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DESIGN OF WELL CAP

Centre to centre of pier


RBL
Bed level of canal
Hard rock level;
Thickness of pier at top
Sode slope of the pier
Base width
Width of the trough
Depth of flow of water
Thickness of bed slab of trough
Ground level
Top of deck slab of catwalk
Thickness of bearing
Thickness of bed block/pier cap
Assume thickness of well cap=
Size of the base
Bottom of deck slab
Top of bed block level
Bottom of bed block
Height of pier
Horizontal seismic coefficient
Deepest bed level
Thickness of steining
Pier length below corbel

20.00
551.00
570.00
549.50
1.20
12V:1H
2.53
5.55
4.80
0.75
560.00
575.65
0.50
0.75
1.25
2.53m X 5.00m
569.25
568.75
568.00
8.00
0.08
549.50
0.70
5

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m (including surge)
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
g
m
m
m

2. TENTATIVE SECTION OF THE PIER


575.65m
V1=343.93t

V1=343.93t

on each bearing
V1=

H=37.22T
.50m

1.20m
1

12

12

V2=191.446t
2.53m
560.00m
D

551.00m

5.00m

Myy

+VE
+VE

2.53m

+VE

Mxx

3. EVALUATION OF FORCES:
a)Dead load of super structure
R.L.of section under consideration
SL.NO. DESCRIPTION OF LOAD
I
TROUGH PORTION
1
Weight of side beams
2
Weight of fillets
3
Weight of chamfers
4
weight of bed slab
5
Weight of bottom stiffener
6
Weight of top stiffener
7
Weight of top wedge/ext beam
8
Weight of side stiffener
9
Weight of cat walk beam
10 Weight of cat walk slab
11 Weight of water
12 weight of wearing coat
13 Weight of railing
14 Live Load
15 Add for unforseen loads
TOTAL
II
PIER CAP
1
pier cap
III
1
2

PIER
weight of corbel portion
Weight of pier

III
1

FOUNDATION
Well cap

560.00 m
NO.

V(t)
2
2
2
1
6
6
6
6
1
1
1
1
6
1
5%

20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
0.50
0.50
20.00
0.70
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00
20.00

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

1.00
1.50
0.65
2.50
4.00
5.50
0.40
2.19
0.30
0.90
5.50
1.65
0.25
1.20

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

4.02
0.78
1.21
0.45
0.65
0.75
0.35
0.50
0.75
0.20
4.80
0.08
0.25
1.00

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.40
1.00
2.40
0.79
1.00

385.92
111.60
75.63
54.00
18.72
29.70
40.32
11.06
10.80
8.64
528.00
5.94
5.89
24.00
65.51
1375.72

1.80

X 8.00

X 0.75

X 2.40

25.92

1
1

1.18
1.87

X 5.15
X 5.00

X 2.00
X 7.25

X 2.40
X 2.40

29.05
162.40

3.14

X 8.41

Total with well cap


Total without well cap
a

X 1.25

X 2.40

transition

1500

125.25721
15.967145

93.482906
3500

217.37

432

79.26

216.22

79.26
1672.35
1593.09

2148.22

1.5 ah

Earthquake forces

H=

15.65

SL.NO. DESCRIPTION OF LOAD

seismic
factor He
m

NO.

m
I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

TROUGH PORTION
Weight of side beams
Weight of fillets
Weight of chamfers
weight of bed slab
Weight of bottom stiffener
Weight of top stiffener
Weight of top wedge/ext beam
Weight of side stiffener
Weight of cat walk beam
Weight of cat walk slab
weight of wearing coat
Weight of railing

