ZAKAT- A Warfare Funding Mechanism.pdf | Military | Unrest

April 2010

Journal of the Military Intelligence Corps Association

Feature: LTC Thomas Knowlton Biography Revisited

Volume 15, Number 2 Publisher COL Larry D. Bruns, USA, Retired Editor John DellaGiustina (LTC, Ret) Editorial Mail P Box 13020, Fort Huachuca, AZ .O. 85670-3020 Email: Website:
Purpose: THE VANGUARD is the official journal of the Military Intelligence Corps Association (MICA) for its members and sponsors. The quarterly journal serves as a professional forum for sharing knowledge, preserving history, and honoring civilian and military members of the Corps. Disclaimer: All rights reserved. The opinions expressed in THE VANGUARD are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the position of the MICA. The content does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of the Army or other U.S. Government organizations. Submissions: Submit articles, photographs, and other material to the Editor, THE VANGUARD, at Please provide contact information, a description of the material, and a short biography with each submission. THE VANGUARD reserves the right to accept, reject, or edit any submissions at its discretion. Articles, photographs, and other material from THE VANGUARD may be reproduced, if they are not restricted by law or military regulations, provided proper credit is given and the Editor has given specific prior permission for each reproduced item. Change of Address: Please log in using your MICA membership username and password at There in the User Menu you will find a Your Information link where you can replace your address of record for MICA. Postmaster: Send address changes to MICA, P Box 13020, Fort Huachuca, .O. AZ 85670-3020.

MICA Scholarships
The 2009 Military Intelligence Corps Association scholarship campaign recently concluded. Once again, this year, all of the submitted application packets were well prepared and extremely competitive. All applicants should be justifiably proud of their achievements. We wish all of you the very best in your future academic endeavors and encourage you to apply for the scholarship again in 2010. We extend our congratulations to the following individuals who were selected for receipt of a Military Intelligence Corps Association scholarship for 2009: Bethany N. Carson, Spanish Fork, UT Rayleen M. Lewis, Grovetown, GA Michelle N. Cruikshank, Boston, MA Sara A. Erway, Galesburg, MI Aaron M. Saunders, Springfield, VA The MICA Scholarship Program provides scholarships for individuals pursuing undergraduate degrees or technical certificates. Scholarships may be used for attendance at regionally accredited colleges, universities or state approved vocational schools/technical institutions. Who is Eligible? Applicants must be a current individual member of MICA or a family member of such. Family members are considered a spouse, children, or immediate relative living with or supported by the qualifying MICA member. Applicants must be pursuing their first undergraduate (Associates or Bachelors) degree or a technical certification. Applicants already possessing an undergraduate degree or seeking a graduate degree are not eligible. Previous Scholarship recipients may compete for subsequent scholarships. How to Apply Complete instructions and application forms are located on the MICA website at Information on MICA membership is also available on this website. Applications must be mailed and postmarked no later than 15 May 2010. Late or incomplete applications will be returned to the applicant without consideration. Send Completed Application to: MICA Attn: MICA Scholarship Chairman PO Box 13020 Fort Huachuca, Arizona 85670-3020

Notes from the President
Will begin with some unpleasant and unfortunate business we have been grappling with over the past few months. The MICA Board terminated our previous Executive Director because he failed to follow through on his contractual responsibilities. We found numerous instances where he stated that membership and other actions were completed only to find out later that they were not. We are reviewing the last six months of paperwork trying to determine what was and what was not accomplished. We are correcting errors, extending membership benefits, and tracking award nominees so that they get their due recognition. We believe we have addressed most lapses. If you have a membership or award issue please let me know and I will address it immediately. I personally apologize to each member of MICA for this situation and commit to you that I will not let it happen again. Lisa Camberos is our new Executive Director. She has put in long days to correct the situation and is very committed to addressing any issue the membership brings to our attention. During her short tenure, she has reduced the backlog of actions and improved the turnaround time on all new actions. If you have the opportunity, please tell her thank you. She has done a marvelous job under trying and difficult circumstances. Recently, MICA lost one of our most generous benefactors, supporter, and member. CSM Doug Russell passed away in December. His obituary is in this edition. If you knew or ever met CSM Russell he was a true gentleman and greatly influenced our profession. The CSM Doug Russell award is a MICA scholarship that provides a cash award to the Intelligence Non-Commissioned Officer of the Year. Sergeant Michael Cessna of the 715th MI BN, 500 MI BDE is the winner of this prestigious award for 2010. CSM Russell was eulogized in the ceremony and a memorial to his contribution now hangs in the Non-Commissioned Officers Academy at Fort Huachuca. In this edition you will find a tribute to LTC Thomas Knowlton and Knowlton’s Rangers. Bill Morgan, our National Vice President, has captured a great deal of information on our history and in future editions of The Vanguard we will utilize his research to feature parts of that rich heritage. Larry D. Bruns National President Military Intelligence Corps Association

MICA National Executive Committee
COL Larry D. Bruns, USA, Retired

Vice President
Mr. William F. Morgan, Jr.

Mr. Christopher L. Friend


For information on memberships, chapters, scholarships, and awards, please contact: Executive Director Mrs. Lisa Camberos

The MFT in OIF Zakat - War Funding Mechanism Sisler Ceremony LTC Thomas Knowlton Biography Revisited 1SG Hudson - Leader of Influence CSM Russell Award CSM Russell Remembered Night Stalkers Recognized U.S. Flag Flown for MICA 4 7 11 14 24 26 28 30 31

Army Intelligence Heritage Series:


The Multi-Functional Team in Operation Iraqi Freedom
By LTC Daniel E. Soller and COL Robert P Walters .
The IED Technician Raid Around 2000 hours on Christmas Eve 2008, MultiFunctional Team One (MFT 1), A Company, 163d MI Battalion embedded with the Scout Platoon of 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry, staged at a combat outpost in eastern Mosul were awaiting the signal to launch a raid on the bed down location of one the brigade’s top High Value Individuals (HVI) named Muhammad. Recent technical reporting indicated that Muhammad was a key figure in the importation and retooling of dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) boards used in the construction of Radio Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices (RCIED) in the Mosul area. Soon the call came over the radio from an aerial platform flying overhead: “Target located in the Al Faisalia district.” Soon the Multi-Functional Team (MFT) and the Scout Platoon, also known as the time-sensitive targeting (TST) team, were out the gate and headed toward the target’s bed down location. En route the MFT turned on its vehicle mounted technical collection system and picked up the target, tracking him to within a few blocks. Elements of 1-8 IN established a cordon around the target area while the MFT dismounted and began picking up the target using its dismounted collection systems. Shortly the TST and MFT stopped before the front gate of the two-story apartment building where Muhammad lived. The 1-8 IN Scouts placed C4 charges on the gate and door of the apartment building blowing them wide open. The TST entered Muhammad’s apartment and secured it from top to bottom. Muhammad and his family were home but did not resist and were not injured.

the objective to determine if there was any more actionable information available. Muhammad claimed he was a computer repairman but evidence found in his apartment indicated he was more than a mere computer repairman. Muhammad was tactically questioned by one of the MFT members who confirmed from his passport and identification cards that he was the target they were seeking. His passport was stamped with recent travels to Syria—from where the DTMF boards purportedly came. He claimed ignorance to knowing anything about DTMF boards being smuggled into Mosul and when pressed agreed that he had purchased some boards for unknown individuals. Initially defiant, Muhammad eventually warmed up under tactical questioning as it became apparent that he was not going to be released by the coalition forces. He agreed to show the MFT the location of his business in another section of Mosul. The MFT bagged, tagged and confiscated the laptop, a desktop computer, five communications devices, and numerous drawings and circuit boards and exited the apartment with Muhammad. At Muhammad’s business the MFT found more DTMF boards, computer chips, several boxes of hand drawn circuitry, and sales records. The MFT catalogued all captured material for exploitation and to serve as evidentiary material, then returned to the MFT’s operations base at Contingency Operating Site Diamondback .

Immediately upon returning to Diamondback the MFT began detailed exploitation of the captured material from the initial and subsequent objectives. Meanwhile, the Scout Platoon turned Muhammad over to the detention facility where HUMINT Collection Team (HCT) 640 was standing by to conduct interrogations of Muhammad over the next 24 hours. MFT 1 conducted exploitation of five communications devices, media exploitation (MEDEX) of a laptop, several CDs, and an external hard drive, and documentation exploitation (DOCEX) of five identification cards, a passport, several boxes of hand drawn circuitry, and business records. MFT After the apartment was secured the MFT 1 completed its initial exploitation of Muhammad’s entered. The MFT conducted Site Exploitation captured material by 1400 hours on Christmas Day (SE) of Muhammad’s home and discovered a where it forwarded all intelligence to 1-8 IN and communications device and a laptop hidden in his then passed the remaining material over to the Mosul couch. The team also discovered numerous hand Documentation and Media Exploitation (DOMEX) drawn circuit designs and DTMF boards. The team for uploading into national data bases. MFT 1 MFT conducted initial exploitation of the items on published a final MFT Report of this mission in MNF–4–

I’s Combined Information Data Network Exchange (CIDNE) database so future operations could benefit from the lessons learned and intelligence obtained. Muhammad was eventually transferred to the theater detention facility at Bucca after having been interrogated in Mosul. His capture led to the disruption of an important insurgent network in northern Iraq and Al Qaeda in Iraqi (AQI) lost a key facilitator in its quest to control Mosul. The MFT in the Battlefield Surveillance Brigade The preceding vignette illustrates how the MFT when properly trained, equipped, and employed can conduct targeting in a kinetic environment. This MFT was one of five assigned to the 163d MI Battalion, 504th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (BfSB). The 504th BfSB deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom 09-11 with ten Multi-Functional Teams (MFTs) as per its MTOE.

his associates for immediate targeting. This rapid exploitation of actionable intelligence allows the supported assault force to get inside the insurgents’ decision cycle. Either on the objective or upon returning to its base, the MFT will exploit captured media and material (Exploit) and disseminate intelligence while simultaneously conducting analysis with the supported BCT’s ACE to find subsequent targets. Then the FFFEAD cycle repeats itself. Well trained and aggressive teams can turn targets faster than the enemy can react.

