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Copper Industry

According to globally developing trends, copper is a main and prominent source of
energy. Energy will be kept consuming, the demand for information technology will keep
on growing as will that for the transportation of people and goods, our need for comfort
and security and our concern for the environment and human health.

Copper will be very useful in the future as it had been and currently is. Its properties
include high conductivity, recyclability and resistance to corrosion. But, it certainly has
environmental impact for its production which is considered and avoided by applying the
newest technology into the copper manufacturing industry.

Coppers high conductivity is a prominent quality, since it makes possible use of energy
more efficient, thus adding not only to the quality of the products, but also adding to the
aim of burning less fossil fuel, in order to prevent climatic change. Therefore, its high
conductivity will serve to transmit the energy more efficiently.

The industrial world consumes between 10 and 20 kilograms of copper per person, ten
times more than the developing world. But consumption will increase.

The 137 million computers a year of 2000 will become 220 million in 2005, which will
use 550 thousand tons of copper. Cell phones will go from 405 to 926 million units,
containing 720 million tons of copper.

On the other hand the mining sector is constantly undergoing technological renovation,
which besides increasing efficiency makes it possible for copper mining companies to
exploit lower grade deposits. But even if the copper extracted from deposits were to
become less, copper can be recycled without losing its prior quality.

Copper, the Element and Its Applications
Copper is a metallic element originated in the depths of the Earth millions of years ago
and which came to the surface pushed by the geological processes that
shaped our planet.

After thousands of years, copper has become prominent part of our civilization. It served
to make possible the progress of man in the last two centuries, and it is a key element for
mankinds future.
Mankind has been in contact with copper and lately for the last 50 years permanently at
their homes and offices, in the streets, in their cars, and whenever they do something
typical of modern life: turn on the light, speak on the phone or drink tap water. And this
contact just increases with the advent of new technologies on everyday basis. The most
common form of presentation of pure copper is as a reddish metal. But it also has other
aspects: it participates in some 450 alloys. And last but not least, it is a natural component
of life: copper is required by animals and plants.

In the periodic table of the elements, copper has its own symbol:
"Cu". Its atomic number is 29; its atomic mass is 63.546; its fusion
point is 1,803 degrees Celsius; its boiling point is 2,567 degrees
Celsius; and it is defined as a non ferrous transition metal.

Copper has important properties for the development of societies: high electrical and heat
conductivity, resistance to corrosion, durability, it can be recycled and, due to its
attractive color, has been used by craftsmen and artists for thousands of years.

Also, health research has established that copper is essential for
all living organisms. We all need a daily dose of this element
which, in the case of humans, we obtain through the food we eat.


In order to understand the future position of copper is though the application of its
properties in areas such as superconductivity, high speed data transmission, microchip
manufacture, solar energy and the storage of nuclear wastes.

The red metal is used in its pure form to fabricate a broad range of products, mainly such
as cables and pipes, but also as part of alloys in combination with other elements, such as
zinc, tin, silver, lead, silica, beryllium, aluminum.

Copper Standards & Types

In the chain of the copper industry, mining companies extract the ore from the deposits
and process it to obtain a metal of high purity that is sold to its main clients, the
fabricators of semi-manufactured products, which in turn will transform it to then offer it
to the end consumers.

Electrolytic copper cathodes are produced under several grades along with off-grades
used for low conductivity appliances and alloys. Cathodes mainly consist of 4 different
qualities; LME registered high grade, non registered high grade, standard grade and off-
grade. LME registered copper refineries manufacture LME registered High (A) Grade
cathodes along with Non-LME registered High (A) grade cathodes, Standard Grade
cathodes and off-grade cathodes.

According to LME copper contract specifications, cathode's sulfur ratio shall not exceed
15ppm in order to be able to be applicable for LME designated standards. In certain
regions copper refineries may produce their LME registered high grade cathodes with a
sulfur ratio of <8ppm where they also produce Non-LME registered high (A) grade
cathodes with a ratio of 8ppm that is within the range of LME designated standards but

not LME registered. Some refineries produce standard grade
cathodes with a ratio of 15ppm that is still within the LME
designated high (A) grade cathode quality.

The chemical specification for electrolytic grade copper is ASTM B 115-00 and BS:EN
1978:2000. Registered cathodes of 99.99% purity are supplied along with designated
marks and LME registration certificates. They are shipped as melting stock to copper
mills or foundries to be cast into wire rod, billets, cakes or ingots, generally, as pure
copper or alloyed with other metals
New Copper Resources
For copper mining companies it is essential to explore new resources to transform into
reserves, since this allows to quantify the economically
extractable mineral.

A copper resource is defined as a concentration of solid
copper material occurring naturally in or on the earths
crust, in such a quantity and form that its extraction is
actually or potentially possible. The conversion of the identified resources during the
exploration stage into reserves involves a number of technical procedures.

In order to sustain a stable development and production capacity, it is one of the most
significant phase in the copper production and mining business. The resources and
reserves are a very important asset for a mining company. The exploration of new
resources, through new discoveries or the updated assessment of its deposits, are the base
of the business of exploitation and mining development.

Copper Exchanges & Market Trends
Copper producers and their clients carry out the transactions of the red metal in three
international markets: the London Metal Exchange, the COMEX of the New York Stock
Exchange and the Shanghai Futures Exchange. In these three international platforms,
producers and consumers have all the facilities to perform their sale and buying
operations. Also, they participate in a mechanism that expedites the fixing of prices based
on the offer and the demand.

The exchanges set a daily price and also quotations for the future transactions, which
offers an interesting scenario to negotiate contracts and buying options on copper lots. In
London, copper is traded in dollars and in lots of 25 tons; in New York, trades are made
on the basis of 25,000 lbs quoted in dollar cents; in Shanghai, in lots of 5 tons quoted in

Copper concentrate is traded either via spot contracts or under long term contracts as an
intermediate product in its own right. Often the smelter sells the copper metal itself on
behalf of the miner. The miner is paid the price at the time that the smelter-refiner makes
the sale, not at the price on the date of delivery of the concentrate. Under a quotational
pricing system, the price is agreed to be at a fixed date in the future, typically 90 days
from time of delivery to the smelter.

The price of copper depends on the conditions of the international market and due to
global crisis its tendency to go up as demand increases has stopped and displayed a huge
drop in the market, making copper producers to take precautions in order to protect the
future development of the global copper industry and global copper market.

However, copper has the potential to overcome these obstacles, since its use is very
essential for the evolution of the global industrial society and global technological
development. New applications for this material can be already foreseen in the future,
enabling the global market to show a positive tendency as demand starts to increase after
the end of the global economic crisis.

In the future, copper will be irreplaceable, particularly in view of the trends that moves
towards greater energy consumption, increased use of information and communication
technologies, greater need of comfort and safety and an increasing concern for the
environment and human health.
The copper industrys growth and prosperity are based on the metals inherent properties:
an attractive appearance, high conductivity, good corrosion resistance, ability to alloy
with other metals, and ease of working. While there are substitutes in specific uses,
copper has entrenched and expanding markets in the electrical, electronic, and
communications industries.

Electrical and electronic products, including power cables, account for over one third of
total usage, and construction, including wiring and water tubing, for a similar share.
Transport industries use roughly one eighth of the total, industrial machinery and
equipment nearly one tenth, and a wide range of consumer and other products the
remainder. Global demand, which moves in step with capital expenditure, especially on
construction and infrastructure, and with spending on automobiles and consumer
durables, has increased from 3.7 million tonnes in 1960 to 6.8 million tonnes in 1970, 9
million tonnes in 1980, 10.9 million tonnes in 1990, 15.1 million tonnes in 2000, and 16.5
million tonnes in 2005. The annual average rate of growth is 3.1 percent, but with marked
annual and geographical variations.
The geographical center of demand has altered, with the most rapid increases in China,
India, and the countries of the Asia-Pacific Rim. In 1980 the main markets were the
countries of the European Union of 15 (30 percent), the United States (21 percent), the
USSR (12 percent), and Japan (13 percent). By 2005 China had gained first place with 22
percent and the Asia-Pacific region had 14 percent. These increased shares were only
partially offset by the collapse of demand in the former Soviet Union and its European
satellites. In recent years demand has flattened out, or even fallen, in the United States (14
percent of the 2005 total), Japan (7 percent), and many of the European Union of 15 (20
percent) as their economic activity has become increasingly dependent on service
industries and imported manufactures.

