual of the school day in Cathy Kleins second-grade class at Daniel Webster Elementary School in San Francisco, California.

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Minton, Faith. Teaches Yoga to children in the public schools in Northern California and is currently developing the following program for school teachers. Email: minton@mcttelecom.com. From Faith (January 2005): I hope to offer Yoga/stress management techniques to college students who are education majors. I want them to: Experience the benefits of Yoga for stress management Understand the value in teaching stress management to their students Investigate ways they can integrate these practices into their teaching when they are in their own classrooms I would like to work on this to find ways to integrate it into Education curricula for college students training to teach. My goal is for public school teachers of the future to be trained in how to help their students take care of their own stress. Faith has taught Yoga in schools to elementary, middle , and high school students since 1992 and has taught Yoga to teachers after school in six-week Yoga sessions. In February 2005, a proposal by Faith to teach a Yoga course to education majors at a small college in New Hampshire was accepted. Mohanthy, R., H. R. Nagendra, R. Nagarathna, and S. Telles. Influence of yoga training on dexterity skills of school children. In H. R. Nagendra, R. Ragarathna, and S. Telles, Yoga Research & Applications: Proceedings of the 5 th International Conference on Frontiers in Yoga Research and Applications. Bangalore, Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Research Foundation, 2000, pp. 295-297. Moll, Vickie M. Whole yoga for whole kids: Teaching Patanjalis ideas. Article availa ble online: http://www.sunandmoonstudio.com/whole.html or http://www.yoga.com/ydc/enlighten/enlighten_document.asp?ID=368&section=9&cat=0. Monahan, Danny. Childrens yoga class offers more than quiet poses. Air Force Link , 25 Jun 2004. With the child-obesity rate on the rise, parents are looking for a way to get their children active, she said. Yoga is (a) way to give them the exercise that they need. Monroe, Marcia. Yoga teacher Marcia Monroe travels back and forth from New York to Brazil each year to teach a unique group of [poor and abandoned children]. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 1997, p. 26. ___________. Teaching Yoga & Body-Mind Centering to Kids workshop. The Power of Yoga for Healing, Vitality & Spirit Conference, Miami Beach, Florida, November 2-4, 2001. ___________, and Mark Douglas. Yoga for children. In Marcia Moore and Mark Douglas, Diet, Sex, and Yoga. York, Me.: Arcane Publications, 1966, 1970, p. 249. Moon Susan. Family and Buddhist practice. Inquiring Mind: A Semi-Annual Journal of the Vipassana Community , Spring 1992, 8(2):5.

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Moore, Arden. Stretch your mind and body with yoga. Available online: http://www.zaphealth.com/exercise_yoga.htm. (On Yoga for teenagers.) Moore, Charlotte. Healthy living: Seeking the exercise and stress relief of yoga, some kids are ready to strike a pose. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, 18 Jun 2002, Home Section, p. E1. Nearly 15 percent of the nations kids are overweight. About half of young Americans ages 1221 are not vigorously, regularly active. Seven percent to 14 percent of all children will experience an episode of major depression before the age of 15. To beat these oddsespecially during the summer months when most kids minds and bodies are on academic hiatusmany parents sign their children up for soccer, baseball or basketball camps. But a handful of Atlantas parents have realized that yoga can be a beneficial extracurricular activity that positively stimulates kids bodies, minds and souls while steering them clear of adolescent pitfalls such as obesity, physical inactivity and childhood anxiety. They see that their children have many of the same kind of difficulties they have focusing attention and being impatient, and they realize that yoga is good for their children, said Kathleen Pringle, director of Stillwater Yoga Studio in Midtown. So, just like the parents are learning how to go inward and observe what they need to be doing, the children have the same kinds of needs, she says. Its nice to empower them. Moore, Heather. Raising kind kids. Enlightened Practice, May/Jun 2005, pp. 38-39. Moorthy, A. M. Influence of selected yogic exercises on minimum muscular fitness of the elementary school children. SNIPES Journal, Jul 1982, 5(3):21. ___________. Survey of minimum muscular fitness of the school children of age group 6 to 11 years and comparison of the influence of selected yogic exercises and physical exercises on them. Doctoral dissertation abstract. Yoga-Mimamsa, 21(1&2):59-64. Moos, Jeanne. A new generation goes gaga over yoga. CNN.com. URL: http://www.cnn.com/US/9808/21/fringe/baby.yoga/index.html. (On the use of Hatha-Yoga in bonding sessions for mothers and their infant children.) Moran, Victoria. Lets play yoga: Yoga can help kids with concentration and self-esteemand gets them away from the television. Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 2000, pp. 110-115. Includes instructions for the following asanas: Dog, Candle, Mouse, Lion, Shark, Turtle, and Frog.) Morgan, Alice. Baby yoga: A new beginning. Yoga & Health , Jun 2002, pp. 22-23. Morgan, John, with medical adviser Stephen A. Shoop, M.D. Kristin Davis gives youth yoga high marks. USA Today, Health section, 13 Dec 2000. The Yoga House recently joined forces with GAIAM Yoga for Life organization to raise money to bring the healing practice of yoga into schools and community centers across the country. Ive been doing yoga for 24 years and I have taught kids so I know how incredibly powerful yoga can be for them, shares Tara Lynda Guber, founder of The Yoga House. My dream has always been to offer yoga in schools.

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One school that already has a GAIAM-sponsored pilot yoga program is The Accelerated School (TAS) in South Central Los Angeles. The yoga classes are being tested and developed specifically for students of this innovative charter public school. The student body is 59% Latino and 39% African American. The rationale for adding yoga to school programs is relatively simple. By practicing yoga, students learn to go within themselves to create an inner peace or sense of calm. This helps them better relax and focus their attention, especially when combined with basic meditative techniques. Mudras: The Feelings in You . . . Are the Feelings in Me poster. Available for purchase from Indigo Dreams, http://www.indigodreams.net/posters.htm. From the website: Yoga mudras have new meaning when children explore hand positions that empower them to be active participants in creating their own healthy, heart driven, peaceful lives. Children of various nationalities show that although we may look different on the outside we all share the same feelings. Murdock, M. H. Meditation with young children. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 1978, 19(1):29-44. Murray, Sukha Linda. Precepts for children. In Sandy Eastoak, ed., Dharma Family Treasures: Sharing Mindfulness with Children: An Anthology of Buddhist Writings. Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1994, pp. 190-191. Muth, Jon J. Zen Shorts. Scholastic Press, 2005. (Ficition, ages 4-8). From the publisher: Look at the world in a brand new way using the teachings of Stillwater the giant panda bear. With his Zen approach to life, Stillwater shows three brothers the value of material goods, the boundaries of good and bad, and what frustration does when its held inside . . . Three ancient tales, told with a Zen theme, teach love and enlightenment. My breath and I: Meditation courses for children. Article available online: http://www.vri.dhamma.org/general/ccmain.html. Nagendra, H. R., T. Mohan, and A. Shriram. Yoga in Education. Bangalore, India: Vivekananda Kendra Yoga Anusandhana Samsthan, 1988. Contents: The aim of education, New dimensions in modern education, Prayers, Sithilikarana vyayama (loosening exercises), Indriya vyayama (yogic training of the instruments of action and understanding), Breathing practices, Kriyas, Suryanamaskar, Asanas, Pranayama, Meditation and silence, Bandhas and mudras, Syllabus for primary students Nagendra, H. R., and S. Telles. Influence of yoga on memory of high-school children. In H. R. Nagendra and S. Telles, Yoga and Memory. 2d ed. Bangalore, India: Vivekananda Yoga Kendra Prakashana, 1997, pp. 32-42.

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Nam, Dana. Yoga aid. The Journal News (Westchester, Rockland and Putnam Counties, New York), 7 Mar 2005. Parents helped shape their children into cobras, and children helped their parents maintain balance during the tree pose as families joined a daylong effort to spiritually connect with and offer financial support to victims of the Southeast Asia tsunami. About 30 people participated in a family yoga session yesterday afternoon during Birchwood Centers Yoga Marathon. The days activities were expected to raise more than $8,000 for Save the Children, a nonprofit organization that provides young victims of the Dec. 26 disaster with food, shelter, clean water and welfare. The 14-hour marathon included nine yoga classes throughout the day, chair massage sessions with licensed therapists, noninvasive chiropractic adjustments and a bake sale. Yoga really teaches that were all connected, said Betsy Ceva, director of the Birchwood Center and a Valley Cottage resident. When something happens in the world, we have sympathy and compassion and we feel it. Its natural for us to want to do this. Ceva, who led the family yoga session, said the center also hosted a marathon after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. She said she hoped yesterdays participants would feel united with the world after completing a session of yoga, an exercise that has been practiced worldwide for more than 5,000 years . . . Narayana, Sirisha (Monta Vista High School). Yoga: Be at peace. Yoga brings spiritual, healthful benefits. Article available online: http://yoga.about.com/health/yoga/cs/childrenandteens/index.htm?rnk=r8&terms=yoga. Neuse, Elizabeth. Send in the clowns: Circus Yoga brings families together with a playful approach to movement. Yoga Journal, May/Jun 2002, p. 20. Niranjanananda, Swami, Swami Yogabhakti, Risbi Hridayananda, and Dr. Risbi Vivekananda. Parents and children. Yoga (Sivananda Math), May 2001, 12(3):27-30. The authors answer the questions: How can sankalpa be used with children? How can we avoid projecting our own desires onto children and how can we help them to be aware of the difficulties in relationships with parents? Nolan, Kate. Yoga popularity has people of all ages in a twist: Eastern discipline is catching on among kids. The Arizona Republic , 22 Jun 2005. Wondering whos practicing yoga these days? Take a look at the latest mass-market yoga mat. It features the Warner Brothers cartoon character Scooby Doo and is a likely reflection that youths have discovered yoga. Ask any 10-year-old to drop down and show you a lotus pose, and odds are thats what youll get. In some of our adult classes, half the participants are high school girls, said David Romanelli, a partner in the Valleys At One Yoga studios.

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The Eastern meditative discipline has been catching on to such an extent among minors that high school athletic programs have adopted it as part of a train ing regimen, and many kids summer camps feature it as an activity, including the day camp at AZ on the Rocks, the climbing gym in north Scottsdale. At One has been paying attention to the trend and expanded its program for kids. Serving ages 4 to 12 at both of At One Yogas Scottsdale studios, the classes meet seven times a week. They explore traditional breathing techniques and postures, but with games and activities that add an entertainment component for kids who arent necessarily seeking to be swamis. A special twist is the opportunity for parents to take an adult yoga class while the youth class is in session. Discount packages are available . . . Norris, Kathleen. Silence. In Kathleen Norris, Amazing Grace. New York: G. P. Putnams Sons, 1998. An exercise for elementary school children on making noise followed by silence, and on how silence liberated their imaginations. Norvell, Anthony. Teach Your Child Transcendental Meditation. New York: Drake Publishers, 1976. Contents: Unlock your childs mental potentials with Transcendental Meditation; How to program your childs mind with TM in the formative years; How to build your childs positive emotions through daily sessions of TM; Meditations that can endow your child with a brilliant mind; How to mold your childs subconscious mind through Transcendental Meditation; How to use Tm to give your child a strong, magnetic personality; How to use TM training to protect your child from engaging in crime, immorality and narcotics; The golden Midas touch that will bring your child money and success; Set the stage for your childs successful social life with TM; How to help your child avoid mental illness with TM; How you and your child can develop ESP and intuition with TM training; How to use TM training to hold your childs love and respect; How to each your child to be happy in his future love and marriage; How to keep your child health with Transcendental Meditation training; The golden ladder of dreams that can bring you child cosmic fulfillment Oat, Brittany. The chair challenge. Norwich Bulletin , 6 Jul 2004. There is an intense look of concentration on 9-year-old Melanie Mugaveros face as she tries to hold a yoga pose. Suddenly, she bursts into giggles, teeters side-to-side and falls. I think yoga is more fun (than recess) because you can do all different types of forms and use your imagination to see what it looks like, said Mugavero, who lives in Waterford.

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Thats the messageand practiceteacher Jessica Smith is looking for as she brings her knowledge of office yoga into the classroom for Cohanzie Elementary Schools weekly 10minute exercise program. You dont need to be an athlete or the star soccer player, Smith said. Every kid can do it. OConnor, Anne -Marie. Inner-city students get Om schooling in yoga. Meditation: Instructors hope free classes will help needy youngsters find inner peace. The Los Angeles Times, 30 Oct 2001. Abstract: [Tara Lynda] Guber is not Americas only yoga apostle. Pro bono yogis across the country are teaching yoga to prisoners, pregnant teenagers, people in halfway houses and at Boys and Girls clubs. Guber even invited one of South-Centrals yoga-baptized gang members to detail his newfound inner peace at a symposium. Should you doubt the depth of Gubers sincerity, follow her up a winding mountain road to her Beverly Hills estate and the spiritual base of her mission: the Yoga House. Inside this Italianate retreat, a wall of leaded-glass windows frames a sweeping city view. A beautifully painted Sanskrit salutation, Namaste, greets you. We bow to the divine in one other, Guber translates. It was Gubers idea to sponsor a yoga program, which is beginning its second year as part of the curriculum. Guber was on the ground floor of the Accelerated School effort in 1994 [the Accelerated School is a high-performing campus serving kindergarten through eighth grade for gifted underprivileged children], when Wells Fargo pitched in more than $200,000 to help it get started. She was instrumental in obtaining the school site, a onetime designer clothing factory owned by a friend, Carole Little. Little donated the factory to the Cal State L.A. Foundation, which leases it to the school for $1 a year. Quotes from the students: My cousin thinks its dumb. I thought it was dumb too, with all the funny names like Flower pose and Rocket pose. Now, if I come in with a headache or I didnt sleep well, yoga makes me feel better. An eight grader says yoga relaxation techniques help him fight off anxiety before tests. Yoga can help me a lot with my future. Ill have harder times. Therell be high school, college, Stanford. Yoga will help me get through. The schools director says that yoga improves the students focus and concentration. Its fairly innovative. Its not done in many public schools, and in inner-city schools its not done at all. Odone, Christine. Misguided middle -class parents now prefer yoga to rugger for their offspring. The Observer (U.K.), 5 Jun 2005. As the study showed, even when teachers opt out of school sportsand since the 1980s teaching disputes, many have withdrawn from coaching extracurricular sportworking-class mums and dads take their offspring to the park to play football or rugby, or to the ring to give them a chance to box. It is middle -class parents who shy away from the competition. The cut and thrust of the hockey match or the rugby game shock their sensibilities, grown tender on a diet of such mantras as everyone is a winner and life is not a race. Such schlock, dismissed by Sports Minister Tessa

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Jowell as PC nonsense of the 80s, has prompted the rise of toddler ballet, preteen yoga classes, teenage Pilates. ODowda, Daphne B. Yoga in education. A report on RYE techniques in Irish schools. Jul 1996. Includes a description of a program used with sixteen children from grades 2-4, ranging in age from 7-11, at Gaelscoil an Ghoirt Alainn. The focus was primarily on techniques Ms. ODowda thought would help to correct bad posture and make the children aware of themselves physically. She also did work on breath and meditation. Ohmland Live! Off-Broadway musical created by Laurie Miller, Ben Tollefson and Mike Weiss. From a review by Mark Myers: . . . Ohmland Live! opens up a healthy, fun, action packed door for the young ones. This hip, new, interactive adventure finally retires traditional watered down kids musicals by blending yoga, world music and creativity into a palatable theatrical treat. Ohmland Live! debuted Off- Broadway in New York in the summer of 2001 and instantly achieved cult like statuskind of a Rocky Horror Picture Show for kids (not to mention adults). The genius of this lively musical is that while using trendy upbeat music and hip performance technique, the show delivers a healthy and inspirational message to kids by incorporating yoga. The action packed journey springs to life with a colorful and boisterous cast of nine animal characters (butterflies, snakes, dogs and grasshoppers) that are musically supported by the Ohmland Bug Band in a fantastical world called Ohmland. The story follows a young butterfly named Penny who along with her animal friends goes on a predawn journey to surprise the sun. During the course of their adventure the cast and audience learn essential life lessons and basic yoga poses. The original musical score is composed of various world styles including African Percussion, Latin Salsa, Hip Hop Jamaican and traditional American Music with an Eastern Indian flair.

Om Saraswati, Swami. Yamas and niyamas (Part 1). Yoga (Sivananda Math), Jan 2005, pp. 36-44. (Swami Om was 13 years old at the time of writing this article.)
___________. Yamas and niyamas (Part 1). Yoga (Sivananda Math), Feb 2005, pp. 22-28. (Swami Om was 13 years old at the time of writing this article.) Once upon a time: A collection of Buddhist stories. Collection available online: http://www.sinc.sunysb.edu/Clubs/buddhism/story/index.html. Oprah television program. April 6, 2001, episode on the healing power of Yoga. See the segment in which twelve-year-old Deanna Duncan, who had a hard time focusing, was getting poor grades, and did not get along with her mother, had her life completely changed by Yoga. She now gets good grades, has a deepening relationship with her family, and says that when she finishes a Yoga class she feels a cle an, strong spirit inside her. The Yoga class she takes is offered by her school district. Oriental shape -up: Yoga-go-go. Teen, Oct 1969. Orkin, Lisa B. The rewards of teaching yoga to children. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bulletin , Fall 2000, 9(3):2.

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___________. Yoga helps kids find balance in their lives. Yoga.com Newsletter, November 2003, no. 4. Article available online: http://www.yoga.com/ydc/enlighten/enlighten_document.asp?ID=301&section=9&cat=0. Ostrander, Alma, and Kay Windam. I Can Stand on My Head! An Introduction to Yoga for Children. Palo Alto, Calif.: Ostrander Associates, 1973. Ott, Mary Jane. Mindfulness meditation in pediatric clinical practice. Pediatric Nursing, 2002, 28(5):487-535. Palsane, M. N., and H. C. Kocher. The effects of short term yogic training on immediate memory of school boys. Research Bulletin, State Education Journal (Poona), 1973, 3(1):33-43. Palumbo, Mary Jo. Ga-ga for yoga: Theres no place like om for kids. Boston Herald , 11 Apr 2005. . . . Its no secret that overextended Bostonians are flocking to yoga classes to relieve stress, increase flexibility and tone their bodies. But who knew the little tykes are sorely in need of some om action as well? Whenever I ask a group of 5-year-oldsWhos ever been stressed out?they all raise their hands, said Evan Cooper, who teaches yoga to kindergartners in Los Angeles. So whats a concerned parent to do? Start those yoga postures early, said Maggie Magner, who teaches yoga classes for newborns in the Boston area. Three-week-old babies are welcome in her Itsy Bitsy Baby class, where she teaches poses such as the Jiggle Giggle Wiggle Pose, Womb Wings, the One-Handed Bump Hold and Baby Planet. Its hard to be a baby sometimes, said Magner, who teaches at the Arlington Center and Isis Maternity in Brookline. Babies do carry stress in their bodies. Last week, 11 moms and their tiny charges learned the Super Baby Belly Pose, where a prone baby rocks on moms shins and knees. It started as way for me to get out of the house, said Tracy Winkler, whose 8-month-old son Drew has been attending yoga cla sses half his life. But now I come for him. He loves it and he sleeps much better. The poses are magic. He can be hysterically crying and those cries turn to giggles in seconds. Newborn yoga helps babies deal with belly issues, or digestive troubles. It also develops motor skills, improves digestion and calms fussy babies, said Magner. At Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health in Lenox, yoga workshops are available for children and for youths with special needs.

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Kids, just like adults, get overworked and overstressed, said Denise Barack, a yoga instructor and program director at Kripalu. Even 12-year-olds face a lot of competition Experts say yoga teaches children to pay more attention to their bodies, and helps develop flexibility in body and mind. The Arlington Center offers several yoga classes for babies and children. We try to pack childrens craniums full of words and concepts at a very early age, said Arlington Center founder Chip Hartranft. This helps to counter the overly cerebral development we impose on children. If any group needs yoga, its teenagers, according to Cooper, whose book Um, Like...Om: A Girl Goddesss Guide to Yoga goes on sale Wednesday. Our culture is so obsessed with acquiring things and getting more, said Cooper, 29. As a teen, if you don't have latest pair of jeans you can feel really left out. Yoga starts to teach you that its not the outer stuff that will bring fulfillment but the inside. Children can begin to learn at a very young age that the outer world is a reflection of the inner world. Pandell, Karen, and Bary Bryant. Learning from the Dalai Lama: Secrets of the Wheel of Time. Mt. Tremper, N.Y.: Dharma Communications. Simple introduction to the Buddhist way of life for children. How to make mandalas at home. Paola, Ellyce di. Yoga for Teens class. This free weekly Yoga class is held on Thursdays from 5:30-6:30 p.m. at Middle Collegiate Church, 50 East 7 Street, at the corner of Second Avenue in Manhattan. For more information, call 212-979-9332. Papovich, Sasha. Pamela Hollander. LA Yoga, Jan/Feb 2003, pp. 11-13. On Pamela Hollanders eight-hour overview of the teaching principles and techniques behind the program she has developed for children called Indigo Yoga. Indigo Yoga integrates healing techniques from Eastern and Western practices into developmentally appropriate asanas, pranayamas, affirmations, meditations, and games for children of all ages. ___________. Yoga: A fair chance. LA Yoga, May/Jun 2003, pp. 13-14. Its not easy for Natalie Albi and Christian Chavez to find a place of peace. Like other students at Youth Fair Chance, a Los Angeles alternative school, they are minority students who come from areas and situations laced with violence, poverty and substance abuse. Fortunately, Youth Fair Chance tries to offer them the individualized attention and support they need in order to cope with their daily lives. Thanks to Queen Hollins, a Kundalini yoga instructor with Yoga for Youth, Ntalie, Christian and their classmates do yoga several mornings a week at school . . . The kids are coming in wit h such intense emotions, so I focus a lot on the solar plexus and the heart. The kind of anger and sadness they come in with doesnt go away in one day, but we can start to make a difference.