In practice the MFT is typically organized with a technical targeting element that is used to precisely locate the target; a HUMINT team that is used to conduct tactical questioning or field interrogations on the objective; and an exploitation element that exploits virtually any type of storable media or material in the target’s possession. By design the MFT is very adaptable to a variety of missions. The MFT Each MFT is authorized 12 Soldiers and is comprised is normally in direct support to a maneuver element, of 35M human intelligence collectors, 35L counter- whether that is a brigade, battalion, company, or ODA intelligence agents, 35N signal intelligence analysts, team, and its operations are seamlessly synchronized 35P voice intercept analysts, and is led by a 35D all- with the maneuver element’s designated strike source intelligence lieutenant. element (also sometimes called a time sensitive Typically the MFTs use the Find, Fix, Finish, Exploit, targeting element or TST). Analyze, and Disseminate (F3EAD) targeting model The Security Agreement Operating Environment and combine HUMINT, SIGINT, and exploitation During OIF 09-11, the 504th BfSB noted a marked capabilities into one cohesive team at the action level to more efficiently target and exploit insurgents. The reduction of targeting missions as MNC-I increasingly MFT conducts target analysis in conjunction with a handed off key security tasks to the Government of Brigade Combat Team (BCT) Analysis and Control Iraq. This commenced with the implementation of Element (ACE) to identify the target’s pattern of life the Security Agreement on 1 January 2009 when (Find). Once identified, the MFT accompanies we began conducting all missions by-, with-, or the assault force and pin-points the target with through- Iraqi Security Forces. Most of Iraq saw this precision technical location equipment (Fix). After downward trend in targeting except for some areas the supported assault element secures the objective in Baghdad and in Mosul. However, by the 30 June (Finish) the MFT goes to work conducting site 2009 deadline to cease all coalition operations in exploitation on the objective (Exploit). The first task is the cities, our MFTs had already started adapting to positively identify (PID) the target through tactical to the new “non-kinetic” operating environment. questioning (TQ). The interrogator conducting TQ is MFT tasks were increasingly focused on providing armed with other information found on the objective support to ISF and to providing passive support to during the initial triage of pocket litter, documents, coalition operations. Below are lists of typical MFT and various media. That information enables the tasks used in the kinetic and non-kinetic operating certified interrogator to transition from TQ to tactical environments. interrogation taking full advantage of this period of As one would expect in full spectrum operations detainee vulnerability at the point of capture. The the lists are mutually inclusive. Progressively, our desired end state is for the detainee to provide MFTs executed an expanded set of tasks as we information compromising the current location of transitioned from kinetic to non-kinetic environments;

MFT kinetic targeting tasks: Technical Target Location Technical survey Site exploitation (SE) Tactical Questioning (TQ) Field or combined interrogations Document Exploitation (DOCEX) Media Exploitation (MEDEX) Cellular Exploitation (CELLEX) Combined targeting with ISF MFT non-kinetic targeting tasks: Fixed facility interrogations Military Source Operations Combined HUMINT Engagement Program Exploitation training of ISF HUMINT training of ISF Fixed facility / combined interrogations Border security exploitation support Routine exploitation support nonetheless, the number of strictly kinetic targeting missions decreased significantly. In other words our MFTs were still capable of and did execute many of the tasks on the “kinetic targeting” task list while simultaneously conducting an increasing number of tasks on the “non-kinetic” list. The MFT is versatile. It is tailored for specific missions and can work with a variety of organizations. During our deployment, 163d MI Battalion’s MFTs worked with conventional infantry and cavalry formations, special operating detachments, military training teams, long range surveillance platoons, and with military police. The MFT even worked with Iraqi Army units, although operational security was of prime importance during these missions. When not conducting targeting missions, the MFT was sometimes used to train the Iraqi Army in rudimentary exploitation and HUMINT missions. In a few cases the MFT supported the Combined HUMINT Engagement Program with the Iraqi Security Forces.
Technical Key Leader Engagement support

focused targeting emphasis and imagination can be extremely effective in “turning” targets or supporting the commander’s priorities. The MFT MTOE is as follows. 1 x 35D 1 x 35M 1 x 35L 1 x 35M 1 x 35N 2 x 35M 2 x 35P 2 x 35M 2 x 35M 1LT SFC SSG SSG SSG SGT SGT SPC PFC Section Leader Sr. HUMINT Collect. Sgt. Counter Intel. Sergeant HUMINT Collect. Sgt. SIGINT Sergeant HUMINT Collector Crypotologic Linguist HUMINT Collector HUMINT Collector

The 163d MI Battalion operated with 351M HUMINT warrant officers leading two of its five teams. The HUMINT warrant officers provided those teams with improved HUMINT collection expertise that became particularly important as impact of the Security Agreement limited kinetic operations. We recommend retaining 35Ds as team leaders, but HUMINT and SIGINT warrant officer expertise will become increasingly important to MFT operations as this capability matures. We also temporarily augmented two teams in the Mosul area in the weeks leading up to the 30 June deadline with 35F All-Source Analysts in order to improve the teams’ efforts to integrate SIGINT and HUMINT for target packet development. Although there will always be an argument for all source analytical capability in the MFTs, fielding All-Source Analysts in MFTs becomes a resourcing and prioritization matter.

Appendix B of Field Manual-Interim 3-55.1 The Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (BfSB)1 contains a small but important section on the future of MFTs and the integration of HUMINT and SIGINT at the lowest tactical level. The closing section of Appendix B describes the duties and responsibilities of the MFT Support Element (MFTSE). The MFTSE concept emerged with the first deployment of MFTs to OIF. The MFTSE embodies the staff component for the integration of MFT SIGINT and HUMINT targeting functions. Those functions include technical oversight of MFT reporting, technical collection force modernization, coordination with The MFT Organization supported commands, limited target analysis, and The MFT MTOE provides the supported the development of best practices. The 163rd MI commander a robust mixture of intelligence Battalion established a similar section in the battalion collection specialists and when combined with a S3 section during OIF 09-11 but called it the Multi-Disciplined Management Team (MDMT). Its

functions were essentially the same as the MFTSE but MDMT seemed to be a better description of what the section did. When coordinating with BCTs or the corps staff we oftentimes found that no single entity claimed ownership for the MFT. Because the MFT contained a HUMINT component, an exploitation component, and a SIGINT component, several staff entities claimed responsibility for parts of the MFT, but never for the whole. So, the MDMT at the battalion was the coordinating section for the various –INTs that comprised the MFT. Our MDMT contained at its core a SIGINT-trained HUMINT technician and a senior HUMINT NCO with other Soldiers in the S3 providing support. In the future we see a need for a single entity, like a combined HUMINT operational management team (OMT) and cryptological support team (CST) to perform the MDMT/MFTSE functions within the BCT and within the BfSB MI battalion.

successfully proved its value to the supported commanders across the Operational Environment. The ten BfSB MFTs routinely demonstrated the ability to bring key intelligence and exploitation skills to the objectives with the supported assault forces and reduce the intelligence cycle from one or two days to 30 or 40 minutes. This rapid exploitation and intelligence analysis on the objective allowed supported commanders to move faster than the enemy, get inside his decision cycle, and to seize and maintain the initiative. MFTs are the future of tactical military intelligence collection and exploitation. 1U.S. Army Armor Center, Field Manual – Interim (FM-I) 3-55.1 (Draft), The Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (BfSB) (Ft. Knox, Kentucky, March 2009), B-10 - B-11.

About the Authors. LTC Daniel E. Soller commanded the 163d MI Battalion in their recent deployment to Conclusion OIF 09-11. COL Robert P Walters commanded the . During the Operation Iraqi Freedom 09-11 combat 504th BfSB during OIF 09-11. rotation, the BfSB Multi-Functional Team concept

ZAKAT: A Warfare Funding Mechanism
By William Gawthrop
This article examines zakat, commonly thought to be charitable alms giving, as an asymmetrical warfare funding mechanism.

merchandise)9 and rates varying from 2 ½ percent to 10 percent depending on wealth, local conditions and interpretations of applicable law.10 Disbursement. Disbursement of zakat may be made by the Imam appointing the zakat collector, the zakat collector himself,11 or directly by those from whom the zakat would be normally collected.12 Zakat should be distributed in the locality from which the revenue was collected. Excess funds may be transferred to another location only if all the eight categories have been adequately resourced.13 It is recommended that zakat distribution, and possibly attending accounting of the distribution, be concealed.14 Categories of disbursement. There are eight obligatory categories of disbursement for Zakat: the poor; those short of money; zakat workers; those whose heart are to be reconciled; those purchasing their freedom; those in debt, those fighting for Allah; and travelers needing money.15 Those Fighting for Allah. Zakat is obligated to pay those participating in Islamic military operations if their salary has not been provided for by other means. Fighters (irregulars, volunteers, etc)16 may be paid with zakat funds to purchase weapons, vehicles, clothing, expenses and the expenses associated with travel from their home to the fighting and their return home.17 Additionally, zakat may be used to defray some expenses of the fighter’s family during this period.18

Zakat: A Pillar of Islam
Zakat is one of the five Pillars of Islam1 and as a commonly perceived source of charitable alms giving, may escape the critical analysis necessary for fully understanding Islamic warfare funding. This article provides background for analysts to comprehend the genesis of the money stream related to the funding of Islamic terrorist, insurgent, and supporting activities. “The meaning of Zakat is ‘to increase and to become pure’. Because the payment of Zakat leads to an increase in wealth and considered a reason for its cleansing, this obligation has been named Zakat by the Sharia (Islamic Law). Zakat was declared an obligation in the year 2 H.(624 AD), prior to the proclamation of the ruling concerning fasting.”2 The authority and basis for zakat is found in the Quran, Surat 9 At-Taubah, 60: As-Sadaqat (here it means Zakat) are only for the Fuqara (poor), and Al-Masakin (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and in Allah’s Cause (i.e. for Mujahidin-those fighting in a holy battle), and for the wayfarer (traveler who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All Knower, All Wise.3 Zakat is traditionally thought to be, as the third pillar of Islam, simply charitable almsgiving. It is considerably more. “Zakat is rather a social welfare institution supervised by the state and an organized tax administered by a specific governmental body.”4 Zakat is both a divine duty and a source of revenue and has its own fiscal mechanism.5 As such, zakat is “a legal obligation and a particular kind of charity” that is a “pure right of God.”6 Contributions are obligatory with punishments awaiting in the physical world and the hereafter for evasion.7 Collections. Zakat is payable by all Muslims who are sane, reached the age of puberty and have “zakatable” property. It is not required of non Muslims.8 The tax is levied annually on two kinds of wealth: manifest (crops, cattle, property) and hidden (gold, silver,