Global turnover amounted to $21 billion in 2002 and $60 billion in 2005, with increased
prices explaining most of the rise. World exports of refined copper metal accounted for
38 percent of production, worth almost $23 billion, in 2005.
Copper is priced on terminal markets, mainly the London Metal Exchange, and prices
fluctuate with changes in the balance between supply and demand and with general
economic and financial conditions.
Whereas demand is cyclical, supply tends to be relatively inelastic as mines need to
spread heavy fixed costs over as high an output as possible. The industry is a modest
employer of labor, but is capital intensive at both the mining and refining stages.
Volatile prices can be hedged in forward markets, but nonetheless create problems for
producers and consumers alike. For example, the daily cash price fell from $3065/tonne
on January 20, 1995, to a low of $1319/tonne on November 11, 2001, and rose to a high
of $4650/tonne on December 28, 2005. The annual averages were $2934/tonne in 1995,
$1560/tonne in 2002, and $3684/tonne in 2005.
High prices both encourage substitution by other materials, and lead governments and
labor to press for increased shares of profits. Weak prices inhibit exploration and new
investment and may force the closure of higher cost mines.
The relatively strong growth of demand since the late 1980s has been facilitated by
changes in the structure and nature of supply. Global mine production of copper was
about 15 million tonnes in 2005, with the balance of demand for refined copper metal met
from recycled materials.
In many instances ores contain other payable products as well as copper, which can
contribute considerably to mine profitability, and can influence production patterns.
Because individual ore deposits are finite, continued spending on exploration and mine
development is required merely to maintain output, let alone satisfy rising demand.
Improved exploration techniques have partly offset the tendency for the average grade of
copper ore to fall with the depletion of the richer and most accessible ore deposits. Also,
technological improvements and rising mine size have tended to neutralize any impact of
falling average grades on production costs.

During the 1990s output became increasingly concentrated in large open-pit mines, where
economies of scale more than offset the relatively low grades of contained metal in the
ore. In 2004 the three largest mines produced about 2.5 million tonnes, or 15 percent of
The annual copper output of the median mine grew from 75,000 tonnes in 1980 to
110,000 tonnes in 1990 and almost 200,000 tonnes in 2000. Larger mine sizes and falling
average grades have greatly increased the local environmental impact of mining, as
greatly increased volumes of waste and overburden have to be moved per tonne of
recovered metal. Energy needs have also risen sharply.
Most mines are located in relatively unpopulated areas, but social and community
tensions can arise when they are developed near population centers, particularly where
indigenous peoples are involved.
With the exhaustion of many small high-grade mines in Europe and parts of North
America since the late 1980s, the geographical focus of output has shifted. That shift has
been accompanied by changes in patterns of ownership. Whereas the shares of leading
companies in total output have not altered significantly, the identity of those leading
companies has changed markedly. During the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, many mines
were wholly or partially nationalized, largely but not entirely in developing countries in
accordance with the then-prevailing ethos of national ownership and control of mineral
In countries such as Chile, Zambia, and Zaire, foreign-owned mining companies had
dominated, or even distorted, the local economy and exerted considerable political power,
often fueling strong local resentment. Some nationalized U.S. companies, like Anaconda
in Chile, blocked foreign aid and further investment in their former host countries in the

The greater part of U.S. mine output was acquired by oil companies during the 1970s.
(For example, Anaconda Coppers Chilean assets were nationalized in the 1960s and
early 1970s, and its remaining assets were acquired by Atlantic Richfield in the late
1970s.) Subsequent decades have witnessed the complete withdrawal of the oil companies
from copper production, and the privatization of copper projects in many countries.
As of 2007 only Chile retains a significant state holding, through Codelco, but the
company now coexists with privately owned companies and accounts for only 35 percent
of a greatly expanded Chilean output, compared with about 82 percent in the early 1980s.
Elsewhere, state-owned producers generally failed to invest sufficiently to sustain their
output and remain competitive. U.S. mine output collapsed from 1973s 1.6 million
tonnes to 1 million tonnes in 1983, and it would have fallen further but for the oil
companies investment and the application of new technology. Until the late 1970s most
copper ore was crushed, concentrated by a variety of means, and then smelted and
Not all ores are amenable to processing by such means and oxide ores were often left
untreated. Acid leaching, followed by solvent extraction and electro-winning (SX-EW)
enabled the treatment of such ores and waste dumps, often at low costs, and these
hydrometallurgical processes were suitable for many deposits in the Southwestern United
States. In consequence, U.S. mine output expanded to 1.8 million tonnes in 1993 and 1.9
million tonnes in 1996, only to contract to 1.1 million tonnes by 2003, after prices had
collapsed cyclically in the late 1990s.
Many South American copper ores are amenable to SX-EW processing and by 2004 the
technique accounted for 18 percent of global mine output. One advantage is that the
process produces saleable copper metal rather than intermediate products requiring
further processing. Russian production fell with the collapse of the Soviet Union, and
output fell during the 1980s and 1990s in Europe, Canada, Central Africa, and the

The number of producing countries has dwindled along with the number of mines. As of
2007 Chile accounts for 35 percent of global mine output, followed by the United States
(8 percent), Indonesia (7 percent), Peru (7 percent), Australia (6 percent), and Russia (5.5
percent). The leading five copper mining companies supply 38 percent of global output,
and the top ten 58 percentsimilar shares to those of the mid 1970s. The five leading
companies are Codelco (12.7 percent of 2004s output), BHPBilliton (7.3 percent), Phelps
Dodge (7.1 percent), Grupo Mexico (6.1 percent), and Rio Tinto (5.1 percent).
There is large global trade in ores and concentrates (28 percent of total mine output, and
34 percent of the output of concentrates) as not all copper is smelted and refined at, or
near, the mine site. Some smelters and refineries continued to produce from imported raw
materials when local mines were depleted, and some countries, like Japan, Korea, and
China, deliberately fostered metal production for strategic or developmental reasons. The
main countries producing copper metal are Chile (17 percent), China (15 percent),
European Union of 15 (11 percent), Japan (8 percent), and the United States (7 percent).
The ownership of copper refineries is rather less concentrated than that of mines, with the
ten leading companies having 50 percent of output, rather less than in the mid-1970s.


The Mining sector of the 1997 Economic Census covers all mining establishments of
companies with one or more paid employees. Mining is defined as the extraction of
naturally occurring mineral solids, such as coal and ores; liquid minerals, such as
petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas. The term mining is used in the broad sense to
include quarrying, well operations, beneficiating (e.g., crushing, screening, washing, and
floatation), and other preparations customarily performed at the mine site or as part of the
mining activity.
The Mining sector distinguishes two basic activities: mine operation and mining support
activities. Mine operation includes establishments operating mines, quarries, or oil and
gas wells on their own account or for others on a contract or fee basis. Mining support
activities include establishments that perform exploration (except geophysical surveying)
and/or other mining services on a contract or fee basis.
Establishments in the Mining sector are classified by industry according to the natural
resources mined or to be mined. Included are establishments that develop the mine site,
extract the natural resources, and/or those that beneficiate (i.e., prepare) the mineral
The operations that take place in beneficiation are primarily mechanical, such as
grinding, washing, magnetic separation, and centrifugal separation. The range of
preparation activities varies by mineral and the purity of any given ore deposit.
Mining, beneficiation, and manufacturing activities often occur in a single location.
Separate receipts are collected for these activities whenever possible.

When receipts cannot be broken out between mining and manufacturing, establishments
that mine or quarry nonmetallic minerals and beneficiate the nonmetallic minerals into
more finished manufactured products are classified based on the primary activity of the
establishment. Hauling and other transportation beyond the mine property and contract
hauling (except out of open pits in conjunction with mining) are excluded.

This report, from the 1997 Economic Census Mining, is one of a series of 29 industry
reports and 51 geographic area reports, each of which provides statistics for individual
industries, states, or offshore areas. Also included for this sector are the General,
Products, and Materials and Fuels Consumed Summary reports, and data files on
Location of Mining Operations.

Each industry report presents data for a six-digit North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS) industry. A description of the particular NAICS industry may be found
in Appendix B. These reports include such statistics as number of establishments,
employment, payroll, value added by mining, cost of supplies used, value of shipments
and receipts, capital expenditures, etc., for each mining industry. Explanations of these
and other terms may be found in Appendix A. The industry reports also include data for
states with 100 employees or more. State reports present similar statistics at the sector
level for each state, the District of Columbia, and the offshore areas. The state of
Delaware and the District of Columbia are combined in a single report. The state reports
also include data for industries with 100 employees or more in the state.

The General Summary report contains industry and geographic area statistics
summarized in one report. It includes higher levels of aggregation than the industry and
state reports as well as revisions to the data made after the release of the industry and
state reports. The Products Summary and the Materials and Fuels Consumed Summary
reports summarize the products, materials, and fuels data published in the industry series

The Location of Mining Operations data files include statistics on the number of
establishments by three- and six-digit NAICS industry by state and offshore area by
employment size of the establishment.


The state reports for the mining industries include data at the state level and some
offshore areas. No substate data are available.
Data for offshore areas that are part of Alaska, California, Louisiana, and Texas are
included in their respective state area reports and represent offshore operations on all
these state offshore leases and all Federal offshore leases defined by their state plane
coordinate systems.