II

TOTAL
PIER

1
2
3

pier cap
weight of corbel portion
Weight of pier

III
1

FOUNDATION
Well cap

1
2
2
1
6
6
2
2
1
1
1
6

1
1
1

11.65
16.20
12.75
16.53
15.98
15.40
15.28
14.86
15.43
15.55
15.55
16.25

0.09
0.12
0.10
0.13
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12

16.03
14.65
10.03

0.12
0.11
0.08

0.50

0.00

total
5

Ve
t
34.47
13.86
7.39
6.84
2.29
3.51
4.72
1.26
1.28
1.03
0.71
0.73

17.24
6.93
3.70
3.42
1.15
1.75
2.36
0.63
0.64
0.52
0.35
0.37

78.10

39.05

3.18
3.26
12.48

1.59
1.63
6.24

18.93

9.47

0.30
0.30

0.15
0.15

97.339

48.670

L1
m
11.65
16.20
12.75
16.53
15.98
15.40
15.28
14.86
15.43
15.55
15.55
16.25

16.03
14.65
10.03

0.50

L2
m
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.40
1.60
2.50
1.60

1.6
2.50
2.50

2.50

M1
t-m

M2
t-m

401.62
224.57
94.27
113.07
36.63
54.01
72.14
18.71
19.70
16.02
11.01
11.92

43.09
17.33
9.24
8.55
2.87
4.38
5.90
1.57
1.53
0.82
0.89
0.59

1073.68

96.77

51.04
47.80
125.15
223.99

2.55
4.08
15.60
0.00
22.23

0.15
0.1519407

0.38
0.38

1297.818

119.383

Y1=
X1=

2.45
26.67

ey=
ex=

HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES (trough)

He

C
y y
y y

Cs = m 2 - +
2 -
2
h
h
h
h

Horizontal hydrodynamic force=He=0.726pe y

Moment about C.G=Me=0.299p e y 2

y [m]
h[m]

4.80
12.40

i Dueto upstream water


a=
Cm=
Cs=
pe=
He=
Me=

100%

21.337 o
0.570
0.403
0.400 t/sq.m
27.88 t
55.12 t-m

-1.186265 m
-24.16586 m

Dynamic force in the longitudinal direction in the trough


Discharge in the trough(max)
Cross sectional area of flow=
Perimeter of the flow of water in the trough
Kinematic viscocity=
Flow velocity
Reynolds No.
Drag Coeffcient
Drag force
Hydraulic mean depth
Shear force due to water/m length=
Total force
R.L. of application of force
Height above the bed block=
Increase in reaction due to drag force=

47.25
26.640
15.150
1.14E-06
1.77
7500
0.123
37.22
1.758
1.758
0.533
578.050
10.050
37.221

cumec
sq.m
m
sq.m/sec
m/s

t
m
kg
t
m
m
t

Force due to sliding friction:


Reaction sliding end when the loads are so placed as to produce maximum reaction on the other end

L.L reaction=
Impact factor
Impact load

24.00 t
25.00%
6.00 t

Impact load
Dead load reaction
Load due to water in flow direction force
Friction in sliding (Coeff of friction=
R.L. of point of application of force

6.00
41.27
37.22
84.49
21.12
568.00

0.25

t
t
t
t
t
m

Wind force
The inensity of wind pressure depends on the height of structure exposed to the
wind. Two cases are dealt for computing wind force
(a). When level of water in the river is at HFL
(b). When there is minimum water level
Average height of pier above GL=
Area of exposed structure

8.00 m
148.27 sq.m

Height of pier above GL=


Intensity of wind pressure
Area of exposed structure
Add for catwalk area
Total area=
Total wind force on the structure=
l1
l2
y=
RL of point of application

10.00
121.77
148.27
30.00
178.27
21.71
6.40
3.60
5.713
565.71

m
kg/sq.m
sq.m
sq.m
sq.m
t
m
m
m

MOMENT OF INERTIA OF PIER AT BASE:


Area of the base
B=
L=

2.533m
5.000m
=12.67 m2

LB 3
12
BL 3
=
12

=6.77 m4

A=BxL=

M.I. Of the foundation:

I x- x =
I y- y

Coeff. Friction at the bearings=

=26.39 m4

0.90
Y

2
X

4
Y

DETAILS

SL.NO

LOAD

DEAD LOAD

t
1593.09

-do- dry CONDITION

1065.09

FORCE DUE TO SLIDING FRICTION

WIND FORCE

13

EARTQUAKE FORCES

14

HYDRO DYNAMIC FORCES

HX

Hy

21.71

97.34
27.88

10

m
t/sq.m
125.77 negligible

BENDING
STRESS
(fx)
t/sq.m

BENDING
STRESS
(fy)
t/sq.m

84.09
21.12

-48.67

DIRECT
STRESS

97.34

8.00

31.60

0.00

16.21

0.00

33.34

0.00
222.56
10.31

112.77

-3.84 as above

5.22

CASE

F/A
t/sq.m
84.086

Sfx
t/sq.m
0.000

Sfy
t/sq.m
-33.341

f1
t/sq.m
50.75

f2
t/sq.m
117.43

f3
t/sq.m
117.43

STATIC & DRY CONDITION

STATIC & WHEN THERE IS WATER (


IN TROUGH)

1593.091

21.707

21.123

125.770

0.000

-33.341

124.03

190.71

127.51

dirction of eq. along flow


CASE(1)+E.Q(NO. WIND FORCE)

1016.421

97.339

118.462

80.244

0.000

46.084

302.81

302.81

-142.32

CASE(2)+E.Q(NO. WIND LOAD)

1544.421

125.224

118.462

121.928

10.307

51.306

386.39

386.39

-142.54

dirction of eq along the bridge


CASE(1)+E.Q(NO. WIND FORCE)

1016.421

97.339

118.462

80.244

0.000

46.084

-32.52

193.01

226.35

1544.421

125.224

118.462

121.928

10.307

51.306

51.07

276.60

276.60

-32.521
386.395

117.427
386.395

-142.539
276.597

CASE(2)+E.Q(NO. WIND LOAD)


dirction of eq across thebridge

Hx
t
21.707

Hy
t

V
t
1065.091

CONDITION

Min. stress
Max. Stress
max Tension=
Max. Compression=

11

-142.539 t/sq.m
386.395 t/sq.m

Design of well cap:


Diameter of well(internal)
External dia
Effective dia=
Min of L+d or L+t
depth assumed
Intensity of loading=
Assuming well cap to be partially fixed moment,
Moment at mid span=
Grade of concrete
Permissible stress in steel
Permissiblebond stress=
Permissible tensile strength in concrete=
Whether with Earthquake considered(Y/N)
Permissible compressive strength of concrete=
m=
k=
j=
Q=
Depth of well cap=

Mx10 5
Qb

4.40
5.80
5.10
1.25
95.985

m
m
m
m
t/sq.m

78.018
M
1900.00
8.00
20

t-m
20
kg/sq.cm
kg/sq.cm
kg/sq.cm

7 N/mm2
13.3333
0.3294
0.8902
2
10.2634 bd
87.19 cm

Steel required at mid span & bottom of well cap (+ve moment)
Dia of the bar
25 mm
Area
4.91 sq.cm
Overall depth=
102.19 cm
Say
125.00 cm
Effective depth=
117.50 cm
Area of steel=
39.26 sq.cm
Spacing=
12.50 cm c/c
Say
125 mm c/c

12

Steel required at bottom in lateral direction(across width of pier)


Moment=
39.009
Depth of well cap=
25.32
Dia of the bar
20
Area
3.142
Overall depth=
39.32
Say
125
Effective depth=
117.5
Area of steel=
19.629
Spacing=
16.0
Say
150

t-m
cm
mm
sq.cm
cm
cm
cm
sq.cm
cm c/c
mm c/c

Distance from face to of the support upto which radial reinforcement is to be


provided
Location of zero radial moment from centre=

1.47 m

Therefore distance from support=


Add for thickness=

This will be greater of the following


1. Ld=fs/4tbd =
2. Point of inflection+d
3. Point of inflection+12f
Maximum=
Say

1.43 m
2.13 m

148.44
220.75
132.00
220.75
220

cm
cm
cm
cm
cm

13

Area of reinforcement /width for -ve B.M. Mr at edges(radial rods)