Interpretations according to various schools of Islamic Law
While zakat is rooted in the two primary sources of Islamic Law, the Quran and the haddith, the topic is subject to interpretation. Within the Sunni tradition, the four major schools are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi, and Hanbali. Within the Shia tradition, two major schools are the Jarafi and Zaydi tradition. Each legal tradition has variant interpretations with regard to the basic provisions on Zakat. The Hanafi (Sunni) view. Fighters who do not have sufficient funds for mounts (vehicles) and expenses may be eligible for zakat if the financial shortage adversely affects their ability to fight. Additionally, sadaqa19 may be paid to fighters even if they are able to earn and income “since working would deter them from fighting.”20 The Maliki (Sunni) view. Food, arms, and equipment may be paid by sadaqa and this includes supporting operations against those invading Muslim lands.21 “Zakat can be given to fighters and border guards and to buy war equipment, such as weapons and horses. Fighters may take zakat even if they are rich, since they –8–

are given it because they are fighting for the sake of Allah and not because of poverty. Spies can also be given zakat, even if they are unbelievers.”22 The Shafi’I (Sunni) view. Because there are eight obligatory categories of disbursement for zakat, the Shafi’I s hold that one eighth of the total proceeds of zakat can go to the fighter.23 Zakat may be paid to fighters who do not receive pay from the government because their sacrifice is greater “than salaried soldiers and deserve to be given what helps them undertake this duty, even if they are rich.”24 Nonfighters may be paid with zakat funds if they defend or guard the fighters or “prevent unbelievers from attacking them.”25 “Fighters can be given their expenses and clothing for the period from the time they leave to fight until the time they come back, even if they stay at border points for a long period. … A fighter may also be given money to buy a horse, weapons, and other tools of war (and) what he buys becomes his permanently.”26 The Hanbali (Sunni) view. Zakat can be expended on two kinds of people: those who need zakat and those who are needed by the Muslims, such as fighters, people whose hearts are to be reconciled, and people in debt as a result of their efforts in mediating between disputing groups.27 Zakat may be used to pay volunteer fighters (who receive no regular salary) and border guards and purchase of equipment. The Ja’fari (Shia) view. “ ‘In the cause of Allah’ includes everything that benefits Muslims or brings them closer to Allah, such as pilgrimage, fighting and building irrigation systems. Some Ja’faris say it (In the Cause of Allah) only relates to jihad.”28 The Zaydi (Shia) view. Zaydi scholars contend that zakat should not be spent for coffins or building mosques but expenditures for fighting and that which brings a Muslim closer to Allah are permissible.29

Zakat is an institutionalized and enduring fundraising mechanism within Islam that is capable of raising considerable sums of money on an annual basis. Rough, conservative, calculations for potential zakat funds annually available for warfighting within a geographic area can be determined by computing 2.5 percent of the GDP-per capita of the employed labor force and dividing the product by eight (8). For Iraq, the annual warfare funding through zakat may be estimated at about $97 million,30 while for Afghanistan it is estimated at $47 million.31 Recommended Intelligence Collection Priorities. Some recommended Unclassified Intelligence Collection Priorities on Zakat and operations funding include the following: “What is the annual zakat potential for a geographical area?” “How is zakat collected in an area of operations?” “Who are the collectors?” “Where and how are the Zakat funds banked until distributed?” “Who has the distribution authority?” “To whom are the distributions being made?” Endnotes
1 The Five Pillars are Testimony of Faith (Kalikma); Prayer (Salat); Almsgiving (Zakat); fasting (Sawm) and Pilgrimage (Hajj). Ali, Maulana Muhammad, The Religion of Islam, A Comprehensive Discussion of the Sources, Principles and Practices of Islam, Lahor, Pakistan.(1936). Passim. See also al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Zaqib. Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law, Aman Publications, Beltsville, MD: (1994) p. 808. 2 Al-Sanani, Muhammad bin Ismail, Bulugh Al-Maram: Attainment of the Objective According to Evidence of the Ordinances. Darussalam, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 2002. p. 191. 3 Khan, Dr Muhammad Muhsin and Dr Muhammad Taqiud-Din Al-Hilali, Interpretation of the Meanings of the Nobel Quran in the English Language, Dar-us-Salam Publications, Riyadh-Saudi Arabia: (1996), Sura 9:60, p. 280. This is a verbatim quote taken from a pre-9-11 Saudi translated English version of the Quran. 4 al-Qardawi, Yusuf, Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, Dar Al-Tawwa, Ltd, London: (1999) p.474 5 Azmi, Sabahuddin. Islamic Economics. Goodword Books, New Delhi: (2002) p. 69. Currently, one of the better references for understanding the mechanisms associated with Zakat is Yusuf al-Qardawi’s Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, Dar Al-Tawwa, Ltd, London: (1999). 6 Kamali, Mohammad Hashim, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, UK: (2003), p.

Comments on the Sunni and Shia views.
The debate in the Jafari and Zaydi Shia tradition is not so much whether zakat funds “In the cause of Allah” can be expended for war fighting but whether the term (In the cause of Allah) includes non-fighting expenditure categories. The holdings of the four Sunni schools and the two Shia schools of law demonstrates that expenditure of zakat on warfighting is not only permissible, but obligatory.


222 and 448. “Firstly, acts that exclusively consist of the right of God, such as acts of devotion and worship, include salah and jihad, which are the pillars of religion and are necessary for the establishment of an Islamic Order. These, which are often referred to as huquq Allah al-khalisha, or ‘pure Rights of God’, occur in eight varieties: (a) rights of God, which consist exclusively of worship, such as professing of faith (iman), salah, zakah, the pilgrimage and jihad. …” See also: Lippman, Matthew, Islamic Criminal Law and Procedure: An Introduction. Prager, New York 1988, p. 97, which identifies zakat as a legally enforceable obligation. 7 al-Qardawi, Yusuf, Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, p. 27-29. 8 al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law, p. 246. 9 Abu’l Hasan al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniyyah: The Laws of Islamic Governance. Ta-Ha Publishers, London (1966). p. 168 10 Ibn Rushd, The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer, Vol 1. Garnet Publishers, Reading: (2000). p. 282-323 11 al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniyyah: The Laws of Islamic Governance, p. 185 12 al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniyyah: The Laws of Islamic Governance, p. 186 13 Azmi, Islamic Economics, p. 124. See also al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniyyah: The Laws of Islamic Governance, p. 182-183 14 Ibn Sallam, The Book of Revenue, p. 522. “ (1812) He said Abd al-Rahman related to us from Sufyan from Aby Hashim from Ibrahim and al-Hasan, and both said: ‘Distribute it among the prescribed beneficiaries, but keep it concealed.’” 15 Bakhtiar, Laleh. Encyclopedia of Islamic Law: A Compendium of the Major Schools, Kazi Publications, Chicago: (1969), p. 238-241. See also, Ibn Sallam, The Book of Revenue, Garnet Publishing, Reading, UK: (2003), p. 525, 526. 16 Azmi, Islamic Economics, p. 123 17 Al-Mawardi, The Ordinances of Government, Garnet Publishing, Reading, UK: (1996), p,137. “The seventh share, going towards the cause of God Almighty, must be paid to Muslim fighters according to what they need in their Holy War. If they are to remain stationed in border towns, they must be paid the cost of the outward journey and as much as possible of their boarding expenses, but those destined to come back upon completion of their mission should receive the cost of the return trip.” For a discussion on the distribution of zakat see also Azmi, Islamic Economics, p.122-124; al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniyyah: The Laws of Islamic Governance. p. 182. 18 al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law, p. 272. See also, Bearman, P Thomas .J., Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, and W.P Heinrichs, . eds. The Encylcopaedia of Islam, Vol XI, Brill, Leiden: (2002) p. 416. There is historical precedence for a further delineation of divisions with his category. “One-fourth …will go to those soldiers to whom it is regularly assigned. The temporary soldiers and the poor will get another fourth (each). One-fourth of it will go to the war veteran in God’s cause who is faced with dire

need.” See Ibn Sallam, The Book of Revenue, p. 528. 19 Al-Mawardi, The Ordinances of Government. p,127. “The two terms sadaqa and zakat are synonyms for one and the same thing, indicating the only mandatory claim on a Muslim’s property.” See also al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniyyah: The Laws of Islamic Governance. p. 168. 20 al-Qardawi, Yusuf. Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, Dar Al-Tawwa, Ltd, London: (1999) p. 407. 21 al-Qardawi, Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, p. 408. 22 Ash-Sharh al-Kabir with Hashiyat ad-Dusuqi, Vol 1, p.497 23 al-Qardawi, Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, p. 411. 24 Tuhfat al-Muhtaj, with Sharh al-Minhaj, vol 3, p. 96, and Nihayat al-Muhtaj, vol 6, p. 155-56. 25 Al-Umm, Vol 2, p. 60. 26 Ar Rawda, Vol 2, p 326-327. 27 al-Qardawi, Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, p. 412 28 al-Qardawi, Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, p. 414415 29 al-Qardawi, Fiqh az-Zakat: A Comparative Study, p. 415 30 World Fact Book, 2009. Iraq: GDP – per capita $4000 multiplied by 2.5% = $100 multiplied by a workforce of 7.74 million = $774 million divided by the 8 categories of disbursement (assuming equal apportionment among the categories) = $96,750,000 available annually for expenses associated with warfighting. 31 World Fact Book, 2009. Afghanistan: GDP – per capita $1000 multiplied by 2.5% = $25 multiplied by a workforce of 15 million = $375 million divided by the 8 categories of disbursement (assuming equal apportionment among the categories) = $46,875,000 available annually for expenses associated with warfighting. William Gawthrop is a frequent contributor to The Vanguard

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Remarks at the Knowlton Award Ceremony for Lieutenant Colonel Jim Sisler, U.S. Air Force
Good afternoon, my name is COL Scott Berrier. I serve as the III Corps G2 and am the Army’s senior Military Intelligence officer here at Ft Hood. I’m accompanied today by Sergeant Major Mark Lawson, the III Corps Senior Intelligence Sergeant. Today we are representing the Army’s MI Corps.

may be asking why an Army Intel guy is standing in front of you today at the retirement ceremony for a distinguished United States Air Force Fighter Pilot. Jim and his family share a special bond with the Army, that link is through Jim’s Father, a posthumous Congressional Medal of Honor awardee and one of the the MI Corps’ most revered Intelligence Heroes. In fact there’s a very famous building at Ft Huachuca where all Army Intelligence Soldiers have attended training over the past three decades. That building is Sisler Hall, named in honor of Jim’s Dad.