State offshore includes the areas extending from the coastline up to 3 geographical miles
distance except for Texas and Florida which extend 3 marine leagues from the coastline
in the Gulf of Mexico. Data for offshore areas not associated with a state are in an
Offshore Areas geographic report which includes the following areas:

Atlantic Offshore Atlantic Federal Area New Hampshire state offshore Maine state
offshore Massachusetts state offshore Connecticut state offshore New York state offshore
New Jersey state offshore Delaware state offshore Maryland state offshore Gulinia state
offshore North Carolina state offshore South Carolina state offshore Georgia state
offshore Florida state Atlantic offshore Northern Gulf of Mexico Offshore

Northern Gulf of Mexico Federal Areas defined by the Universal Transverse Mercator
Coordinate System (including areas generally south of the state plane coordinate systems
of Louisiana and Texas) Mississippi state offshore Alabama state offshore Florida state
Gulf offshore Pacific Offshore Pacific Federal areas defined by Universal Transverse
Mercator Coordinate System Oregon state offshore Washington state offshore


The adoption of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has had
only a minor effect on the comparability of data between the 1992 and 1997 censuses at
the sector level. However, within the sector the number of major levels changed from
four to three. In addition, portions of industries left mining for the services sector.
Prominent among items leaving mining are geophysical surveying and mapping services
for metal mining, oil and gas, and nonmetallic minerals mining. If industries are not
comparable between the two censuses, historic data are not shown.
Another change resulting from the conversion to NAICS is that data for central
administrative offices (CAOs) associated with mining are no longer included in the
mining data. This change affects all levels of data shown in the reports.


In accordance with Federal law governing census reports (Title 13 of the United States
Code), no data are published that would disclose the operations of an individual
establishment or company. However, the number of establishments classified in a
specific industry or geography is not considered a disclosure and may be released even
when other information is withheld.

The disclosure analysis for the industry statistics files is based on the total value of
shipments and receipts. When the total value of shipments and receipts cannot be shown
without disclosing information for individual companies, the complete line is suppressed
except for capital expenditures. If capital expenditures alone is a disclosure, only capital
expenditures and cost of supplies statistics are suppressed. The suppressed data are
included in higherlevel totals.

Market Capitalization
In the year 2010-2011 India's copper demand is estimated to grow by at least 7%, fed by
power sector, while demand from real estate and construction remains weak. According
to India's eleventh five year plan (2007-2012), the investment requirement in the country's
power generation sector is over Rs.4 trillion with 150 power projects for the various
stages of installation.

Size of the Industry
Indian copper production capacity in the year 1995 has registered a robust growth after
the government allowed private sector companies. In the year 1996 the capacity has
grown 16 times from mere 62,000 to 997,500 tones in 2007. The government owned
Hindustan copper is a vertically integrated producer whereas Hindalco and Sterlite
industries are mainly custom smelters. Copper production has seen a strong growth in
India in the last few years. It has increased from 420,000 tones in 2004 to 740,000 tonnes
in 2007, registering a growth rate of 21% CAGR. As mentioned before, Hindalco and
Sterlite industries account for more than 80% of the total copper production in India




Saru Copper is an India-based leading manufacturers and exporters of copper rods,
continuous cast and cold drawn copper alloy rods and copper alloy bars. We take pride
that our products are being globally accepted since last several years for their quality and
competitive pricing. Presently the company is exporting copper alloy rods and copper
alloy bars to countries such as US, UK, Germany and Latin America, Tanzania, Middle
East, Malaysia, Vietnam and New Zealand.
An ISO 9001-2000 certified company, Saru Copper is the principal supplier of copper
alloy rods, copper alloy bars and other copper alloy products to various industries in
automobile, heavy engineering, electrical, defence, aviation industry, mining and drilling
equipments and marine engineering.

Saru Copper Alloy Semis (P) Ltd., are a name to reckon with in the arena of metal
products. Based in Meerut, the strategically located town near Delhi, we are one of the
prominent manufacturers, suppliers and exporters of premium grade non ferrous
metals and alloys which are widely used in diverse industrial applications.

The company is part of the legendary 'House of Saru', a group of family-managed units,
which has been producing alloys since the 1900s. Our reputation is based on reliability,
integrity and complete understanding of the market dynamics. Needless to say quality and
service have been the family tradition. We always aim to achieve complete customer
satisfaction and strive for continual improvement of our system.

Our exports are surging up and we have become one of the major player in the Indian
copper industry. We have been exporting our copper alloy rods, copper alloy bars,
phosphor bronze alloys, leaded bronze alloys, nickel alloys, tin bronze alloys, gun metal
alloys, etc. to many countries of the world including Germany, Malaysia, Mexico, New
Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Taiwan, United Kingdom and USA.

To fulfill the varied requirements of our global clients, we have our own production
facilities. Our facility is located in the historical town of Meerut which is easily
accessible by road, air and rail. Spread in a spacious area of over 2,500 square
yards, our state-of-the-art unit comprises of design facilities, manufacturing bays
and testing laboratories.
We have over 100 full-time experienced production craftsmen and office staff to
handle production, sales, technical support and administration. The company is also
equipped with continuous casters, draw benches, straighteners and heat treatments
to churn out flawless products like copper alloy rods, copper alloy bars, etc. The in-
house die design department and our maintenance of a wide array of graphite dies
provide exacting bar sizes thereby satisfying the needs and requirements of our
fastidious customers.

Business Type Exporter , Manufacturer , Supplier

Export Percentage


Primary Competitive
World class quality
Trust and support of innumerable clients across the
Economical prices
Timely completion of the order

No of Staff 50-100

Year of Establishment 1988

Export Markets US, UK, Germany and Latin American countries, Tanzania,
Middle East, Malaysia, Vietnam and New Zealand

Memberships Engineering Export Promotion Council
Bureau of Indian Standards
Indian Industries Association
Indian Copper Development Corporation
Western UP Chamber of Commerce
Product Range Copper Alloy Rods/Bars
Phosphor Bronze Alloys
Leaded Bronze Alloys
Nickel Alloys
Tin Bronze Alloys
Gun Metal Alloys

Standard Certification I SO 9001:2000

Annual Production

800 MT

Awards Won Export Excellence Award for the Year 2004-05.
Export Excellence award for the year 2006-07.




We produce the following copper alloys in sizes up to 160mm, in standard length of 3 m,
but can offer up to 15ft. length on request as per all national and international
specifications :
Copper Alloys
Phosphor Bronze Alloys
Tin Bronze Alloys
Leaded Bronze Alloys
Gun Metal Alloys
Nickel Alloys

We produce the above alloys in various shapes :
Our manufacturing activities are situated at Meerut in a covered area of 2,500 sq. yards
with a installed capacity of 100 tons a month of copper alloys. Using some of the most
modern and sophisticated machines and the state-of-the-art technology, well supported by
over 100 well qualified and dedicated work force and having updated and fully equipped
testing laboratory with requisite machines and system, we endeavor to serve the domestic
and international market most competitively.

Quality Policy

The management staff and workers of Saru Copper Alloy Semis Pvt. Ltd are committed
to supply products to the complete satisfaction of its customers for the first time and
every time through:
Continual improvement in the effectiveness of the quality management system.
Training of employees.
Up Gradation of the technology.

All material is supplied with full satisfaction in accordance with the ordered specification,
both chemically and mechanically.

Material is checked and tested at every stage of production right from the Raw material
stage to Casting to Work in Progress to Finished Product. Finished material is subject to
rigorous test by testing Tensile Strength, Yield Strength, Elongation and Hardness.


Memorable past

The House of Saru ventured into non-ferrous trading as early as the year 1900 and
gradually moved into production of various alloys. Saru Smelting Pvt. Ltd. was started in
1944 with the manufacture of silver alloys containing silver brazing alloys and gas
welding rods, tin alloys containing flux cored solder wire and copper alloys containing
continuous cast phosphor bronze rods/wires.

In 1976 a group company Saru Aikoh was set up in collaboration with Aikoh Co., Japan
for the manufacture of foundry fluxes, which in 1997 further ventured into continuous
cast fluxes in technical collaboration with Nippon Thermo Chemical Company, Japan. In
1989, a tin smelting project -- Sartin Alloys, under group company Saru Smelting -- was
also set up in technical know-how from Base Metal Synergy Associates, UK.

Contact Us or Send Us Online Query


Phone : +(91)-(121)-2556279, 2554126, 2554160
Mobile : +(91)- 9897026874
Click to Call FreeSend SMS / Text Message

Fax : +(91)-(121)-2558402
E-Mail :,,


Copper Alloys
We are one of copper alloy producers the most trusted names in offering a qualitative
range of copper alloys that are developed by our expert team of technicians. Our copper
alloy products are tested at several parameters, our products are known for their excellent
conduction towards heat and electricity. The wide collection of products made with
copper alloy such as copper alloy bars, drawn copper bars, copper alloy sheets, tungsten
copper alloy, copper alloy rods, phosphor bronze alloys, tin bronze alloys etc. are
available in undermentioned specifications and grades.


