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) from the supply from adversely affecting the performance of the device. line spikes. a battery powered inverter turns on to continue supplying power. it doesn't mean that 100ms switchover is okay. your mileage may vary. as a "standby" UPS becomes more featureful it is called a "line interactive" UPS. varies by unit. Most UPS units claim a transfer time to battery of about 4ms. Since appliances connected to the supply are basically connected directly from the power line. After power failure. SPSes provide relatively poor protection from line noise. While some computers may be able to tolerate long switchover times. This type of supply is sometimes called an "offline" UPS. until power fails. Batteries are charged.1 UPS FUNCTIONS An Uninterruptible Power Supply is a device that sits between a power supply (e. surges.1. Some SPSes claim to have surge/spike suppression circuitry as well as transformers to "boost" voltage without switching to the battery if a modest voltage drop occurs. they are generally quite a bit cheaper than "true" UPSes. The quality and effectiveness of this class of devices varies considerably.g. . a wall outlet) and a device (e. as necessary. 1. (Some articles in the trade press have claimed that their testing shows that modern PCs can withstand transfer times of 100ms or more. Note that even if a computer can stay up for 100ms. sags. Other features to look for in this class of supplies is line filtering and/or other line conditioners. typically called the switchover time. In this type of supply. bad harmonics. etc. Damage can still be done to a computer or data on it even if it stays up).g. all of which are occasionally passed off as UPSes. Standby power supply (SPS). The time required for the inverter to come on line. a computer) to prevent undesired features of the power source (outages. however. and brownouts. There are basically three different types of devices. frequency variations. power is usually derived directly from the power line. when line power is available. Often.

Note that Powerware also sells line interactive and online UPSes) The theory behind these devices is fairly simple. (Now called Eaton Powerware. but then again it's not in their best interest to promote Best's products. and increased heat generation. The transformer also maintains output on its secondary briefly when a total outage occurs. I only know one vendor who sells them . there is no switchover time. When normal operating line power is present. we have seen more failures in cheaper SPS units. you'd expect the one that runs least to last longest. UPS (UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY) has several function: 1. the supply conditions power using a ferroresonant transformer. The disadvantages to these devices are increased cost. the reliability of such units does not seem to be affected. . increased power consumption. that given the same quality inverter. These devices are often called "online" UPSes). Best claims that their inverter then goes on line so quickly that it is operating without any interruption in power. those supplies that continuously operate from an inverter.Best Power. Obviously. (Note. though. On the other hand. which is important in some environments. Other UPS vendors maintain that the transition is less than seamless. and these supplies generally provide the best isolation from power line problems. What I call "true" UPS systems. –npc) 3. (Note: According to some sources. The Moral: Test equipment to make sure it meets your needs before you buy. Despite the fact that the inverter in a "true" UPS is always on. Absorb relatively small power surges. This transformer maintains a constant output voltage even with a varying input voltage and provides good protection against line noise. Hybrid (or ferroresonant) UPS systems. In fact. ferroresonant transformers in an UPS system can interact with ferroresonant transformers in your equipment's power supply and produce unexpected results. Inc.2. ferroresonant UPS systems don't kick off a lot of heat.

5. Provide short circuit protection. Monitoring and logging of the status of the power supply. Smooth out noisy power sources. There are five basic UPS topologies:      Offline Single Conversion Line-Interactive Online Double Conversion Delta Conversion Rotary . Display the Voltage/Current draw of the equipment. Provide alarms on certain error conditions. The source monitoring.2 Static UPS Topologies A UPS is designed to provide protection from very short duration power loss. 4.2. and depending on the quality of power. 4. 6. acts to augment or filter that power to provide the best possible source profile to the load. Provide power for some time after a blackout has occurred. say from a few thousandths of a second up to fifteen minutes or so. Automatic shutdown of equipment during long power outages. In addition. 2. Continue to provide power to equipment during line sags. 1. 3. The UPS does this by inserting itself into the path of power between the source and the load. 7. 3. Display the voltage currently on the line. some UPS or UPS/software combination provide the following functions: 1. augmenting and filtering (collectively called “conditioning”) are all accomplished in different ways by different UPS topologies. Restart equipment after a long power outage.

short duration distrubances will flow through the inductor and affect the critical load adversely.Offline UPS System Offline single conversion systems are the simplest but provides the least amount of conditioning. The main benefit of line-interactive is its better conditioning capability with only a small premium to offline systems. When the source fails. both while the normal source provides the power. and during backup operation of the inverter. The main benefit of offline systems is their low cost. Minor. Line-interactive UPS system Line-interactive systems are similar to offline in that the power flows directly to the load. The main drawback to this topology is its lack of conditioning. a transfer relay opens the source and closes into the stored energy source – normally batteries – and continues to provide power to the load through a DC/AC inverter. . Power flows directly from source to load while the module monitors power quality. but inserts an inductor (auto-transformer) into the path to provide some conditioning capability. The main drawback is its inability to completely isolate the load from source anomalies.