So today, we honor Jim’s service in the United Our purpose here today is to honor the service States Air Force – and MI leadership across the Army and sacrifices of Lt Col Jim Sisler and his family. You thought it was important we do this. We are about
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against British forces operating in the northeast and he was cited for bravery at the battle of Bunker Hill. General George Washington promoted Knowlton to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and gave him a larger command informally known as “Knowlton’s Rangers”. This unit was essentially a mobile light infantry force and conducted reconnaissance and strike operations against British forces. On September 16, 1775, Knowlton’s Rangers engaged a superior British Force at Harlem Heights, New York. During the melee that ensued, Thomas Knowlton rallied his troops, led from the front, and was unfortunately killed in action. On A little information about the Award itself; it September 17th, 1776, General Washington cited is named in honor of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas “The bravery and Gallantry of COL Knowlton and Knowlton, a revolutionary war hero and our first the grave loss to the Army and Nation”. combat intelligence leader. Thomas Knowlton was Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton lived born in 1740 and enlisted to fight in the French and a warrior’s life, and in that, has much in common Indian war in 1755. Later in 1775, Thomas Knowlton with the warrior we honor today. It is our privilege was commissioned as a Captain in the Connecticut to bestow the Knowlton Award to Lt Col Jim Sisler, Militia and commanded a Company under Colonel United States Air Force. William Prescott. Knowlton’s outfit was given very SGM Lawson, would you please post the order. risky intelligence and reconnaissance missions to present a special award to Jim, it’s called the Knowlton Award. It’s been in existence since 1995 and it recognizes professional excellence in military intelligence career fields or unique support to the Army Intelligence. Jim and his family will always have a unique relationship with the Army’s MI Corps and Ft Huachuca, so this award is fitting and timely. The Award is sponsored by the Military Intelligence Corps Association (also known as MICA) and its board unanimously voted to give Jim this honor.
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Biography of First Lieutenant George K. Sisler, U.S. Army
Birth: September 19, 1937 Death: February 7, 1967

Vietnam veteran. Recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor, Bronze Star, and the Purple Heart. First Lieutenant George K. Sisler was the first member of the Military Intelligence Branch to receive the Medal of Honor. He was a member of the 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces in Vietnam. On February 7, 1967, He was the platoon leader/advisor to a special United States/Vietnam exploitation force. While on patrol deep within enemy dominated territory, his platoon was attacked from three sides by a company sized enemy force. Lieutenant Sisler quickly rallied his men, deployed from a better defensive position, called for air support, and moved among his men to encourage and direct their efforts. Learning that two men were wounded and unable to pull back the perimeter, he charged from the position through intense enemy fire to assist them. He reached the men and began carrying one of them back to the perimeter, when he was taken under more intensive automatic weapons fire by the enemy. Laying down his wounded comrade, he killed three onrushing enemy soldiers by firing his rifle and silenced the enemy machine gun with a grenade. As he returned the wounded man to the perimeter, the left flank of the position came under extremely heavy attack by the superior enemy force and several additional men of his platoon were quickly wounded. Realizing the need for instant action, to prevent his position from being overrun, he picked up some grenades and charged single-handedly into the enemy onslaught,

firing his weapon and throwing grenades. This singularly heroic action broke up the vicious assault and forced the enemy to begin withdrawing. Despite the continuing enemy fire, he was moving about the battlefield directing air strikes upon the fleeing force when he fell mortally wounded. The light medium speed Naval ship USNS Sisler is named after him. Listed on the Vietnam Wall: Panel 15E Row 007 For his heroic actions and giving of his life in combat, First Lieutenant Sisler was the first Soldier from the Military Intelligence Branch awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

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Army Intelligence Heritage Series: LTC Thomas Knowlton Biography and Sources Revisited By W. F. Morgan, Jr.
Editor’s Introduction. The Military Intelligence Corps recognizes Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton as one its early leaders for his bravery in action during the Revolutionary War. But many MICA members likely do not know much detail about Thomas Knowlton. Most know that General George Washington directed him to organize and lead the first official Ranger unit in the Continental Army in 1776 to conduct tactical reconnaissance and intelligence gathering missions against the enemy. From Knowlton’s Rangers, Captain Nathan Hale volunteered to conduct spy missions against British forces in New York City, giving his life for his country. LTC Knowlton was killed in action leading his unit during the Battle of Harlem Heights in the same campaign in September 1776. The loss of this experienced, dynamic, and able leader was significant to the young Continental Army. For his gallant exploits and leadership of tactical intelligence forces, MICA designated LTC Knowlton as the MI Hero and named its distinguished professional award for him. The Knowlton Award recognizes individuals who contribute significantly to the promotion of Army Intelligence. In this first feature installment of our Intelligence Heritage series, the Evolution of Army Intelligence: Through 178 Campaigns,W.F. Morgan, Jr. provides a thorough account of the heroic life and military career of Thomas Knowlton.

married Anna Keyes in 1759 and at the end of 1762 left the militia to spend 13 years building a successful farm and becoming involved in local politics. In 1775 he would answer the call to arms at the start of the American Revolution, commanding a company from Connecticut with two of his sons and his older brother, Daniel, joining forces with the newly formed Continental Army outside of Boston. Frederick, his oldest son, would fight alongside his father until his death at the Battle of Harlem Heights. French and Indian War: Making of a Ranger Thomas Knowlton began his military career during the French and Indian War enlisting as a private on the rolls of Captain John Slapp’s 3rd Company, 1st Connecticut Regiment in 1757. He would serve under the command of John Durkee and Israel Putnam before ending his initial service in December of 1762. During this time he established a reputation for solid judgment, courage under fire, being instinctively clever, and having a firmness and presence of mind in the face of danger.

The British were involved in military operations in several theaters around the world during the French and Indian War, but lacked sufficient troops and resources to support its expansion of the colonies west of the Appalachian Mountains or to secure the vast area where they had already laid claim. To assist them they depended upon colonial governments to raise and employ regiments of militia. The colonies raised and mustered these forces but they were paid by British funds and under the control of British military units. They supported operations against the French, primarily acting as scouts and guides between British forts and settlements often conducting The Beginning of an Intelligence Legend reconnaissance to locate and engage enemy units, Thomas Knowlton was born on November 22, encampments, and settlements. 1740, the sixth of eight children and the third of four The militia regiments wanted men capable of sons of William and Martha Knowlton. Eight years later learning Indian methods of warfare and possessing his father would move the family from Massachusetts the courage to conduct daring reconnaissance to Ashford, Connecticut, where he had purchased a missions. They were looking for Soldiers who were 400 acre farm. His father was both a skilled carpenter vigorous and of strong constitution, able to make and farmer. Thomas also became a farmer, when long marches, endure the hardship of woodsmen, he was not serving in one of the regiments of the and be ever ready to outwit the enemy. In addition Connecticut militia, joining John Durkee and Israel to these duties, they sometimes ventured to hostile Putnam on missions in the French and Indian War strongholds, surprised straggling enemy parties and and an expedition to Havana. and then taking up did their best to create havoc for the French and their arms for his beliefs in the American Revolution. He allies. 1
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the Battle of Wood Creek on August 8, 1758. Wood Creek was a critical waterway for moving forces and supplies from Fort Stanwix to Lake Oneida and on to British’s forts and settlements in the vicinity of Lake Ontario. Private Knowlton had been sent out as part of a scouting party supporting John Durkee’s company. Their mission was to find and capture the French and Indian stragglers in the woods in the vicinity of Wood Creek. On the first day they found and took possession of a recently occupied French encampment, which showed signs of the enemy’s intention to return. After a few days waiting and no action, they embarked on a search for the enemy. The scouting party and Durkee’s company were with a unit of British soldiers advancing single file through a forested area when they were ambushed in thick undergrowth by a group of French and Indians. The only indication of the enemy’s position was from the smoke of their muskets. Movement nearby attracted Kowlton’s attention and he spotted an Indian crawling from the undergrowth. He immediately shot and killed the Indian, reloaded his musket, and then sprang forth to secure his scalp. As Thomas reached the body, several Indians came into the small clearing around the path surrounding him. Knowlton boldly, wasting no time, shot and bound over the nearest warrior, causing the others

Each regiment had one or two companies of rangers. Each company had its own uniform, but the Connecticut Provincial Rangers were uniformed in a short green coat, with a hunter’s smock, buckskin breeches, green or brown leggings. For headwear they wore a green Scots bonnet but were also issued a leather cap. Many were accustomed to the Scots bonnet and preferred it for wear. The men were usually lightly dressed serving as quick reaction forces, scouts, and intelligence collectors. Unlike other companies they did not go into winter quarters, fighting year round attacking French supply convoys in the cold northeastern winters. They were known as provincial rangers and often operated independent of the main British Army forces. Private Thomas Knowlton would gain his early military experience in the same regiment as Captain John Durkee and Major Israel Putnam, both, who had trained and served with Roger’s Rangers. Battle of Wood Creek Knowlton’s first encounter under Captain John Durkee occurred during

