You are on page 1of 43

Appraisal

SuperStructure
Design (Above
Ground Works)

GeoStructConsultants

ENB471DesignofConcrete
StructuresandFoundations

Consultants
AmandaCarroll06373658
ChungHooi06903258
PhuongPham06364942
TshingLiew06911072
MarkMendoza05756596
TimothyWood06876668

Table of Contents
ExecutiveSummary.......................................................................................................................................4
1.0Introduction............................................................................................................................................5
2.0DesignPhilosophy...................................................................................................................................6
2.1AssumptionsMade.............................................................................................................................6
2.2GravityLoadBearingElementsandLateralLoadResistingFrames...................................................6
2.2.1LayoutReasoning&Considerations............................................................................................6
3.0ComparativeAnalysis..............................................................................................................................8
3.1DesignConsiderations.........................................................................................................................8
3.2GroundFloor.....................................................................................................................................10
3.2.1BandBeamandSlab..................................................................................................................10
3.2.2BeamandSlab............................................................................................................................10
3.2.3Ribbed(Waffle)Slab..................................................................................................................11
3.3Recommendations............................................................................................................................11
3.4TypicalFloorPlateforLevels1to3..................................................................................................12
3.4.1FlatPlate....................................................................................................................................12
3.4.2FlatSlab......................................................................................................................................12
3.4.3Recommendation.......................................................................................................................13
3.5PlantRoomSlab................................................................................................................................13
3.5.1Recommendation.......................................................................................................................13
4.0BuildingLoadings..................................................................................................................................15
4.1VerticalLoads....................................................................................................................................15
4.2WindLoads........................................................................................................................................16
4.3EarthquakeLoads..............................................................................................................................17
5.0DetailedStructureDesign.....................................................................................................................18
5.1PostTension.....................................................................................................................................18
5.2ReinforcedConcrete.........................................................................................................................20
5.2.1SlabSupportSystem..................................................................................................................20
5.2.2DistributionofMoments(Slab).................................................................................................21
5.2.3BendingMoments&ShearForces(Beams)..............................................................................21
5.2.4ReinforcementRequirements....................................................................................................21
5.2.5ReinforcementDetails...............................................................................................................21
2

6.0ColumnandCoreWallLoads...............................................................................................................22
6.1CoreWallDesign...............................................................................................................................22
6.2ColumnDesign..................................................................................................................................24
7.0CostEstimations....................................................................................................................................30
7.1FoundationsConcreteFormWork.................................................................................................30
7.2ExternalWallandFoundations.........................................................................................................30
7.3Costs..................................................................................................................................................30
7.3.1Parking.......................................................................................................................................30
7.3.2ExternalWalls............................................................................................................................30
7.3.3ConcreteWork...........................................................................................................................31
8.0References............................................................................................................................................32
9.0Appendices............................................................................................................................................33
9.1Appendix1DesignLayout..............................................................................................................34
9.2Appendix2ComparativeAnalysis..................................................................................................35
9.3Appendix3BuildingLoads.............................................................................................................36
9.4Appendix4DetailedStructuralDesign..........................................................................................37
9.4.1Appendix4.1Posttensioned................................................................................................38
9.4.2Appendix4.2ReinforcedConcrete.......................................................................................39
9.5Appendix5LoadbearingDesign...................................................................................................40
9.5.1Appendix5.1Corewall.........................................................................................................41
9.5.2Appendix5.2Column.............................................................................................................42
9.6Appendix6CostEstimation...........................................................................................................43

Executive Summary
GeoStructconsultinghasreceivedandreviewedNewsteadDevelopmentsproposeddesignofthenew
building located at 26 Commercial Road Newstead as Requested. Since then, a professional sub
structural analysis report (Below ground works) has been submitted highlighting recommendations,
accurateCostestimationsanddesignsoffoundation,retentionsystems,andslabspecifications.
Hence, in following this up, GeoStruct has prepared a professional superstructural analysis report
(above ground works) which has improved and made necessary changes to the previously submitted
substructuralanalysis.
Ultimately,thissuperstructurereportconsistsof:

a design philosophy report which highlights appropriate layouts of vertical load bearing
elementscompatiblewiththearchitecturalscheme,
a comparative study forthe floorsthatthroughoutthe building, various loadsthatwillexert
uponthebuilding,
details of structural designs including support systems and distribution of moments for slabs
andbeams,
detailsandrequirementsforreinforcement,
columnandreinforcementspecificsanddesign,and
anaccurateoverallcostestimation

1.0 Introduction

TheprincipalsofGeoStructConsultantshavereviewedabriefgiventothecompanybyNewstead
Developmentsforthedesignofthenewoffice/commercialbuildingat26CommercialRoadNewstead,
andarerequiringthefollowinginorderforthecompanytoprepareafullsubmissiontoNewstead
Developments.

Thesuperstructurereportiscontainedwithin.Thesubstructurereportisincludedinaseparatebinder.

2.0 Design Philosophy

In addition to the design of the superstructure, the design philosophy report will be used to help
illustrateandpointoutvariouslocationsofbothgravityloadbearingelementsandlateralloadresisting
frameandreasonsbehindthechoicesandconsiderationsmade.