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Withdrawn and angry when he first started, 17-year-old Christian is now one of the most enthusiastic and determined students in the class. Theres bad stuff going on in school, at home, out in the world, he says. I used to feel like I had the hugest weight on my shoulders all the time. I need yoga so I can have time to get myself together. It gives me energy and makes me feel calm and powerful. Parker, DeAnsin Goodson. Yoga Baby: Exercises to Help You Bond with Your Baby Physicallyl, Emotionally, and Spiritually . New York: Broadway Books, 2000. Reviewed by Phil Catalfo in the Jul/Aug 2000 issue of Yoga Journal. From the publisher: Begin a healthy relationship with your baby through the innovative Yoga Baby methods developed by DeAnsin Goodson Parker, Ph.D., a licensed child psychologist and certified yoga instructor. From deep relaxation massage to postures enhancing specific developmental stages, these exercises are designed for newborns through two-year-olds and offer a wonderful opportunity to lay a solid foundation for a lifetime of learning and bonding together. Contents: The Yoga Baby Program, Getting started, The permanent center: Bonding spiritually, The root center: Bonding physically, The regenerative center: Bonding emotionally, The solar plexus: Bonding ego-to-ego, The heart center: Bonding empathetically, The throat center: Bonding expressively, The head center: Bonding mentally, The crown center: Bonding by spiritual empowerment, Observing temperament in baby and mom, Continuing yoga baby with the mobile baby, Yoga classes and resources Payne, January W. For enthusiasts, baby yoga is no great stretch. Alameda Times-Star, 5 Sep 2004. Peerbolte, M. Lietaert. Meditation for school children: A recommendation that some form of meditation be made part of the educational curriculum, even if it be only quiet self-recollection. Main Currents of Modern Thought, 1967, 24:19-21. Pegrum, Juliet. Childrens Yoga: Fun with a Twist. England: Sterling, 2005. Introduces children to yoga in a fun and playful way, from the age of three upwards. From the publisher: More and more, yoga is becoming a popular pastime for children and a part of many a schools gym curriculum. With its colorful and plentiful photographs of smiling kids obviously enjoying their workout, this guide will prove irresistible to parents and teachers hoping to create an entertaining practice for youngsters. The key is turning the exercises into play: for example, animal poses where kids stretch like a cat or think of their legs as butterfly wings have instant appeal. A variety of tips , such as inventing stories to stimulate childrens imaginations as they master the positions, help instructors turn the yoga room into a joyful place. Group asanas give students a wonderful chance to bond and interact with otherand increase coordination too. Breath control, dynamic yoga, chanting: every facet of yoga is made fun. Penn, Linda. Give them room: A conversation with Tharchin Rinpoche. Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 1997, p. 83. Peurano, Heather. Students relax after school with yoga. Shore Publishing, 29 Mar 2005. Article available online: http://www.shorepublishing.com/archive/re.aspx?re=990fd1a0-9b14-4a88-a7632cf7807e7c1a.

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Students at Pawcatuck Middle School [in Stonington, Connecticut] are taking the art of relaxation seriously, with weekly after school yoga classes. Teacher Annie OSullivan, who has been planning the program for several months, met 12 of her students in the gym last week for their first official yoga session. Im very excitedwe secured the gym for the rest of the year, she said. OSullivan said she actually started working with some students in January. Earlier in the week, she hosted an informational session during which many of the parents participated in the yoga session with their children. The class will learn a modified version of Ashtanga yoga, she said, learning the poses and breathing techniques in a 45-minute session. Traditional Ashtanga follows a certain set series of postures, she said, which can take 90 minutes to complete. She said she hopes her modified version will demonstrate the benefits of yoga but still keep it light and fun for the kids . . . Kids at this age need to feel good about themselves and need to relax themselves, she said. The Stonington Education Fund agreed and gave $798 to the school for yoga mats, instructional videos, music and baskets to hold the equipment. The middle school level, we thought, was especially important, SEF member Gail MacDonald said. You know, its that time when kids start going through a lot of things and the aims and goals of yoga was something that could be particularly beneficial to that age group of students. Last Thursday was Veronica Fallons first experience with yoga. The seventh-grader said she had taken karate lessons for six years and wanted to try this for a different kind of workout. "Im trying this to be more relaxed, she said, adding that she was interested in the inner peace she had heard people talk about. Even though yoga focuses on relaxation and meditation, OSullivan said it can be very challenging physically, depending on the level of exertion the student devotes to it. MacDonald said that aspect of the program was another reason SEF felt compelled to approve OSullivans grant request. It also went nicely with Pawcatuck Middle Schools overall plan for physical fitness, which is very comprehensive, MacDonald said. Phelan, Nancy, and Michael Volin. Growing Up with Yoga. New York: Harper & Row, 1967. Contents: Youth and Yoga, The Human Body, The Difficulties of Adolescence, Looking After Your Body, The Voyage to Ithaka (Mental Training), The Seeker, Breathing, Body-Building and Body-Moulding Exercises, Asanas, Advanced Asanas for Young and Supple Bodies Pingala (Pauline Jensen). Tratak as an aid to reading. Yoga in Education, Aug 1997. Platania-Solazzo, A., T. M. Field, J. Blank, F. Seligman, C. Kuhn, S. Schanberg, and P. Saab. Relaxation therapy reduces anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric patients. Acta Paedopsychiatr, 1992, 55(2):115-120. PMID: 1585802. Abstract: The immediate effects of relaxation therapy (RT) were assessed in 40 hospitalized children and adolescents with diagnoses of adjustment disorder and depression. These effects were assessed using a within subjects pre-test/post-test design and by comparison with a control group of 20 depressed and adjustment disorder patients who watched a 1-h relaxing videotape. The 1-h RT class consisted of yoga exercise, a brief massage and progressive muscle relaxation. Decreases were noted in both self-reported anxiety and in anxious behavior and fidgeting as well as increases in positive affect in the RT but not the video group. In addition, adjustment disorder

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patients and a third of the depressed patients showed decreases in cortisol levels following RT, while no changes were noted in the video group. Thus, both diagnostic groups appeared to benefit from the RT class. Poplawska, Anna. Thoughts on yoga from a substitute teacher in the Chicago Public Schools. YOGAChicago, Mar/Apr 2004. Article available online: http://www.yogachicago.com/mar04/thoughts.shtml. Contact: lawpop@core.com or 708.488.9880. As a yoga teacher, my work as a high school sub in the Chicago Public Schools became a testing ground for theories, my experiment with truth, to borrow a phrase from Gandhi. I gathered my yoga lessons around me like armor. I surrendered to my powerlessness. I let go of my need to be in control of my environment. I searched out an inner core of serenity as three fights simultaneously broke out in different parts of the classroom. I looked for the love one might feel towards suffering humanity in the form of innocent children, as they: Left bubble gum on my chair, ruining a perfectly good pair of pants Threw paper airplanes or crumpled-up pieces of paper at me Stole my pencils and pens and the playing cards I offered them for entertainment Sat in groups plotting how they were going to kill me after school or slash the tires of my bike, speaking loud enough for me to hear, of course All of the above One of the tricks was learning the art of karma yoga, that is, learning to let go of the need to see results. I told the kids to sit down and stop throw ing things merely for the sake of doing it, for keeping up forms without any expectations. Expectation led to disappointment and anger. I reached out in compassion to teach them or just to chat without the expectation of being rewarded with anything other than scorn. Nevertheless, there were successes. I didnt expect miracles, but perhaps the miracles start happening when one has given up on looking for them. From observing the kids day after day, month after month, I became aware of how poor their concentration was and how little ability they had to sit still. I kept thinking, if I could just get them to sit down and meditate, even for two minutes, maybe something good would happen for them. Though I couldnt think of any way to accomplish this, it kept bugging me; two minutes was all I wanted. There had to be a way. It took over a year before it came to me. What I conceived of, loosely speaking, was a reading meditation. I would have each student read out loud to me from a book Id chosen that was written to help kids learn to read. It was reasonably easy, with a lot of sound-alike or rhyming words near each other to help them observe patterns. But I stayed right there with them. The moment they had trouble with a word, before any frustration could develop, before they had a chance to be distracted by the noise and chaos in the rest of the room, I told them what the word was and had them move on to the next word. No explanations. No rationalizations. No idle talk. No chance to say or even think, I cant do it. I dont know how to read. I bribed them into agreeing by telling them that they could do anything they wanted during the rest of the class: scream, dance, fight, so long as when it was their turn, they gave me the two minutes I asked for . . . There were probably close to 20 students in the class, so they didnt get much time each. I let the ones who were really interested read a little longer. For those who had a particularly difficult time focusing, I allowed shorter periods of concentration, and I might go back to them a second time. All distractions were to be ignored. I merely insisted that the student read me another word.

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I have no statistics, no experimental evidence, only this one experience to offer. The improvement in the vast majority of students in the first week verged on miraculous. One student, tremendously proud of himself, went from not reading at all to reading fluently. I couldnt possibly explain this from three or four minutes a day, except by speculating that the knowledge was already there but, for reasons of passivity and lack of concentration, wasnt accessible. Of the three students who were asked to leave on the first day, one transferred out of my class and the others were asked to leave again on the second day. By the third day, they both agreed to try, and soon they were among the most enthusiastic in the class. The girl, especially, not only read herself but also followed me around the room, following along as other students read. She also told me that she had started practicing with her mom at home. Two or three other students told me this same thing. These were students who had probably never done homework before in their lives. I didnt ask them to do any work at home; they did this completely voluntarily. Prashanthini, M. Padma. Yoga through the minds and hearts of children. Yoga Life, Dec 1999, 30(12):19-32. Prager-Decker, Iris. Stressing relaxation in the classroom. [Publisher unknown], 1979. Abstract: A rationale is offered for incorporating relaxation training in elementary school classroom activities. Cited are research studies which focus on the reaction of children to stressful life changes and resulting behavioral and physical disorders. A list is given of significant life events which may be factors in causing diseases or misbehavior in children. Described is a unit which adapted such techniques as yoga, deep muscle relaxation, and guided visual imagery to help primary age children cope with stress. Included in the unit, designed to be both experiential and cognitive, are pictures and cartoons depicting people in stressful situations, charts illustrating the reaction of the human body to stress, dramatic play stories designed to teach specific relaxation skills, and descriptions of relaxation periods in the classroom. A discussion is presented on implementing and evaluating a unit of this type. A bibliography and a list of resources for relaxation techniques are included. Prather, Hugh and Gayle. Spiritual Parenting: A Guide to Understanding and Nurturing the Heart of Your Child. New York: Harmony Books, 1996. Proeger, Charlene, and Robert D. Myrick. Teaching children to relax. Ft. Myers, Fla.: Educational Research and Development Council Research Bulletin, 1980, 14(3). Abstract: Many elementary school students perform below their ability levels due to excessive anxiety and stress. Research reveals negative correlations between general anxiety and test anxiety, and scores on intelligence tests. Studies have shown that changes in anxiety level are related to changes in intelligence quotient scores. Further, anxiety affects the more intelligent as well as the average student; anxiety level is as effective as the intelligence quotient in predicting reading grades; anxiety is an important part of the personality of underachieving children; and anxiety has a negative effect on a variety of learning tasks, especially complex learning. Anxiety also has been found to be related to dependence, hostility and aggression, low peer status, and poor relationships with teachers. Consequently, relaxation training for reducing students' anxiety has become a part of the school curric ulum in several schools. Methods of reducing anxiety through relaxation include systematic desensitization, yoga, meditation, guided fantasy, biofeedback, and deep muscle relaxation (DMR). Teaching DMR to children involves establishing general goals and training objectives, arranging the setting, using the DMR training script correctly, acquiring the experience of relaxation in order to effectively lead DMR sessions, organizing and facilitating the DMR exercises, conducting group discussions, and evaluating

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outcomes. The document concludes with a series of 10 experimentally tested DMR exercises which progress from relaxing various parts of the body to relaxing the whole body while breathing deeply. Prossowsky, Petra. Yoga fr Kids. Yoga aktuell, Jun/Jul 2001, pp. 44-47. [In German.] Puchs, Martina. Yoga for Children. Search Press/Panlist Press. Pupils meditate before lessons. BBC News, England, 18 Feb 2002. Article available online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/1826998.stm. Because the childen were found to be negative, angry, and anxious, meditation was introduced at King Richard School and Paulsgrove Primary in Paulsgrove, Portsdown Primary and Medina Primary in Cosham, Saxon Shore Infant School on Portsdown Road, and Westfield Junior School on Jubilee Avenue. Classes often start and end with meditation, and there are weekly sessions where children are encouraged to write down their thoughts in a diary. The school is now a calmer, happier place but the most important thing about the project is that it makes children feel good about themselves, said Kim Wilcocks, head teacher of Portsdown Primary School. Puri, Gopal. Yoga for the family-group. In Gopal Puri, A Wester-Trained Biologist Takes a New Look at an Age Old Eastern Science: Yoga, Relaxation, Meditation. 3d ed. Gopal Puri, 1974. Raghuraj, P., A. Sudha, N. K. Manjunath, S. Telles, and H. R. Nagendra. Depth perception, Muller Lyer and critical flicker fusion measurements show beneficial effects of yoga in school students. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. ___________, and S. Telles. Muscle power, dexterity skill and visual perception in community home girls trained in yoga or sports and in regular school girls. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 1997, 41(4):409-415. ___________, S. Telles, and H. R. Nagendra. Mirror star training studies on the beneficial effects of yoga on school students. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. ___________, S. Telles, and H. R. Nagendra. Visuo-spatial judgment among students undergoing yoga intervention for total personality development. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. Rai, Lajpat. Role of Yoga on Mother and Child Health Care. Haryana, India: Anubhav Rai Publications. Email: Irai@ndf.vsnl.net.in. Rakesh, M., H. Mishra, and H. R. Nagendra. Creative quest test shows highly significant benefits of yoga on school students. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. ___________, S. Telles, and H. R. Nagendra. Tweezer manual dexterity studies on PDC students. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation.

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Rama, Swami. Let the Bud of Life Bloom: A Guide to Raising Happy and Healthy Children. From the website of Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati, swamij.com: Childhood is pure. If we impart good education to our children, become selfless examples for them, and give them love, perhaps they will grow and become the best citizens of the world. Then, the whole universe will bloom like a flower. In Let the Bud of Life Bloom, Swami Rama gives us relevant, practical insights into forming the basis of a happy life through a happy childhood. Through blending the best of our ancient values with new inventions, children can grow into healthy, creative adults. Raman, Dr. Krishna. Children; Teenagers. In Dr. Krishna Raman, A Matter of Health: Integration of Yoga & Western Medicine for Prevention & Cure. Chennai (Madras), India: Eastwest Books, 1998, pp. 39-42; 42-45. Ramchandani, Mahesh. Teen spirit. Yoga and Total Health , May 2000, pp. 10-12. Ratnam, Bala. Yoga Nidra for Teenagers audiotape. URL: www.vbt.com.au. Ravishankar, N. S. Yogic exercises for students. In N. S. Ravishankar, Yoga for Health: Curative Powers of Yogasanas. New Delhi: Pustak Mahal, 2001, p. 174. Rechner, Mary. Teacher profile: Namaste Rosas. YOGANorthwest, Jul-Aug 2002, 1(2):7-8. On Yoga classes for kids taught by seven-year-old Namaste Rosas and his mother, Beverly. Redcliffe, Ingrid. Report on Research on Yoga in Education (U.K.) on the practical uses of RYE techniques. 12 Jun 1987. The RYE approach is not to insert a half-hour Yoga class into the curriculum, but to use Yoga to influence all aspects of the curriculum . . . The potential o RYE is limitless and it is totally compatible with the new research into improving the learning capacity of the individual. Ms. Redcliffes work was mainly in Wandsworth and Fulham schools with children aged five to eleven. She introduced them to a series of physical postures, using them at different times during the day. She also used the guided relaxation techniques of yoga nidra on a regular basis, gradually building up the time limit. In addition, she taught the children visualization as part of relaxation and also in isolation, as a way of organizing and stimulating ideas before commencing a particular task and as an aid to memory. She used a mandala for the same purposes. She states that physical and mental relaxation ensure that the students and teachers energies are utilized to best advantage. This inevitable affects discipline, which is often a major concern for a lot of teachers. She further states that, before I started working with this particular group o children their class teacher observed that they took a long time to settle to any task that they were givenwhich meant a lot of time was wasted. Certainly my observations were that, using the RYE techniques, I overcame this particular problem in a way the children found fun. Redfering, D. L., and M. J. Bowman. Effects of a meditative relaxation exercise on nonattending behaviors of behaviorally distur bed children. Clin Child Psychol, 1981, 10(2):126-127. Redfern, Katie. Even babies go ga-ga for yo- ga. Sunday Mail, 20 Aug 2000, pp. 10,.11.

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Reich, Leah. First-graders demonstrate success of Yoga Arts program. 26 May 2001. Contact lreich@marin.k-12.ca.us, tel.: 415-492-3285. First-grade students at Coleman Elementary School are experiencing the benefits of health and well-being through participation in a pilot program of stretching and relaxation exercises called Yoga Arts Program for Children. Yoga helps children relax and focus which allows them to concentrate on academics more successfully, said Coleman principal Ruth Reynolds. In this era of video games, computer programs and other mass media, it is a marvelous way to slow down the frantic pace of everyday life so that the educational environment has an atmosphere conducive to learning for young children. Regarding the Yoga teacher for the class, Faith James, first-grade teacher Karrie Coulter states, Faiths passion for yoga is contagious to those she is teaching. . . . She has taken the practice of yoga and created a magical, musical wonderland of animal poses the children can understand and emulate. By using songs, movement activities, popular pomes, folktales and hands-on materials, Faith has taught my students the anatomy of their bodies, calming strategies for stress relief and especially to listen to their breath, because breath is life. To date, here are some of the benefits of yoga that Ms. Coulters students have enjoyed. Yoga has: - Taught students how to control their bodies, which is really difficult at a young age - Provided a physical outlet for students who may experience emotional or behavioral anxiety from time to time - Inspired self-awareness and self-confidence - Helped take childrens minds of everyday mishaps - Helped children concentrate and focus - Helped children relax at will and overcome stress Ren. Kundalini Yoga for Children workshop. Fourth Annual Southwest Yoga Conference. Corrales, New Mexico, 8-11 Nov 2001, info@southwestyoga.com. Workshop description: In the first half-hour we will learn about the chakras by identifying them by colors. Colour-My-Chakras fill-in drawing sheets and crayons will be provided. This wil lbe followed by basic breathing techniques, then simple asanas, closing with a short rest (dhyana meditation) and chanting. For children 6-11. Rengifo, Patricia. Kids on a healthy stretch: Children increase flexibility, physical fitness in yoga classes. Times Recorder (Zanesville, Ohio) , 1 Jun 2004. Author email: prengifo@nncogannett.com. . . . Five-year-old Alli Hylton loves practicing yoga, including the up dog, down dog poses. She attends classes at the Fieldhouse, she does it at home with her mom, Lisa, and even goes to the library to find books about yoga.

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She went to the first class with our neighbors and now she loves it, Lisa said. When I do it at home she likes to do it with me. Its something we can do together. Aside from the quality time they spend while doing yoga together, Lisa feels there are health benefits for her daughter. We feel its good for her, she said. Getting kids out and having them do exercises and stretches is healthy. Megyen Green, a certified yoga instructor at the Fieldhouse, agrees. Kids are great to work with. They are like a blank slate, Green said. It teaches them so much. It teaches them self-esteem, social skills and self-image. Green recommends youth yoga classes for children ages 4 to 14, after 14 she recommends the adult class. In adult yoga you do a lot of balance. In youth you dont focus on balance, its more flexibility, Green said . . . My daughter started doing yoga when she was 12, Green said. I could see how it helped her. Her grades improved. My boyfriend has a daughter with severe asthma and when shes with us she does yoga and is much better. There are poses that help open the chest. Even as a student at Ohio University-Zanesville she was instructing yoga classes. At the university I had a chance to take part in a pilot program that took kids from Grover Cleveland Middle School and taught them how to take tests and study skills, Green said. I was doing yoga with them to teach them body awareness and some relaxation exercises. We did a whole bunch of relaxation exercises and one girl said it really helped her improve her test scores. Report on Research on Yoga in Education (U.K.) Seminar Entitled Balancing Energies in the Classroom. 22 Sep 1991. Types of energy one frequently encounters in the classroom: hyperactive, disruptive, or scattered; lethargic, dream, or withdrawn; fidgety and distracted. Techniques are provided for working with each kind of energy. Richardson, Rosamond. Yoga for Bears: A Little Primer on the Unbearable Rightness of Bending. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995. Originally published in Great Britain by Ebury Press under the title Yoga for Beginner Bears. Richmond, Ivan. Silence & Noise: Growing Up Zen in America. New York: Pocket Books, 2003. . . . a series of reflections on how [the authors] childhood at Green Gulch relates to contemporary Buddhism. Ridge, Patricia. Children stretch into art of yoga. The Boston Globe, 25 Feb 2001.

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Rixon, Roy. Effective learning through relaxation [via yoga-nidr]. Yoga in Education Newsletter, May 1999, no. 5. Article available online: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yedn5.htm. ___________. A relaxed Coffs Harbour High! [On teaching yoga-nidr.] Yoga in Education, Feb 2002. Robold, Libby. Yoga and emotional healing for aggressive youth. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 2002, no. 12, pp. 81-88. Rojas, Marcela. Stretching time. Westside Weekly (a supplement to the Los Angeles Times). On Krishna Kaurs West Los Angeles-based Yoga for Youth program for at risk adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18. She takes her program to juvenile detention halls, community youth centers, and schools. Rose, Betsy. Singing dharma with children. Inquiring Mind: A Semi-Annual Journal of the Vipassana Community , Spring 1992, 8(2):21. Rosen, Stephen. Quiet strength for children. Yogitimes, Apr 2004, p. 16. Imagine a lifestyle where a child or teen could meet their lifes challenges with an emphasis on spirituality. It would be great for parents too! Rosenholtz, Stephen. Move Like the Animals. Book and cassette or CD. San Mateo, Calif.: Rosewood Publishing, 1993. Ages 3-8. Rossner, Marilyn Zwaig. Yoga, Psychotherapy, and Children: A New Hope for Children of All Ages from One of the Most Ancient Human Sciences: Yoga. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: The International Institute of Integral Human Studies, 1988. Contents: Introduction to the study: Yoga as an adjunctive therapy to psychoanalysis, behaviour therapy and/or humanistic therapy in the treatment of emotionally disturbed children; Emotional disturbance, psychotherapeutic approaches and yoga: Historical background and research; Yoga as an adjunctive therapy: Ten original descriptive studies; Results of the descriptive studies; Summary of the study; Specific and general conclusions; Appendix: The Model Yoga Program; Extensive bibliography Roth, Beth, and Tracy Creaser. Mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction: Experience with a bilingual inner-city program. The Nurse Practitioner, Mar 1997, 22:150-161. Roy, Sudipta Dutta. Education in the vision of Swami Vivekananda. Prabuddha Bharata, Jul 2001. Rozman, Deborah. Meditating with Children: The Art of Concentration and Centering. Boulder Creek, Calif.: University of the Trees Press, 1975. ___________.. Meditation for Children: Pathways to Happiness, Harmony, Creativity, and Fun for the Family. Boulder Creek, Calif.: Aslan Publishing, 1989.