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to hesitate just long enough for him to escape to the There are few details of the unit’s actions, but safety of his comrades, though through a shower of the Connecticut 1st Regiment suffered most of their rounds. 2 casualties from disease and the hot tropical Cuban The fight was intense with both sides losing weather during and after the siege. Less than 100 cohesiveness and most individuals engaging the men would return home in November of 1762. But enemy independently for survival. About that time, the officers and soldiers who returned to Connecticut Knowlton and a Frenchman entered a small clearing. shared an immense quantity of prize money. They raised their weapons, fired, and missed. Thomas quickly rushed his enemy as he was drawing a knife, grabbed him around the waist and attempted to throw him to the ground. The much larger and more powerful Frenchman threw Knowlton instead, but CPT Durkee entered the clearing forcing the French soldier to surrender. Knowlton and Durkee started to the rear with their prisoner but when he sprang from their grasp trying to escape, his flight was stopped by a shot from Knowlton’s gun. The Revolutionary War During the Revolutionary War both General Washington and Major General Putnam identified Thomas Knowlton as their favorite officer and wrote about the significance of his loss after the Harlem Heights battle. Knowlton was a sounding board to both in matters of battle planning and the conduct of special operations. On several occasions his actions served to lift the morale and rally the troops to action. As the war started, then COL Putnam, MAJ Durkee, and others had watched Knowlton grow having fought alongside him. They had first-hand knowledge of his courage, sound judgment, daring and habit of leading from the front. Although it was over 12 years since Thomas Knowlton had last taken up arms, now, as he was approaching his 35th birthday, he would join and be chosen Captain of the 5th Connecticut Militia Company of 200 men from Ashford, Connecticut. The men selected him based on his experience and reputation from the French and Indian War. The men of the company were without uniforms and carried a mixture of muskets and shotguns. Many were experienced woodsmen and several were French and Indian War veterans. His unit initially joined the Army forming near Boston as part of the Connecticut 3rd Regiment of COL Israel Putnam, soon to be selected for Major General.

Captain Durkee and Private Knowlton’s column had retreated leaving them to exfiltrate to regain the shelter of friendly troops. The two ran in several directions, through enemy fire, before finally rejoining their unit. Seventeen year old Private Thomas Knowlton was recognized for valor at Wood Creek and promoted to Sergeant. Before the war ended he was commissioned a lieutenant seeing action in several more battles. Havana Expedition

In June 1762, 917 men of the Connecticut 1st Regiment accompanied two other provincial regiments setting sail from New York harbor for Havana, Cuba. Lieutenant Colonel Israel Putnam, the acting regimental commander and his force would join the British expedition, led by Lord Albermarle, against Spain in Havana. Half the British Expeditionary Army already there were ill Battle of Bunker Hill with Yellow Fever and many had died. The arrival In June 1775 the American forces were a mixture of the provincials gave Lord Albermarle the forces he of men from the northeast colonies and some were required to storm Morro Castle. veterans of the French and Indian War. Many of the After the British attacked and captured Morro officers had been granted a commission as the result Castle on July 30th , their next objective was to seize of raising a company or regiment. The Army was in the City of Havana. Work then began to position need of men with leadership skills and Major General 45 British artillery batteries. On August 11th , they Putnam wanted his best in battle as he led American initiated a heavy artillery barrage on the city silencing forces into their first major force on force engagement the Spanish defenses within six hours. Two days later with the British Army on the Charlestown Peninsula. the Spanish surrendered the city and all the ships in the harbor and at the west end of the island.
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British General’s Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne believed the Americans were a ragged rabble, without central leadership. What they saw of American military forces making preparations on Breed’s and Bunker Hill was unkempt civilians, mismatched firearms, and clothes of every description. 3 In the late evening and darkness of June 16, 1775, Thomas Knowlton’s company joined Colonel William Prescott’s Regiment on a march to Charlestown Peninsula. Putman met them at Charlestown Neck. Prescott passed Bunker Hill in favor of Breed’s Hill, as its heights commanded Boston. The men worked through the night constructing a redoubt. Colonel Prescott directed Knowlton’s men to move down the hill and set up a defense north of Breed’s Hill and east of Bunker Hill to tie the defensive positions to the Mystic River. Colonel Reed’s Regiment would fill the gap between Knowlton along the rail fence and the redoubt occupied by Prescott. Later Colonel Stark’s Regiment would fill in along the rail fence between Knowlton and Reed’s forces.

experiences together in the French and Indian War. The American mission was to fight and repel the British attacks up the peninsula under General Howe. Knowlton understood how the British would employ their troops and prepared the terrain by creating a second fence line parallel to the first and filling the space between with newly mowed grass. The British artillery from ships would begin at first light when they realized the Americans were constructing trenches and a redoubt. It would likely be afternoon before British troops would begin their attack along the rail fence with General Howe determined to flank the rebels and cut off their retreat.

During the attack that afternoon CPT Knowlton ran up and down the line, inspiring his company, exposing himself to enemy fire, and twice repelling a superior British force. The British Grenadiers were unable to see the ground before them covered by the mowed grass and struggled with the fences and slope of the terrain east of Bunker Hill. This contributed significantly to their inability to fire accurately and advance. Knowlton’s company rested their weapons Putnam had placed CPT Knowlton’s company in on the fence rail achieving great accuracy with each support of COL Prescott’s regiment as he had the shot as entire ranks of advancing British units fell, utmost confidence in the brave CPT based on their
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littering the battlefield with bodies.

particular manner pleased, with the resolution the party discovered in not firing a Shot; as nothing The British were finally able to take Breed’s Hill and force an American retreat due more to ammunition betrays greater signs of fear, and less of the soldier, shortages and lack of bayonets. Knowlton and the than to begin a loose, undirected and unmeaning American troops stellar action left a lasting impression Fire, from whence no good can result, nor any 4 on General Howe that affected him throughout his valuable purposes answered. Creation of Knowlton’s Rangers Revolutionary War service. 4 Following the Battle at Bunker Hill, the In August 1776, the American Revolution shifted Continental Congress promoted Knowlton to Major focus from Boston to New York. On August 12, for his gallantry and leadership. The Connecticut 1776, Knowlton was promoted to Lieutenant 3rd Regiment became a Continental Regiment with Colonel. A few weeks later on September 1, and LTC Benedict Arnold promoted to colonel and given after the unsuccessful Battle of Long Island, General command. Major John Durkee was promoted to Washington directed LTC Knowlton to form a special Lieutenant Colonel and became second in command. detachment of rangers of around 130 men selected The regiment remained in camp from July until the from four Connecticut (Colonel Durkee’s, Webb’s, expiration of its term of service in December 1775, Chester’s and Wylly’s) and a Massachusetts regiment when it was reorganized under the same field officers (Colonel Sargent’s). These men were experienced and the men reenlisted for the campaign of 1776. It fighters, brave woodsmen and each had unblemished was re-designated as the 20th Regiment, Continental records. Their assigned detail was to scout for the Foot, and commonly referred to as Arnold’s Regiment. Army between enemy lines, identify enemy positions, LTC John Durkee assumed command when Colonel and report directly to General Washington. Arnold was selected and sent in early autumn to On 15 September General Washington deployed command an expedition against Quebec. During the them where he thought the British Military would winter of 1775-1776 and spring of 1776, the 20th formed part of the Army, positioned near Boston. In land on Manhattan Island along the Harlem River. late February, Major Knowlton assumed temporary Instead the British landed further south at Kip’s and command due to LTC Durkee being absent due to Turtle Bay leaving Knowlton’s Rangers out of the fight. Most of the American forces to the south retreated health. without firing a shot as large numbers of British came Incursion into Charlestown (map on back cover) ashore, angering Washington. On January 8, 1776 General Washington directed MAJ Knowlton to conduct an attack on Charlestown with 200 men. The mission was to burn houses occupied by British officers and take prisoners. Under cover of darkness, Knowlton led the men single file across a narrow mill dam. He organized his force into three groups to burn the homes and bring back prisoners. Without a shot fired or loss of life, he was successful in capturing five British Soldiers and creating havoc in occupied Charlestown. Washington acknowledged and thanked Major Knowlton the next day. General Washington would write early on the next morning that he was sending out Knowlton’s Rangers. To the President of the Congress – September 16, 1776. Head Quarters, at Colonel Roger Morris's House I have sent out some reconnoitering parties to gain Intelligence if possible, of the disposition of the Enemy and shall inform Congress of every material event by the earliest Opportunity.5 Battle of Harlem Heights

Before dawn on September 16, 1776 Knowlton’s GENERAL ORDERS - January 9, 1776, Head Rangers set out across the Hollow Way encountering Quarters, Cambridge British pickets at sunrise. Shots were fired and The General thanks Major Knowlton, and the Knowlton pulled his force back to a stone wall, while Officers and Soldiers, who were under his command pursued by the light infantry. The British advanced in last night; for the Spirit, Conduct and Secrecy, with column with Knowlton’s Rangers firing several volleys which they burnt the Houses, near the Enemy's works, before retreating back to American lines to report to upon Bunkers-hill -- The General was in a more General Washington.
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To The President of the Congress – September New England Regiments, to try to get in their rear, 18, 1776. Head Quarters, at Colonel Roger Morris's while a disposition was making as if to attack them in front and thereby draw their whole attention that House way.6 “About the time of the post’s departure with my Word of Knowlton’s success engaging the British letter, the Enemy appeared in several large bodies upon the Plains, about two and a half miles from spread quickly. Washington wanted to take advantage hence; I rode down to our advanced posts to put of the situation and ordered Knowlton and Major matters in a proper situation, if they should attempt Leitch’s three companies from the Virginia Regiment to come on: When I arrived there, I heard a firing to attack the enemy’s rear, while Brigadier Nixon’s which I was informed was between a party of our brigade was making noise to draw the enemy from Rangers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel the woods into the open of the Hollow Way. Leitch’s Knowlton and an advanced party of the Enemy. Our three companies led the way from the “Point of men (LTC Knowlton) came in and informed me, that Rocks” where he and LTC Knowlton had just departed the guess; I immediately ordered three companies of from speaking with General Washington. Washington Colonel Weedon’s Regiment from Virginia, under the watched the force move across the rolling terrain. He command of Major Leitch and Colonel Knowlton with could see the situation unfold with American volleys his Rangers, composed of Volunteers from different fired early at too great a distance. It is unclear which

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troops fired, but Knowlton’s men were primarily seasoned soldiers, while Leitch and his companies were seeing their first action in combat. The result was their units attacked the enemy in the flank and soon they were being outflanked by the British 42nd Highlander Regiment.7 On September 19, 1776 Washington wrote: “In numbers our loss was very inconsiderable, but the fall of Lieutenant Colonel Knowlton of Connecticut, I consider it as great, being a brave and good officer.” 8 An eyewitness account from James S. Martin, an American Soldier on the battlefield said LTC Knowlton was mortally wounded and lost his life exposing himself singly to the enemy. To the end he led by inspiring others by example. The death of Knowlton weighed heavy on General Putnam who had lost a great leader and friend.