Phosphor Bronze Alloys
Widely used in the several manufacturing units, we present an array of phosphor bronze
alloys rods, phosphor bronze bars, phosphor bronze squares and many more. These
phosphor bronze alloys offer resistance towards fatigue and chemical corrosion, so they
are used for varied application in various industries such as in heavy engineering,
defense, aviation, electrical and more. Avail phosphor bronze alloys in various grades and
specifications that are given below:

Tin Bronze Alloys
Backed by a team of experts and well equipped manufacturing unit, we present wide
gamut of tin alloys, tin bronze alloys, tin bronze castings, tin bronze rods etc. In order to
ensure quality we produced our range in accordance with set international norms of
quality. Tin bronze alloys are known for their corrosion resistance, high wear resistance
and low friction coefficient against steel. Our range is available in below mentioned
specifications and chemical composition for specific requirements.

Leaded Bronze Alloys

Presenting an array of leaded bronze alloys, leaded bronze rods, leaded bronze hexagons,
leaded bronze bars that are developed from highest quality of materials under the
supervision of expert engineers. The leaded bronze alloys are known for their resistance
towards corrosion, abrasion and their long service life. Our expertise in the industry
enables us to provide the range in undermentioned grades and composition, s
uitable for variegated industrial applications.

Gunmetal Alloys
Leveraging on our vast experience in the specific industry, we offer a large variety of
products made with gunmetal alloys that includes gun metal rods, gun metal bars and
more. These gunmetal alloys are acclaimed for their sturdiness, resistance from salt &
steam, good strength and rust resistance. Our range is used for bearings where loads and
speeds are moderate. We offer gunmetal alloys in vast variety of grades and specifications
which are catering to the demands of different industries.

Nickel Alloys

We bring forth for our clients a comprehensive variety of nickel alloys, nickel alloy rods,
nickel alloy bars and other nickel alloy products. Our products are known around the
globe as these are made with International grade raw material, have excellent mechanical
& magnetic properties, have high thermal & electrical conductivity which makes them
suitable for varied industrial applications. Moreover, our variety is available in various
specifications and compositions.


The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and
recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the
strategic advantage for the organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic
procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and
requires many resources and time.

The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final
interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment

In that case we can define i.e. Recruitment means sourcing the right capable candidate for
the specific job. Right candidate can be searched from the different sources like internal
& appropriate database, Employee referral program, job portals (, etc.),effective headhunting Every company has their own
recruitment policy. Few companies believe closing position through their internal
database. However in todays time companies believe to give their position to the outside
consultants or Vendors as they are becoming more approachable & efficient. Companies
are rigorously not allowed to source the candidate straight away from the other
competitive company.

Getting the recruitment done is becoming crucial & competitive day by day as the
availability of the capable & compatible manpower. Still only smart recruiters are able to
manage their work effectively.

The success of and organization largely depends upon the Team of the skilled and
qualified human resources who are chosen out of number of applicants for the job. It is
the primary duty of the HRD department to procure and maintain an adequate qualified
working force of various personnel necessary for manning the organization.
Procurement function of personnel Department includes three major sub-functions
- (A) Recruitment; (B) Selection: and (C) Placement on the job.

Recruitment is the positive process of employment. The process of Recruitment is to
identify the prospective employees, attract, encourage and stimulate them apply for the
job, Interview the eligible and select them for a particular job in the organization

Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of
the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting selection of an
efficient working force.

It extends to the whole Organization. It covers corporate office, sites and works
appointments all over India.
It covers workers, Clerical Staff, Officers, Jr. Management, Middle Management
and Senior Management cadres.


Human resource is a most valuable asset in the Organization. Profitability of the
Organization depends on its utilization. If their utilization is done properly Organization
will make profit otherwise it will make loss. If a good dancer appointed as a Chief
Executive Officer of a Company, he may not run the business. So right man should be
procured at right place in right time, otherwise their proper utilization may not be done.
To procure right man at right place in right time, some information regarding job and job
doer is highly essential. These information are obtained through Job Analysis, Job
Descriptions, Job Specifications. Saru Copper procure manpower in a very scientific
manner . It gets information by use of these important documents like Job Analysis, Job
Descriptions and Job Specifications. Without these recruitment may be unsuccessful.
Before recruit a person all information regarding job, working conditions, duties and
responsibilities of job doer, Skills experiences qualifications of an employee to do the
particular job is highly essential.

Following process of Recruitment has been followed in Saru Copper .

1) For new requirement or for replacement a manpower the given requisition format is to
be filled up by Head of the Division/Department and forwarded to HRD after obtaining
MDs approval.

2) Appointment letter language for asst. Manager to manager is given in the
following format.


Dear Mr..


With reference to the offer letter no._________________
dated________________, we are pleased to appoint you in our organization on
the following terms and conditions:-

1) Designation : Your position in the company will be

2) Date of Joining: Your date of joining the services in the organization

3) Probation Period: Ordinarily your period of probation will be Six
months from the date of joining. Management may extends the probation
period depending upon your performance. On successful completion of
probation, you will be issued a confirmation letter.

During the probation period, your services are liable to be terminated
without assigning any specific reason, whatsoever without giving any
notice. After confirmation the notice period will be one month or one
months basic salary on either side.

4) Salary Details:
Your Basic Salary will be Rs. ./- p.m.
(Rupees only)
In addition you will be entitled to House Rent Allowance of Rs.
/- p.m.
(Rupees only)
You will entitled to reimbursement of Local Travelling Expenses up to a
maximum limit of Rs. /- p.m. (Rupees
. only)
You shall also be entitled to benefits like ESI/Medical Reimbursement,
LTC, Bonus Excreta, Gratuity & PF as per rules of the company.
5) Place of Posting:
However, you would be liable to be transferred/posted at any of the
existing or proposed locations of the company or its sister/associates
companies at the sole discretion of the management.

6) The company normally does not permit employees to engage in any other
business or work, either directly on their own account or indirectly and
you will be expected not to do so without prior consent of the management
in writing.

7) You will be governed by the rules and regulations of the company as
applicable in force, amended or altered from time to time during the course
of your employment.

8) You will automatically retire from the services of the Company on
attaining the age of 58 years. You may be retired earlier if found medically

Please sign the duplicate copy of this letter signifying your acceptance and return
it to us.

We welcome you to our organization and wish you a successful career with us.
With best wishes,
Yours sincerely,
For Saru Copper .


I agree to accept employment on the terms and conditions mentioned above and
agree to abide by all the rules and regulations of the company.

3) Appointment letter language for sr. manager and above is given in the following


Dear Mr. . Date


With reference to the offer letter no.____________________ dated ______________, we
are pleased to appoint you in our organization on the following terms and conditions:-

1) Designation : Your position in the company will be

2) Date of Joining: Your date of joining the services in the organization
is ..

3) Salary Details :
Your Basic Salary will be Rs. /- p.m.
(Rupees only)
In addition you will be entitled to House Rent Allowance of Rs../-
p.m. (Rupees only)
You will entitled to reimbursement of Local Travelling Expenses upto a
maximum limit of Rs. ../- p.m. (Rupees
.. only)

You shall also be entitled to benefits like Excreta, Gratuity, PF etc. as per rules of
the company.

You will be entitled to reimbursement of Medical Expenses for yourself and
family, the total cost of which shall be a maximum of one month's basic salary in
a year.

You will be entitled to reimbursement of LTC equivalent to one months basic
salary per completed year of service. Your first entitlement for LTC will be on
completion of 12 months service with the Company.
4) Place of Posting: . However, you would be liable to be
transferred/posted at any of the existing or proposed locations of the company or its
sister/associate companies at the sole discretion of the management.
5) Your services are liable to be terminated without assigning any specific reason,
whatsoever by giving you one months basic salary or one months notice. Likewise
you would be free to leave the services of the company by giving one months notice
or basic salary to the company.
6) The company normally does not permit employees to engage in any other business or
work, either directly on their own account or indirectly and you will be expected not
to do so without prior consent of the company in writing.
7) You will be governed by the rules and regulations of the company as applicable in
force, amended or altered from time to time during the course of your employment.
8) You will automatically retire from the services of the Company on attaining the age of
58 years. You may be retired earlier if found medically unfit.
Please sign the duplicate copy of this letter signifying your acceptance and return it to us.
We welcome you to our organization and wish you a successful career with us.

With best wishes.
Yours sincerely,
For Saru Copper

I agree to accept employment on the terms and conditions mentioned above and agree to
abide by all the rules and regulations of the company.


Joining report to be filled by the new join in format given below and experience
certificate, Date of Birth Certificate, Relieving letter, Salary Certificate and Educational
Certificate etc. to be submitted to personnel Department.