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Ruiz, Fernando Pags. Yoga for the special child: After caring for her child with Down Syndrome, Sonia Sumar dedicated her life to teaching yoga to developmentally challenged kids. Yoga Journal, Jan/Feb 2003, pp. 79-81. Rust, Amber. Health: Move Over Geriwere the new yoga babes. Sunday Mirror, 3 Jun 2001, pp. 24, 25. The only thing to be seen doing, darling, once youve hurled away your nappie s, is yoga. It may not be quite as high-burn as Astanga yoga, which has given Madonna and Geri Halliwell headline-grabbing washboard stomachs. But more impressiveif youre sixare the claims that kiddy yoga can ease asthma symptoms, help with schoolwork, and aid proper sleep. The emphasis is on fun with lots of role play. Children become snakes and lions, hissing and roaringand, without knowing it, performing classic yoga breathing techniques. In America, of course, they are one step ahead with classes for babies. Over here were content to start around three. The low-impact exercise is ideal for children, maintaining their flexibility with no risk of injury. Parents say it calms hyper children and helps them sleep better. At Newton prep school in Battersea, South London, pupils have yoga classes three times a week. Headmaster Richard Dell says it has improved their concentration dramatically. Yoga expert Dr. RobinMunro believes it can ease childhood asthma. Breathing patterns are deeply entrenched in adults but children can learn how to breathe without any problems. The earlier they start the better, says Dr. Munro, who set up the Yoga Biomedical Trust in 1983.The evidence is such that the National Asthma Campaign has invested pounds 50,000 to fund further research into the link between yoga and helping to ease respiratory problems. Here some mini-yogis show off some of their favourite yoga postures . . . The article next profiles several children who study Yoga. Rutstein, Sande. Yoga and the special child. Spirit of Healing Yoga Therapy Journal. Article available online: http://www.iytyogatherapy.com/news/children.htm. Yoga therapy is incorporated into the occupational therapy program for a seven-year-old girl diagnosed with ADHD. Sande Rutstein, OTR, is an occupational therapist with a special concentration in pediatrics. She works in the Marin County Schools with children with special needs and has a private practice in San Rafael, California. Sande also teaches Yoga to parents and families of children with special needs and gentle movement classes to adults with special needs and those living with chronic illness. She can be contacted at the Yoga Nest, A Nurturing Place for Children and Adults with Special Needs at 415-789-8186. Ruvinsky, Joan. Holding teens attention. Yoga World , Jun-Dec 2001, nos. 18-19, p. 17. Joan teaches Yoga to teens in an alternative school and at a drop-in center for homeless teenagers. Samaltanos, Kathryn. Selfless service. LA Yoga, Jan/Feb 2003, p. 14. For more information, see http://www.yhourkids.ws or call 323-733-8863. On Subhadra Griffiths, an Iyengar Yoga instructor who founded Your Kids Organization (YKO), a minority based nonprofit that brings Yoga into the public school system in Los Angeles. It was established at the Gardener Street Elementary School in 1997 and has subsequently been

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introduced into Rosewood Elementary, Melrose Elementary, and the Jewish Temple of Israel, with plans to introduce a program at Fairfax High School. YKO has also teamed up with the Hollywood YMCA teaching at-risk youth. YogAngels, a performance group created in 1999, is an offshoot of YKO, and consists of students who perform choreographed yoga presentations combining different dance forms with live music. Griffiths states, [The kids] learn to have fun while acquiring the tools to become responsible adults. Griffiths also has made a kids Yoga video to enable students to take their Yoga home. ___________. Kids and yoga: Yoga Essence studio and marketplace, Eagle Rock. LA Yoga, Jul/Aug 2003, p. 13. Imagine you are [a] butterfly adrift in the wind, what color would you be? Or what if youre a tiger, would you hide in the tall grasslands of Asia or gracefully leap through the jungle? If your yoga mat was a magic carpet, what exciting adventure would you go on? It is with this childlike spirit that Cat Carney, the yoga for kids teacher at Yoga Essence, encourages her students to use their imagination while practicing yoga. Santana, Rosa. Motherhood and yoga. Enlightened Practice, Apr/May 2004. (Beautiful article.) Santos, Michele Chan. Yoga for children. Austin American Statesman, 18 Mar 1999. Satchidananda, Swami. Mother is Babys First Guru: Infant Care and Yoga. Pomfret Center: Satchidananda Ashram, 1976. ___________. Pathways to Peace Booklet. Buckingham, Va.: Integral Yoga. Includes an essay on how to be a good parent. Satish, C., N. K. Manjunath, S. Telles, and H. R. Nagendra. Verbo spatial memory studies on school students undergoing yogic training. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. ___________, S. Telles, H. Mishra, and H. R. Nagendra. Beneficial effects of yoga on school students measured by position meter. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. Satyananda, Brother. Spiritualizing family life: Advice for parents and young adults. Self Realization, Summer 2001, pp. 30-38. Satyananda Saraswati, Swami. Surya namaskara for children. In Swami Satyananda Saraswati, Surya Namaskara: A Technique of Solar Vitalization. 3d ed. Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1996, pp. 38-41. ___________. Yoga nidra for children. In Swami Satyananda, Yoga Nidra. Munger, Bihar, India: Yoga Publications Trust,1998, pp. 158-165. ___________, et al. Yoga Education for Children: A Manual for Teaching Yoga to Children. Munger, Bihar, India: Bihar School of Yoga, 1985.

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Contents: Message to Parents and Teachers, Prologue, The Need for a Yoga Based System of Education, Yoga and Problems Specific to Children, Yoga with Preschool Children, Yoga Lessons Begin at Eight, The Cause of Student Unrest and Its Remedy, Yoga: The Solution to the Youth Problem, Better Ways of Education, Yoga at School, Yoga and Education, Questions and Answers about Yoga for Children, Yoga Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Children, Yoga for the Disabled, Yoga Benefits Juvenile Diabetes, Techniques of Yoga for Preschool Children, Techniques of Yoga for Children Aged 7-14, Techniques for Teaching Yoga at School, Asanas and Pranayama (Introduction, Antirheumatic asanas, Antigastric asanas, Energizing asanas, Asana sequences, Relaxation asanas, Animal asanas, Object asanas, Characters & persons, Alphabet asanas, Asanas done in pairs, Pranayama), Syllabus of Yoga Classes, Light of Existence (the game explained), Bibliography, Index Savic, K., D. Pfau, S. Skoric, J. Pfau, and N. Spasojevic. [The effect of Hatha yoga on poor posture in children and the psychophysiologic condition in adults]. Med Pregl, 1990, 43(56):268-272. [Article in Serbo-Croatian (Roman).] Schier, J. G., E. A. Lung , A. Killian, and J. E. Diaz. Alternative therapy in the pediatric population. Academic Emergency Medicine, May 2001, 8(5):450-451. Out of a total of 49 patients, one parent reported using Yoga as an alternative therapy. Use of alternative therapies in general was found to be positively correlated with the parents level of education. The survey was administered by a study investigator to a convenience sample of parents of pediatric patients admitted to an inner-city academic hospital through the ED. Schmitt, Jaime Stover. Parenting on the path. Enlightened Practice, May/Jun 2005, pp. 30-31. Schneider, Tom. Yoga. In Tom Schneider, Everybodys a Winner: A Kids Guide to New Sports and Fitness. San Francisco: The Yolla Bolly Press, 1976. Schnipper, Andrea Feiner. You, your baby, and yoga. American Baby, Sep 1998, p. 12. Schrei, Joshua M. Out of the mouths of (Dharma) babes. Shambhala Sun, Jul 2003, pp. 83-86.A review of Dharma Punx by Noah Levine and Silence & Noise: Growing Up Zen in America by Ivan Richmond that incorporates Schreis own experience of growing up as a second-generation Buddhist in America. Schreiber, Suzanne. Yoga for the Fun of It! Hatha Yoga for Preschool Children. 4th ed. Cincinnati, Ohio: Sugar Marbel Productions, 1991. To order, call 513-761-8000. With a foreword by Lilias Folan, this spiral bound book is easy for adults to use as they help children with and without disabilities learn to enjoy exercise and relaxation. The cute stick figures show the positions, and easy-to-follow instructions explain each exercise. Simple stretching and deep breathing techniques help children relax as they benefit from important age-appropriate developmental and cognitive experiences. Scott, Rebekah. Daycare center features yoga, meditation for youngsters. Pittsburgh PostGazette, 4 Nov 2004. Article available online: http://www.postgazette.com/pg/04309/406168.stm.

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Kids yoga isnt new in Western Pennsylvania. Yoga centers from Coraopolis to Carnegie offer classes for youngsters, but [Tracey] Thomas says she doesnt know of another daycare center with its own yoga studio, meditation room and yoga gym. Wisdom and Wonders is 1 year old, but Thomas has been a grammar school and day care teacher for more than a decade. She opened a day care when she needed one for her daughter and could find nothing suitable. Think about it, she says. A childs life is full of stress, with upheaval at home and constant stimulation from television and lessons and siblings. . . . And when they go to day care, thats stressful too. All those bright colors and flashy entertainment. We take an opposite tack here. Neutral colors, low light, soft music, quiet voices. And yoga. The kids love it. Weve opened the classes to their parents, too, but so far we havent had a single taker. Everyones so busy." Many children see yoga as just another part of their day. Little Austin , at times a holy terror, somehow finds sola ce in yoga. When its time to sit quietly in mediation pose, hes there on his mat, perfectly still for five minutes at a time. Its not time out, its just like quietness all around, the little boy says. Schwartz, Ellen. I Love Yoga: A Guide for Kids and Teens. Tundra Books, 2003. From the publisher: Ellen Schwartz . . . presents the history of yoga, different styles, yoga benefits, concerns, cautions, misconceptions, equipment, and basic postures. There is information for those with physical disabilities and tips on yoga as part of a lifestyle even for those who do not use the posesespecially to de-stress. Semko, Tao. Yoga plays a special role for new moms and mothers-to-be. Enlightened Practice, Apr/May 2004. Sequeira, H. Yoga for children: Asanas and ecology. Yoga & Health , Oct 1997, p. 32. ___________. Exams and yoga. Yoga and Total Health , Oct 2000, p. 16. Seth, Maulshree. For growth pangs, parents give kids a dose of yoga: Over a dozen yoga classes have mushroomed this summer and children with cases of stress are the largest takers. Lucknow Newsline, 16 May 2005. The report card of Rishabh, who tops his class, no longer brings a smile to his mothers face. Rishabh, a student of Class VIII, is losing appetite. After medications failed, the family has now resorted to yoga as therapy for Rishabh. Geeta Singh, Rishabhs mother, was one of the many parents who had come to a city school at 5:45 am to enroll their wards to a yoga camp. My son brings back his lunch-box intact. He is under stress all the time, and gets angry very fast. We are afraid that things might worsen up as he grows up. So we have introduced him to yoga, Singh told Newsline. Another mother, Uma Chauhan, said: I have tried many doctors for my eight-year-old child who is suffering from stress. Only yoga seems to relax him a bit. It is a last resort.

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Numerous yoga schools have mushroomed in the city to handle such cases. Over a dozen yoga camps and classes have started this summer. And most are bursting at the seams. One of the camps visited by Newsline had 200 students in its rolls. All came with individual problems. But lack of concentration and loss of appetite seemed to be the most common. It is surprising that these days, children develop problems like spondylitis, stress, depression, lack of concentration. Instead of playing outdoors, most of the time they are suffering from stomach problems or loss of energy, said Surendra Yachha, Head of the Department, Pediatrics, at Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGI). But health problems apart, the children seem to regard yoga as fun. Some consider it a hobby or simply another form of sport. Even the experts are surprised by the quick headway they are making. These kids are really serious about learning yoga, they grasp various asanas so well. We never expected such results from them, said the instructor, Dr Saroj. Sevananda, Swami, Haris Lender, and Senior Staff. Camp Yogaville. URL: www.yogaville.org. Camp Yogaville is Integral Yoga for kidsa week-long summer camp for children ages 7-11, held at Satchidananda Ashram. Traditional camp activities plus an exploration of all aspects of Yoga. Shad, Deepah. Health Zone - Bodytalk: Child development: Dive in early and tots [benefit], The Mirror, 28 Mar 2002, pp. 44, 45. Little yogis cry less, sleep better and are less prone to illness, according to Dr. Francoise Barbira Freedman, a Cambridge academic who has taught baby yoga for over 15 years. She believes the ancient Indian practice boosts the overall development of tots as young as three weeks old. Western babies dont get enough exercise. They are strapped in car seats and prams or are left in cots, says Dr. Freedman, whose work as a medical and social anthropologist was inspired by studying parenting in the Amazon. Yoga offers powerful multi-sensory stimulation for babies. Touch alone contributes to the development of the brain and nervous system and improves the bodys systems. That includes the digestive system which helps babies avoid constipation and colic. They also sleep better because a baby is as active in one session as they usually would be all day. Benefits include the development of supple joints and a stronger spine. She says: Weve noticed that yoga babies are better toned and are very good crawlers. Yoga encourages the spine to unfold from its curled fetal position, helping the baby gain neck control and strengthen its muscles. It also offers stimulation related to balance and experience of heights. But Dr. Freedman, founder of childbirth trust Birthlight, stresses yoga is not to get new arrivals developing faster. Yoga is a way of talking to your baby non-verbally and getting to know his or her needs, she says.

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Shahar, Charles. Meditation in the early years. Yoga & Health , Dec 1997, pp. 10-11. Shakti, Kartikeya. Teaching Yoga in a primary school. Yoga in Education Newsletter, May 1999, no. 5. Article available online: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yedn5.htm. Shaktidhyanam. Yoga with children in a small school. Yoga in Education, May 1999. Shape up. Teen, Sep 1998, 42(9):48. (Stress relief with Yoga.) Sharma, Hari M., Michael C. Dillbeck, and Susan L. Dillbeck. Implementation of the Transcendental Meditation program and Maharishi Ayur-Veda to prevent alcohol and drug abuse among juveniles at risk. In David F. OConnell and Charles N. Alexander, eds., Self -Recovery: Treating Addictions Using Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayur-Veda. Binghamton, N.Y.: Harrington Park Press, 1994, pp. 429-457. Shaw, Maura D. Thich Nhat Hanh: Buddhism in Action. Woodstock, Vt.: Skylight Paths, 2003. Introduces young children to Thich Nhat Hanh. Makes early spiritual exploration with children a learning and loving experience . . . Through warm illustration, friendly photos, inspiring ageappropriate activities, and Thich Nhat Hanhs own poems, this first-of-its-kind biography introduces a great man to young children in away they can understand and enjoy. Includes resources for parents and teachers, including a list of important words to know and a timeline of important events in the life of Thich Nhat Hanh. Shaw, Michelle. Teen parents seek stress relief through yoga. Community Journal (North Clermont, Ohio), 13 Jul 2005. Pregnancy can be a stressful time for any woman, much less a teenager who is trying to balance pregnancy with school and work. Young women in Clermont County are getting the opportunity to relieve stress through yoga, from the help of a new program called Project Lotus Blossom. Julie Toren, yoga instructor at TriHealth and East Side Wellness Connection, started the free classes as part of a project from Landmark Education. I was looking for a group that could benefit from (yoga), but wouldnt necessarily be something they could find on their own, Toren said. Toren teaches a prenatal class at TriHealth and found herself inspired to help young mothers who might not be able to afford class. The reason I chose to go into this, was what I got out of it, Toren said. Its not just about the physical benefits. Yoga also provides self-esteem and respect. Working with Carolyn Quickel, GRADS instructor at Glen Este, Batavia, Amelia and Clermont Northeastern, Toren gathered a group of teens who were either pregnant or had just given birth to participate in these classes.

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GRADS, which stands for Graduation, Reality and Dule Role Skills, is a program offered by Great Oaks to help support teen parents through graduation. These girls are really busy with school, jobs and babies, Quickel said. Regardless of their busy schedules many of the girls in the program had expressed interest in finding a way to relieve stress during pregnancy and tone up after the birth of their child. Yoga can first help with breathing. It allows for various breathing patterns. There is also a focus on pain management. The postures support and strengthen parts of the body that are stressed by pregnancy, Toren said. Every Tuesday night for six weeks the girls meet to focus on their health and the health of their child. They are happy to have a place to talk about it and get support, Toren said. Im not doing anything different with them than I would in any other class. I'm just giving them the time and space to get together. In order to expand the project, Toren is looking to write a grant under a non- profit. This project is keeping me grounded in why Im teaching, Toren said. I want to be with the community and give back to them. To receive more information on Project Lotus Blossom, contact Julie Toren at 513-403-7337 or on her Web site at www.julieanntoren.com. Sherwell, Philip. Yoga, facials and hypnobirthing classit must be summer camp. Telegraph (U.K.), 3 Jul 2005. Julie Washabaugh, 14, is a fan of Pilates, kickboxing and belly dancing. Thirteen-year-old Peter Pensuwan likes the Budokon class with its mix of karate, yoga and meditation. And Ellie Barton, also 13, is having a shiatsu massage after a morning workout. Welcome to American summer camp, class of 2005. This rite of passage for teenagers used to entail several weeks communing with nature, hiking through woods and swimming in ponds. Accommodatio n was a bunk-bed in log cabinswith complimentary mosquitos and bugs. These institutions, where generations of British students worked during their summers, are dotted across rural America. But the lure of the wild is waning for a generation brought up on computers and mobile phones. The new face of summer camps is on display at Bryn Mawr, a college near Philadelphia whose alumni include the actress Katharine Hepburn. The Julian Krinsky/Canyon Ranch Young Adult Summer Programme for your high-energy vacation of sports and lifestyle experiences started here last week . . . For Torie Zalben, the world of yogic meditation is nothing new. The 17-year-old from Beverly Hills was taught its principles by her father, who once lived on an ashram in India. I was attracted by the spiritual aspect of the camp, she said. Miss Washabaugh, from Michigan, went

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to traditional summer camps when she was younger. We did all the usual stuff like hiking and swimming, but it got boring. Here Im learning stuff about healthy eating and exercise that will be useful for my whole life. This camp is definitely better suited to kids today . . . Despite the lean cuisine, facials and massages, Tina Krinsky, who runs the business with her husband Julian, a former South African tennis professional, insisted they were not offering a spa camp. We are catering to today's kids and the fact is they arent interested in the same things they used to be. The iPod generation doesn't want to spend several weeks in a log cabin. The Krinskys allow youngsters to use their mobiles and computers, while most groups registered with the National Camp Association ban them. Across America, more of the estimated 10,000 summer camps are offering similar programmes . . . Some traditionalists, however, feel that the new style of camp offers too much emphasis on pampering and not enough on the great outdoors. Michael Humes, whose family have run Camp Regis-Applejack in New York State's Adirondack Mountains for the past 60 years, said: Its important that people learn about nature and the environment and the importance of having respect for them. Its hard to do that when you're getting a facial done. Shiels, Maggie. Meditate your way to success: Teachers across the UK are searching for ways to tackle classroom discipline. One experiment in California is having significant results. BBC Online News, San Francisco, 15 May 2002. Article available online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1988800.stm. On Phyllis Camps Yoga class in the physical education department at James Lick School (public school) and third-grade teacher Craig Strongs use of Yoga to improve concentration and as an aid in reinforcing certain subjects at Cathedral School for Boys (private school). Some comments from the children: I think its affecting my school work. I used to do really bad, now Im getting good grades and yoga makes me concentrate on all my tests and homework. I go to math class . . . and it helps you a lot. It makes you relax and do good work. It gives us more strength in our legs and helps us to get stronger and run faster. I do track and it helps my legs. Im a smart person. Im not trying to say I know a lot but I think it helps me relax. I just think, wow, yoga is really cool. Shin, Laura. Yoga goes to school: It used to be one school at a time. Now its district by district. LA Yoga, Jul/Aug 2004, pp, 36-40. Just getting into a school a few years ago was a big deal. Now we have conversations at the district level. Thats the shift. If school districts start to go, then states will start to go.Leah Kalish, director of Yoga Ed. Shrivastava, Anusha. Yogas popularity now includes youngsters. The New York Times, 24 Jul 2003. Article available online: http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/business/AP-Yoga-for-

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Tots.html. Also available online as Yoga craze spills over to preschoolers: http://www.cnn.com/2003/EDUCATION/07/25/offbeat.yoga.ap. For teachers like . . . Jodi Komitor, [teaching Yoga to children] is a fast-expanding business. Two years ago, she taught 50 children a week at her Next Generation Yoga studio on Manhattans Upper West Side. Now there are 150, paying $20 per 45-minute class. Co-author of The Complete Idiots Guide to Yoga with Kids, Komitor hosts yoga-themed birthday parties for eight at $515, not including food, and trains other instructors, 20 at a time, at $795 per person for a four-day session. She sells animal motif relaxation blankets for $75, and a collection of yoga video tapes for kids ages 2 to 7 sell for $16.99 each. She has her own video in the works, as well as a chain of studios. Im starting a childrens yoga clothing line next, she said. As health-conscious adults discover the virtues of yoga, they want their young ones to stretch, bend and squirm, preferably striking yoga poses in the process. Yoga is good discipline, said Suzanne Koppelman, Jenna Katzs mother. She is a very active child and it is good for her to slow down. It is good for her flexib ility, too. . . .With the older kids, we talk about breathing and meditation, says Komitor. With the youngest ones, we focus on a positive experience so that they become curious about yoga. It is a visual and sensory experience. Toby Reiner, a yoga instructor at Yoga Sol in Delray Beach, Fla., said the discipline offers a non-stress alternative to other sports. Parents are realizing that it is better for children to do yoga than be involved in competitive sports or Little League, she said. Reiner said most of her students parents practice yoga themselves. They notice a major difference in the kids when they take yogathey are calmer and their balance improves. Helen Garabedian, who runs Itsy Bitsy Yoga in Marlboro, Mass., said the form of exercise is liberating for children in a modern, restrictive world. Her classes cost $15 per session, with younger siblings getting a 50 percent discount. Parents are paying more attention to the importance of movement as children spend more and more time confinedeither in car seats or small yards, she said. Her business has quadrupled in the past four years. She says she adds over 200 names a year, although she teaches only two days a week, down from four. She uses her spare time to train instructors for branches opening in California, Florida and North Carolina, later this year. Forty people have signed up for training at $650 per person. Tanya Seaton, manager with Datamonitor, an information company specializing in industry analysis, said a factor in the yoga trend is an increase in the affluence and the age of parents. With

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money to spend, they look for activities beyond the playground, and are more likely themselves to be taking yoga classes. With 11.3 million children under the age of three in the U.S., yoga instructors have plenty of opportunity to grow business, she said. Siegel, Robert. Profile: Yoga for young children. All Things Considered (NPR), 8 May 2001. Robert Schoenstein: For stressed-out kids around Boston, theres now in Somerville a kind of itsy-bitsy rehab called O Two Yoga. This is the age of what is known as push parenting, and O Two Yoga is a response to that, to parents who are trying to make super kids, but who sometimes make mini-neurotics instead. Yoga supposedly soothes these frazzled tots, some of whom are as young as two and are training their psyches before their bladders. Every Wednesday at 3 in Somerville, about a dozen of them escape from their saturated schedules and mellow out with a young teacher named Tara Kerry . . . Singleton, Mark. Exams the yoga way. Yoga & Health , May 2004, pp. 13-15. Excerpted from Mark Singleton, Yoga for You and Your Child. Duncan Baird Publishers, 2004. Exams can be the most stress events of a childs life. This is why it is vital, during the revision and exam period, that children practise the techniques and skills they have learned in Yoga to avoid getting swept away in work and exam panic. As school life becomes more and more testorientated from an increasingly early age, Yoga has the tools to help kids survive. ___________. Yoga for You and Your Child: The Step by Step Guide to Enjoying Yoga with Children of All Ages. Duncan Baird Publishers, 2004. Over 40 yoga poses adapted for children to make them safe, effective and fun for children. Includes variations for younger and older children and special features of yoga games. Sink, Mindy. Yoga in Aspen public schools draws opposition. The New York Times, Religion Journal, 8 Feb 2003. Article available online: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/08/national/08RELI.html or http://www.indolink.com/Religion/r16.php. On conservative Christian resistance to teaching Yoga in public schools. ___________. Is yoga a spiritual or religious practice? INDOlink. Article available online: http://www.indolink.com/Religion/r16.php. Discusses objections some conservative Christians have to teaching Yoga in public schools and legal rulings that have been given in these instances. Skolnick, Adam. Seeds of change: Yoga for troubled youth. Yoga International, Oct/Nov 2002, pp. 78-85. On Krishna Kaurs nonprofit Yoga for Youth organization and the many inner city venues in which she and other Yoga for Youth teachers bring Kundalini Yoga. Venues discussed include Camp Kilpatrick in Malibu, California, and Barry J. Niedorf Juvenile Hall and Watts Learning Center, a public elementary school, both in Los Angeles, California.

