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# Aerodynamics

Formula Overview
Equation of state
p = RT (1)
Relationship between gravity with geomet-
ric height
g = g
0
_
r
r +h
G
_
2
(2)
Hydrostatic equation
Geometric altitude:
dp = gdh
G
(3)
Geopotential altitude:
dp = g
0
dh (4)
Relationship geopotential and geometric al-
titudes
dh =
r
2
(r +h
G
)
2
dh
G
h =
r
r +h
G
h
G
(5)
Standard atmosphere
Isothermal layer
p
p
1
=

1
= e

g
0
(hh
1
)
RT
(6)
p
p
1
=
_
T
T
1
_

g
0
aR
(7)

1
=
_
T
T
1
_
(
g
0
aR
+1)
(8)
T = T
1
+a (h h
1
) (9)
Euler equation
dp = V dV (10)
Simplied continuity equation:
A
1
V
1
= A
2
V
2
(11)
Bernoulli equation:
p
1
+
1
2
V
2
1
= p
2
+
1
2
V
2
2
(12)
Curved ow
dp
dr
=
V
2
r
(13)
Thermodynamics
Enthalpy:
h = e +pv = e +RT (14)
First law of thermodynamics:
q +w = de (15)
At constant pressure:
q = de +pdv (16)
At constant volume:
q = dh vdp (17)
Specic heat at constant volume:
c
v
=
q
dT
(18)
Specic heat at constant pressure:
c
p
=
q
dT
(19)
de = c
v
dT e = c
v
T (20)
dh = c
p
dT h = c
p
T (21)
R = c
p
c
v
(22)
=
c
p
c
v
(23)
Mach number
M =
V
a
(24)
a =
_
RT (25)
Isentropic ow
Continuity equation:

1
A
1
V
1
=
2
A
2
V
2
(26)
p
2
p
1
=
_

1
_

=
_
T
2
T
1
_

1
(27)
T
0
T
1
= 1 +
1
2
M
2
1
(28)
p
0
p
1
=
_
1 +
1
2
M
2
1
_

1
(29)

1
=
_
1 +
1
2
M
2
1
_ 1
1
(30)
c
p
T
1
+
1
2
V
2
1
= c
p
T
2
+
1
2
V
2
2
(31)
1
Measurement of airspeed
Incompresible ow (M < 0.3):
V
true
=
_
2 (p
0
p)

(32)
V
e
=
_
2 (p
0
p)

s
(33)
Subsonic compressible ow (0.3 < M < 1):
V
2
1
=
2a
2
1
1
_
_
p
0
p
1
p
1
+ 1
_
1

1
_
(34)
V
2
cal
=
2a
2
1
1
_
_
p
0
p
1
p
s
+ 1
_
1

1
_
(35)
Relationship true airspeed and equivalent airspeed:
V
e
= V
_

s
(36)
Area velocity relation
dA
A
=
_
M
2
1
_
dV
V
(37)
Conclusions:
M < 1: For the velocity to increase, the area must
decrease
M > 1: For the velocity to increase, the area must
increase
M = 1: The velocity will be sonic always at the
throat
Reynolds number
Re
x
=

(38)
Viscous ow

w
=
_
dV
dy
_
y=0
(39)
c
f
x
=

w
1
2

V
2

=

w
q

(40)
Laminar boundary layer:
=
5.2x

Re
x
(41)
c
f
x
=
0.664

Re
L
(42)
C
f
=
D
f
q

S
=
1.328

Re
L
(43)
Turbulent boundary layer
=
0.37x
Re
0.2
x
(44)
c
f
x
=
0.0592
Re
0.2
L
(45)
C
f
=
D
f
q

S
=
0.074
Re
0.2
L
(46)
Drag due to viscous eects:
D
profile
= D
friction
+D
pressure
(47)
Airfoil nomenclature
Relation lift and drag force with normal and axial
force:
L = N cos Asin (48)
D = N sin +Acos (49)
AC, CP and the pitching moment
C
m,CP
= 0 (50)
dC
m,AC
d
= 0 (51)
C
mQ
2
= C
mQ
1
+C
n
_
x
Q
2
x
Q
1
c
_
(52)
Lift, drag and moment for 2-dimensional
wings
L = q

S c
l
(53)
D = q

S c
d
(54)
M = q

S c c
m
(55)
Pressure coecient:
C
p
=
p p

=
p p

1
2

V
2

(56)
Prandt-glauert rule:
C
p
=
C
p,0

1 M
2

(57)
c
n
=
1
c
_
c
0
(C
p,l
C
p,u
) dx (58)
Induced drag for 3-dimensional wings:
D
i
= L
i
= L
C
L
A
(59)
C
D,i
=
C
2
L
eA
(60)
(e = 1 for elliptical shapes)
A =
b
c
=
b
2
S
(61)
dC
L
d
= a =
a
0
1 +
57.3a
0
e
1
A
(62)
D
total
= D
profile
+D
induced
(63)
Mach waves
= arcsin
1
M
(64)
M
cr,swept
=
M
cr,airfoil
cos
(65)
2