1. Individual personal files are maintained.
2. Computerized Personal details are maintained.
3. After separation also the personal files are maintained of ex-employees.
4. Position wise Data Banks are maintained for future reference.
5. The following formats shall be generated as a result of implementation on this


Sources of recruitment can be classified into two categories
(i) Internal Sources
(ii) External Sources

Internal sources of recruitment means promotion of employees from the lower rank to the
upper rank. Majority of companies have established a policy of promotion from within
that is, vacancies other than at the lowest level are filled up by promoting the personnel to
the higher rank. Such practice leads the healthy progressive atmosphere and the cost of
training and the rage of labor turnover.
This source of recruitment is generally adopted to fill vacancies of middle and top

It is always not possible to recruit the employees from within, especially vacancies at
lower level or recruitment at the time of expansion of the firm or where job specification
cannot be met by the present employees, the employer has to go to external sources of
manpower supply. Amongst the most commonly used outside sources are as follows:

Advertisement in newspapers and journals is now an external popular source of recruiting
staff. For all types of types of vacancies employers resort to advertising but it is the most
suitable source for filling the vacancies of technical and senior personnel. All particulars
regarding the job and the qualifications of the perspective candidate are given in their
advertisement. Candidates processing the requisite qualification apply for the job.

Campus interview is a very useful source of recruitment for a full range of jobs. The
employment managers of the enterprises maintain a close liaison with the University and
Technical institutions. This method is used for recruiting Officer, Apprentices, Engineers
or Management Trainees. Technical Institutions empanel the promising young talents for
employment and refer their names to the prospective employers as and when asked for.

Employment exchanges are regarded as good source of recruitment for unskilled, skilled
or semiskilled operative jobs. The job seekers get their names registered with
employment exchanges managed and operated by the Central and State Government. The
employers notify the vacancies to be filled in by them to such exchanges and the
exchanges refer the names of prospective candidates to them.

Some private agencies are also doing a great service in recruiting technical and
professional personnel. They provide a nationwide service in attempting to match the
demand and supply of personnel. Many private agencies tend to specialize supply of
personnel. Many private agencies tend to specialize in a particular type of jobs like Sales,
Marketing, Technical Professional.

Consultants who specialize in the recruitment of managers and other senior officials are
now being called upon to assist the management in filling of these posts. Companies hire
the services of these consultants at the time of recruitment of the senior officials. These
consultants agencies, on receiving requisition from the client companies, advertise job
description in leading newspapers and periodicals without disclosing the names of the

Some professional institutions like Institute of Chartered Accountant , I.C.W.A.I.,
Institute of Company Secretary etc. maintain a register of qualified persons from which
they recommend the names of the job seekers to the employers when ask for.

An organization of repute draws a steam of unsolicited applications at the companys
office. These applications are screened and places in the relevant Data Banks. Whenever
needed to locate suitable candidates for that particular skill these are used.

Sometimes direct recruitment of workers is made at the gate of the factory or office.
Generally, the number of vacancies, nature of work and time of interview are notified by
the Personnel Department on the blackboard at the gate. Prospective candidates attend the
interview at the appointed time and get the appointment. This system of recruitment is
generally used to recruit the unskilled workers.

Sometimes, persons are employed to dispose of the heavy seasonal work or the areas of
work of temporary nature on part time basis. These part time employees form a good
source of labors supply as and when vacancies occur. Vacancies are filled up among them
if they fulfill the requisite qualification to suit the jobs.

The short term fluctuations in personnel needs may be stabilized through leasing of
personnel for some specified period from other industries, offices and units. This system
of leasing has been well adopted by the public sector organizations. With the rapid
growth of public sector, the acute shortage of managerial personnel, particularly at higher
levels, they borrow the personnel of requisite caliber from the Government Departments.
At the end of their term they are given an option to choose either their parent services or
the present organizations.

In some companies trade unions also assist in recruiting the staff. This sense of
cooperation helps in developing the better labor relations. This source of labor supply
cannot be relied upon on the ground that sometimes trade unions support a candidate who
in not fit for the job and is not acceptable to management. Such view really worsens the
labor relations

Psychological tests are essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of
behavior. Objective of this definition refers to the validity and reliability of measuring
instruments. It also means the job relatedness of the test.
Following tests are adopted for selection:-

1. Achievement
2. Aptitude
3. Interest
4. Personality
5. Intelligence.
6. Leaderless Group Discussion
7. Interview

This test measures a persons potential in a given area. This test measure the skill which
involves performance of a sample operation requiring specialized skill and believed to be
satisfactorily answered by those who have some knowledge of the occupation and trade.

This measures ability and skills. Specific aptitude tests have been designed for jobs that
require clerical, mechanical, and manual dexterity. Aptitude tests do not measure
motivation. Aptitude test is supplemented by interest and personality test.

This test has been designed to discover a persons area of interest, and do identify the
kind of work that will satisfy him.

Personality tests assess individuals motivation, predisposition and other pattern of
behavior. The personality tests, more often than the intelligence, achievement or aptitude
tests, predict performance success for jobs that require dealing with people. Dimensions
of personality such as interpersonal competence, dominance-submission, ability to lead
and ambition are more suitably measured by the personality test.

This tests generally aptitude ones. The scores on intelligence tests are usually expressed
as Intelligence Quotient (IQ), which are calculated by the following formula.
Mental Age
IQ= --------------- x 100
Actual Age

The essential feature of this technique is that instead of the candidates being interviewed
separately, they are brought together in group of six to eight for informal discussion, and
absolved and evaluated by the selectors. The two kinds of group discussions are one,
where the group is given a problem to discuss and the individual member is free to choose
his own approach to solving this problem; and two, where each individual is allotted an
initial position and supplied with supporting information to defend his position.
The advantage of this method is that the decision to hire a person can be made within a
very short time, and the selector can evaluate the candidates personality or leadership
qualities very well.


The interview technique consists of interaction between interviewer and interviewee

Following are the methods of interview technique:-

These interviews are preliminary screening of applicants to decide whether a more
detailed interview will be worthwhile. The applicant is given job details during the
interview to afford him freedom to decide whether the job will suit him. It is argued that
preliminary interviews are unsatisfactory, first because they might lead to the elimination
of many desirable candidates, and second, because interviews may not have much
experience in evaluating candidates. The only argument for this method is that it saves the
companys time and money.

Depth interviews cover the complete life history of the applicant and include such areas
as the candidates work experience, academic qualifications, health, interests, and hobbies.
It is an excellent method for executive selection, performed by qualified personnel. It is
however. Costly and time consuming.

Patterned interviews are a combination of direct and indirect questioning of the applicant.
What is to be asked is already structured. The interviewer has certain clues and guidelines
to areas which should be probed deeply. The interview also encourages the candidate to
express the relevant information freely.

A variety of methods is used to personnel. The selection pattern, is not common for all
organizations. It varies from one to another, depending on the situation and needs of the

The application blank is a highly interview in which the questions are standardize and
determined in advance. It tests the applicants ability to write, organize his thoughts, and
present facts. A number of application blanks give the impression that if you have seen
one you have them all. Despite the diversity, all application blanks essentially require
three broad categories of information.

This is concerned with such variables as age, sex marital status and number of
dependents. This also have used items like the local address, age, previous salary and age
of children and have found no difference in long and short tenure employees.

This is concerned with grade point, average, division and percentage of marks as
prerequisites for a job.

References are letters of recommendation written by previous employees or teachers. The
general format is a paragraph or so on the person. Besides inaccurate facts, this can be
attributed to the referee' inability to assess and describe the applicant, and his limited
knowledge about him.

Human resource Management classically pertains to planning; recruitment, selection,
placement, induction, compensation, maintenance, development, welfare etc. of Human
Resources of any organization to enable the organization to meet its objective while also
enabling the human resources to attain their individual goals.

As is evident from the definition of the concept the entire theme revolves centrally around
human resource and its role in enabling simultaneous satisfaction of individual and
organizational goals.

The immediate conclusion that follows from this is that the prime movers of the
organization are the individuals. The process of bringing employees into the folds of
organization is termed as recruitment and can be unambiguously treated as the central
pillar for foundation stone of the entire concept of human resource management.

It is easy to see why recruitment has accorded such a high position out of the various
facets of human resource management. The reason is simply that unless one has human
resource in the organization whom will the human resource managers manage or whose
energy will they channelize productively and usefully.
Keeping this idea into mind this Projects is an attempt to study various options that are
available both theoretically as well as practically for an organization to launch itself into
the task of recruitment.