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___________. The yoga of empowerment. LA Yoga, Jan/Feb 2003, 2(1). Article available online: http://www.layogapages.com/issue3/feature/feature.htm. Discusses the Yoga Education Network (Yoga Ed), founded by Tara Gruber, whose goal is to bring Yoga to all Los Angeles United School District (LAUSD) students through a proposed mandatory Yoga education program. With only one program initiated to date, much work remains to be done. Ms. Gruber and Leah Kailish have created a 36-week comprehensive curriculum and been granted the opportunity by the LAUSD and the Aspen, Colorado, school board to conduct a pilot program they hope will be replicated in school systems throughout the United States. The pilot program in Los Angeles is being conducted at the Accelerated School, a K-8 charter school in South Central Los Angeles, and is designed to demonstrate the link between body, mind, and community. In grades K-2, classes are geared to help children gain physical awareness, in grades 3-5 to develop mental awareness and learn how the mind and body influence one another, and in grades 6-8 to examine self in relation to the community. At each level, classes incorporate postures, games, partner poses, breath work, visualization, affirmations, and relaxation. Marlene Canter, a School Board member, views Yoga as being integral to the future of education because it involves development of habits of mind. Yoga practice involves concentration, commitment, and perserverance, says Canter. Students who are unable to access these habits of mind wont be successful. Sky, Maggie. How to Teach Relaxation to Children workshop. Contact: learn2relax@yahoo.com. Maggie Sky, M.A., R.Y.T., is a certified Kripalu Yoga instructor and a psychotherapist. She runs her private practice in Brookline, Massachusetts, where she works with children, teens, and adults both privately and in groups. She also teaches a childrens program The Art of Chillin Out at Kripalu Center for Health in Lenox, Massachusetts. Slomkowski, Heidi. Yoga eases students anxieties. Branford Review, 15 Aug 2005. Through administrating and practicing yoga, Leslie Stewarts third grade students at John B. Sliney Elementary School have found it easier to remain focused during the day and overcome anxieties experienced while taking tests. It was great for my class because there were a lot of kids who had personal issues and testing anxieties. It changed the climate of the classroom, she said. Last year, when she derived the initial idea of a yoga program for her students, Stewart had luck on her side. Kathryn Templeton, who was the room parent for the class and is also the instructor and owner of Yoga Fusions in Branford, happily obliged to Stewarts request to teach the art, which dates back about 5,000 years, to Stewart and her students on Monday mornings. I taught philosophies that applied to their everyday lives, she said. After a month of learning it, they mastered it and owned it and could go and teach it to someone else. Under the guidance of Principal Kathleen Higgins, Stewart sought and was awarded with the necessary funds from the Inspiration Grant Program, a program sponsored by the Branford

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Education Foundation, to continue the yoga experience. With the goal of expanding it to include other classrooms, she will be presenting the program to the Branford Board of Education on Aug. 10 . . . Slovacek, Simeon P., Susan A. Tucker, and Laura Pantoja. A study of the Yoga Ed program at The Accelerated School. Article available online: http://www.yogaed.com/img/researcharticle.pdf Abstract: This study examines the relationship of yoga instruction in an inner-city school to several significant outcome variables, including academic performance, discipline, attendance, and students attitudes about themselves, yoga and school. 405 students, 18 core subject teachers, and yoga instructors in this K-8 charter urban school were involved in the study. Academic performance, positive student attitudes about themselves, student physical fitness levels, and student behavior were all positively related to students participation levels in yoga. Summary of findings: This study examined the relationship of Yoga instruction in an inner-city school to several significant student outcome variables, including academic performance, discipline, attendance, and students attitudes about themselves, Yoga and school. 405 students, 18 core subject teachers, and Yoga instructors in this urban K-8 charter school were involved in the study. The findings were: Yoga class participation appears to help students improve their attitudes toward themselves. Student agreement with self-esteem questions was significantly greater at the end of the year, with a 20% increase in students feeling good about themselves. This was statistically significant (t=.779, n=305, p<.001). Yoga class participation helped improve students behavior. Findings show there exists significant negative correlations between student Yoga participation and bad behavior as measured by school discipline referrals for elementary students (r = .463, p<.01) and for middle school students (r = -.367, p<.01). Thus, those students who had high participation rates in Yoga class had fewer referrals or discipline problems. Yoga class participation helped improve students physical health. TAS students are significantly more physically fit (23.4% more 5th graders on average were rated fit and 28.5% more 7th graders were rated physically fit) when compared to the school district mean levels of fitness. This is particularly significant given the major role Yoga plays in physical education at the school. Yoga class participation helped students perform better in school academically. Grades (GPAs) were correlated with yoga participation (r = .399, p<.01). The correlation is particularly significant in that it suggests students tend to benefit academically by diligently practicing Yoga. Yoga class participation did not appear to improve students attitudes toward school nor did it appear to be related to students attendance levels, which were already high at the school.

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Smith, Linda. Parent/Child Healing Meditations and Visualizations audiotape. Lenox, Mass.: Kripalu Center. Smith, Pohla. Time for Yoga in Schools: Pilot program will introduce the practice to youngsters in three schools. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 31 Aug 2005. Its time for the students to take a test, but theyre all sleepy-eyed and lethargic. Whats a teacher to do? In three local schools, they have the option of segueing into a few minutes of eye-opening yoga before handing out the exams. The 5-minute to 15-minute sessions, which the teachers can do at any time the exercise seems warranted, are all part of Yoga in Schools, a 16-week pilot project running this school year via a $35,000 grant from The Grable Foundation. The involved schools are the Urban League of Pittsburgh Charter School in East Liberty, the Pittsburgh Urban Christian School in Wilkinsburg and the Helen S. Faison Arts Academy in Homewood. The involved kids range from kindergarten to eighth grade. In addition to the mini-, teacher-taught sessions, the students will have weekly 30 minute to 40 minute-classes (depending on the grade) taught by trained yogis. Yoga in Schools founder and executive director Joanne Spence said she believes the more than 600 students she, her staff and the teachers are reaching will benefit from increased physical and emotional fitness. In terms of physical fitness, theyll be stronger, more limber and more able to participate in activities kids like to participate in, like soccer, she added. Theyre learning to manage their emotional states. Like [if they feel] stresssit down and breathe. That would be increasing their emotional fitness. That will increase their focus and concentration. And that makes for better learning, she said, "mostly because the state necessary for children to learn in is being present in the moment. If children are able to do that, come to that place, the teacher will be able to teach them." Yoga in Schools was inspired by Spences previous career as a social worker specializing with at-risk youth and by her own experience with the benefits of the ancient Eastern discipline. Eight years ago, she was injured in a serious car accident that left her in chronic pain until she took an intensive, three-day yoga course two years later. She continued to study, eventually becoming a yogi. She now operates her own studio, FitnessYoga , in Regent Square. Throughout the development of my [yoga] practice, I thought often of the many children I had previously worked with as a social worker, and what a difference these simple movements and breathing practices would have made for the children in those years of social work practice, Spence wrote in her grant application to Grable . . . Smolski, Anne -Marie. Yoga? We kid you not. The Wellesley Townsman, 24 Mar 2005.

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Mary Kaye Chryssicas sees herself as a kids person. At Thanksgiving, shed rather be sitting with the kids than at the adults table. I always wanted to be working with children, she says. And this mother of three has found a way to do that, by teaching yoga to kids, including her own three, Tyler, 11, Ashton, 9, and Grant, 6. Having resigned from a job as advertising director for Boston Magazine to raise her children, Chryssicas searched for a career that she could do from her Wellesley home. Since she had always wanted to write, she decided to pen childrens books, but received many rejection letters. Then she discovered yoga. Actually, people had always told her that she should do yoga, but when she had tried it, 18 years before, she felt that people just seemed to sit around in class, something that didnt suit her. Many years later, she noticed that a good friend, Karen McGee, had become so confident and positive and peaceful that she wanted to know McGees secret. When her friend credited the change to yoga, Chryssicas said, I want to do that with you, and we started doing it in her living room." Because of the positive and transformational effects yoga had on her as well, Chryssicas encouraged her friend to open a yoga studio. McGee took her advice and opened up the Yoga Spot in Wellesley Hills. While McGee taught the moms, Chryssicas taught basic yoga to their kids. At first, she says, she essentially provided day care. Then she got additional training, and today, she not only teaches at the Yoga Spot, but also gives classes to children age 6 to 14 at other locations, including the Wellesley Recreation Center, Kids Time in Wellesley and in various public and private schools. With yoga surging in popularity, she even does yoga birthday parties She credits teaching yoga with helping to get her first childrens book published. I Love Yoga, published by DK Publishing and due out this September. In this world of overscheduling children, Chryssicas says that parents and kids really dont count yoga as an activity because its so relaxing. In her classes, she sees athletes who want to be more flexible, kids with scoliosis, weight issues and depression, and kids who just want to move their bodies and get exercise. Since yoga is noncompetitive, the kids dont feel any pressure. They do feel like they can trust me, Chryssicas says, because Im not going to judge them, because I dont expect them to be perfect. The atmosphere is informal. As Chryssicas says, I make the classes crazy fun. During a recent class, for example, she conducted the entire session using a heavy Texas accent. Another time she dressed up in a wig and played a movie star who showed up to teach the class, telling her students that Mary Kaye couldnt come that day In her classes, her students are allowed to laugh and talk and ask questions. Chryssicas knows they cant keep quiet for an hour and she doesnt expect them to.

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In addition to all the poses she teaches them, she talks to them about social issues at school, about how to treat others and how to be a good friend. She also shares with them embarrassing situations she experienced as a kid. I say, Next time youre in an embarrassing situation and you just think youre going to pass out, I want you to first breathe and then think of what happened to Mary Kaye, and it wont seem that embarrassing. She tells them about these memories so the kids will know theyll be fine. You get past these things and you learn to laugh at yourself, and you dont take yourself so seriously, she says. She also tells her students, As long as you treat others with kindness, good things will happen to you. Chryssicas knew yoga would work for kids because of what it had done for her. She says she saw a difference in me and how I reacted to little things like traffic and things friends said. I mean things people say that normally you would be offended [by]. It just started rolling off of me. I saw a change in my body. A former gymnast who had trained eight hours a day, she says shes stronger now from practicing yoga. When you do yoga, she says, you open up all areas that you never open in sports. Yoga opens part of the body where stress is stored. It changes your body and mind over time, Chryssicas says. At a recent class at the Yoga Spot, Chryssicas started the class off by telling the young yogis to start in the lotus or easy pose. While the class bends to one side, she tells them, If youd like, you can tickle your friends armpit. The kids erupt into giggles. The students, all girls, are wearing yoga pants and tank tops or T-shirts. They get into upper dog and downward dog poses. Theres the tree pose, eagle pose and partner pose. Chryssicas even takes special requests for certain poses. She says the crow is their all-time favorite pose. The kids seem focused, but happy and relaxed. Its not a contest in yoga, Chryssicas reminds them. She even plays a Ricky Martin tune and asks her students to come up with their favorite moves to the song. Her class is one-third entertainment, one-third yoga and one-third relaxation and breathing techniques. While instructing the class to do a particular type of breathing that sounds like the ocean, she suggests they use it as a little coping technique, for those times when that friend says you cant play with us, or if someone says your socks dont match. Chryssicas sees yoga as something that empowers kids. She says when the body and core are strong, you stand straight and hold your head high. That gives a strong first impression and over time gives kids the confidence to be themselves. Chryssicas wants each child to embrace who they are and to stop telling themselves that they cant draw or cant write very well. I always talk about how we become our thoughts and try to

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explain that concept in kid terms so they understand ... in savasana [at the end of class] we imagine the negative thoughts as clouds and watch them go away. She has watched her own daughter, Ashton, calm herself by remembering how to breathe. One time, it was when mom was late getting to the school bus and Ashton was returned to school. Ashton told her mother, Mom, I just took really deep breaths and I didnt even cry. That was amazing to me, Chryssicas says, because I expected to see this red-faced crying girl at the school ... and she just completely sank into the yoga breathing. Another time, Ashton sliced her thumb trying to open a can of dog food. She was crying and upset and shaky when she got to the emergency room. Her mom reminded her to do yoga breathing and she just self calmed. The nurses and doctors were amazed. She was able to go from hystericalwhat are they going to do to mto take care of me, Chryssicas says. As further testimony to the positive effects of yoga, Chryssicas has recently received good news about her daughter, Tyler. When diagnosed with scoliosis, the doctors recommended yoga and physical therapy. On her most recent X-ray, the scoliosis was undetectable. Although there is no real proof that yoga was the answer, Chryssicas says her daughter was religious about doing the exercises several times a week . . . The Walker School is for children who havent succeeded in a traditional school setting, says Dave Hyman, volunteer coordinator at the school. Chryssicas just has an amazing ability to get kids involved who you think might not necessarily want to get involved, he says. In addition to kids getting to learn a new way of exercising, they also learn techniques to self calm, he says. Sovatsky, Stuart. Consciousness, Kundalini Yoga, and body development. Paper presented at Brain, Consciousness, Neuroscience Conference, Chennai, India, 9 Mar 2001. Article available online: http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/i_es/i_es_sovat_yoga_frameset.htm. That is called [Yogic developmental] action of the body in which reason takes no part and which does not originate as an idea springing in the mind. To speak simply, yogis perform actions with their bodies, like the movements of children. Jnaneshvar, 1987, p.102 From the abstract: In this paper I hypothesize that the so-called practices of sahaja (innatelyarising) Kundalini (ultimate creatrix originating at the spines sacral base) Yoga (and crosstradition similars, e.g., Judaic davvening, Tibetan tumo heat, Chinese tai chi, Islamic zikr, Quaker quaking, the whirling of the Dervish, etc.) constitute auto-developmental movements and bodily maturations consistent with those of intrauterine gestation, infant movements, and teenaged puberty. Although these practices are typically learned by rote mimicry of standard Yoga poses, breathing exercises, moral guidances, or meditation techniques, according to the tradition and contemporary clinical reports, they can emerge endogenously-animated by prana or Kundalini, as it wereas the 13th century adept, Jnaneshvar notes above. I assert that these

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Yogic kriyas or developmental actions (and cross-tradition similars) constitute what might credibly be termed postgenital puberties of the neuroendocrine system and, thus, the matured embodiment of citta, the light of consciousness itself in various yogically defined energies and secretions: ojas, virya, auras, amrita-soma (the substance of primary worship in the Rig Veda) among them. Sparrowe, Linda. The heart of parenting: Bringing up conscious kids is a practice in itself. How can we nurture their spiritsand renew ours at the same time? Yoga Journal, Jul/Aug 1997, pp. 78-85, 176-179. Spiers, Katie. Mummy & me. Australian Yoga Life, 2003, no. 6, pp. 28-30. Many women take up yoga in pregnancy, as it provides a wonderful opportunity to bond with their unborn baby, have some rest and relaxation time and help keep them fit and flexible. Unfortunately, once motherhood becomes a reality it is often difficult to maintain any semblance of previous lifestyle and routines, let alone a yoga practice . . . Your own ability to relax teaches your baby how to relax as well, so that you can enjoy life together. Physical, emotional, mental and spiritual well[-]being after giving birth requires that you learn to nurture yourself in deep relaxation. Only then can you truly nurture anyone else. Staff development day at a primary school. Yoga in Education, Aug 1997. Stark, Anna. Dalai Lama speaks to 10,000 Idaho children. Weiser Signal American, 14 Sep 2005. The terms quiet and 10,000 children in the same place at the same time almost seems like an oxymoron. Yet, I could have heard a pin drop on the Wood River High School football field Monday as His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama entered to speak to the children of Idaho. The children (and adults) in attendance offered a quiet respect which was incredible. It seems that all persons there were ready to receive the Dalai Lamas universal message of peace and compassion. The Dalai Lama seemed to be genuinely delighted to be in the presence of the children. His pathway into the stadium was lined with children holding signs. He greeted them each with a respectful bow, touch of the hand, or kind words. He appeared to be oblivious to the drizzle of rain coming down and totally focused on the children. Though the Dalai Lama is a leader of Buddhism, his message was one of universal love and compassion. He told the children that when he was a child, he played fighting games sometimes, and this is all right. He stressed, however, that fighting games are not part of the deeper, basic human nature. He said, Basic human nature loves peace, love, more gentleness, more compassion. The Dalai Lama told the children to respect the rights and views of others and to settle differences through dialogue. He said, In reality, we have to respect others views. There is no victory for one side. The Dalai Lama said, Young people are the shapers of the new planet. We are ready to turn responsibility over to you, the young. After a violent 20th century, his message is for one of peace and compassion through dialogue for the 21st century . . .

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Staton, Laura, and Sara Perron. Baby Om: Yoga for Mothers and Babies. New York: Henry Holt, 2002. From the publisher: How does a new mother get back her shape without giving up precious time with her baby? In Baby Om, [the] authors . . .both dancers, yoga instructors, and moms themselvesanswer the new mothers need for a calming and rigorous way to align and strengthen her body while having fun with her baby. Based on their popular New York classes of the same name, Baby Om takes mothers through a yoga practice they can do with their infants anytime and anywhere. The techniques help new mothers enjoy the spiritual and physical benefits of yoga, allowing them to nurture themselves as well as their babies. This easy-to-use book includes: Baby Om basicsthe practical information you need to get started, baby engagement how to play with and stimulate your baby during yoga, four step-by-step Baby Om classeseach concentrating on a unique stage in your childs development. The beautiful illustrations and photographs in Baby Om capture the intimate sharing between mother and child, and create a visual model for how to achieve the poses at home. Safe, effective, and easy to learn, Baby Om brings mother and baby together, ensuring the health and happiness of both. Steffens, Sara. Front and centered: In baby yoga class, its never too early to start lowering the stress. Contra Costa Times, 26 Jun 2001. Article available online: http://www.contracostatimes.com/health/stories_fitness/x26baby-yoga_20010626.htm. (If this link no longer works, search the Times archive.) Steffensen, Sharon. Sonia Sumar and yoga for the special child. YOGAChicago, Jan-Feb 2002, pp. 12-13. ___________. Yoga is it: Fitness maven Lisa Weber discovers her true calling. YOGAChicago, Jul-Aug 2002, pp. 4-5. (See section on teaching Yoga to kindergartners at Willard Elementary in Evanston, Illinois.) Lisa introduced yoga, based on Marsha Wenigs YogaKids program, to all three kindergarten classes three times a week for a half hour. There were more than 20 children in the classes and their response was tremendous and incredible, says Lisa. When she walked into the school, kindergartners who spotted her would start sayin g, O-o-o-m-m-m. In class, they would gather around her for a big group hug. Lisa would open the class with a seated meditation . . .The children would then do child-oriented poses, such as dog, cat, lion and cobra, while making animal sounds. Some times stories, songs or art were incorporated. Or they might do yoga dance to upbeat music with childrens lyrics, with Lisa calling out yoga poses for them to do. Savasana at the end lasted sometimes for only three inhalations and three exhalations. They love it [savasana] when its done in a loving way, says Lisa. They are not getting into trouble and being told to be quiet!. . . . Now, Lisa says, Willard Elementary is considering implementing yoga through the physical education department for all the children, kindergarten through fifth grade. ___________. Yoga at Agassiz Elementary School. YOGAChicago, Sep-Oct 2002, p. 32.

Article available online: http://www.yogachicago.com.