Delta Conversion UPS System Delta conversion systems are somewhat of a hybrid that provide the benfits of both online and offline systems while minimizing the drawbacks.Online UPS System Online double-conversion is one of two robust static UPS topologies. The main benefit of the online system is its isolation of source and load. online systems insert themselves completely into the power path and provide complete isolation of source and load. Unlike the previous topologies. The delta conversion system provides both complete isolation and direct connectivity . The input power an AC/DC rectifier which simultaneously charges the batteries and provides continuous DC power to a DC/AC inverter which delivers conditioned AC power to the load. The drawback is it’s more expensive and less efficient than offline or line-interactive systems.

3 Rotary UPS Rotary technology has been utilized for many years and came into prominence at a time when loads would commonly exhibit a low power factor (which resulted in increased losses in the power distribution system and thus. or delta transformer. Second. the system automatically delivers stored energy power to the load. static UPS topologies take AC sine wave current and rectify it. to balance power flows from source to load through the unit. The first four topologies we discussed are called “static” UPS modules because they don’t employ rotating machinery to re-create the AC sine wave. Instead. First. but use spinning motor-generators (MG) to re-create the sine wave on the output. Third. . the sine wave produced by the MG is a pure sine wave of very high quality. When bad power arrives at the input. Rotary technology is not so much a different topology as it is a different technology all together. This last benefit alone saves a significant amount of wear and tear on batteries and the corresponding costs to replace them sooner than would otherwise be the case. an increased energy cost) and high harmonics (which prematurely shortened the life of transformers and capacitors). 1. conditioned through the main inverter. The inverter re-creates the AC sine wave by “pulsing” DC bursts of current that vary by frequency and duration. or SCRs that are gated “switches” controlled through complex integrated circuits. the inertia of the rotating machinery provides short-term ride-through of sub-second anomalies that would normally cause a static UPS to go to battery. Rotary systems utilize the same rectifier technology as static topologies on the front end to create DC current from AC. it is passed thorugh to the load. This is accomplished by the use of high speed silicon controlled rectifier transistors. When normal power is delivered. This provides a number of advantages.while utilizing an input inductor. Users would experience the dimming of lights. the load is isolated from the source both electrically and mechanically. or “chop” it up so that it looks and behaves like direct current to charge the batteries and provide input to the inverter.

For several years now. Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) were designed into static UPSs and have resulted in a supply of clean output sine wave to the loads. Over time these synchronous condensers began to incorporate motor generators. These were the precursors of today’s modern rotary UPSs. the UPS in Figure 3. by definition. The true definition of a rotary UPS is any UPS whose output sine wave is the result of rotating generation. high harmonics) no longer exist in most modern data center environments. would destabilize the electronics of connected loads within the electrical network. a rotary UPS. flywheel UPSs represent less than three percent of the total UPS market1 with the vast majority of installed UPSs utilizing batteries as their primary means of energy storage.brought on by voltage dips and sags. although it utilizes a flywheel as a rotating temporary energy storage source in case the utility fails. The nature of the data center load has evolved over the last three decades. Ironically. According to Frost and Sullivan. In addition. in turn. when large motors turned on. To address these issues. inverters and rectifiers. The rotary UPS is called “rotary” because rotating components (such as a motor-generator) within the UPS are used to transfer power to the load. the original reasons that rotary UPSs came into being as a viable solution (low power factor corrected loads. synchronous condensers / line conditioners were introduced. static UPSs began to demonstrate dramatic improvement in both efficiency and filtering capabilities. is not. Batteries and / or flywheels were then added as an energy storage source and the modern rotary UPS was born. electronic equipment placed in data centers has been designed with power factor correction. for example. . Therefore. These load characteristics.

. which were produced by ionization of the electrolyte. are repelled to the otherelectrode. electrons are deposited on the electrode. and positive ions from the electrodepass into the electrolyte solution (Part B). Because this actioncauses removal of electrons from the electrode.4 DC Source Figure 1 Basic Chemical Battery Due to this action.The positive ions.Figure 3. At this electrode. it becomes positively charged. Rotary UPS 1. these ions will combine with the electrons. This causes a negative charge on the electrode andleaves a positive charge in the area near the electrode (Part C).