General Washington was faced with either disbanding the rangers or having them accompany the main force. Colonel Robert Magaw had been left in command at Fort Washington and had requested that the rangers be left to augment the security of the fort. Washington supported the Colonel’s request. On the night of November 2nd, Colonel Magaw’s adjutant, Lieutenant William Demont, defected. He was quite knowledgeable on the construction of Fort Washington, its strengths and weaknesses, and provided a complete report to British General, Lord Percy.

At some point General Washington recommended to General Greene that they should evacuate the fort, its men, and equipment. General Greene knew it prevented ships from sailing north on the Hudson River and also stymied the advance of the British Though Knowlton had fallen, his Ranger’s and troops. Colonel Magaw had a force of 2,000 men American forces throughout the main battle line with the rangers and 900 additional men sent by continued to engage the enemy. After several hours General Greene. of fighting the British forces retreated rapidly back The British would use the information provided by to Morningside Heights and lost about 175 men in the traitor, Lieutenant Demont, in preparing to attack battle. Although British Brigadier General Leslie Fort Washington. On November 15th Colonel Magaw considered the battle insignificant and an American received an order from General Howe to surrender loss, for the American side this was seen as a recovery within two hours or face severe measures. At first from the embarrassment of September 15, when Magaw refused. On the morning of November 16th, so many Americans had retreated without firing a British and Hessian forces formed for battle to attack shot. American General George Clinton said that the fort from all sides, outnumbering Magaw’s force Knowlton’s action had animated the troops giving 3 to 1. The rangers augmenting a force, initially some them new spirit erasing the bad impression that two miles to the south, led by Colonel Cadwalader the retreat of Long Island had left on their minds. were engaged in heavy battle and were fighting hard The realized that they could drive the enemy back to get back to Fort Washington.10 with inferior numbers and many of these American The British plan was to initiate with an artillery Soldiers would go on to serve honorably to the end barrage followed by four separate attacks with the of the war. last led by Lord Percy with a brigade of British and a Fall of Fort Washington and end of Knowlton’s brigade of Hessians in the final assault of the fort. As Rangers the rangers reached the gates of the Fort Washington, Knowlton’s Ranger organization endured for two Colonel Magaw surrendered. The prisoners to more months. Succession of command included four include about 120 rangers were marched to lower officers.Captain Brown commanded the unit from Manhattan and loaded on prison ships anchored in 16 September to 1 October. Major Colburn took New York harbor. Among the prisoners was Ensign command on 1 October but was wounded in action Daniel Knowlton, Thomas’ older brother. Washington soon after and retired on 15 October. Captain Holmes witnessed the surrender from across the Hudson River commanded from 15 October until 16 November at Fort Lee. Thus, an act of treason aided in ending when Colonel Robert Magaw surrendered Fort Knowlton’s Rangers and the fall of Fort Washington. Washington, resulting in the remainder of Knowlton’s Rangers being taken prisoner. 9 As the Army was withdrawing from Manattan,
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AUTHOR’s NOTE. LTC Thomas Knowlton’s life and military career are contained in many disparate sources. They are scattered across the official writings of American Generals’ George Washington, Israel Putnam, Nathanael Greene, and others as well as British General’s Howe and Leslie. Additional source information is gleaned from the memories of his descendents, letters from those who served with him, files of the Connecticut Historical Society and ENDNOTES and BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Livingston, William F. Israel Putnam – Pioneer, Ranger, and Major General. New York, 1901. 2. Harvey, Oscar J. A History of Wikes-Barre Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Raeder Press, Wilkes-Barre, 1930. 3. Moore, Frank. Diary of the American Revolution. New York, 1859. 4. Frothingham, Richard. The History of the Siege of Boston and the Battle of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill. Boston, 1851. 5. General Orders Head Quarters, Cambridge, January 9, 1776. 6. General Orders Headquarters, Harlem Heights, September 16, 1776.

the Connecticut Sons of the American Revolution. Writers and historians who have researched aspects of Knowlton’s career include Richard Frothingham, Barnett Schecter, Samuel Swett and Professor Henry P Johnston of the College of the City of New York, . who published an in depth study on the Battle of Harlem Heights. As yet, no single work captures the life and contributions of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton.
7. Johnston, Henry P A.M. Battle of Harlem Heights , September 16, 1776. New York, 1897. 8. George Washington Papers Series 4: General Correspondence, August 29, 1776 to November 20, 1776. 9. General Orders Headquarters, Harlem Heights, September 17, 1776. 10. Schecter, Barnet. The Battle for New York. New York, 2002. 11. Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society. Rolls of Connecticut Men in the French and Indian War 1758-1762 – Volume II. Hartford, 1905.

LTC Thomas Knowlton’s Chronology
November 22, 1740 Born in the town of West Boxford, MA the sixth of eight children and the third of four sons 1757 Appears on the rolls of Captain John Slapp’s 8th Company, 1st Connecticut Regiment May 1, 1758 to November 20, 1758 Private in Captain Jedediah Fay’s 10th Company, 3rd Connecticut Regiment 8 August 1758 Promoted to Sergeant for valor and bravery during action at Wood Creek 13 October 1759 Sergeant with Major Slapp’s 3rd Company, 1st Connecticut Regiment at Ticonderoga March 1760 Ensign with Major Slapp’s 3rd Company, 1st Connecticut Regiment April 1, 1761 to December 3, 1761 Ensign with Captain Robert Durkee’s 10th Company, 1st Connecticut Regiment March 15, 1762 to December 10, 1762 Second Lieutenant with Captain Hugh Ledlie’s 10th Company, 1st Connecticut Regiment under command of LTC Israel Putnam. 11 June 1762 to November 1762 Participated in Battle of Havana supporting British operations to reduce Havana May 1775 Selected as captain for a militia company from Ashford becoming part of General Israel Putnam’s Connecticut Regiment June 16-17, 1775 Commanded 200 Connecticut soldiers at Battle of Bunker Hill preparing a barrier of fences, stone and

new mowed grass that twice thwarted advancing British troops under General Howe July 1775 Promoted to Major for action at Breed’s Hill 4 January 8, 1776 Directed by General Washington to command a 200 man force to burn houses occupied by British officers in Charlestown and capture prisoners. Thanked by General Washington in General Orders, January 9, 1776 August 12, 1776 Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel September 1, 1776 Knowlton selects 130 men from four Connecticut regiments and one Massachusetts regiment to form Knowlton’s Rangers September 15, 1776 General Washington employs Knowlton’s Rangers along the shore of Harlem River, where he expects British to land on Manhattan Island. British land at Kip and Turtle Bay further to the south7 September 16, 1776 Knowlton sent out at dawn by General Washington to determine disposition of British Forces. • Returns and reports position of enemy to General Washington. General Washington Reinforces with three Virginia Militia companies to attack enemy in rear • • Major Leitch’s company leads the initial force LTC Knowlton fatally wounded 7

• COL Joseph Reed removes him by horse from the battlefield

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KNOWLTON’S RANGERS Durkee’s Connecticut Continental Regiment LTC Thomas Knowlton CPT Stephen Brown CPT Thomas Grosvenor 1LT Oliver Babcock SGT Nehemiah Holt SGT Benjamin Irish SGT William Stuart CPL George Wilson PVT William Ashcraft PVT Roswell Becket PVT Roger Billings PVT James Cheesbrough PVT Nathaniel Chesebrough PVT Abner Cole PVT Daniel Conner PVT Joshua Davis PVT Jabez Dewey PVT Phineas Ellis PVT Enoch Greenward PVT Moses Gun PVT Joseph Hancock PVT Ammon Harvey PVT Daniel Hitt PVT Joel Jones PVT Frederick Knowlton PVT Chales Kelley PVT Joseph Lankfort PVT John Lay PVT Seth Norton PVT William Pearce PVT Daniel Sampson PVT Joseph Sheffield PVT Reuben Skespicks PVT Thomas Skespicks PVT Joseph Smith PVT Daniel Vanderpole PVT George Wilson
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Sargent’s Massachusetts Continental Regiment MAJ Andrew Colburn CPT Lemuel Holmes 1LT Ephraim Cleveland 1LT Aaron Stratten 1LT William Scott 2LT Jacob Pope* ENS Aaron Cleveland* SGT Frederick Putnam SGT John Rains CPL Niles Beckwith CPL Josiah Macomber PVT Barna Allien PVT Nicholas Ashley PVT William Crowfoot PVT Joseph Goodrich PVT Daniel Griswold PVT Barna How PVT Eliphalet Mason PVT John Mores PVT Aaron Pettibone PVT Levy Proctor PVT William Scott PVT Israel Sheldon PVT Samuel Silsby PVT Joseph Spencer PVT John Taylor PVT Nathaniel Turner PVT Aaron Woodward PVT William Woodward PVT Joshua Wright

Webb’s Connecticut Regiment ADJ Thomas Fosdick CPT Nathan Hale 1LT Jesse Grant ENS Benoni Shipman SGT Stephen Hempstead SGT David Thorp SGT Samuel Laes PVT David Beauel PVT Roger Blaisdel PVT James Bugbee PVT Thomas Cook PVT Zephaniah Cummings PVT Hull Curtiss PVT Benjamin Devenport PVT Thomas Fargo PVT Elihu Grant PVT Samuel Hale PVT Thomas Herdike PVT Timothy Hodges PVT Elisha Howel PVT William Jones PVT Elisha Judson PVT Elisha Peck PVT Samuel Peck PVT Samuel Robbins PVT Samuel Smith Hitchcock’s Rhode Island Continental Regiment ENS Ebenezer West