___________. Yoga on magic carpets. YOGAChicago, May-Jun 2003, p. 14.

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Once a week, fourth and fifth graders at Christa McAuliffe Elementary School in Tinley Park get up early to do yoga for 45 minutes before school begins. Between 30 and 40 of them show up with their yoga towels for a class with Donna Furmanek, who teaches first grade at the school. Donna attributes part of the huge success of the yoga club to the neighborhood, which she says is very activity oriented, with go-getter type kids . . . The parents have told Donna that the kids love it. Nobody forces them to come, but attendance is consistent . . . This is Donnas second year leading the yoga club, although she started doing yoga with the students 15 years ago, when she began teaching kindergarten. She found yoga poses in books; on their magic carpets children would be a bird, be a frog, be a tree. Donna called it creative movement . . . ___________. Yoga for teens. YOGAChicago, Sep-Oct 2003. Article available online: http://www.yogachicago.com/sep03/teens.shtml. Steinkraus, David. Yoga isnt all about muscles, not even for kids. The Journal Times (Racine), 20 Apr 2005. Article available online: http://www.journaltimes.com/articles/2005/04/20/health/iq_3483962.txt. This is not the era of the calm child. From video games to schedules crammed with sports and other activities, this is the era of the busy child, as active as a waterfall. What Joe Mayer has in mind is children more like a still pond, giving them a place inside themselves where they can be calm and relaxed. His tool for doing this is yoga, which he has practiced for about a decade and in which he'll offer a children's class at the YWCA starting April 26. In the images we commonly see, yoga is a physical discip line. Its a way of toning the muscles and increasing flexibility and balance. It is true. It is a good exercise, but its not the full picture. Actually what is taught in the yoga class is the mind, Mayer said. In a couple minutes or a couple breaths, we teach the mind to let go. People who practice yoga learn to calm themselves quickly and evade stress, he said. In its highest form, yoga is really a spiritual discipline, Mayer said. Yoga clears all the garbage from the subconscious, where we store up shame and humiliations, which can limit us, or the extreme desire for pleasure, which can lead to addictions . . . What people use yoga for todayincreased strength and flexibilityare byproducts of that spiritual purpose, he said, yet one need not master this whole philosophy. For example, its not necessary to understand the complete function of a car to use the car, or computer . . . So people dont have to understand everything to feel and use yoga meditation . . . In a 2001 survey, the American Academy of Pediatrics asked some of its members about their recommendations to patients on the use of complimentary and alternative medicine . . . Of 733 respondents, 55 percent said they recommended yoga as part of an asthma treatment regimen, and

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24 percent said they recommended it for children with ADHD. The idea he brought away from looking at the survey, said Dr. Fernando Rustia, 48, a pediatrician at the Aurora Health Care clinic in Mount Pleasant, was that many physicians are aware of yoga but are not that familiar with it. And Im not really that familiar with yoga, he said. If youre considering putting your child in yoga, or any organized program, its important to consider your childs physical and mental development; if theyre unable to comprehend the activity, or if theyre physically unable to perform it, they may feel like failures, Rustia said. Activities of 20 or 30 minutes duration are best. Thats probably all that they can handle. And the activ ities should not be too rigid. They tend to do better with the unstructured, spontaneous and kind of a free-flowing activity, Rustia said. Only a disk or spinal problem might preclude a child from participating in one of his classes; such problems should be checked with a phys ician first, Mayer said. Rustia agreed. Any exercise for children should not include excessive flexing or extensions of the neckthe kind of exercise college football players dobecause childrens growth plates are not stable, he said. Yoga would be acceptable for children of about age 7 and older, he said. Aside from being aware of their childs level of development, parents enrolling children in any organized activity should also be aware of its goals and should take care that the program meets the childs goal, Rustia said. Such divisions between parental and child outlooks is the cause of problems with young children in sports, he said. Parents push their children too hard because their expectations are adult expectations, not child expectations. Based on his experience teaching in a couple of schools, Mayer said, children 6 and older enjoy the exercises much more. Flexibility For children, class will be different, Mayer said. Hes taken some training in how to teach children, he said, and so his class at the YWCA will emphasize brevity and activity. Instead of the hour or more he spends teaching adults, his childrens class will be 30 to 45 minutes. Kundalini yoga is very dynamic. We have very fast movements with fast breathings . . . rising arms, shaking the whole body, sometimes screaming like a lion, roaring like a lion, things like thatvery dynamic. Mayer said hell work the yoga movements into stories. For example, he said, he might ask the children to pretend theyre elephants. He stood, bent over at the waist and locked his fingers together, swinging his torso and arms from side to side to emulate an elephant walking with its trunk swaying. He doesnt talk to children about the higher purposes of yoga, Mayer said, and the children dont know how calm and relaxed they become. But the parents will realize a difference . . .

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Stevens, Lynne. Yoga and my life. Yoga & Health , Dec 1997, p. 35. On how beginning Yoga practice at age seven helped Lynne overcome the ravages of Friedric hs Ataxia, a muscle -wasting disease, with which she was diagnosed at age four. Lynne concludes her article by saying, Many people believe Yoga is merely a form of physical exercise which helps to maintain suppleness and movement. However, its benefits go far deeper in areas which I believe are of even greater value. Yoga helps to promote a sense of balance, peace and harmony of mind, body and inner self. I am forever grateful for the untold help it has given me. Stewart, Mary, and Kathy Phillips. Yoga f or Children: Simple Exercises to Help Children Grow Strong and Supple. London: Vermilion/New York: Simon & Schusters, 1992. Contents: Standing Poses, All Fours Poses, Balancing Poses, Sitting Poses, Upside-Down Poses, Back Bends, Sundance, Rest (Flopping, Mouse, Snooze, Diamond, Lotus, Finding your breath, Using your breath), Play (Walking games, Animal games, Ball games, Grandmothers trees, Sunflower, Sunwheel, Bell game, Quiet games), [Special] Needs (Correcting stiffness, Chair poses, Floor poses), Index ___________. Yoga for kids. Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 1993, pp. 76-83 Straley, Carol. After-the-baby yoga: These yoga exercises are a perfect way to relax and spend precious moments with your new baby. Parents, Feb 1994, 69(2):152ff. Street Yoga. URL: http://www.streetyoga.org. Street Yoga is dedicated to bringing yoga to people who lack the means to study yoga in conventional settings such as studios, health clubs and retreat centers. We currently focus on teaching yoga to homeless and at risk young people ages 11-20. Our volunteers teach free yoga classes at sites offering support to young people who lack reliable housing, who are transitioning through the foster care system, who are struggling with poverty, or who live on the streets. We strive to provide continuity of access to high quality yoga instruction for all our students, and to offer classes and workshops that are relevant to the daily struggles these young people face. Strefford, Linda. Half hour yoga for 5-6 yr. olds. Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Summer 2003, pp. 21-22. Streight, Cathy. Being fit vital for teaching little ones. Redding Searchlight, 30 Jul 2001. Article available online: http://archive.redding.com/story.asp?StoryID={B4D96296-2275-431B-A1911B93FA70FE19}. Strozer, Teah. Teaching Mindfulness and Ethics in High School workshop. San Francisco Zen Center. This is a workshop for private and public school teachers who practice meditation, mindfulness and the precepts and who are, or who are interested in, teaching those practices in school to teenagers. Through discussing triumphs and problems, we will explore the possibility of building a school culture with mindfulness and ethics at its base.

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Stukin, Stacie. Om schooling: As these innovative educators have discovered, assigning yoga to kids can improve test scores and reduce disruptive behavior. Yoga Journal, Nov 2001, pp. 88-93, 151-153. Sullivan, Dana. Energizers for new moms. Parenting, Sep 1999. Article available online: http://www.parenting.com/parenting/archive_search/0,8170,964,00.html. Sumar, Sonia. Yoga for the Special Child: A Therapeutic Approach for Infants and Children with Down Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, and Learning Disabilities. Buckingham, Virginia: Special Yoga Publications, 1998. Reviewed by Richard Rosen in International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 1999, no. 9, p. 70. See also Sonia Sumars website: www.specialyoga.com, which contains information about the Yoga for the Special Child Teacher Training Program. ___________. Teaching yoga to special children. Yoga for the Special Child Newsletter. Article available online: http://www.yogamovement.com/resources/disabilities.html. Taking hatha yoga to school. Hinduism Today, Apr/May/Jun 2005, pp. 58-60. The Yoga Ed. curriculum, successfully adapted yoga into the US public school setting, could augment temple youth teaching programs as well. Tara [Grubers] yoga for kids: One noble soul takes on the public school system and wins a Vedic victory. Hinduism for Today, Apr/May/Jun 2004. Article available online: http://www.hinduismtoday.com/archives/2004/4-6/53-55_tara.shtml. Tate, Amy. Yoga and mental health: Children and adolescents make space in the system for deeper practices. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, forthcoming 2003. Taylor, Matthew J. Thy kingdom come: A youths wholistic path to Christ. Galena, Ill.: Embug Publishing, 2001. Contains chapters entitled Yoga?, Catechetical Yoga (includes an awareness/breathing practice, postures, guided imagery and relaxation, meditation, and other practices), and a Sample Catechetical Yoga Class. [Teaching] handicapped young adults. In Teaching Asanas: An Ananda Marga Manual for Teachers. Los Altos Hills, Calif.: Amrit Publications, 1973, pp. 236-240. [Teaching in] high schools. In Teaching Asanas: An Ananda Marga Manual for Teachers. Los Altos Hills, Calif.: Amrit Publications, 1973, pp. 229-230. [Teaching] retarded children. In Teaching Asanas: An Ananda Marga Manual for Teachers. Los Altos Hills, Calif.: Amrit Publications, 1973, pp. 233-235. Teasdill, Wendy. Yoga with children. Yoga & Health, Sep 1997, pp. 14-15, 38. ___________. Yoga with year eight. Yoga & Health, Dec 1997, pp. 8-9. (On teaching Yoga to eighth graders.)

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___________. Life after birth. Yoga & Health, May 1999, pp. 9-11. Technique for developing imagination and correct breathing. Research on Yoga in Education Newsletter, Jun 1992, No. 4. Teens use yoga to relieve stress. Columbia News Service, 9 May 2002. Article available online: http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/EMIHC000/333/333/349904.html. Telles, S., B. Hanumanthaiah, R. Nagarathna, and H. R. Nagendra. Improvement in static motor performance following yogic training of school children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993, 76, 1264-1266. PMID: 8337075. Abstract: Two groups of 45 children each, whose ages ranged from 9 to 13 years, were assessed on a steadiness test, at the beginning and again at the end of a 10-day period during which one group received training in Yoga, while the other group did not. The steadiness test required insertion of and holding for 15 sec. a metal stylus without touching the sides of holes of decreasing sizes in a metal plate. The contacts were counted as errors. During the 10-day period, one group (the Yoga group) received training in special physical postures (asanas), voluntary regulation of breathing (pranayama), maintenance of silence, as well as visual focusing exercises (tratakas) and games to improve the attention span and memory. The other group (control) carried out their usual routine. After 10 days, the Yoga group showed a significant (Wilcoxons paired signed-ranks test) decrease in errors, whereas the control group showed no change. ___________, S. Narendran, P. Raghuraj, R. Nagarathna, and H. R. Nagendra. Comparison of changes in autonomic and respiratory parameters of girls after yoga and games at a community home. Perceptual Motor Skills, Feb 1997, 84(1):251-257. Terkel, Susan Neiburg. Yoga is for Me. Minn.: Lerner Publications, 1982. Delightful book written in the voice of a young girl describing how she, her brother, and her sister started taking Yoga classes and what they learned, including postures, breathing, and relaxation. With black-and-white photographs. Thomas, Maria. Head of the Self-Discovery Youth Project, Portland, Oregon. Contact: 503-2854192. Yoga teacher and mother of six, Maria Thomas is working, through her Self-Discovery Youth Project, to bring Yoga into the Portland public school system. Thynn, Thynn. Childrens direct seeing. Article available online: http://www.enabling.org/ia/vipassana/Archive/T/Thynn/childrensSeeing.html. Tigunait, Pandit Rajmani. [In his Inner Quest column, answers questions on nurturing a love for spiritual values in children]. Yoga International, Jan/Feb 1995, pp. 46-47. Tomasko, Felicia. Shelley baby and mother yoga. LA Yoga, Mar/Apr 2004, pp. 16-17. Torr, Rebecca. Fitness push in kindergarten. Gulf Daily News (Bahrain), 12 Jun 2004, 27(84).

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A training centre designed to help kindergarten teachers understand more about childrens fitness and sports activities will open in Sanad in the next few weeks. The centre, under the patronage of the Education Ministry, will be used to help teachers implement a fitness programme for children, which is already operating in most private schools. Through videos, demonstrations and booklets, teachers will learn about the Gym Joey and Happy Heart programme, which is a fitness project aimed at children aged two-and-a-half to seven-and-a-half. The programme is one of the five projects under the Athletics Fitness Award Scheme, which was initiated in 2000 by Bahrain Amateur Athletics Association (BAAA) in association with General Organisation for Youth and Sport (Goys). BAAA sports incentive schemes and training director S Ramabhadran will be responsible for teaching the Gym Joey and Happy Heart programme to kindergarten teachers at the centre, which they will then implement in schools. Teaching at the centre will begin in July and Mr Ramabhadran expects around 300 kindergarten teachers to be trained for the start of the next academic year. Through the programme, children will be taught body posture, concentration techniques, stretching exercises, cardiovascular exercises, basic gymnastics, marching exercises and others, said Mr Ramabhadran. As well as fitness the children will also be taught cleanliness, caring, sharing and health food habits, he added. We have to help children exercise more frequently and this programme helps them get into the habit of fitness at an early age, he said. It helps to improve childrens fitness levels, concentration and helps them calm down, and by increasing activity through life they will have more energy and anaerobic capacity. Its a sports project but it also helps to prevent dia betes, obesity and heart attacks, whic h originate in early childhood. He said that the programme also helped children to achieve a higher level of aerobic capacity, develop their sports skills and establish good exercise habits. Mr Ramabhadran has already taught the scheme to teachers at around 30 private schools and some government schools. Fitness equipment for the centre has been donated by the BAA Athletics Fitness Award Scheme with the support of their main sponsor Batelco. Tots tackling baby fat on yoga mats. The Associated Press, 14 Jun 2004. Tovatt, Louise. Baby & Me Yoga classes. Universal Force Yoga, 7 West 24 Street (Between Broadway & Sixth Avenue), New York, NY, 10010, 917-606-1730. Deepen your bond with your baby . . . Focusing on the energetic sets and interaction with your baby, this class will strengthen, tone, and relax your body. Trivell, Lisa. I Cant Believe Its Yoga for Kids! New York: Hatherleigh Press, 2000.

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Contents: Introduction, Why We Do Yoga, Breathing, Exercises, Yoga and Sports (running, swimming, gymnastics, soccer, biking, basketball, baseball, tennis, skateboarding, surfing, boogie boarding, hockey, wrestling), Double Yoga, Yoga Games, Salutations, Yoga Routines, Relaxation, A Final Note Tummers, Nanette. Pilot yoga programs for middle school kids. The Living Practice, Mar 2003. Article available online: http://www.yogaeverywhere.com/eNews/march2003.htm. Isnt it amazing the amount of concentration a child will display when playing a computer game or watching T.V.? Wouldnt it be great to have this same level of involvement and engrossed in physical activity? In a recent published article in Yoga Journal (Castleman, 2002), yoga is listed as acceptable exercise in the California State P.E. Curriculum. According to Phyllis Camp, physical educator at James Lick Middle School in one of San Franciscos low-income neighborhood, Theres no question that kids benefit . . . they concentrate . . .and when their lives are hard-the middle school years can be very hardyoga helps them find peace. I see yoga helping kids every day. At this time, there is no research on the effects of yoga on children. However, in the Los Angeles Accelerated Public School where yoga is mandatory for all students since 2000-2001, SAT scores in reading have increased ten percent (Strick, 2001). At the West Hollywood Opportunity School, a Los Angeles alternative public school for kids at risk grades 7-12, Abby Wills teaches yoga (Strick, 2001). She believes yoga provides an outlet for students who have behavioral problems, spent time in the juvenile justice system, or fail at traditional school settings. A pilot yoga program was conducted at Windham CT Middle School. This program was a six week, twice per week class for obese adolescents enrolled in an after school program. The class would begin with a poem or inspirational quote for each class, age appropriate music, and slowly more variety and intensity to the postures was added. Anecdotal evidence indicated the class was enjoyable and students were eager to participate. Yoga can be an effective way to allow students to be more active, relieve stress, and enjoy a non-competitive and non-judging atmosphere that encourages movement that is fun. This is especially important as our school-aged population is increasingly becoming more obese. Yoga provides an exciting way to encourage lifelong activity and appeal to a large number of students that may not participate fully in traditional activities. Dr. Nanette Tummers has a doctorate of education in Kinesiology and health promotion. She has been teaching and researching wellness for over 25 years and has designed several yoga programs to encourage obese adolescents, sedentary adults, and seniors to make yoga fun and part of their lifestyle. Dr. Tummers is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Eastern Connecticut State University. Turner, Catherine. Family: Nappy days with yoga. Evening Telegraph, 20 Jan 2003, p. 42, 43. Yoga conjures up images of somebody meditating cross-legged in a lotus position. But it is also a great way for the whole family to exercise, as children and even babies enjoy the benefits. Mothers find it is a good way of communicating with their new-born child, and one Coventry mum is hoping to get baby yoga classes started in the city.

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Udupa, Kaviraja, Madanmohan, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, P. Vijyalakshmi, and N. Krishnamurthy. Effect of pranayam training on cardiac function in normal young volunteers. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Jan 2003, 47 (1):27-33. Article available online: http://www.ijpp.com/vol47_no1_orgn_artcl_1.htm. Abstract: Systolic tire intervals (STI) are non-invasive and sensitive tests for measuring the ventricular performance. It has been reported that practice of pranayam modulates cardiac autonomic status and improves cardio-respiratory functions. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to determine whether pranayam training has any effect on ventricular performance as measured by STI and cardiac autonomic function tests (AFT). Twenty-four school children were randomly divided into two groups of twelve each. Group I (pranayam group) subjects were given training in nadishuddhi, mukh-bhastrika, pranav and savitri pranayams and practised the same for 20 minutes daily for a duration of 3 months. Group II (control group) subjects were not given any pranayam training. STI (QS2 , LVET and PEP) and AFT (RRIV and QT/QS2 ) were measured in both the groups at the beginning and again at the end of three months study period. Pranayam training produced an increase in RRIV and a decrease in QT/QS2 suggesting an enhanced parasympathetic and blunted sympathetic activity respectively. QS2 , PEP and PEP/LVET increased significantly, whereas LVET was reduced significantly in pranayam group. In contrast, the changes in STI and AFT were much less marked in the control group. Our study shows that three months of pranayam training modulates ventricular performance by increasing parasympathetic activity and decreasing sympathetic activity. Further studies on a larger sample size may illustrate the underlying mechanism(s) involved in this alteration. Uprety, T. K. Yoga Education for Children in View of Vedic Culture. Kathmandu, Nepal: Satyananda Yoga Center. Email: rajyogkuti@hotmail.com. Urbanowski, Ferris, with Balaram. Yoga for New Parents: The Experience and Practice. New York: Harpers Magazine Press in association with Harper & Row, 1975. Contents: Pregnancy, Birth, How to start, After the birth, Beginning at home, When you have it going, Regular practice, Parenthood Vedantananda Saraswati, Swami. Pilot projectBellingen 1996. Yoga in Education, Aug 1997. ___________. Teaching yoga to children. . Spectrum: The Journal of the British Wheel of Yoga, Summer 1998, p. 18-19. ___________. Stimulating Attention and Concentration in the Classroom with Yoga Techniques audiotape. Available from Quikopy Audio Recording Services, P.O. Box 361, Padstow, NSW 2211, Australia. ___________. Yoga in the classroom. [Source unknown.] An article about taking Yoga into British classrooms based on the success of Micheline Flak in Paris classrooms. Describes the three types of attentiontype A) hyperactive, disruptive, externalized, rajasic; type B) lethargic, dreamy, withdrawn, tamasic; type C) fidgety and distractedand the Yoga techniques to use for each. Vedic course for expectant mothers. The Times of India , 11 Feb 2003. Article available online:

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Sujeet Jha, a post-graduate from Hindu College in Delhi University, is opening a unique institution, Sanskar, in Patna. It will run a course for expectant motherswith a pregnancy of upto five months. The course will aim at helping the child in the womb to absorb good sanskar (values) through vedic chants. The course, name Vaidehi, will be of two months duration, with two sessions every week. We will be conducting classes for expectant mothers and teach them the Vedic ways of bringing up their offsprings after birth, Sujeet said. It is our belief that a child starts learning right in the mothers womb. The most memorable example is in Mahabharat, in which Abhimanyu learnt how to break into a chakravyuh while in her mother Subhadras womb as Arjuna narrated the technique to her. But, goes the legend, Abhimanyu could not learn the technique of coming out of chakravyuh because his mother fell asleep mid-way, said Jha, insisting that the ancient belief has been proved right in researches carried out by scientists. The Vedas should not be associated with one religion. Members from other religions are welcome to join the course, he asserted. He said that expectant mothers would be taught Vedic shlokas, yogic postures and exercises. The aim was to provide expectant mothers confidence to undergo the experience of childbirth and overcome post-natal depression, he added. He claimed that such courses were being held in places like Delhi and Mumbai. Incidentally, Sujeets institute is not only aiming to teach Vedas to expectant mothers, but also to children of the age group of 4 to 8 years through a course named Lav-Kush. He stressed that the course was aimed at instilling a sense of self-discipline and respect for ancient heritage. Viarengo, Teresa. Multicultural education through meditation. Pastoral Care in Education, Jun 1998, 16(2):4ff. Abstract: This paper is based on the outcomes of a 6 month study in a multicultural inner city primary school and involved twenty four pupils representing seventeen nationalities. The object of the study was to explore how imagination and concentration might promote language awareness and cultural pluralism. Among other techniques, the children used meditation as a way of exploring themselves and others. The study suggested that the children were open to new ways of learning, imagination being for them a meaningful medium for making sense of their world. The results supported the idea that for these children meditation could be an instrument of self knowledge and knowledge of others. Vinekar, S. L. Yoga education and the problem of delinquency. Yoga-Mimamsa, 1965, 3(1): 4362. Vinod, S. D., et. al. Effect of yogic practices performed in a state of meditation on adolescents and anxiety and certain personality variables. Maharshi Vinod Research Foundation. Proceedings ICYR, article no. 21, 1984-1985. ___________, R. S. Vinod, and U. Khire. Evaluation of the effect of yoga on anxiety in youth in relation to anxiety-inducing areas of life. Maharshi Vinod Research Foundation. Yoga-Mimamsa, 1991, 30(2 &3): 25-30.