Training and
- Focus is on identifying
and assessing

Union/labor Relation
Focus : Assessing


Focus : assessing
healthy inter
relationship as bell
as intra
N v
Assistance Focus :
Providing personal
problem solving,
canceling to

- Quality of work
- Productivity
- Readiness to

Focus : defining
how tasks, authority
and system will be
7 R
Compensation and
Focus : Assessing
compensation and

Human Resource
Planning :
Determining the
origins major HRM
needs strategies and
Personnel research
and information
Focus : assuring a
information base
Selection and Staffing :
Focus : Matching people
and their career needs
and capabilities with
join and career path

From the above introduction about Human Resource management, it has been pretty
clear that how important is human resource and its allocation. Again it depends on
human resource planning. So the next question which arises is what is Human Resource

It is one of the most important and essential program of Human Resource Management.
Human Resource Planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has
right number of people, right kind of people, at the right places, at the right time, capable
of the right places, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing
those tasks which will help the organization to achieve its overall objectives as well as
goals. Human Resource Planning then, translation the organizations objectives and plans
into the number of workers needed to meet those objectives. Without clear-cut planning,
estimation of organization's human resource need is reduced to more guesswork.
Of all the MS in management (the management of materials, machines, methods,
money, motive power), the most important is M for men or manpower. Manpower is a
primary resource without which other resources like money, machines materials can not
be put to use. Even in the age of computer and Robert it requires human resources to
execute it and plan further improvement. It is the most valuable asset of an organization.
If people of poor caliber are hired, nothing much can be accomplished and Grasisms law
will work the bad people will drive out the good car cause them to deteriorate.
Organization of men for managing a purpose is age-old, even though, this science of
management is yet in a developing stage especially in developing countries.

Effective utilization of manpower resources is the key note of manpower management.
Ever since the factory system, production managers have devoted a great deal of time and
effort to the physical organizations of the industry. During the nineteenth Century the
average employer in their efforts to reduce costs centralized their attention upon
management of men and machines. Man management is basically concerned with having
right type of people available as and when required and improving the performance of the
existing people to make them more productive on their job.

Recruitment forms the first stage in the process which continues with selection and ceases
with the placement of the candidates. It is the next step in the procurement function, the
first being the manpower planning. Recruitment makes it possible to acquire the number
and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the organization.
Recruiting is the discovering of potential applicants for actual or anticipated
organizational vacancies. In other words, it is a linking activity bringing together those
with jobs and those seeking jobs.

Job Title. Date
Code No Location ..
Department Analyst.
Reason for the job Supervised..
Wage or salary range

Relation to other jobs: Promotion from.. Promotion to..

Job summary:
Work performed:
Major duties :.
Other tasks :
Equipment/Machines used:.
Working Condition

Skill Requirements:
Education: (Grade or Year)
Training :
Job experience : (a)Type of experience..
(b) Length of experience
Supervision : (a) Positions supervised.
(b) Extent of supervision..
Job knowledge : (a) General
(b) Technical
(c) Special
Responsibility : (a) For product and material .
(b) For equipment and machinery
(c) For work of others.
(d) For safety of others


1. EDUCATION : Ability to read and understand production orders and to make
simple calculations. Preferably High School Certificate.

2. TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE: No special training required . Requires one month
experience to learn job duties and to attain acceptable degree of proficiency.

3. PHYCIAL EFFORT: No special physical effort is required.

4. MENTAL SKILL: Requires reasoning to interpret instructions and drawings and
productions orders. Must be able to concentrate when operating.

5. SUPERVISION : Routine checking and no close supervision required. Specific but no
detailed instructions.

6. RESPONSIBLE FOR OWN WORK ONLY: Only routine responsibility for safety
of others.

At this point we are not concerned with desirability of recruitment process since it can not
be avoided. Instead our concern is focused of those questions like recruitment for what
purpose. On what basis should it be written down and saved or not? If saved for ever or
for a year or two? These are issue to be argued and these are the elements that make
manpower planning ground or bad, effective or ineffective.


The objective of the study is to analyze the actual recruitment process in Saru Copper ,
and to evaluate how far this process confirm to the purposes underlying the operational
aspects of the industry. How far the process is accepted by it ? And what are the options
of the family members of the organization? The study on recruitment highlights the need
of recruitment in Saru Copper .



Without focusing the pattern of management, organization philosophy highlights on
achieving a surely where all citizens (employees) can lead a richer and fuller life. Every
organization, therefore, strikes for greater productivity, elimination of wastes, lower costs
and higher wages, so the industry needs a stable and energetic labors force that can boast
of production by increased productivity. To achieve these objectives a good recruitment
process is essential. By which industry strikes right number of persons and right kind of
persons at the right time and at right places through and the planning period without
hampering productivity.

An organization is nothing without human resources. What is IBM without its
employees? Same is in a hotel industry. It is totally based on managing people or
manpower in an efficient way.

There are some question which are listed down in order to know how important HRM is
are :
How did these people come to be employees in an organization?
How were they found and selected?
Why do they come to work on a regular basis?
How do they know what to do on their jobs?
How does management know if the employees are performing adequately? If they are
not, what can be done about it?
Will todays employees be prepared for the work the organization will require of them
in ten, twenty - thirty years?

Human resource management is concerned with the people dimensions in management.
Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services developing their
skills, motivating them to high levels of performance, and ensuring that they continue to
maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational
To look HRM more specifically we suggest that it is a process consisting of four function
Accusation, Development, Motivation and Maintenance - of Human Resource.
The acquisition function being with planning. Relative to human resource requirements,
we new to know where we are giving and how we are giving to get these. This includes
the estimating demands and supplies of labour. Acquisition also includes the recruitment,
selection and socialization of employees.

It can be seen along three dimensions. The first is employee training which emphasizes
skill development and the changing of attitudes among workers. The second is
management development, which concerns itself primarily with knowledge acquisition
and the enhancement of an executives conceptual abilities. The third is career
development, which is the continual effort to match long-term individual and
organizational needs. It also has a major function, it prepares the employees to adopt
change at any point of time. Since the scenario of the market changes day by day it is
very important for an organization to keep his employees ready to face the change, and
accordingly change in order to adapt the change in order to sustain in this competitive
market scenario.
The final function is maintenance. In contrast to the motivation function, which attempts
to stimulate performance, the maintenance function is concerned with providing those
working conditions that employees believe are necessary in order to maintain their
commitment to the organization.
The motivation function begins with the recognition that individuals are unique and that
motivation techniques must reflect the needs of each individual. Within the motivation
function alienation, job satisfaction, performance appraisal behavioral and structural
techniques for stimulating worker performance, the importance of linking regards to
performance, compensation and benefits administration and how to handle problem
employees are renewed.
In recent years, more emphasis was given on manpower because of the change in the
society, attitude of an individual etc. etc. In a study ASID i.e. the AMERICAN
Training and Development
Organization and Development
Organization/Job Design
Human Resource Planning
Selection and Staffing
Personnel Research and Information Systems
Employee Assistance
Union/Labor Relations

The outputs of this model are :
Quality of Work Life
Readiness to Change


The study is carried on in a proper planned and systematic manner. This methodology
(i) Familiarization with the organisation.
(ii) Observation and collection of data.
(iii) Analysis of data.
(iv) Conclusion and suggestion based on analysis.


The process of gathering information for the purpose of initiating,
modifying or terminating a particular investment or a group of investments

Meaning of research
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.

Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for
its advancement. It is the persuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison
and experiment.

The basic types of research are as follows:

(i)Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding
enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of
the state of affairs as it exists at present. In social science and business research we quite
often use the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies.

(ii) Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or
fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an
immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organisation, whereas
fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation
of a theory.

iii. Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative research is based on the measurement
of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of
quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative
phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind. For instance, when
we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behavior, we quite often talk of
Motivation Research, an important type of qualitative research.

(iv) Conceptual vs. Empirical: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract
idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new
concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies an
experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data
based research,coming up with conclusions which arc capable of being verified by
observation or experiment. We can also call it as experimental type of research, in such a
research it is necessary to get at facts firsthand, at their source, and actively to go about
doing certain things to stimulate the production of desired information. In such I research,
die researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess as to the
probable results. He then works to get enough facts (data) to prove or disprove his


(v) Some Other Types of Research: All other types of research are variations of one or
more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time
required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the
basis of some other similar factor. Form the point of view of time, we can think research
either as one-time research or longitudinal research.

The former case the research is confined to a single time-period, whereas in the latter
case the research is carried on over and very deep probing data gathering
devices.research, depending upon the environment in which it is to be carried out.

Research can as well be understood as clinical or diagnostic research. Such research
follow case-study methods or indepth approaches to reach the basic causal relations. Such
studies usually go deep into the causes of things or events that interest us, using very
small samples several time-periods. Research can be field-setting research or laboratory


Care was taken to choose the sample based on considerations like age, sex
& work experience of respondents thus enabling better representations of
the heterogeneous population. However, the sample design was that of convenience
sampling or haphazard sampling only. The time consideration & size of population
were major factors in determining choice of sample design.

The organization follows a systematic recruitment process, which contributes towards
continuous flow of production without shortage or excess of labours.