Chester’s Connecticut Regiment 1LT Abner Bacon ENS Daniel Knowlton SGT Perese Ainsworth SGT Abijah Read PVT Philip Abbott PVT Abner Adams PVT John Adams PVT Timothy Cady PVT John Cooks PVT Rufus Downing PVT Jedediah Dyer PVT Rufus Hibbert PVT John Hobbs PVT Edward Hughes PVT Pender Jenison PVT Luman Long PVT Aden Marcy PVT John Miner PVT Richard Parsons PVT Jacob Pettibone PVT Thomas Stone PVT John Trarveret PVT Josiah Underwood PVT Hezekiah Wadsworth PVT John Waid PVT Philip Williams PVT William Woodward Wyllys’ Connecticut Continental Regiment ENS Thomas Hender SGT John Benton PVT Asa Barns PVT Oliver Burnham PVT Richard Chamberlain PVT Seth Done PVT Samuel Fails PVT Thomas Holmes PVT Timothy Hubbert PVT Levy Latimer PVT Simeon Linsey PVT Elisha Taylor
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at home. I needed a leader who could fill the role of mother and the role of leader equally. I found that leader in First Sergeant Hudson. When I first met her, I did not know what to make of First Sergeant Hudson. I knew only that she was my incoming First Sergeant, we would be working together very closely, and she had very big shoes to fill. My outgoing First Sergeant was a very well respected, seasoned First Sergeant, and my mentor. He spoke very highly of her but I had not yet made a determination. I soon discovered she was a single parent, and not only was she my First Sergeant; she was the role model for whom I was looking. She not only filled the shoes of her predecessor, she made them bigger. She quickly became the standard by which I have judged many senior females.

Leader of Influence- 1SG Leslie Hudson
By SSG Jacqueline L. Sargent
The title of “leader” is not given, it is earned. The power to lead lies within the ability of the leader to convince his or her subordinates to follow. To be a “leader” is not only to have certain admirable qualities, but to implement those qualities with the right individual at the right time. To lead is to perfect a balance of communication, knowledge, discipline, direction, and guidance between leader and subordinate. The influence of a leader often surpasses the expectation of the leader as subordinates accept that influence into their own philosophy and convey it to others. A leader is studied by each of his or her subordinates; any and every action is closely scrutinized, evaluated, and judged. In this fashion, subordinates choose their leader. It seems that, in the Army, the right leader will be there at just the time one needs them.

First Sergeant Hudson had a very calm and easy manner about her. She was meticulously organized, and seemed to take everything in stride. She handled confrontation very well. She epitomized professionalism. She was true to herself, which I thought was a very admirable quality. She was not afraid to say what was on her mind but had a certain tact when doing so. She never missed a training opportunity. At one point, after a meeting with the new Brigade Command Sergeant Major, she told me that I should never be afraid to speak up, relating her recent experience as an example. She said if I had the energy to complain about a policy, I should do so to the person who set the policy and I might learn something, or effect a change, otherwise I was uselessly complaining. First Sergeant Hudson told me routinely that I should be replaceable. She said if I could not be replaced, I was not doing my job and training subordinates correctly. She would insist I not call a platoon sergeant or squad leader while they were in training to ask a question. She said they should have trained their replacement or subordinates. I learned this was not only a method to teach the leader the importance of communication, but also a way to empower junior leaders to take action in the absence of orders. I have adopted this philosophy as my own, much to the chagrin of my subordinates.

I was a junior NCO when I chose that leader. Her name was First Sergeant Leslie Hudson. At the time, I was looking for a strong female role model. I had begun to think the majority of females left the service before making the senior ranks. I had several strong male leaders, who definitely had an impact on me, but at the First Sergeant Hudson taught me the importance time, I needed a female leader to emulate. I needed to of time management. She often kicked me out of the see that it was possible for me to succeed in the Army office right at 1700, making me do push-ups if I was a while also enjoying my two kids. I felt caught between minute late. She lectured me, stating, “Nobody is going my commitment to my children and my military to die if that power-point presentation is not finished responsibilities. I felt pressure from society to leave the right now. You might get counseled if it’s not finished, Army and stay at home with my kids, after all, we are an but if you work on it all night, you’ll get counseled for Army at war, and why take chances with a deployment? lack of time management, so you might as well go home As I looked at my peers, many were leaving the service and spend that time with your kids.” Sure enough, the to have their families, saying the demands of the Army next morning I would be pushing to finish an incomplete were too much for their kids. For a time, I felt I was presentation but learned a valuable lesson. I learned it stripping my kids of their mother. Most of all, I felt was possible to balance work and family life. guilty for working in a demanding field instead of staying – 24 –

Another thing about First Sergeant Hudson that stuck with me was she always admitted her faults and weaknesses. She consistently asked her subordinates for feedback, both positive and negative, in order to help her improve as a leader. She asked me several times if I would handle a certain situation differently, and if so, how I would handle it. Sometimes she would present a scenario to me and ask my opinion. She empowered me to be a leader, and allowed me to make mistakes in leading. There were times when she knew what the end result of my actions would be, but allowed me to make the mistake so I could learn from it. She pushed me to new levels. When I told her I had completed all of the boards I needed in my career, she sent me to the NCO of the Quarter board. When I completed that, she signed me up for another. When I told her I did not think I could handle it, she told me I would find a way, if I was organized and used my time management skills. She always presented a new challenge. When I tried to protest that the challenge was impossible, she would simply say “I did it.” I could not argue. She completed a Bachelor’s degree and was working on her Masters. She was a marathon runner. She was a First Sergeant, responsible for more Soldiers than I had, and she was a single parent. She mentored, coached, and taught me I was capable of more than I thought.

I’ve taken First Sergeant Hudson’s influence and incorporated it into my own leadership style. I can not claim to run marathons, or the many accomplishments she’s achieved, however, I constantly strive to know and improve my weaknesses. I ask my subordinates for feedback, both positive and negative. I encourage my Soldiers, as she did me. I encourage organization and time management skills in my Soldiers. I am known to say (in garrison) “Nobody will die if that spreadsheet is not finished today.” I have had several Soldiers tell me they have incorporated these teachings in their leadership styles. First Sergeant Hudson earned the title of “leader”. She knew when to coach, when to provide guidance, and when to say nothing. She was an influential leader whose teachings have spread through me, her subordinate, to other Soldiers. She showed me I could balance work and family life. She showed me how to strive for excellence, and to push myself beyond that which I thought I was capable. She was the example of leadership I needed. To me, she was the right leader at just the time I needed her. SSG Sargent was the Outstanding Writer in the Senior Leaders Course 10-002 that graduated on 24 February 2010 at the MI NCO Academy.

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The 2010 CSM Douglas Russell Award Ceremony
Once a year, the CSM Doug Russell Award is presented to one outstanding Military Intelligence Noncommissioned Officer who, throughout the year, stands a cut above his or her peers through meritorious service to the Military Intelligence Corps. As support to the Global War on Terror continues to demand more and more from the MI NCO, and the rigors of war become increasingly dangerous, only the strongest Noncommissioned Officers will succeed. Today's Army Intelligence NCO Corps is the strongest NCO Corps in the world. They are experts in their field, mentors, and fearless leaders. Our Nation relies on their knowledge and expertise to train the next generation of Soldiers and protect our Countries freedom.

himself amongst his peers and has exceeded the expectations our Nation has come to demand from our NCO Corps. A Soldier's Soldier and solid leader, SGT Cessna has set the highest standards This year's CSM Doug Russell Award is being for all to emulate. His experience, motivation and presented to SGT Michael Cessna. Throughout expertise are unmatched! His "mission first" attitude this past year, SGT Cessna has distinguished and constant pursuit of excellence is reflected in his tactical and technical proficiency. A consummate professional, SGT Cessna always places the mission and the welfare of his Soldiers first. Having true understanding of his role as an MI Noncommissioned Officer, SGT Cessna embraces his responsibilities and demonstrates loyalty to his Soldiers, Leaders and the Army. He embodies the Be, Know, Do style of leadership and is respected by all who serve with him. The 2010 Command Sergeants Major and Sergeants Major Conference is proud to be the first to congratulate SGT Cessna for his outstanding achievement. Always out Front – Army Strong! Gerardus Wykoff Command Sergeant Major, U.S. Army MI Corps and USAICOE & Fort Huachuca

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Michael D. Cessna, Sergeant 2010 CSM Douglas Russell Award Recipient
SGT Michael D. Cessna joined the Army as a Cryptologic Linguist (35P) in 2003. Following basic training at Fort Leonard Wood, MO, SGT Cessna completed the Basic Korean Course at the Defense Language Institute/ Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) and the Basic Korean Cryptologic Course at Goodfellow Air Force Base, TX in 2005. His first assignment was with Delta Troop, 2-14 Cavalry Squadron as part of a Signals Intelligence platoon integrated with a RSTA squadron at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. In March of 2006, SGT Cessna completed the GISA 2000 SIGINT course at Fort Meade, MD, and was selected by his chainof-command to perform tactical SIGINT overwatch at Fort Lewis, WA, learning the latest techniques, tactics, procedures of the forward-deployed 4th Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division. SGT Cessna deployed as lead reporter with 2nd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division’s SIGINT Platoon to Iraq from November 2007 to February 2009. During his OIF deployment, SGT Cessna was involved and played a key role in the successful targeting and capture of over 50 enemy insurgents and High Value Individuals (HVIs). His timely delivery of accurate actionable intelligence and expert analysis and in-depth reporting enabled many successful precision intelligence-driven operations in support of counterinsurgency operations northwest of Baghdad and led to General Petraeus’ recognition of his unit for the impact they had on defeating the local insurgence . As a direct result of his efforts, the platoon was awarded the coveted NSA Director’s Cup for the best tactical SIGINT unit in 2008 among all the services conducting cryptologic support missions in Iraq. Since his return from Iraq, SGT Cessna has continued to serve with distinction as the Cryptologic Support Team Training NCO at NSA/CSS Hawaii. An outstanding NCO, he has received kudos and recognition from his students and superiors for his natural ability to pass on his lessons learned
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downrange to young Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines bound for cryptologic support missions in Iraq and Afghansitan. SGT Cessna is a graduate of Waynesville (OH) High School, and a 2000 graduate of The Ohio State University, where he majored in English Literature with a minor in Italian. SGT Cessna spent the final year of his collegiate studies at the University of Urbino, Italy, where he studied the Italian language and the Italian political system. Prior to joining the Army in 2003, SGT Cessna worked as a reporter/ writer in Columbus, OH, and as a travel advisor for STA Travel in the company’s branch offices in Los Angeles, Glasgow, and Columbus. SGT Cessna is married to Akiko (Miyamoto) Cessna and have two children, Kaisei Marley and Claire Shigeta