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Vishaka (Jean Griesser) Our Most Dear Friend: Bhagavad-gita for Children. Torchlight Publishing, 1996. Ages 4-12. Vishwamitra. An experience of yoga in education. Yoga Bellingen Education Project. 1996. On Ray Rixon, art teacher at Coffs Harbour High School in Australia, who has been introducing Yoga practices as part of his daily class teaching for 11 years. He states that art is about opening up the right brain and certain yoga practices do this. He also uses exercises that help concentration when needed. These are the two primary reasons he employs Yoga practices, but also finds that Yoga calms down the noisy children, and the quieter kids like it because it creates a quiet space in the classroom. Students also claim that the Yoga helps them sleep better at night, and they feel that the relaxation practices help give them a sense of direction and help them to feel more secure and calmer. Advice is also given for the Yoga teacher on how to conduct the Yoga practices, work with uncooperative children, etc. ___________. Pawanmuktasana. Yoga in Education, May 1999. Article available online: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yedn5.htm. Simple practices like hand Pawanmuktasanafinger stretching, wrist bending and wrist rotation can have a profound effect on body and mind. In the classroom they can be practised sitting at a desk. From yoga we know that these practices clear the energy pathways, and it is fascinating to go further . . . ___________. More on pawanmuktasana. Yoga in Educatin , Mar 2000. ___________, and Kantiratna Yoga in the Education Environment. Raleigh, NSW, Australia: Bellingen Yoga Education Project, 1996. Email: yogained@midcoast.com.au. Posture, breathing, relaxation, and visualization techniques to use in the classroom. Wagner, Jodie. Yoga classes help kids unwind, relieve stress. The Palm Beach Post, 4 Dec 2002, p. 30. Wahi, Ashok, Miriam Monroe, and Stefani Pappas. Yoga for Kids. Princeton Design Group, 2002. ___________, Stefani Pappas, and Virginia Gittelman. Yoga for Moms. Princeton Design Group, 2002. ___________, Stefani Pappas, and Aikta Wahi. Yoga for High School Students. Princeton Design Group, 2002. Walker, Wendy. Mixing meditation and movement: Amy Gordons yoga classes help children stay fit and build esteem. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 17 Nov 2002. Walsh, James. Its a stretch, but kids love yoga class. Star Tribune (Minnesota), 19 Mar 2005.

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In the dim light of Renee Combs classroom, 16 middle school students followed gentle instructions and twisted and strained their bodies on mats of orange, red and purple with white flowers. Soft musicthe strumming of an acoustic guitarplayed on a portable stereo. Jones is a health teacher at St. Pauls Battle Creek Middle School. At the end of every week, she transforms her classes into Fit Fridays. Sometimes, the students walk. Sometimes they go to the gym. But every other week, Combs kids delve into yoga. And its not a stretch to say they enjoy their new twist on health. I like it, said Shavell Buckner, 12. Its rela xing. Added Use Urhieyovwe, 12, It helps my body. I feel energized for the rest of the school day. Combs has taught at Battle Creek for 10 years. But shes been teaching yoga to her health students just since January. She started by leading a yoga class for teachers after school on Thursdays. Then she realized how little physical activity most students get during the day. The kids have taken to it, she said. The kids love it, she said Friday. Combs has even led her husbands basketball teamhe teaches physical education at the school and is the head boys coachthrough yoga exercises before a game. At a time when declining student health and increasing student obesity are alarming educators, Combs said, yoga is an effective antidote . . . . . . judging by the student response and Combs growing enthusiasmshe plans to earn her yoga instruction certification in Aprilits a safe bet that the kids at Battle Creek Middle School will stay with this new method to fitness. Walters, Clare. YogaBugs: Yoga Classes for Children. Available online: http://www.artofhealth.co.uk/yogabugs.htm. URL for YogaBus site: http://www.yogabugs.com. YogaBugs is a class for 3 - 7 year olds developed by Fenella Lindsell and Jade Anderson at the Art of Health and Yoga Centre. The classes started as an experiment in introducing children to yoga in London and there are now more than 30 trained YogaBugs teachers and classes in many schools. Weintraub, Amy. Seva beneath a fenced-in desert sky: Teaching yoga to adolescent girls at Cape School [juvenile detention center, Tucson, Arizona]. Kripalu Yoga Teahers Association Yoga Bulletin , Winter 2002, 11(4):11-12. ___________. Yoga for girls in jail: Love in the room. Yoga International, Jan/Feb 2004, pp. 4246. Weinstein, Tresca. This crazy calm feeling: The impact of yoga on young adults. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bulletin, Summer 2000, 9(2):7.

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___________. KYTAs Teching for Diversity Program helps spread yoga to every corner of the world: First program honorarium goes to Sachi Wagner. Kripalu Yoga Teachers Association Yoga Bu lletin , Fall 2001, 10(3):1, 3. Sachi Wagner teaches Yoga on a volunteer basis to three-, four-, and five-year-olds enrolled in the YWCAs preschool program in Miamis inner city. Weiss, Craig Scott. Fathering as a spiritual practice. Alternatives for Cultural Creativity, Spring 1999, no. 9. Article available online: http://www.alternativesmagazine.com/09/weiss2.html. Weiss, Stephanie Iris. Everything You Need to Know about Yoga: An Introduction for Teens. Rosen Publishing Group, 1999. From a review by Dawn Amsberry: Beginning with a brief introduction to basic philosophy, Weiss then discusses breathing, meditation, and the yoga postures. One chapter is devoted to the ways in which yoga can be used to alleviate physical discomforts such as headaches or asthma. Readers who associate the discipline with difficult twists and balancing poses may be surprised to find that this book includes only one short chapter on postures or asanas, explaining a few of the easier ones in detail. A photo depicts a young man or woman demonstrating each completed pose. Using a simple, conversational style, the author emphasizes the spiritual side of yoga, showing how it can help teens cope with stress, improve their health, and find inner peace in a hectic world. Color and bla ck-and-white photographs of multiethnic teens contribute to the appeal. Intended for beginners, this book may serve as a starting point for those who want to begin their own practice or who are simply curious. The list of resources, including books, magazines, Web sites, videos, and music, will be useful to report writers as well as to those who want to make yoga a serious part of their lives. Weller, Stella. Yoga for Children. London: Thorsons, 1996. Ages 5-15. From the card catalogue description: . . . a practical workbook offering stretching and strengthening yoga exercises for children which encourage an awareness of what is happening inside and outside the body, develop attentiveness and concentration, build self-esteem and selfconfidence, promote harmony between body and mind, and create a well-adjusted child. Ideal for maintaining firm muscles and flexible joints and for encouraging good posture, these exercises provide even the shyest and least athletically inclined children with the opportunity to express their feelings and give free rein to their imagination through body movement . . . Contents: Introduction: To Teachers and Parents, How Yoga Began, Before You Begin, Warmups, Postures (angle balance, archer, bow, bridge, camel, candle, chair, chest expander, cobra, complete relaxation, cow head, crow, curling leaf, curl-up, dancers pose, dog stretch, eagle, fish, flower, grasshopper, half-candle, Japanese sitting position, knee press, lion, lotus, lying twist, mountain, palming, rabbit, rag doll, slide, squat, star, stork, swam, tortoise, tree, triangle, twist, wheel, wheelbarrow), Breathing Exercises, Foot for Fitness, Glossary, Bibliography, Index Wenig, Marsha. Yoga for kids. Yoga Journal, Mar/Apr 1999, pp. 61-63. Article available online: http://www.yogajournal.com/practice/210_1.cfm. See also the interview with Marsha Wenig at: http://www.gaiam.com/gaiam/1,1267,ArticleDetail:learn:12:521,00.html. See also the article about Marsha Wenigs YogaKids http://www.yogachicago.com/mar04/yogakids.shtml.

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___________. Awaken your childs body, mind and spirit with yoga! A Yoga program for the Mothers of Organic website. 2003. Article available online: http://www.moomom.com/move/kidsyoga.html. ___________. YogaKids: Educating the Whole Child through Yoga. New York: Stewart, Tabori and Chang, 2003. Reviewed by Beth Gallanis at http://www.yogachicago.com/mar04/bookreview.shtml. See also the interview with Marsha Wenig at: http://www.gaiam.com/gaiam/1,1267,ArticleDetail:learn:12:521,00.html. See also the article about Marsha Wenigs YogaKids http://www.yogachicago.com/mar04/yogakids.shtml. From the publisher: YogaKids is not just yoga poses: its a program designed especially for children and for their varied learning styles. Blending traditional yoga and its benefits with new theories of multiple learning styles and twenty years of teaching experience, YogaKids is a comprehensive, imaginative, and playful approach to educating through yoga movements. Yoga educator Marsha Wenig has developed YogaKids to stimulate learning and to appeal to children. Children love to learn yoga with YogaKids. They embrace the message that learning is fun, hat taking care of their bodies is easy, that exercise is play and feels good. These are lessons theyll use throughout their lives. Wettimuny, Karen. Yoga for children. Article available online: http://www.iyengaryoga.com/articles/children. Authors email: dewache@stmail.lk. Whitford, Rebecca. Little Yoga : A Toddlers First Book of Yoga. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2005. From the publisher: Here is a playful introduction to nine simple yoga exercises for young children. Toddlers will enjoy moving along with Yoga Baby as they follow the basic poses. Unlike most books on the subject, Yoga Baby is aimed directly at preschoolers. This interactive picture book also includes helpful information for parents and educators. Fun, accessible, and colorfulits a great way for little ones to discover yoga. Why introduce yoga into childrens education? Yoga in Education, Jan 1998. Widdowson, Rosalind. Babies and children. In Rosalind Widdowson, The Joy of Yoga. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1983, pp. 33-37. Williams, Anna. Bendy babies & laid-back ladies. Enlightened Practice, May/Jun 2005, pp. 2627. Yoga for you and your baby is time that will make your connection stronger, keep you at peace, and allow your little one to be part of he transforming path of yoga. Williamson, Jan. Yoga for mothers and babies. Positive Health, no. 48. Article available online: http://www.positivehealth.com/permit/Articles/Yoga/will48.htm. Authors email: jan.sch@breathemail.net. Willoughby, Deborah. Living the practice: An interview with Leela Mata & Yogi Hari. Yoga International, Sep/Oct 1993, pp. 17-23. (On family and children.) Witkowski, Jennifer M. Yoga and children, part one. Article available online: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/4694/50742.

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Winston, Diana. Wide Awake: A Buddhist Guide for Teens. Perigee, 2003. From the publisher: Many of todays teenagers are tired of the pressure to compete and consume and are looking for a different way to live their lives. This book offers an alternative: the 2,500year-old practice of Buddhism. Written in a style that will have immediate appeal to young seekers and those wanting to understand the ancient teachings, this book addresses such relevant topics as peer pressure, emotional difficulties, stress, fostering peace, and even protecting the environment. Witoonchart, C., and L. Bartlet. The use of a meditation programme for institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Aug 2002, 85 Suppl 2:S790-793. PMID: 12403262. Abstract: The study applied intensive-seven consecutive days meditation program in 101 late adolescent male delinquents in Upekkha Detention Centre. All of the boys completed the program and answered the questionnaires. All of them felt that the meditation practice had been beneficial. 70 per cent of the subjects described feelings of contentment and calm, 53 per cent requested the program to be repeated, 52 per cent of the subjects declared a clearer understanding in the doctrine of Karma, 44 per cent referred to improved concentration and awareness, 36 per cent felt less impulsive, 22 per cent had flashbacks of their criminal behavior and their victims. In conclusion, the boys in Upekkha Detention Centre [were] willing to join and complete the intensive meditation program. Their self assessment reports showed a positive attitude to the program. It is possible to develop a meditation program as an adjunctive therapy for institutionalized juvenile delinquents. Wohlandov-Bednarov, V. Moznosti pouzitia jogickch prvkov u det [The possibility of using yogic exercises with children]. In Abstrakty I. Pracovnej Konferencie of Problematike Jgy v Rehabilitacii [Abstracts of the First Conference on the Applications of Yoga in Rehabilitational Therapy], Koice-aca, 21-23 Jun 1978, pp. 66-70. [In Slovak.] Womersley, Dianne. Letter to the editor on teaching Yoga to disadvantaged children in South Africa and her plans to study the effects. Yoga & Health , Jul 1998, p. 41. ___________. Yoga comes to the Cape Town Ships. Yoga & Health, Sep 1998, pp. 22-23. (On teaching Yoga to disadvantaged children in South Africa.) Working with teenagers: The practice of contemplative psychotherapy. An interview with Joanne Neiman, Bill Sell and Brus Westby. Bodhi, 7(1). . . . when kids get caught up in strong emotions, they feel really cornered. They dont see a way out except fight or flight. But if they see that there is workability in their lives, and if we speak to those bright and creative qualities of bodhichittaeven when they act outthen eventually they start to respond in a way that is healthy. Wu, Julianne. Yoga stretches babies coordination. St. Petersburg Times, 31 Mar 1998, STATE, Vol. 12-63, Seminole Times, Largo Times, Clearwater Times, North Pinellas Times Section. Yadav, Yogacharya Hansraj. Yoga for Students. Bombay, India: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1988.

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Yantra day. Yoga in Education Newsletter, May 1999, no. 5. Article available online: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/9012/yedn5.htm. On teaching children how to create yantras. Yeshe, Lama Thubten. On marriage and related topics. Article available online: http://www.lamayeshe.com/lamayeshe/marriage.shtml. Addresses bearing children before you are ready, contraception, and abortion. Yoga: Its childs play. Daily Record (Glasgow, Scotland), 2005. Reprinted at RedNova.com: http://www.rednova.com/news/health/155877/yoga_its_childs_play. Yoga classes for children are popping up all over Scotland in church halls, schools, and sports clubs. If you believe recent studies, childhood stress is at an all time high. With stimulus overload in today's media -rich world of TV and computer games, kids' yoga maybe just what the doctor ordered. Fenella Lindsell is a yoga therapist and founder of YogaBugs, a network of 250 qualified instructors teaching in schools and nurseries in the UK,19 of them in Scotland. She said: Yoga classes for kids are about weaving classical yoga postures into storytelling to captivate their imaginations. Amanda Kay, who teaches YogaBugs in Livingston, said: Kids are so open-minded, nonjudgmental and have absolutely no pre-conceived ideas of what yoga is about. Sue Crawley, a primary learning support teacher in Peebles, teaches yoga to pre-schoolers and children up to the age of 12. Her goal was always to teach yoga and she was confident enough to advertise her classes before she did the YogaBugs training course. She said: I was amazed at the response. My classes were almost fully subscribed before I started training. The British Wheel of Yoga (BWY), the governing body for yoga in the UK, say kids from the age of three are taught some asana (postures) and concentration techniques. Having reached the NSPCC Preliminary Standard for Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Sport, this policy is adopted by all BWY childrens yoga teachers. Elaine Pidgeon who runs the Iyengar Yoga Centre in Edinburgh said: We teach kids over the age of eight because Geeta Iyengar writes that little children lack the muscular strength required for yoga and they have elasticity in their joints and muscles that should not be overtaxed.

They can happily do poses in a playful way when their movements are natural to their proportion and energetic natures.

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Sue Crawley said: I never teach shoulder stands because their necks arent strong enough, but they can do a candle position with their bottoms on the floor, and a downward dog, looking at their toes. It is vital to keep them safe, but the kids are never corrected unless they are doing anything dangerous. The most important thing is that they have fun being flexible . . . The YogaBugs class has a clear structure with a beginning, a middle and an end. This is good educational practice as this format helps refresh their minds and show their parents what they did, said Sue. It is important to have strategies to control the cla ss, too. We might have over-excited leaping frogs one minute then quiet little mice the next, before a final rela xation. The philosophy of yoga is taught to the children in simple terms with a focus on relaxation and visualisation at the end, which is often their favourite part . . . Yoga is one blissfully ego-free physical realm. Children work at their own pace and quickly recognise their own achievements. The fact kids who are not normally interested in exercise are having fun with this can only be a positive thing. Louisa said: Teachers have noticed how overweight kids benefit by becoming more confident and self-assured. And the benefits are not only enjoyed by mainstream kids. Louisa said: I have taught a lot of autistic children who start off saying I cant' then, when encouraged to try postures, they come round, expressing themselves more. Sue also teaches children with learning difficulties and stresses how important it is that yoga is accessible to everyone . . . Yoga and children issue. Iyengar Yoga Institute of San Francisco Review, Spring 2001, 21(2). Yoga and endocrine development (on teaching children inversions). A topic addressed by the ESutra online mailing list in Sep 1999. To subscribe to ESutra, write to the list moderator, Leslie Kaminoff, ESutra@aol.com. YogaBugs. London, U.K. URL: www.yogabugs.com. Yoga classes and teacher training designed to stimulate childrens power of imagination, maintain their natural flexiblity, and teach them to breathe correctly. Primarily for children ages 2-1/2 to 7. YogaBugs also supports people who work with special needs, deaf children, and children who have been traumatized by difficult family issues.

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Yoga Ed. URL: www.yogaed.com. Yoga Ed. is a nationally recognized educational program and curriculum that combines an active, playful and scientific exploration of the body, mind and self with the exercise system of yoga to enhance focus, concentration, learning, stress reduction, behavioral skills, personal health and social responsibility in children. Workshops offered include: Teaching Yoga Ed. to Children; Yoga Ed. Tools for Teachers (simple 5-15 minute classroom friendly yoga-based techniques and sequences that anyone can do. Used on a regular basis, these fundamental tools, such as conscious breathing, yoga poses, movement games and visualizations, create more focused, creative and harmonious classrooms and enhance learning, behavior, discipline and academic achievement); Yoga Ed. Teacher Training (provides the philosophy, methodology, and 36-week Yoga Ed. K-8 curriculum, teachers guide, and resources to effectively implement yoga in schools). Yoga for babies. Sputnik , Sep 1992, 9:158. Yoga for children with special needs. Research conducted by Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram, www.kym.org, together with an organization called VHS. Yoga for kids. The Star (Kuala Lumpur), 19 Jul 2005. Article available online: http://thestar.com.my/lifestyle/story.asp?file=/2005/7/19/lifeliving/11503623&sec=lifeliving. Todays children are getting in touch with the inner self, with parents encouraging more unconventional activities. StarTwo checks out yoga for children. . . . Yoga helps children cope better with everyday issues, such as stress, concentration, aggression, nervousness, obesity or self esteem, said S.T. Rajen, managing partner of Y2H. Its a new, invigorating way for children to explore and appreciate themselves, and their creative and academic potential, he said. Our childrens programme is innovative, blending traditional yoga with fun and stimulating styles. Through our courses, they can develop strong and healthy bodies and gain invaluable skills. Sita Sekhar Naik, 10, and sibling Anil, seven, love yoga. I like yoga because it is great fun. My favourite poses are the candle and the tree poses. After every yoga lesson, I feel very calm and relaxed, said Sita. Yoga for school children. Yoga Rahasya, 1998, 5(1). Yoga for Youth program. The Association of Black Yoga Teachers, email: blackyogateachers.com, tel: 213-833-6371. The Yoga for Youth program teaches Yoga to incarcerated youth in several major U.S. cities. Yoga gets green light for schools. The Australian, 13 May 2004. YOGA and circus training could soon be on the curriculum for NSW [New South Wales] high school students.

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The activities will be among sports which students can access under a physical activity program to be introduced next year. The compulsory Personal Development, Health and Physical Education syllabus will also instruct students on how to choose the best foods to eat and how to schedule daily exercise. NSW Premier Bob Carr said today that, for the first time, the curriculum would mean that as much time would be spent actually doing a physical activity as on theory . . . The curriculum is part of the Carr Governments fight against childhood obesity . . . Yoga, girl! Seventeen, Feb 1996, pp. 46-47. Yoga helps children reduce anxiety: Teacher brings yoga to schools. Click2Houston.com, 25 May 2005. When 10-year-old Anna Goedjen first started taking yoga, she was a different child. She would vomit every morning before she went to school, mother Karin Goedjen said. Within three days, teacher Marita Gardner saw a huge difference, as well as Annas mother. I was skeptical at first, but when I watched a little girl go from throwing up every day and being happy and healthy, I was convinced, Gardner said. Karin Goedjen was so convinced that she took her other children to Gardners class. Her son, Grant, started using the breathing techniques he learned in yoga class to control his asthma . . . Gardner said she has helped hundreds of children over the past five years. Now, shes passing her knowledge on to teachers in the public school system. Elementary school teacher Linda Sommer has seen dramatic results with her students. Its just amazing how it changes the kids, she said. Sommer said they are happier and healthier, but in addition to the health benefits, the children said it is fun, too. Kids seemed more confident and had a strong sense of identity. It teaches them the tools to help themselves rather than turning to a doctor or a parent. They can calm themselves, and center themselves and handle an issue, because were not going to be there the whole life, Karin Goedjen said. Studies have shown yoga can help children increase their test scores. The Kendra Research Foundation in India tested 180 students ages 10 to 17 who took yoga for 10 weeks. The group tested 84 percent higher after yoga.

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Yoga helps kids get healthy 4 life: Classes provide mental, physical exercise. NBC 4 News, Washington, 31 May 2004. Were starting to hear more and more about obese children, children who dont get enough exercise and children who eat an unhealthy diet. Experts say its never too early to Get Healthy 4 Life, so if youre looking for some good activities for your children, how about yoga? Spiral Flight Yoga in Northwest Washington has classes for kids between the ages of 2 to 18. Instructor Cristin says yoga is good for our physical, mental and spiritual bodies, and builds balance, flexibility and strength. Spiral Flight Yoga also offers classes for children through the Jelleff Boys and Girls club. You can find out more information by visiting SpiralFlightYoga.com or by visiting the Boys & Girls Club of Greater Washington at BGCGW.org. Yoga-in-Daily-Life Center Vienna. Yoga in Eastern Europe: Schools in Slovakia are using yoga to help kids cope with stress and improve concentration. Hinduism Today, Jan/Feb 2001, p. 43. Email: vienna@yoga-in-daily-life.org. As of January 2000, children in Slovakia from kindergarten to high school can now practice yoga as part of their public schools official physical education program . . . The school program [inspired by Swami Maheshwarananda] helps students cope with stress, improve concentration and gain inner harmony through a set of physical, breathing and relaxation exercises. The Yoga Institute. Yoga for Children: Teachers Handbook. Santacruz (East), Bombay, India: The Yoga Institute. Sections from this book are being printed in an ongoing series in Yoga & Health magazine. Available through Mrs. Ila Koulias, 21 Natal Road, Ilford, Essex, Great Britain (address information may not be current). ___________. Yoga for Youngsters. Santacruz (East), Bombay, India: The Yoga Institute. Yoga Journals Guide to Yoga for Kids. Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 2000, pp. 109-117. Yoga kids. Massage & Bodywork , Aug/Sep 1999, p. 36. Yoga Kit for KidsFun and Fitness. Imaginazium, URL: http://www.imaginazium.com/yoga.htm. Described by Sage Buitron in her article Asanas Are for EveryoneChildren Are Natural Yogis, Enlightened Practice, Jun/Jul 2003, p, 28: The kit is both a game and a teaching tool. It includes 25 yoga cards with photographs of children in easy yoga poses and on the reverse side of the cards there is a short rhyming poem describing how to move into the pose. This kit also includes an instruction book and a music CD.