The study covers 50 executive, 20 employees from different departments/ sections of
Saru Copper as sample in order to elicit relevant facts. Since it is not possible to
approach each and every manpower of the organization.

An executive and a worker irrespective of their position and placements in any of the
departments of the organization is considered as unit of study.

OBJECTIVES of the study
1. To Study Hr Process in Saru Copper
2. To structure the Recruitment policy of Saru Copper for different categories of
3. To analyze the recruitment policy of the organization.
4. To compare the Recruitment policy with general policy.
4 . To provide a systematic recruitment process.

The primary as well as the secondary sources was used for collection of data. In primary
source of data collection the interview schedule and questionnaire and opinion survey
were used and in secondary source of data collection relevant records, books, diary and
magazines were used. Thus the source of data collection were as follows:


1. Interview schedule 1. Diary
2. Questionnaire 2. Books
3. Opinion Survey 3. Other records
4. Magazines

The investigator used structural interview schedule, questionnaire and opinion
survey for collection of data from primary source.
Interview schedules were used for workers clerical, category and questionnaires
were used for supervisory and executive cadre and opinion survey was used to
know the technology, perceptions, thoughts and reactions of the executives,
employees/workers and trade union members of the organization.


The sample unit consisted of :-
10 Executives from HR Department
10 Executives from FINANCE Department
10 Employees from MARKETING Department
10 Employees from PURCHASE Department
10 Employees from PRODUCTION Department

Sample size=50


Conducting a field survey did a subjective assessment of the qualitative data. The
research method used was that of questionnaire & interview for primary data & an
extensive literature survey for secondary data.




Certain schemes yield more fruitful results in certain conditions and with some specific
objectives. Needless to say that management practices differ from organization to
organization. But the fact is that success does not follow automatically, the people who
implement the system that matters just as the authority without acceptance have no
meaning. Recruitment process without trust of employees and organization has no value
how hobble the objective may be so an attempt is made to study the attitude of those who
are participating in recruitment process before giving any suggesting and concluding
remarks. For this purpose research has taken opinion of 50 executives and 50
worker/employee of different departments/sections of the organization. The
questionnaire prepared and circulated may them is reproduced below indicating their
responses to each question.


Questionnaire circulated among 50 executives Yes No No Response
1. Are you in support of recruitment policy?
2. Whether the existing recruitment policy is linked
to productivity?
3. Do you feel that manpower recruitment has been
rationalized by way of automation?
4. Whether the existing recruitment policy is getting
will supports for the top management?
5. What are the benefits you are deriving from the
existing recruitment policy?
a) Reduction on labor cost?
b) Effective utilization of human resources?
c) Maintaining timing in recruitment and staffing
6. Do you feel that job evaluation and job analysis
helps in manpower recruitment in your
7. Do you think that the personal recruited from
external sources is more desirable than the internal
8. Whether cost benefit analysis is done before
9. Are you satisfied with the existing recruitment
system of the organization?
10. Do you feel that performance appraisal helps in
recruitment process?
11. Do you feel that training will effect to recruitment
























12. Do you think job rotation will affect the
recruitment policy?

13. How are you controlling the shortage and excess of
a) By employing casual worker
b) By employing extra hours
c) By lay off / retrenchment










From the response indicated above it appears that the prevailing recruitment policy has
definite impact on the organization. Most of the executives showed positive response to
different questionnaires by virtue of manpower planning they used proposed deletion of
manpower planning they used proposed deletion or addition of man in the organization
for a planning period. The excess or shortage are being adjusted and hence misutilisation
is mere chance. The executives did not respond to the lay off and retrenchment for
reduction in available human resources. Form the questionnaires it appears that the
managerial staff are only interested for filling of the vacancies of higher post from out of
the internal sources. This attitude will seize the professional approach of the organisation
and may not able to induct fresh brain. From the answers of most of the managers it is
observed that they want entry of new managers should be avoided and fresh recruitment
shall be limited up to only staff cadre and not above that. From the answers of most of the
executives it appears that cost benefit analysis is not properly followed by the
organization and job rotation also not followed properly in the organization which make
an employee all rounder in all respects. By which, in the absence of an employee the
work will not discontinue.



After completion of data collection the editing of the responses go obtained was done.
This edited data further codified and code book was prepared. On the basis of these
tables the data were interpreted and analyzed and conclusion was drawn.

1. Are you satisfied with the existing recruitment policy
in your organization?
2. Do you feel work load in your department?
3. Do you feel of your optimum utilization?
4. Do you satisfied with your job?
5. Do you feel that motivation is main factor for
optimum utilization of existing manpower?
6. Do you feel that recruitment of lower level staff from
external source is desirable than internal source?
7. Do you feel that training imported by your
organization helps in improving your performance?










From the response to the above questionnaires it is clearly indicated that most of the
workmen are dissatisfied about the existing recruitment policy. They are not given
chance for their development. Their skill efficiencies are not recognized by the company.


Executive point of view


Ratio of people support recruitment policy
Figure 1.1


Above data 40% people support recruitment policy, 50% people not support recruitment
policy &10% people no response for recruitment policy.

no respose

Ratio of existing recruitment policy is linked to productivity.
Figure 1.2


Above data 40% people agree for existing recruitment policy , 50% people no agree for
existing recruitment policy & 10% people no response for existing recruitment policy is
linked to productivity.

no response
Ratio of manpower recruitment has been rationalized by way of
automation. (Figure 1.3)

Above data 10% people says yes for manpower recruitment has been rationalized by way
of automation,80% says no & 10% people no response.

Ratio of existing recruitment policy getting will supports for the top
management. (Figure 1.4)

yes no noresponse


Above data existing recruitment policy getting will support for the top management.70%
people says yes,20% people says no & 10% people no response.

no response
Ratio benefits deriving from the existing policy. Ratio of reduction on
labor cost
( Figure 1.5)

Above data 60% people tells existing recruitment policy beneficial for reduction on labor
cost,30% people tells existing recruitment policy for not beneficial for reduction on cost
&10% people no response.

no response
Ratio of effective utilization of human resource.

( Figure 1.6)

Above data 25% people says recruitment policy is effective utilization of human
resources, 65% people says recruitment policy is not effective utilization of human
resources &10% people no response.

Ratio of maintaining timing in recruitment and staffing schedule.

( Figure 1.7)

no response


Above data 60% people tells recruitment policy helpful for maintaining timing in
recruitment & staffing schedule,20% people tells no helpful & 10% people no response.

Job evaluation and job analysis helps in manpower recruitment in your
no response
( Figure 1.8)


Above data 85% people tells job evaluation and job analysis helps in manpower
recruitment in organization,5% people says job evaluation & job analysis not helps in
manpower recruitment in organization & 10% people no respon

Ratio of the personal recruitment from external sources is more desirable than
the internal
( Figure 1.9)

no respose


Above data 10% people says yes, 80% people says no& 10% people no response for the
personal recruitment from external sources more desirable than the internal sources.

Ratio of benefits of cost analysis is done before recruitment.

( Figure 1.10)

yes no no response


Above data 30% people says yes ,60% people says no & 10% people no response cost
analysis is done before recruitment.

Ratio of the satisfaction with the existing recruitment system of the

( Figure 1.11)

no response


Above data 30% people says yes,60% people says no & 10% people no response for
satisfaction with the existing recruitment system of the organization

Ratio of the performance appraisal help in recruitment process.

( Figure 1.12)

no response


Above data 35% people says yes,55% people says no& 10% people no response for
performance appraisal help in recruitment process.

Ratio of the training will effect to recruitment process.

( Figure 1.13)

no response


Above data 65% people tells yes, 25% people tells no& 10% people no response for the
training will effect to recruitment process.
Ratio of the job rotation will affect the recruitment policy.

( Figure 1.14)

Ratio of the job rotation will affect the recruitment policy.

( Figure 1.14)

no response


Above data 50% people says yes, 40% people says no & 10% people no response for job
rotation will effect the recruitment policy.

Ratio of the controlling the shortage and excess of manpower.

( Figure 1.158)

no response


Above data 90% people tells yes, 10% people no response for controlling the shortage
and excess of manpower by employing casual work

Ratio of the by employing extra hours
( Figure 1.16)

no response


Above data 90% people says yes, 10% people no response for employees extra

Ratio of the by layoff or retrenchment.

( Figure 1.16)

yes no no response


Above data 90% people says no & 10% people no response for layoff retrenchment.

Employees/workers point of view

Ratio of the satisfied with existing recruitment policy in your
( Figure 1.17)

no response


Above data 65% people no, 25% people yes& 10% people no response for satisfaction
with existing recruitment policy in organization.

Ratio of the workload in department.

( Figure 1.18)

no response


Above data 20% people says yes,70% people no & 10% people no response for workload
in department.

Ratio of optimum utilization.