DC Generator DC Generator a simple DC generator consists of an armature coil with a single turn of wire. Now segment 1 is contacted by brush 2. and pulsating DC is delivered to the load circuit. and segment 2 isin contact with brush 1. . commutator segment 1 contacts with brush 1.current will flow through the circuit in the direction shown by the arrows in Figure 2. In thiscoil position. As long as a complete path is present. while commutator segment 2 is incontact with brush 2. Due to this commutator action. that side of the armature coil which is in contact with either ofthe brushes is always cutting the magnetic field in the same direction. The armature coilcuts across the magnetic field to produce a voltage output. Brushes 1 and 2 have aconstant polarity.Rotating the armature one-half turn in the clockwise direction causes the contacts between thecommutator segments to be reversed.

Thermocouples Thermocouples a thermocouple is a device used to convert heat energy into a voltage output. As the junction is heated. Thecombinations used in . The free electrons will then migrate across the junction and into the other metal. the electrons in one of the metals gain enough energy to become freeelectrons. Thisdisplacement of electrons produces a voltage across the terminals of the thermocouple. The thermocoupleconsists of two different types of metal joined at a junction (Figure 3).

or more efficiently. The major reason forgenerating AC is that it can be transferred over long distances with fewer losses than DC. The power source’spositive side will tend to repel the holes in the p-type material toward the p-n junction by thenegative side. copper andconstantan.For example. The voltage produced causes acurrent to flow through a meter. and electronscombine with holes in the p-type material. Rectifiers Most electrical power generating stations produce alternating current.Thermocouples are normally used to measure temperature. The diode acts as a gate. they must beequipped with rectifier units to convert AC to DC.however. As the holes and the electrons reach the p-n junction. and chromel and alumel. and certain electronic control devices require DC foroperation. with DC. Holes combine with electrons in the nThe two polarities areknown as forward bias and reverse bias. . transistors. In order to accomplish this conversion.the makeup of a thermocouple include: iron and constantan. Thepolarity of the applied voltage determines if the diode will conduct. weuse diodes in rectifier circuits. which is calibrated to indicate temperature. Forward Bias A diode is forward biased when the positive terminal of a voltage source is connected to itsanode. If we are to operate these devices from ordinary AC outlet receptacles. type material. antimony and bismuth. electron tubes. and the negative terminal is connected to the cathode (Figure 4A). The purpose of a rectifier circuit is to convert AC power to DC.The most common type of solid state diode rectifier is made of silicon.which allows current to pass in one direction and blocks current in the other direction. Holes behave aspositive charges. some of them breakthrough it (Figure 4B). A hole is a vacancy in the electron structure of a material. many of the devices which are used today operate only.

and the cathode is connected to the positive side of the . Reverse Bias Reverse biasing occurs when the diode’s anode is connected to the negative side of the source. This produces a flow of electrons in the circuit.When a hole combines with an electron. an electron from an electron-pair bond in the p-type material breaks its bond and entersthe positive side of the source. an electron from the negative side of the sourceenters the n-type material (Figure 4C). Simultaneously. or an electron combines with a hole near the p-njunction.

. This prevents the combination of electrons andholes near the p-n junction. Holes within thep-type material are attracted toward the negative terminal. and then reverse-biased. For this reason. during each cycle of the AC sine-wave. this rectifier circuit is called a halfwaverectifier. When a singlediode is used in a rectifier circuit. and therefore causes a high resistance to current flow. and the electrons in the n-type materialare attracted to the positive terminal (Figure 5B). Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit When a diode is connected to a source of alternating voltage. it will be alternatelyforward-biased. The output of a half-wave rectifier circuit is pulsating DC.source (Figure 5A). This resistance prevents current flow through the circuit. current will flow through the circuit only during one-half ofthe input voltage cycle (Figure 6).

. The action of these diodes during each half cycle isshown in Figure 7. Abasic full-wave rectifier uses two diodes.Full-Wave Rectifier Circuit A full-wave rectifier circuit is a circuit that rectifies the entire cycle of the AC sine-wave.

The output looks identical to that obtained from a full-waverectifier (Figure 7). . This circuit utilizesfour diodes. The output of this circuit then becomes a pulsating DC.Another type of full-wave rectifier circuit is the full-wave bridge rectifier. These diodes’ actions during each half cycle of the applied AC input voltage areshown in Figure 8. with all of the wavesof the input AC being transferred.

Half-wave rectifiers convert the AC to a pulsating DC and convert only onehalf of the sine wave. 3. Full-wave rectifiers convert the AC to a pulsating DC and convert all of the sine wave. This voltage can be used to measure temperature. . 6.DC Sources Summary 1. 4. There are two types of rectifiers:   Half-Wave rectifiers Full-Wave rectifiers 5. A rectifier converts AC to DC. There are four common ways that DC voltages are produced:     Batteries DC Generator Thermocouples Rectifiers 2. Thermocouples convert energy from temperature into a DC voltage.

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