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Yoga, meditation, help teen sex offenders. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, Jun 1999, 37(6):6. PMID: 10382145. Yoga nidra, or yoga sleep: A practice of deep relaxation. Research on Yoga in Education Newsletter, Jan 1994, No. 7. This practice relaxes the body, mind, and emotions and can be used when students are tired, after play or games, when restless, and after working. Yoga of Parenting retreat. Kripalu Center, www.kripalu.org. Explore how Yoga can support your parentingand parenting can become your spiritual practicewith a panel of distinguished teachers who are also mothers and fathers. Yoga Rahasya, 1999, 6(4). (Issue on children.) Yoga should be part of syllabus, says Sudarshan. The Deccan Herald, 6 Jun 2005. Article available online: http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/jun62005/district173356200565.asp. Chairman of the Legislative Council V R Sudarshan exhorted rural schools to give more emphasis to teaching English language and Yoga. Mr Sudarshan was speaking at the inauguration of Ramamani Sundararaj Iyengar High School in Ramamani town near Narasapur . . . Yogacharya Padmabhushana B K Sundarraj Iyengar who presided over the function, said: Yoga is not just a physical activity but it also lessens mental stress. Narasimhan delivered the introductory speech. Prashanth distributed books to students. Trustee member B K Cheluvarajan, Gram Panchayat member Venkataswamy, constituency educationist Prahalad Gowda and leader Dhanamathnahalli Venkatesh were present on the occasion. Yogateers kit for kids. URL: http://www.yogayears.com/flash/index.html. From the website: This Yoga Play and Learn System is the first game of its kind . . . [it] provides children of all ages with a great introduction to yoga. It also aids in memory building and learning, and helps develop focus and concentration. It can be played alone, with friends or with the whole family. Yoga Therapy. Hinduism Today, May/Jun 2001, p. 8. On Krishna Kaurs West Los Angeles-based Yoga for Youth program for at risk adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18. She takes her program to juvenile detention halls, community youth centers, and schools. Yoga to be made compulsory in Udupi schools. The Hindu, 28 May 2003.

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Udupi May 28 . The President of the Udupi Zilla Panchayat, B. Bhujanga Shetty, has said that yoga, moral education, and the activities of the Seva Dal will be made compulsory in government and private schools in the district. In a press release here, Mr. Shetty said the zilla panchayat had directed the heads of schools in the district, through the DDPI, to reserve two periods every week for yoga, moral education, and for the activities of the Seva Dal. Since it would be difficult for students coming from rural areas if these were taken up after regular school hours, the school heads had been instructed to reduce the number of periods for physical education, and allot a minimum of two periods a week for yoga, moral education, and Seva Dal activities. Yoga to calm pupil stress. BBC News, 31 Mar 2000. Article available online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/697084.stm. A primary school is teaching yoga to its pupils to help calm their stress as they prepare for national curriculum tests. Children aged 10 and 11, at Heathfeld Primary School in Nottingham, are learning exercises, breathing and relaxation techniques . . . The lessons were the idea of Year 6 teacher Louise Garber, who learns yoga in her spare time . . . On a basic level, its a nice treat for them, and treats help motivate children. A lot of them have said they have been practising it at home in their spare time, so theyre taking it away with them, which is great. It is important to try to recognise we are teaching people, not little numbers with levels. Yoga to improve performance in schools. New Kerala , 21 Jun 2004. Yoga, says the Madhya Pradesh government, is the magic pill that will improve the dismal performance of students in its schools. The state will introduce yoga in government-run schools in the new academic session to improve the concentration of students. The pass percentage of high school students in Madhya Pradesh board this year was dismally low, with over 70 percent of 660,794 students who took the examination failing. Alarmed over the poor result, Minister of State for School Education Anup Mishra called a meeting of his officia ls to discuss the reasons for the poor results and find ways of tackling the problem. Mishra and his officials reached the conclusion that lack of concentration among school students was the major reason for the poor pass percentage. They felt only yoga could improve concentration among students, and decided to introduce yoga in schools. Yoga would be made compulsory at all government schools from Class 5 to Class 12 but for the time being it will not be added to the school curricula, said an offici l of the education a department while talking to IANS. Later private schools would also be asked to introduce yoga, added the official.

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But the stumbling block before the government at present is the lack of teachers trained in yoga. So the government intends to train teachers in yoga first. The training of teachers will be complete by October or November this year. Then we can have at least one teacher in every government school, said the official. Yoga Vidya. Education issue. See Satyananda Yoga Academy, http://members.ozemail.com.au/~yogapage/academy/index.htm. Yogendra, Sri Jayadeva. Cyclopaedia Yoga, Vol. II: A Systematic Study Programme of Yoga Education for the Child and the Adult. Santacruz East, Bombay, India: The Yoga Institute, 1989. ___________. Answers questions about teaching yogasanas in educational institutions and about the right age for initiation into Yoga. In the article Yoga therapyhow a guru sees it, The Yoga Review, Winter 1982, 2(4):174-175. Reprinted in Yoga therapy, an interview with Shri Yogendraji, Yoga & Health , Jun 1999, p. 10. ___________. Yoga and the child. Yoga and Total Health, Oct 2001, p. 6. ___________, and Armaiti N. Desai. Pregnancy, Parenthood & Yoga. 2d ed. Santacruz (East), Bombay, The Yoga Institute, 1994. Yogendraji, Shri. Yoga for the child. Yoga and Total Health , May 2000, pp. 3-4. Yogi pokey. Yogi Times, Dec 2002. Article available online: http://www.miniyogis.com/yogitimes_dec2002.htm. On various yoga programs for children. When 12-year-old Milana, the child of Russian immigrants, came to the yoga program at her elementary school three years ago, she was so unfocused that the other children complained she made it hard for them to focus, said her yoga teacher, Subatra Griffith. Griffith, director of Your Kids, a non-profit organization committed to bringing yoga, art and cultural diversity to kids of all ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, watched as yoga helped Milana mature into a calm, poised young woman. Today Milana is one of the leaders of the group. She is focused, organized, and passionate about yoga, she said. Milanas mother, Valentina Ayvazova, noticed the changes in her daughter shortly after she started doing yoga. Milana was nervous and excited since she was a baby. When she came to me and said that she wanted to take yoga, I said, Yoga, whats that? But little by little, she became relaxed and less nervous, she said. Milana herself best explains the correlation between her changes in behavior and her yoga practic e. Before the fourth grade, I was not serious about school. I did not focus on anything. Yoga helped me feel good about myself and be confident, she said. During meditation and corpse pose in yoga class, I think about how to concentrate, try hard, and cooperate with people.

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Both Griffith and Valentina Ayvazova are proud to point out that the once-scattered Milana received the school-wide award last year for best all-around student. Milana explains, Yoga helps me reach for my goals. I got that award because of what yoga taught me. Yoshikawa, Yoko. Yoga for new moms. Yoga Journal, Jun 2003, pp. 136-141. Youngin Yoga. URL: http://www.familyvillage.net (click on Class Descriptions). From the website: As life becomes more and more computerized and super-sized, our children are becoming less and less fit. Most children will eagerly choose an afternoon with Nickelodeon or Nintendo over one of active play. A significant part of the problem is that children are rarely being exposed to exciting and fun forms of fitness that they can practice anytime, anywhere. Youngin Yoga was developed by a Kripalu certified yoga instructor as a way to incorporate fitness into a young childs life. Classes are geared toward children age 2 and older, with or without their parents or caregivers. Understanding the basic disciplines of yoga, as well as some simple poses, helps children feel a sense of control over their own wellbeing. In a Youngin Yoga class, children enjoy a combination of classic yoga poses, breath control, and meditation along with imaginative play, fun props, and silly games. Youngin Yoga Class Features: a brief centering time in which participants are encouraged to become fully present and practice breath control; warm-ups, which include fun movement games such as the Caterpillar, the Scissors Dance, and the Donkey Kick; classic yoga poses made even more interesting with stories and props such as toy cars, bubbles, flowers, stuffed animals, parachutes, etc.; a yoga adventure in which the children: go to the zoo where they will unveil the creatures cages and pop into the corresponding animal yoga pose; play a movement game such as Yoga Garden, Red Light Green Light, or Twister; go to the races where they will crab walk, bun walk, or scissors crawl to the finish line with lightning speed; an Imagination Meditation, in which children lie down, close their eyes and listen to a story an imaginative story that encourages visualization. We end each class with expressions of thanks and respect for one another. Youth Horizons (formerly The Lineage Project). Andrew Getz, director. P.O. Box 672, Woodacre, CA 94973, tel: 415-289-7922, URL: www.youthhorizons.org, email: connect@youthhorizons.org. Youth Horizons is dedicated to introducing awarene ss practices to youth, with an emphasis on atrisk and incarcerated teens. Meditation and yoga classes, council discussion groups, and free books and tapes are offered to youth in a variety of settings. Currently Youth Horizons works primarily with youth involved with the juvenile justice system, and most of their classes are held in juvenile halls in the San Francisco Bay Area. They are currently in the second year of a pilot study at Hillcrest Juvenile Hall and are developing a classroom curriculum for their school-based stress reduction program. The latter is being integrated into a school program for high-risk youth developed in collaboration with San Mateo County Juvenile Probation and will begin in spring 2002 at the P.R.O.P. (prevention of repeat offenders) classroom in North San Mateo County.

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Through the promotion of awareness practices, Youth Horizons works to support youth to respond creatively to challenging life situations rather than to react in habitual and destructive patterns. These practic es empower the individual to remain steady in the face of strong emotions and patterns of thought, and to understand the consequences of ones actions. Publishes Inner Connections newsletter, which contains youth writings on meditation, Yoga, and their lives. Zarthoshtimanesh, Zubin. Child is the father of man. Yoga Rahasya, 1999, 6(4):31-32. On the Certification in Yoga for Children course offer by Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Institute (Pune) and The Light on Yoga Research Trust (Mumbai), for children between the ages of 9 and 17. Zebroff, Kareen and Peter. Yoga for Happier Children. Vancouver, B.C., Canada: Fforbez Enterprises, 1973. Also published in the same year by the same publisher as Yoga with Your Children. Contents: Foreword to Parents, Kids . . . Yoga Can Be Fun, Schedules, Warm-Up Poses, Easy Keep Fit Poses, Intermediate Keep Fit Poses, Advanced Keep Fit Poses, Relaxation Poses, Breathing Exercises, Group Yoga, Classroom Yoga Breaks, Personal Yoga Schedules.

Videos, CDs, and DVDs (all titles are videos unless otherwise indicated)
Allen, Andrea. Kids Musical Yoga Series videos. Ages 1-6. URL: http://www.kidsmusicalyoga.com/home.php. From the website: Kids Musical Yoga videos take children on a magical journey where they learn to take a deep breathe in, move like a snake or share like a monkey through original, silly songs and choreographed yoga movements. The first two titles in the series are Lets Go to the Ocean and Lets Go to the Jungle. Bhat, Vasanthi, and Supriya Bhat. Yoga for Youths. Available for purchase online: http://www.genius.net/indolink/Global/vsntYog2.html. Ages 5 and up. 50 minutes. Birch, Thom, Beryl Bender Birch, and Carolyn Bradley. Yoga for Kids. Forthcoming. See http://www.power-yoga.com/kids.ihtml. Currie , Barbara. Fun Yoga for Kids DVD. 2002. From an Amazon.UK review: [This DVD offers] precise and concise instructions [that take] the kids straight into saluting Sammy the Sun, a core yoga sequence. The difference between this and adult yoga is that the holds in positions are not as long. With Colin the Cobras Forest of Secrets as the setting, the 50-minute session flies through about a posture every two minutes. The [22] postures are renamed after animals such as Willy the Warrior Warthog (warrior position), Tallulah the Toucan (triangle position), Billy the Bear and Freddie the Flamingo (balancing positions), Geri the Giraffe (twist), [etc.]. By featuring real kids rather than perfect models or trained actors, the responses are endearingly imperfect, spontaneous, and genuine.

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Forster, Sarabeth. Yoga Is Not Yogurt. For ages 2-10. Silver Spring, Maryland: Sunflower Yoga Co. (See also the article by Toni Marshall about Sarabeth Forsters classes.) Freedman, Francoise Barbira. Yoga with Babies. Ebela Productions, 1999. 12 minutes. Yoga with babies is based on the kind of infant massage that has existed in India for millennia. It induces deep relaxation, allowing babies to sleep well and thrive while mothers can rest and find their balance after giving birth. ___________. Baby Yoga & Massage CD. Video Culture, 2000. ___________. Baby Yoga. The Baby Yoga Company, Ltd. 86 minutes. URLs: http://www.thebabyyogacompany.com; http://www.birthlight.com. Interactive Yoga and massage segments divided into different sections for babies of various ages. Inspiring and very moving. Has the immediacy and energy of a real Yoga session. Full of useful tips, precautions and suggestions for modification when baby gets bored or tired with a particular sequence. Griffiths , Subhadra. Yoga Angels: Yoga for Kids, Teens, and Tweens in Between DVD. URL: http://www.yogaangels.com/purchase.html. From the website: An entertaining, interactive DVD with a step-by-step instructional yoga class taught by kids, and narrated by Subhadra Griffiths. Suitable for adults as well as children. Khalsa, Gurmukh Kaur. The Method: Baby & Mom Post Natal Yoga. Newark, N.J.: Parade Video, 1999. 60 minutes. Available from Parade Video, 1-800-272-4214. Kids Do Yoga Too. 2000. From Amazon.UK: The video is colourful as well as educational, with the instructor matching yoga poses with Australian animals, each with its own illustration, showing kids a frill-necked lizard and tasmanian tiger. There are two 15-minute segments, one with land animals and the other with sea creatures, and a guided meditation at the end. It is filmed outdoors, in the grass and by the water. Lana, Wai. Little Yogis with Wai Lana. Malibu, Calif.: Wai Lana Productions, 2004. 60 minutes. ___________. Little Yogis Fun Exercise. Malibu, Calif.: Wai Lana Productions. From the publisher: . . . a colorful new book designed to get kids excited about yoga. Different yoga poses are explained to kids step by step with the help of colorful, friendly characters who use illustrations of lions, bridges and other objects to depict each pose. The yoga positions are described in kid-friendly terms, and encourage children to use their imagination. Lite, Lori. Indigo Dreams audio CD. 60 minutes. Available for purchase at http://www.indigodreams.net/books.htm. From the website: Indigo Dreams is a 60-minute CD/audio book designed to entertain your child while introducing them to relaxation/meditation techniques. Four unique stories introduce breathing, visualizations, muscular relaxation and affirmations. Children follow the characters

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along as they learn to manage their own stress, anxiety and energy with A Boy and a Bear [introduces belly/diaphragmatic breathing [to encourage] children to feel calm and in control of their energy], The Affirmation Web [introduces positive self-talk], A Boy and a Turtle [introduces fill[ing] . . . chakras with colors while enhancing . . . awareness of the power of colors, energy and auras], and The Goodnight Caterpillar [introduces muscular relaxation]. Indigo Dreams offers shorter stories for shorter attention spans and beginners. The narration is accompanied by healing sounds of crickets, gentle breezes and forest animals. An additional music sound track is included to further enhance your childs relaxation experience. ___________. Indigo Ocean Dreams audio CD. 60 minutes. From the website: Indigo Ocean Dreams is a 60-minute CD/audio book designed to entertain your child while introducing [him or her] to relaxation and meditation techniques. Four new stories explore breathing, visualizations, muscular relaxation and affirmations. Children follow their sea friends along as they learn to manage their own stress, anxiety, and anger with Angry Octopus, Affirmation Weaver, Sea Otter Cove and Bubble Riding. Indigo Ocean Dreams offers longer stories and variations on the same techniques found on Indigo Dreams. Ideal for older children and as step two for those already familiar with Indigo Dreams. The narration is accompanied by healing sounds of dolphins, sea otters and gentle waves. An additional music sound track is included to further enhance your childs mind, body and spirit. Luby, Thia. Childrens Yoga with Animals. 1992. 60 minutes. A video with a fun approach to learning about animal behavior and strengthening the body; children are guided through 22 animal yoga poses. Rough, Chaz. Yogamazing: Yoga for the Kid I All of Us. URL: www.yogamazing.com. Reviewed by Richard Rosen in Yoga Journal, Sep/Oct 2002, pp. 155-156. 40 minutes (20 simple poses). Age group 4-10 years. From Richard Rosens review: Heres a little gem of a kids video from Louisville teacher, singer-songwriter, and graphic -design artist Chaz Rough. Among the half-dozen or so videos for this clientele weve seen, this ones unique because its not directed solely at the younungs. Rough invites parents to join the funand even models the poses with various kid-adult pairs as a subtle hint to the old folks to get down . . . [Rough] is careful to explain how each pose benefits the practitioner (in some ways better than the explanations on many adult videos) . . . Satchidananda, Sri Swami. Yoga for Children. Buckingham, Va.: Shakticom, 1990. 50 minutes. Ages 5-13. An Integral Yoga Hatha Yoga class in basic postures and relaxation techniques for children. Schreiber, Suzanne. Yogafun: Exercise and Relaxation Cartoons for Kids with and without Medical Challenges. Cincinnati, Ohio: Sugar Marbel Productions. 30 minutes. Ages 3-8. To order, call 513-761-8000.

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A video to help [children] relax and do slow stretching movements while having fun and using their imaginations. . . . (A bell appears and rings as a signal to exercise for visually and hearing impaired viewers.) Contents: An Adventure in Outerspace - deep breathing/deep muscle relaxation - the viewer can relax while he/she imagines maneuvering a spaceship around some strange-looking spaceships and colorful planets. Yogafun at the Zoo - exercise/relaxation - Sarah buckles the seatbelt of her wheelchair as she and her brother, Danny, imitate the movements of animals they visit in their adventures at the zoo. On their drive home the colors of the rainbow help them relax. A Bubble Trip - deep breathing/deep muscle relaxation - a few deep breaths can inflate an imaginary bubble to carry the viewer over a colorful and delightful landscape. Seals, Olga. Yoga for Children. South Bend, Ind.: Wayne Harvey Productions, 1997. 30 minutes. URL: www.yogaforchildren.com. From the Web site: With this program your child will experience a basic Yoga workout . . . Benefits of Yoga become obvious when watching Olga Seals, at age 70, performing the asanas with young children. An additional benefit of this program is the portion devoted to meditation and relaxation. When was the last time your child enjoyed quiet time? Yoga is the natural and easy way to experience a balance of mind and body. This program also includes original soothing music designed to enhance the pleasure of stretching and meditation. Yoga for Children encourages adults and their children to work together toward better health and spirituality. Smith, Shana Banana. Shana Banana Yoga DVD. See the article by Ernest Hooper, If a Banana can teach kids yoga, fast food can offer fruit, St. Petersburg Times, 24 Jun 2004. A selection of original songs by Shana Banana Smith, an award-winning childrens songwriter and longtime yoga practitioner, accompany kids yoga poses. 11 tracks: Namaste, Pranayama Song, Head Neck Shoulders (Warm-up Song), Salutation to the Sun, The Triangle, The Warrior, Yoga Alphabet, Ocean Dreams, Positive Words, I Love Love, and Big Small Short Tall. Sample lyrics: Om na ma shivaya / Waya boogliedo / Om shanti, Om shanti / Peace for you Sukhu, Chitra. Guided Meditation for Children: Journey through the Elements CD. Somerset, U.K. Available from YogaUK Mail Order, Langdales, Church Road, Minehead, Somerset TA24 5SA, U.K. Thomas, Max. E.I.E.I Yoga. New York: Mystic Fire Video, 1998. 1-800-999-1319. From a review in the July 1998 issue of Hinduism Today: Grab your mat and play yoga with a Rastafarian rooster and a straw-hatted cow uttering udderly silly lines in E.I.E.I. Yoga. We showed this to children (those over nine called it corny) who delighted in watching Yogi Oki Doki, aka Max Thomas, perform handstands one minute, then toe-tapping song and dance routines, to the accompaniment of blue grass music. The approach may confound purists, but Thomas tries to keep it fun while teaching hatha yoga to kids. With a continuous emphasis on breathing, Oki Doki guides you through twenty classic poses with names like Broccoli (tree pose) and Twisting Pea (eagle).

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Wenig, Marsha. YogaKids. Boulder, Colo.: Gaiam/Living Arts. 30 minutes. Ages 3-10. For more information call 1-800-968-0694 or see Marshas website: http://www.yogakids.com/yk/yk.html, which also contains information on the YogaKids Teacher Training Program. See also the interview with Marsha Wenig at: http://www.gaiam.com/gaiam/1,1267,ArticleDetail:learn:12:521,00.html. See also the article about Marsha Wenigs YogaKids http://www.yogachicago.com/mar04/yogakids.shtml. Healthy exercises, learning activities, love of nature, 20 Yoga poses, 5 fun songs, and more. . . . Increases strength and flexibility and enhances respect for nature. From Yoga Journal: Marsha Wenig is the creator of the YogaKids video and educational curriculum. Her YogaKids Facilitator Certification Program trains teachers to share their yogic wisdom with children. ___________. The ABCs of YogaKids. Broomfield, Colo.: Gaiam International, 2003. ___________. YogaKids Silly to Calm DVD. Gaiam Kids. 40 minutes. For ages 3-6. From the publisher: Harness any childs willy-nilly energy and turn it into constructive building fitness playtime. In this . . . addition to the award-winning YogaKids video, kids yoga expert Marsha Wenig meets youngsters where they arein high-gearand expertly shifts their frame of mind from silly to steady, restless to relaxes, boisterous to balance. Created with inspiration, imagination and a kids-eye-view, Silly to Calm engages lively young minds and bodies with ingenious segues from energetic activities to calming basic yoga movements. Yoga Kit for KidsFun and Fitness. Imaginazium, 1-800-800-7008. Described by Sage Buitron in her artic le Asanas Are for EveryoneChildren Are Natural Yogis, Enlightened Practice, Jun/Jul 2003, p, 28: The kit is both a game and a teaching tool, It includes 25 yoga cards with photographs of children in easy yoga poses and on the reverse side of the cards there is a short rhyming poem describing how to move into the pose. This kit also includes an instruction book and a music CD. Yoga Zone. Baby and Me Yoga. New York: Yoga Zone. URL: www.yogazone.com, 1-800-264YOGA.