( Figure 1.19)

no response


Above data 25% people says yes ,65% people says no & 10% people no response for
optimum utilization.

Ratio of satisfaction with the job.

no response


Above data 25% people says yes , 65% people says no & 10% people no response for
satisfaction with the job.

Ratio of the motivation of the main factor for optimum utilization of
existing manpower.

no response


Above data 75% people says yes ,15% people says no& 10% people no response for the
motivation of the main factor for optimum utilization of existing manpower.

Ratio of that recruitment of lower level staff from external source is desirable than
internal source.

no response


Above data 50% people tells yes ,40% people tells no & 10% people no response for
recruitment of lower level staff from external source is desirable than internal source.

Ratio of that recruitment and training important by in organization helps in
improving performance.

no response

Above data 60% people says yes, 30% people says no & 10% people no response for
recruitment and training important by in organization helps in improving performance.

no response



1. Under recruitment Procedures Requisition System is incorrect because the
replacement does not require fresh approval, unless it is in place of termination.
2. The data banks are not properly maintained.
3. The dead bio-data are never being destroyed.
4. Proper induction is not given to all the employees. It reserves to only a few levels.
5. Salary comparison is not justifies. Old employees are demoralized by getting less
surely then new employee.
6. Salary fixation has a halo effect .
7. Recruitment procedure is not fully computerized.
8. Manpowers are recruited from private placement consultancy, who are demanding
high amount of fees, where as HRD Department is not fully utilized to recruit
manpower by advertisement.
9. Before recruitment cost benefit analysis is not done properly. It causes manpower
surplus which makes loss in the industry.
10. Manpower is recruited from reliable source however efficiency does not recognize.




1. Fresh requisition requires approval and not replacement.
2. The Data Banks should be computerized.
2. The dead CVs should be destroyed.
3. Each level of employee should be formally inducted and introduced to the
Departmental Head. If not all levels, at least Asst. Manager and above category of
4. Salary comparison should be seriously done to retain the old employees.
5. Proper salary structure to be structured to attract people and make it tax effective.
6. Cost benefit analysis should be alone before creating a position or recruitment of
7. Recruitment process should be fully computerized.
8. External source should be given equal importance with internal source. By which new
brain will be inducted in the company with skill, talent, efficiency etc.
9. Manpower planning should be followed before recruiting.
10. Proper inquiry should be done regarding previous employment of a candidate before
recruitment to avoid industrial disputes.




Studying the recruitment procedures of Saru Copper , analyzing the respondents answers,
opinion survey and date analysis the researcher came to a conclusion that Saru Copper is
a growing Company.

It has a separate personnel department which is entrusted with the task of carrying out the
various policies, programmes like recruitment selection, training etc. effectively and

The business of Saru Copper is carried on in a very scientific manner. In the saturation
point of business it need not waste the time to diversify into the another business.
Management understands the business game very well.

At the time of difficulty it takes necessary action to solve the problem. Now the personnel
department of Saru Copper is in infancy stage.



Every scientific study has certain limitations and the present study is no more exception.
These are: -

1. Interviewing of the executive of top echelon position who are making recruitment is
busy in the Organization State of affair. So it is not possible to contact all of those
every busy executives.

2. The terminology used in the subject is highly technical in nature and creates a lot of

3. Confidentiality of the management is the strongest hindrance to the collection of data
and scientific analysis of the study.

4. All the secondary data are required were not available.

5. Respondents were found hesitant in revealing opinion about supervisors and

In spite of all these limitations, the investigator has made an humble attempt to present an
analytical picture of the study with some suggestion for the long run implementation.

Research books:-

Bhattacharyya D.K, First Edition-1(2003)(2004),Research Methodology ,Excel
book publishing, New Delhi, Page no.45-78
Kothari.C.R, Second Edition, Research Methodology, New age International
publishing house, Page No.20-58
Shajhan.S, Fourth Edition,Research methods for management,
International publishing house, Page no.6-32

Human resource Books:-

Aswathappa K, 2010,Third Edition, Human Resource Management, Tata
McGraw Hill Education Private Limited, New Delhi, Page No.166-192.
Dwivedi .R.S, 2006, Managing Human Resource Personnel Management in
Indian Enterprises, Galgotia Publishing Company, Page No.143-150.
Rao.VSP, 2010, Human Resource Management, Excel Books, New Delhi,
Page No.161-180.
Pattanayak Biswajeet, 2005, Human Resource Management, Prentice/Hall of
India Private Limited, Page No.54-57.




1. a) Name of the respondent :
b) Date of joining:
c) Employment NO:
d) Designation:
e) Department

2. Details of the Organization:
a) Name :
b) Address:
c) Nature of Production:
d) Location;
e) When started
3. Are you satisfied in your job? Satisfied/Not-Satisfied
i) Are you satisfied with the existing manpower position your department?
ii) If not, do you need more manpower in your department? (Yes/No)
iii) Is it justified according to your workload? (Justified/Not Justified)
iv) Kindly give reasons for your answer in brief.

4. (i) How do you ascertain the need of manpower in your department? Mention the
technique of manpower assessment.
(ii)Whether the planning period is long range/Medium range/Short range.
(iii)Whether the process of recruitment is approved by top management.
5. (a) How the personnel are recruited?
(i) Through external source
(ii) Through internal source
(iii) Or the both
(b) Are you satisfied with the existing recruitment system of the organisation?
(c) Kindly give reasons foe your answer briefly.
6. While recruiting the new personnel:
(a) Is there any job evaluation or job analysis procedure adopted? (Yes/No)
(b) Is there rate of labors turn over exactly calculated? (Yes/No)
(c) What are the requisite sources to fill the vacancies
(i) Through employment exchange
(ii) Advertising through T.V, Radio, Magazines and other Journals.
(iii) Through campus interview.
(iv) Through management consultancy.
(v) At factory gate from any reliable source
7. while the selection procedure is going on
(a) Is the interview conducted in a special room?(Yes/No)
(b) Whether the organization conducts written test/verbal test/the both
(c) Whether the interviewer are company men/outsider/ the both

8. After selecting the candidate
(i) Is the induction programme being conducted? (Yes/No)
(ii) Is proper placement offered to the candidate?(Yes/No)

9. Is performance appraisal conducted for recognizing the efficiency in the performance
of employees? (Yes/No)
10. (a) Is there any provision for imparting training facilities to the employees?(Yes/No)
(b) Which type of training for imparting training facilities to the employees?(Yes/No)
(c) In present context which type of training you considered as appropriate?
(d) Do you feel that training helps in recruitment policy? (Yes/No)
11. (a) Is there any promotion facility provided to the employees in your organization ?
(b) If yes, is it given on the basis of Efficiency/Seniority/the both
12. (a) What are the welfare amenities provided in your organization?
Crche Yes/No
Canteen Yes/No
Recreation Yes/No
Medical Yes/No
Conveyance Yes/No
Free education for children Yes/No

b) Is there any motivational technique adopted by the company?(Yes/No)
i) If yes, whether it is financial/Non-financial/the both
ii) Whether it is job enrichment/job enlargement/the both
iii) If no, kindly give your option

13. (a) low do your manage the shortage of manpower in your organization?
By way of retrenchment/lay off/ the both/No one.

(b) How do you manage the shortage of manpower in your organization?
Recruiting casual workers/Engaging overtime/Recruiting permanent workers/the

14. Since the technology follow by the organization is not up-to-date. It needs
rationalization is there any future plan to bring latest technological know-how?

15. If so how and it what way it is going to affect the overall manpower recruitment in the


1. a) Name of the respondent.
b) Designation :
a) Date of joining :
b) Token no :
c) Department :

2. a) Are you a workman / employee in the following category ? permanent /
Temporary / Casual.
b) Are you getting wages in piece rate / Time rate / any other method.
c) Is wages fixed by wage Board / Collective bargaining / Any other method.
d) Are you feeling any work load in your job? Yes/No.
e) If yes, do you need extra hands? Yes/No

3. a) How do you have recruited ?
Through a employment exchange / through union / Political pressure /
through relatives.
b) Do you like internal source of recruitment ? Yes/No.
c) Do you feel that any extra manpower is needed for your organization?

4. a) Is there any training facility for you? Yes/No
b) If yes, is it on the job training loft the job training / off the job training?
c) Do you feel that training is inevitable for you? Yes /No

5. a) Are you satisfied with your job? Yes /No.
b) Is the job appraised by your superior authority? Yes/No.

6. a) Are you getting promotion? Yes/No.
b) If yes, in which basis you have promoted? Efficiency / Seniority / The

7. Are you getting any motivational facilities? Financial / Non-financial / The

8. What types of facilities the company is extending for you?
Creche Yes/No
Canteen Yes/No
Recreation Yes/No
Medical Yes/No
Conveyance Yes/No
Free education for children Yes/No

9. Whether the organization provides employment opportunity to the family members in
case of death of the worker / employee.