Moment=

2
WR 2
16

78.018 t-m

Depth of well cap=


Dia of the bar
Area
Overall depth=
Effective depth=
Area of steel=
Spacing=
Say

25
4.909
125.00
120.00
38.439
12.770
125

mm
sq.cm
cm
cm
sq.cm
cm c/c
mm c/c

-142.54
-57.64
30.34
25.00
4.91
16.18
150.00

t/sq.m
t
sq.cm
mm
sq.cm
cm c/c
mm c/c

Column dowel reinforcement:

Tensile stress
Tensile force=
Area of steel=
Dia of the bar
Area
Spacing=
Say

14

Distribution steel at top


Dia of the bar
ast=
Area of steel=
@.12% of Ac
Spacing
Say

20
3.14
15
20.94
200

mm
sq.cm
sq.cm
cm c/c
cm c/c

At the edge of slab, the mesh bars are free and are not capable of taking full tension. Therefore
20mm dia at 200 c/c circumferentail steel is provided for a length of up to 1.30m from the inner edge
In the cntral region provide 20mm dia @ 200 c/c both ways
Check for shear
shear force=
Shear stress
% of steel=
correction factor=
Permissible shear stress=
Permissible Shear stress kt
Balance shear

607.91
0.52
3.14
1.30
0.44
0.57

kN
N/mm2
%
k
N/mm2
N/mm2

- N/mm2

15

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-6 (STRESS ES AT POINT1 & 2)

250.00

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-5. (STRESS ES AT POINT1 & 2)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

200.00

150.00
100.00

50.00
0.00

5.00

-50.00

450.00
400.00
350.00
300.00
250.00
200.00
150.00
100.00
50.00
0.00
0

BASE WIDTH(m)

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-7 (STRESS ES AT POINT1 & 2)

300.00

140.00

250.00

120.00
STRESS(t/sq.m)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

5.00
BASE WIDTH(m)

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-1 (STRESS ES AT POINT1 & 2)

100.00

200.00
150.00
100.00
50.00
0.00

BASE WIDTH(m)

80.00
60.00
40.00

20.00
0.00

5.00

16

BASE WIDTH(m)

5.00

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-2(@1 & 2)

250.00

STRESS(t/sq.m)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

200.00

150.00
100.00
50.00

300.00

250.00
200.00
150.00

100.00
50.00
0.00

0.00

BASE WIDTH(m)

2.53

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-1(POINT@1 & 3)

140.00

BASE WIDTH(m)

2.53

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-2 (STRESS ES AT POINT1 & 3)

128.00

120.00

127.00

100.00

STRESS(t/sq.m)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-3(@1 & 3)

350.00

126.00

80.00

125.00

60.00

124.00

40.00

20.00

123.00

0.00
0

BASE WIDTH(m)

122.00

2.53

17

BASE WIDTH(m)

5.00

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-4(POINT@1 & 3)

500.00

300.00

300.00
200.00

100.00
0.00
0

-200.00

2.53

200.00
100.00
0.00

2.53

-100.00
-200.00

BASE WIDTH(m)

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-5(POINT@1 & 3)

300.00

BASE WIDTH(m)

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-5(POINT@1 & 3)

250.00
200.00

250.00

STRESS(t/sq.m)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

STRESS(t/sq.m)

400.00

-100.00

PIER DESIGN -STRESS AT FOUNDATION


CASE-3(POINT@1 & 3)

400.00

200.00
150.00
100.00
50.00

150.00

100.00
50.00
0.00
0

0.00
0

BASE WIDTH(m)

-50.00

2.53

18

2.53

BASE WIDTH(m)