Of Related Interest
Armbruster, Christy A., John T. Chibnall, and Sarah Legett. Pediatrician beliefs about spirituality and religion in medicine: Associations with clinical practice. Pediatrics, 2003, 111(3):e227-e235. Abstract available online: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/abstract/111/3/e227?ct. Abstract: Objectives: Identify pediatrician (faculty and resident) beliefs about spirituality and religion (SR) in medicine and the relationship of those beliefs to SR behavior and experiences in clinical practice. Methods: A self-report questionnaire was administered to full-time pediatric faculty (N = 65) and residents (N = 56) of an urban childrens hospital affiliated with a school of medicine. The response rate was 70.8% among faculty (n = 46) and 78.6% among residents (n =

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44). Respondents indicated the extent of their SR inquiry and the frequency of their SR experiences (requests by patients or families to discuss SR or pray), routinely and during health crisis, and rated 19 belief statements about SR in pediatrics. Results: Few pediatricians routinely ask about SR issues. Faculty were more likely than residents to ask about religious affiliation, whereas residents were more likely to be asked to pray during health crises, to believe that SR has health relevance, and to perceive pediatrician-initiated prayer as appropriate. Composite scores indicated that physicians who did not expect negative patient reactions to SR inquiry and prayer, who believed more strongly that SR is relevant to pediatric outcomes, and who felt more capable with SR inquiry were more likely to engage in SR inquiry and to experience SR requests. Conclusions: Pediatrician beliefs with respect to health relevance of SR, patient reactions to SR inquiry, and physician capabilities regarding SR in the clinic are strongly related to their clinical practice concerning SR inquiry and experiences. Correction of physician misperceptions about SR issues and incorporation of religious sensitivity into physician training may remove barriers to both patient and physician SR inquiry. Barnes, L. L., G. A. Plotnikoff, K. Fox, and S. Pendleton. Spirituality, religion, and pediatrics: Intersecting worlds of healing, Pediatrics, Oct 2000, 106(4 Suppl):899-908. Researchers reviewed literature on the relationship of spirituality, religion, and pediatric health and examined implications for clinical practice, medical education, and research in the United States. The authors conclude that spirituality and religion can serve as key organizing principles in the lives of children and the ir families . . . particularly in relation to childrens illness, health, and healing and offer guidelines for the appropriate inclusion of spirituality in clinical practice. Cardon, Greet M., Dirk L. R. De Clercq, and Ilse M. M. De Bourdeaudhuij. Back education efficacy in elementary schoolchildren: A 1-year follow-up study. Spine, 1 Feb 2002, 27(3):299305. Abstract: DESIGN: A control groupdesigned 1-year follow-up study involving 9 to 11-year-old schoolchildren who followed back education. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a back education program, consisting of six sessions of 1 hour each, in elementary school. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In surveys among children and teenagers during the past few years, as many as half of all children in a community report a history of low back pain. Although several authors advocate the implementation of back education in elementary school, no guidelines exist and little is known about the efficacy of such a program. METHODS: A total of 198 children (subjected to back education) and 165 controls performed a practical test, evaluating the use of back care principles while sitting, taking off shoes, picking up a pen, and handling a load and a book bag. Post-tests were performed within 1 week after the intervention, after 3 months, and after 1 year. The week prevalence of back and neck pain was evaluated at these test moments in extended samples of intervention children (n = 347) and controls (n = 349). To evaluate habit changes, a limited group of intervention pupils (n = 38) and controls (n = 31) was additionally evaluated in a candid camera observation at the last post-test. RESULTS: At all post-tests intervention pupils scored significantly higher (P < 0.001) than controls for all practical test items. Candid camera evaluation scores were higher in the intervention group sample compared with the control group sample for four of the eight evaluated items. Following back education significantly decreased the week prevalence of back and neck pain. CONCLUSIONS: Back education in elementary schoolchildren is efficacious up to 1 year. The role of early back education in preventing back pain at the adult age merits further attention.

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Chun, Jongserl, and David W. Stringer. Stress and coping strategies in runaway youths: An application of concept mapping. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 2005, 5(1):57-74. Author email: bellsnow@mail.utexas.edu. Abstract: The number of runaway adolescents has continued to increase in recent years. Despite the growth and pervasive problems of high levels of stress and low levels of positive coping strategies to deal with this stress, scant research has been devoted to stress and coping among this population. This study is the first of its kind to explore stressors and coping strategies of runaway youths. Participants were male and female runaway adolescents (N = 53) living in a runaway shelter in Austin, Texas. Concept mapping, a mixed-method approach, was used to collect, organize, and interpret qualitative data through quantitative techniques. Concept mapping revealed six major clusters of stressors: disrespect, living stability, anxiety, school, friends, and family. Five major coping strategies emerged as well: relaxation, social support, going out, hobbies/interests, and escaping. The conceptual framework can be utilized in planning and developing crisis assessment and interventions with runaway youths experiencing high levels of stress. Curran, Ellen. Guided Imagery for Healing Children and Teens. Beyond Words, 2001. From a review by Belleruth Naparstek in the 7 Nov 2002 issue of Health Journeys newsletter: Guided Imagery for Healing Children includes the moving story of the authors daughter, Allison, and her journey from illness to wellness and their experience in finding imagery as a powerful wellness tool. It also contains real case studies from Currans private practice in guided imagery, making the concept of imagery come alive. The book is an easy-to-use manual for any parent/caretaker, whether using imagery for a minor symptom such as a toothache or when dealing with a chronic and/or serious condition such as cancer, asthma, or surgical procedures. Guided Imagery for Healing Children teaches and reassures parents in the how to of imagery, including creating their own imagery with their child/patient, different techniques for their imagery tool bag, and what to do when facing a problem in the imagery technique. Daleo, Roxanne. From a Grain of Sand: Happiness CD. Available from Health Journeys: http://www.healthjourneys.com/catalogue.asp?view=item&cid=97. From the Health Journeys website: Track 1: Just like an oyster turns a grain of sand into a pearl, in this magical musical tale, children learn how to turn pesky thoughts into happy ones. Joyful children voices in the roles of characters teach them the art of pearling. Using song, this effective stress management technique is designed to bring children to a new level of self-acceptance. Track 2: Listening to the rhymes, rhythms and music of the ocean, children follow their breathing and become present in the moment. Learning how to watch their thoughts without becoming upset, they can redirect their attention and go below the surface to find the calm within. Track 3: Theme song: From a Grain of Sand, I Can Make a Pearl . Track 4: Ocean Instrumental of Breathing Myself Happy. Davis, Matthew P., and Paul M. Darden. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by children in the United States. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, April 2003, 157(4):393-396. Abstract: Background: Current estimates of pediatric complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use range from 10% to 15%. These estimates are derived from children sampled at health care facilities, with chronic conditions, and/or from countries other than the United States. Objective: To provide a population-based estimate of the prevalence of pediatric CAM use in the

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United States. Design: We used the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population. The survey asks parents if their children used alternative care practitioners within the previous year. Our analysis included children younger than 18 years and accounted for the complex sampling design of MEPS. Results: Weighted for the U.S. population, pediatric CAM use was 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.3%-2.3%). Participants who used CAM were found in each age category, and the mean age was 10.3 years; 76.8% were white, 54% were female, 32% lived in the West, 66% lived in a metropolitan statistical area, and 36% lived at 100% to 199% of the poverty level. Bivariate 2 analysis shows that CAM use increased with age (P = .006) and was twice as common in children not living in a metropolitan statistical area (P = .02). Conclusions: The use of CAM among U.S. children, as measured by the MEPS, is far less prevalent than has previously been asserted. With such disparate estimates, future CAM research efforts would benefit from a consensus regarding what practices constitute CAM and how these practices should be measured. Guerrero, Diana L. What Animals Can Teach Us about Spirituality: Inspiring Lessons from Wild and Tame Creatures. Woodstock, Vt.: Skylight Paths, 2003. Ivanhoe Newswire. Kids lack exercise. San Diego: Ivanhoe Newswire, 17 Feb 2003. A new study shows children are not getting nearly enough exercise, making them fall short of the national guidelines. Physical exercise is a top issue for pediatricians these days because of the increase in obesity in young children. Obesity and type 1 diabetes are on the rise, and both lead to chronic health problems in adulthood. Currently, national guidelines recommend pre-adolescent children should get at least one hour of physical activity each day. The Healthy People 2010 initiative suggests PE time be offered daily and should involve kids in moderate to vigorous activity for at least 50 percent of the class time. Little is known, though, about how often that is achieved. Researchers from 10 medical centers around the United States studied third graders and their PE activity at 684 schools. The researchers found only 5.9 percent of the children took part in PE five times a week. Children averaged about two PE lessons per week and they totaled only 68.7 minutes for the week. Additionally, they averaged only about five minutes of vigorous activity. The results of our study show that PE in school is falling short in meeting Healthy People 2010 goals for PE in both frequency and activity intensity, write the authors. They say there were major variations between school system PE requirements, teacher participation, and lesson plans. The authors suggest more standardized requirements and more staff development is needed. SOURCE: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2003;157:185-190. Janz, Kathleen F., Trudy L. Burns, James C. Torner, Steven M. Levy, Richard Paulos, Marcia C. Willing, and John J. Warren. Physical activity and bone measures in young children: The Iowa bone development study. Pediatrics, Jun 2001, 107(6):1387-1393. Abstract: In this cross-sectional study, . . . associations between physical activity and bone measures in 368 preschool children (mean age: 5.2 years, range: 4-6 years) [were examine] . . . After adjustment for age and body size, accelerometry measures of physical activity and parental report of usual physical activity were consistently and positively associated with bone mineral content and BMD in both boys and girls (r = 0.15-0.28). Television viewing was inversely associated with hip BMD in girls (r = 0.15). The proportion of variance in bone measures explained by physical activity in linear regression models ranged from r2 = 1.5% to 9.0%. In all

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of these models except total body BMD, at least 1 and often several of the physical activity variables entered as independent predictors. Activity variables most likely to enter the regression models were vigorous physical activity (as determined by accelerometry) and parental ranking of childs usual physical activity. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant and, perhaps important, associations between physical activity and bone measures during early childhood, well ahead of the onset of peak bone mass. This would suggest that intervention strategies to increase physical activity in young children could contribute to optimal bone development. Lohaus, A., J. Klein-Hessling, C. Vogele, and C. Kuhn-Hennighausen. Psychophysiological effects of relaxation training in children. British Journal of Health Psychology, May 2001, 6 (Pt 2):197-206. Author email: Lohausa@mailer.uni-marburg.de. From Health Journeys Newsletter, 27 Oct 2004: Researchers from the University of Marburg compared the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and an imagery-based rela xation training on childrens physiological and subjective responses in a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four children, aged 9 to 13 years, were randomly assigned to either one of three experimental conditions: progressive muscle relaxation, imagery-based relaxation or a control condition (neutral story). There were five training sessions in each condition. Heart rate (HR), skin conductance level (SCL), and skin temperature (ST) were measured continuously during a 5-minute baseline period, an 8-minute relaxation training period, and a 5-minute follow-up in each session. In addition, subjective ratings of mood and physical well-being were collected intermittently. The study found that physiological indications of relaxation were most clearly associated with the imagery-based rela xation approachdecreases in HR and SCLalthough ST remained unchanged. In contrast, progressive muscle relaxation led to an increase in HR during the training. The neutral story condition showed a similar trend as the imagery-based relaxation approach (although not reaching statistical significance). Furthermore, childrens ratings of positive mood and physical well-being increased during baseline and training periods, but there were no differences between training conditions. Knox, Lorna. Scary News: 12 Ways to Raise Joyful Children When the Headlines are Full of Fear. Nevada City, Calif.: Crystal Clarity, 2004. URL: http://www.crystalclarity.com. From the publisher: How can loving parents help their children open their hearts and feel secure and confident while growing up in a world full of violence and media messages that promote anxiety and fear? Lorna Knox answers this question in a warm friendly style using personal anecdotes and dozens of effective realistic suggestions. The author of I Came From Joy! Spiritual Affirmations and Activities for Children, again offers practical ideas for parents and anyone who shares their life with children. She reassures us that we can help our children gain the inner strength and wisdom they will need to lead balanced and joyful lives while taking control of our own fears in the process. Leigh, Geoffrey K., Jean A. Metzker, and Jeanne M. Hilton. An observational study of human energy fields in infants and young children. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine Journal, 1997, 8(3).

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Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to observe human energy fields (HEF) in infants and young children. The sample (N = 18) consisted of three age groups of approximately 6, 30, and 54 month old children. In this exploratory study, coding was devised to help extrapolate information that leads to a different understanding of development in children. Literature was reviewed from observations of the HEF of adults and ways of looking at children historically. This approach was combined with traditional observational methods of studying children to develop this research project, using qualitative analysis to identify any patterns within and between groups. The observations were made by three observers viewing the HEF, using a facilitator, coding forms, and video documentation. The findings from the study show patterns within and between groups indicating there is a developmental HEF change that occurs over the three age groups. Preidt, Robert. Kids follow parents in using alternative therapies. HealthDay News, 5 Apr 2005. Article available online: http://www.healthcentral.com/news/NewsFullText.cfm?id=524935. Children and teens are more likely to use comple mentary and alternative medicine if their parents also use the therapies, according to new research. A 1997 study found that 42 percent of American adults reported the use of these types of therapiesand the rates were increasing. But, up till now, theres been little information on the popularity of these treatments among children and teens. Researchers at Metropolitan State University in Minneapolis analyzed 2002 claims data from two large private health insurers in Washington State. Of more than 187,000 insured children, nearly 157,000 were listed on insurance claims. According to the researchers, just over 6 percent had visited a complementary or alternative medicine professional during that year. Not surprisingly, the most significant factor that determined whether a pediatric patient would use complementary or alternative medicine is whether an adult in the family used [it], the investigators noted. In fact, parental use was by far the leading factor associated with childrens use, they said. Boys were less likely than girls to use these therapies, they added, while children with cancer and low back pain were especially likely to try out alternative/complementary treatments. Although use of chiropractic and massage was almost always for musculoskeletal complaints, acupuncture and naturopathic medic ine filled a broader role, the study authors wrote. The findings appear in the April issue of the journal Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. Stress management for kindergartners. The New York Times, 18 Jun 2002. Article available online: http://www.nytimes.com/2002/06/18/health/children/18STRE.html?tntemail0. . . . Ms. Minner [school counselor for 500 kindergarten through second graders at Rosemary Hills Primary School in Silver Spring, Md.] developed an eight-week stress management and confidence-building seminar for second graders. Once a week for 45 minutes, a half-dozen 7and 8-year-olds referred by their teachers or parents gather around her conference table.

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Surrounded by books and colorful puppets, they practice relaxation techniques and learn the power of positive thinking. The goal? To help them find that quiet on the inside, Ms. Minner said. One technique includes blowing bubbles to learn slow, smooth breathing to control stress and anger. Teicher, Martin H. The neurobiology of child abuse: Maltreatment at an early age can have enduring negative effects on a childs brain development and function: Stress sculpts the brain to exhibit various antisocial, though adaptive, behaviors. Scientific American, Mar 2002. Article available online: http://www.nospank.net/teicher2.htm. Vanderbilt, Shirley. Childen and massage. Body Sense, Spring 2003, pp. 18-20. White, Michael Grant. Calming classroom chaos: Optimal Breathing training for stress management in school age children. Available online: http://www.breathing.com/articles/calssroomchaos.htm?obt1128. Wolman, Richard N. Childhood spirituality. In Richard N. Wolman, Thinking with Your Soul: Spiritual Intelligence and Why It Matters. New York: Harmony Books, 2001, pp. 237-239.

Ongoing Research and Programs


Jane Baskir Assistant Director of Foundation Relations Duke University Medical Center Baski002@mc.duke.edu Seeking funding to establish Yoga classes for low-income, at-risk youth in the Durham community and will create from the initial pilot project a model for use in other communities and urban areas. Contacted IAYT 5/17/02. Rita Benn and Elena Gillespie University of Michigan Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research Center Research project (commencement date unknown, but in progress in 2002): Social emotional competence and stress reduction in middle school students: A pilot study. For details, see http://www.med.umich.edu/camrc/research_meditation.html. Several studies have elucidated the beneficial effects of meditation for stress reduction in adults and concomitant effects on physiological indices of cardiac functioning. There has been minimal research, however, on the impact of this technique in school age populations. This study provides the unique opportunity to investigate how one form of meditation, Transcendental Meditation (TM), may affect student well-being, stress and overall level of social-emotional competence. As part of a charter school curriculum, teachers as well as sixth grade students have been instructed in meditation at the beginning of the school year, and continue to practice TM together twice during the school day. Self-report data on standardized behavioral measures will be provided by middle school youth who have practiced TM over the past year and by a comparable

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control group of middle school children who have not been exposed to this practice. In addition, this study will explore whether there are any immediate effects on the experience of childrens emotions after they practice TM. The results of this study will be used to determine the need for a longitudinal and/or prospective randomized research study in this area. Martha-Carole Cotton mcotten@cfl.rr.com Is writing her masters thesis on Yoga for children. Contacted IAYT 1/2002. Karen K. Dupuis Director of Memorial Center for Integrative Healing South Bend, Michigan kdupuis@memorialsb.org 574-251-3840 Contacted IAYT 6/20/02. Just concluded teaching Yoga for 12 weeks at a Juvenile Detention Center with excellent resultsa 17% decrease in incidents. Will shortly begin phase two, which will include a control group. Leigh Fisher In Touch Natural Therapies 37 McCarthy Court Wallan Wallan, Vic. Australia 3756 Leigh is conducting research exploring the effect of dhyana and pranayama on academic achievement and personality in fifteen-year-old students at a number of schools in Australia. Leigh contacted IAYT in 2000. Fayez K. Ghishan fghishan@peds.arizona.edu University of Arizona, Department of Pediatrics, Health Sciences Center, Tucson Tel.: 520-626-5170 Email: fghishan@peds.arizona.edu The purpose of this study is to investigate novel methods from CAM aimed at alleviating chronic pain related to functional bowel disorders in children. To that end, two CAM modalities will be investigated independently of each other, namely Guided Imagery and the use of Chamomile teas as a form of botanical therapy. Further details: Functional abdominal pain is defined as pain unrelated to an identifiable organic gastrointestinal disorder. The two subcategories of functional bowel disorders examined by this study will be RAP and IBS. The definition of RAP in children will follow Apleys classic definition of paroxysmal abdominal pain occurring in children between the ages of 4 and 16 years that persists for more than three months, with a frequency of three or more episodes of abdominal pain over a three month interval. A similar pattern of abdominal pain relieved by defecation and/or associated with altered bowel habits and/or stool consistency will be defined as IBS. Despite the above definitions, note that the typical frequency of pain episodes associated with functional bowel disorders is at least three times per month. Functional bowl disorders are defined as variable combinations of gastrointestinal symptoms that are not readily explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. In children, these typically encompass irritable bowel syndrome and recurrent abdominal pain of childhood, two closely

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related disorders that reflect similar pathophysiologic processes. Both of these functional disorders are pervasive in children and possibly precede symptoms that persist into adulthood. These also account for considerable medical expense and morbidity resulting in school absenteeism. Existing therapies are limited, and the lack of success frequently frustrates parents, families, and physicians. The purpose of this pilot project is to explore the use of alternative medicine modalities to treat functional abdominal pain relying on those that address currently accepted pathophysiologic models of functional bowel disorders. Available evidence indicates 3 major mechanisms for these syndromes: altered intestinal motility, altered intestinal sensory thresholds, and psychosocial factors. Recurrent abdominal pain occurs in 10 to 30 percent of children and adolescents, and evidence suggests that many children with recurrent abdominal pain ultimately develop symptoms compatible with irritable bowel syndrome in adulthood. As many as 68% of school children suffering from recurrent abdominal pain have symptoms compatible with the diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome in adults. Colonic motility studies suggest exaggerated colonic motor function in patients with abdominal pain compared to controls, increased perception of abdominal pain following balloon distention of the rectum, and anxiety and depression compared to healthy children in the community. The approach to therapy including reassurance, fiber, and antispasmodics has not been effective in the long-term management of a recurrent abdominal pain in childhood. Accordingly, this pilot project will attempt to evaluate objectively two alternative modalities that address some of the mechanisms and could offer therapeutic options. In specific aim 1, a randomized controlled trial will be instituted to confirm the effectiveness of relaxation/guided imagery as a modality for treating functional bowel disorders in children and determine if guided imagery improves outcome beyond that achievable using relaxation training alone. In the second trial, the use of chamomile tea as an adjunct to traditional modes of treating functional bowel disorders in children will be assessed and compared to controls who do not receive chamomile tea. The primary outcome will be a reduction in pain measured by a Likert-scale pain inventory using faces as markers. The advantages of this inventory are that faces have been found to be universal across ethnicities and age groups. Secondary outcomes will include bowel habits and stool consistency, measures of functional disability using the Functional Disability Index, and psychiatric profiles using the Child Depression Inventory, Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Childrens Global Assessment Scale. In addition, compliance measures will be assessed by phone contact by nurse clinicians. Data management will be undertaken to quantify the analyses already described. Leah Kalish Director of Yoga Program The Accelerated School (TAS) in Los Angeles, California leah3hearts@aol.com TAS is a K-8 public charter school named Time magazines ele mentary school of the year in 2001. Yoga is a required part of physical education at TAS, and Ms. Kalish has written an integrated Yoga curriculum. She and her associates have raised funds for research at TAS on the impact of Yoga on school children. Contacted IAYT 6/6/02. Kristina Murdock Tina04857@aol.com Is studying childrens Yoga for her masters thesis. Study commenced in 2001. Abby Nardo anardoca@indiana.edu

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Plans on doing her dissertation in school psychology in 2001 using Yoga as a treatment for children with inattention and hyperactivity. Research on Yoga in Education (RYE) (U.K.) 70 Thurleigh Road London SW12 8UD Great Britain Tel.: 0181 673 4869 Joan Smith Clarkson College Omaha, NE joansmith@vikingmedford.com For her master of science degree in nursing education, Joan Smith is studying the effects of HathaYoga on childrens flexibility and balance. She currently teaches Hatha-Yoga 3 days a week to adults and 2 days a week to the children in her study population. Christine Ware, M.A. Chicago, IL cware@depaul.edu Christine is a certified TriYoga teacher and a doctoral student in Clinical Child Psychology at DePaul University. She is planning dissertation research that will integrate her interests in Yoga and psychology. In particular, she pla ns to look at the benefits of a Yoga program she will design and implement for at-risk youth in a school setting. Research will be conducted from June 2002 June 2003. Contacted IAYT 2/4/02. Lonnie K. Zeltzer, M.D. Professor Pediatric Pain Program University of California at Los Angeles lzeltzer@mednet.ucla.edu Tel.: 310-825-0731 Investigating Ayurvedic meditation and Yoga for adolescents with ulcerative colitis. Funded by NIH (NCRR). Joyce Zuck mjzuck@erie.net Joyce is a special education teacher studying Yoga for special children. Study to commence in 2001.

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