Obituary of Douglas S. Russell, CSM, U.S. Army (Retired)
LUNENBURG Massachusetts. Douglas S. Russell, 86, of Eastern Avenue, formerly of Wilmington, Ayer, Fort Devens and Washington, DC, died Friday, December 11, 2009 at the Veterans Administration Hospital, West Roxbury. Mr. Russell was born in Wilmington, July 8, 1923, a son of Marvin O. and Flora E. (Phinney) Russell. He grew up in Wilmington and was a 1941 graduate of Wilmington High School. In 1943 Mr. Russell entered the United States Army and began a lifelong career of military service to his country. He served in the armed forces during WWII, the Korean Conflict as well as two tours of duty in Vietnam. In 1975, after 32 years of service, Mr. Russell retired from the United States Army with the rank of Command Sergeant Major. During his distinguished military career he was awarded The Bronze Star, The Legion of Merit, The Meritorious Service Medal and numerous other commendations. He then moved to Washington, DC where he became the Director of Enlisted Services for the AUSA, a position he held from 1979 to 1993. From 1995 until his death he held the position of President of The American Military Society also in Washington, DC. In 1999 the annual CSM Doug Russell Award was created to recognize the outstanding achievements of soldiers within or on behalf of the Military Intelligence Community. Throughout his career with the military, Mr. Russell and his family moved frequently, although much of their time was spent in Fort Devens and Ayer. In 1988 he moved to Washington, DC and returned to this area 5 years ago. He is survived by two sons and daughters in law; Stanley D. and Kathy Russell of Voorheesville, NY, James R. and Kathy Russell of Townsend; two daughters, Jean Russell of Devens, Noreen and Donald Elliot of Florida and his former wife, June B. (Tims) Russell of Devens. He also leaves six grandchildren and 1 great grandchild. He was the brother of the late Marvin Russell of California, Jean Foley and Esther Russell both of Wilmington. He was a member of the Friendship Lodge of Masons in Wilmington as well as the Lunenburg American Legion Post. Burial will be in Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia. Memorial contributions may be made to the Disabled American Veterans, PO Box 14301, Cincinnati, Ohio 45250.

CSM Russell Military Biography
Command Sergeant Major Douglas S. Russell retired from the U.S. Army after 32 years of service. He then served 14 years as director of Non Commissioned Officers and Enlisted Affairs, and as director of Retiree Activities in the Association of the U.S. Army in Washington D.C. At the time of his passing, he held the position of President of the American Military Society. CSM Russell also served as: Secretarial Appointee on the VA Advisory Committee on Women Veterans (1998-2001), an honorary member of the Fort Devens, Massachusetts Retiree Council, an honorary member of the Fort McCoy, Wisconsin Retiree Council, an honorary member of the AMEDD Regiment, an esteemed member of the Military Intelligence Corps, a member of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Military Advisory Board, a co-chairman of the Army Chief of Staff’s Retiree Council in Washington D.C. (1976-1980 and 1984-1988), a member of the Board of Directors of the Washington D.C. USO, and a member of the VA Advisory Committee on Women Veterans (1993-1997). CSM Russell’s military assignments included: Germany; France; Southeast Asia; Fort Dix, New Jersey; Gloucester, Massachusetts; Korea; Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana; Fort Gordon, Georgia; Vietnam; Dover, New Jersey; and Fort Devens, Massachusetts. His awards and decorations: Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf Cluster, Bronze Star Medal, Meritorious service Medal, Army Commendation Medal with third Oak Leaf Cluster, Good Conduct Medal – Ninth Award, World War II

Victory Medal, Armed forces Expeditionary Medal, National Defense Service Medal with first Oak Leaf Cluster, Philippine Liberation Ribbon with Bronze Service Star, Asiatic-Pacific Medal, Army Occupation Medal, Vietnam Service Medal, Vietnam Campaign Medal with 60-Device, Vietnam Cross of Gallantry, Army Outstanding Civilian Service Award, and the Knowlton Award.

In1986, CSM Russell was installed as an honorary graduate of the United States Sergeants Major Academy during Class 27 graduation ceremonies.

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Past Winners of the CSM Douglas Russell Award 2001 – SGT Deborah L. Sills, MOS 98C, HHOC, 205th MI Battalion, 500th MI Group. 2002 – SPC Ario Sanchez, MOS 96D, HHC, 75th Ranger Rgmt. 2003 – CPL Andrew C. Rapp, MOS 97B, GSC, 3rd SFG (ABN). 2004 – SPC Daniel R. Sheldon, MOS 96B, HHC, 75th Ranger Rgmt. 2005 – SGT Amber Bennett, MOS 97E, B Co. 1st STB, 1st BCT, 10th MTN Div. 2006 – SGT Sarah Patterson, MOS 97E, HHC 524 MI Bn, 504th MI Bde, Korea. 2007 – SGT Steven M. Heigh, MOS 97E, 163rd MI Bn, 504th MI Bde. 2008 – SGT Todd Burnap, MOS 35M, 1st SFG (ABN). 2009--SGT Christopher W. Jones, MOS 35M, A Co, 524 MI Bn, 501st MI Bde, Korea.

Night Stalkers Recognized for Intelligence Contributions
By Kimberly Tiscione, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR) Public Affairs
FORT CAMPBELL, Kentucky. (USASOC News Service, 15 Dec 2009) - Two Night Stalkers were recognized for their contributions to the military intelligence field during a ceremony on December 10, 2009. Chief Warrant Officer 4 Clinton D. Rolan and Staff Sgt. James L. Pooler, both from 1st BN, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), were presented with the Knowlton Award from the Military Intelligence Corps Association. This honor, named after LTC Thomas Knowlton, considered to be the first American intelligence professional, is highest that MICA bestows. Recipients are nominated and selected for making significant contributions to the military intelligence field. "This award is often presented when Soldiers retire," said MAJ Gregory Keeney, the Battalion intelligence officer. “We felt it was important to recognize their individual contributions to the branch now, among the people they directly support." Rolan was recognized for his excellence in counterintelligence support and development of operations, training, security and personnel systems while working in a joint environment during his tenure with the Battalion. Pooler was recognized for his exceptional intelligence analysis in a joint operational environment, by providing timely, accurate, precise and relevant information to senior leaders and planners in support of special operations aviation missions worldwide. In the award nomination packets, Keeney described both Soldiers as having built upon a legacy of MI professionals that surpassed barriers in an effort to lash joint, national, and theater level intelligence capabilities with the task force commander's intelligence requirements. "This was a great opportunity to recognize these Soldiers for the critical support they provide to the special operations aviation and overall contributions to the team," he said. "Intelligence support at every level, including with the 160th SOAR is critical to the success of every mission." Night Stalkers Don't Quit!

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Letter Presenting the American Flag flown on Combat Outpost in Afghanistan to MICA
Military Intelligence Corps Association (MICA) PO Box 13020 Ft. Huachuca AZ 85670

MICA is the national professional fraternal
association of the US Army Military Intelligence Corps. The objectives of MICA are to: • Preserve history • Educate leaders • Honor professionals • Share knowledge • Provide support programs

February 4, 2010 Dear MICA, I joined MICA when I was deployed to Afghanistan. When I was overseas we had the opportunity to fly a flag on the base and to dedicate it to a specific person or an organization. I took the opportunity to fly various flags for organizations that I felt were worthy. I ended up flying a flag to honor MICA. I sent many of these flags home piecemeal in numerous packages (about 30) along with personal items. I have been extremely busy with numerous personal, professional, and academic pursuits since I have returned stateside. Therefore, I am just now starting to go through the numerous boxes that I sent home. I am now sending you the flag that I flew when I was overseas. I do apologize for the delay. I was too busy in Afghanistan to make a special trip to the post office located on another base to mail each flag individually. I ended up just packing the flags with my personal items that I was sending home piecemeal, whenever, the postal unit would come to our base to do mail operations. I hope that you enjoy the flag. The flag specifically dedicated to MICA is a gift to your organization. This is just my way of contributing to the MICA. Sincerely, Thomas C. Lawrence SFC, U.S. Army FLAG FLOWN ON SEPTEMBER 13, 2008 IN JALALABAD, AFGHANISTAN BY THE NANGARHAR PROVINCIAL RECONSTRUCTION TEAM (PRT), OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF)

Awards Program
The Knowlton Award recognizes select individuals who have contributed significantly to Military Intelligence The Golden Rose Award recognizes a spouse whose volunteer service contributes to mission accomplishment

Scholarship Program
MICA provides scholarships for members and their families

Museum Program
MICA supports the MI Museum

MICA is a non-profit organization

Join online at

Check your Mailing Label
Please check your mailing label with every issue of The Vanguard. Your membership renewal date is shown next to your name. You can easily renew online by logging into the member area at www.micorps. org. The login area tells you how to reset a lost password. When you login, the Your Information link on the User Menu takes you to a form which allows you to view and update your membership contact information, see your expiration date, and renew online using a credit card.
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Thomas Knowlton leads raid into Charlestown MA, January 8, 1776

Military Intelligence Corps Association P.O. Box 13020 Fort Huachuca, AZ 85670-3020


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