2.1 Assumptions Made


Variousassumptionsmadeduringthedesignandplanningofgravityloadbearingelementsandlateral
loadresistingframesassumedthat:

Standardsareperfectlyreliable,
columnpositioningwerethesamethroughOfficelevels(levels13),
thebuildingwouldalwaysbeusedforitsintendedpurpose,and
Thetransferbeamsareconsistentintermsofsize

2.2 Gravity Load Bearing Elements and Lateral Load Resisting Frames
Basedonthearchitecturalscheme,appropriatelocationsoftheverticalloadbearingelementssuchas
thebeamshasbeenindentifiedforthegroundfloorandcanbeseeninAppendix1usingacolourcoding
system; beams have been indentified in pink. Other vertical load bearing elements and lateral load
resistingframessuchascolumnsandshear/corewallscanalsobeseeninAppendix1astheytooare
colourcodedandcanbeindentifiedusingtheledgedofcolourcodesshowninontheillustration.
Inadditiontothis,moreaccuratedrawingarrangementsillustratingtheschematicdesignsforthefloor
platesshowingthelocationofloadbearingelementssuchasbeams,columnsandwallscanalsobeseen
inAppendix1,whichillustratestheseelementsinasectionalviewfromSouthtoNorthandEasttoWest
ofthebuilding.
2.2.1 Layout Reasoning & Considerations
Reasons for the placement of beams suggest the nature of the columns that exist in the provided
architectural scheme. In this case for the above ground works, it can be divided into three sections
wherefloorshaddifferentstructurallayoutsanddesign.Thesethreesectionsincludethegroundfloor,
theplantroomandofficefloors(levels13).
In terms of the ground floor, beams were places where necessary depending on the locations of the
columnsand shear/corewalls that existedonboththe basementandground floorlevelsthemselves.
These beams will not only provide the support for the concrete slabs, but in some cases support for
thosewhereopeningssuchasexhaustventsandwherecantileversystemsexist.Othercasesforwhere
beamshavebeenadoptedsuggesttheinconsistencyofcolumnlocationsbetweenvariousfloors;hence
transfer beams are used. One example highlighted in pink can be seen in Appendix 1 in between
sections57andHXnexttothebikehanginglockers.Considerationsandreasonsforthenecessary
adoption of a wider beam located illustrated in Appendix 1 between sections 59, MN highlights the
presenceofacantileversupportsystem.

Intermsoftheofficefloorsandtheplantroomhowever,investigationsfoundthatflatslabswithdrop
panels and flat plates were sufficient enough to meet the design and as a result these systems were
adoptedandcanbeseeninAppendix1illustratedinpurple.Neverthelessitisrecommendedthatflat
platesshould be adopted. Reasonsforadopting such asystemsuggestthatthatnotonlyworkssince
manyofthecolumnsfromlevels13alignandthattheplantroomdoesnotholdsignificantweight,but
itisalsomorecosteffectiveintermsofmaterialsusedoverbeamsandusingflatslabswithdroppanels.
Intermsoflateralloadresistingframes,theadoptionofashearwallisnecessarytotakelateralloads.
Nevertheless, using core walls will help tremendously in resisting lateral loads such as wind. Reasons
suggestingthishighlightsthefactthatthetherearetwocoresinthebuildingthatrunthroughalllevels
of the building and down into the lowest basement. This creates a back bone sort of idea for the
buildingandwillgreatlyenhanceitslateralloadresistingcapabilities.

3.0 Comparative Analysis


Designingandselectingofslabsystemsisaprocesswherearchitectural,structuralandconstruction
considerationsandinputsareneededtobefulfilled.Thisprocesswillneedtobeundertakenrepeatedly
untileachareaissatisfiedthenafinalanddetaileddesigncanbeproduced.
Inthisreportaconceptualdesignofthefloorsystemsisrequestedwhichwillincludethepurposeof
eachfloorinconjunctionwiththespaceandusagerequirementsprovidedbytheclient,the
architecturalappearanceandthestandardofquality(CCAA,2003).
Sincethisreportisintheconceptualdesignphaseanumberofalternativeschemeshavebeen
evaluatedandcompared.Theseincludepreliminarymembersizingandfloorthicknessestocreatea
moreaccuratecostestimateofthebuilding.

3.1 Design Considerations


Asstatedbrieflyabovesomedesignconsiderationfromarchitectural,structuralandconstructionareas
areneededtobetakenintoconsideration.Thedesignoverallneedstofulfillarchitecturaldesign
philosophy,fulfillstructuraltestsandbeconstructedefficiently.Thesespecificdesignconsiderationsare
listedinTable1.

1.

2.
3.
4.

Architectural
Generale.g.space
requirements&
appearance
FloorzoneThickness
Services
Penetrations

Structural
1. Strength

Construction
1. Generale.g.
constructionmethod

2. Deflection
2. Formwork
3. Cantilevers
3. Reinforcement
4. Vibration
4. Joints
5. CrackControl

Table1DesignConsiderations(CCAA,2003)

Anotherdesignconsiderationistheproposedspansizesoftheslabswhichwillberequiredcomponent
todeterminetheslabthicknessforeachfloor.Themaximumspansizeisapprox8.74mandthisvalue
willbeusedasworstcasetodeterminetheslabthickness.
Anotherdesignconsiderationistodeterminewhichconcretestrengtheningtechniquewillbe
implemented.Thetwooptionsarereinforcedconcreteandprestressedorinthiscaseposttension
concrete.Theaimsofbothtechniquesaretostrengthentheweaknessofconcretewhichisitstensile
strength.Reinforcedconcreteachievesthisbysimplypouringconcreteoverrebarandsteelmeshes.
Whereasposttensionconcreteusesamoresophisticatedmethodwhereconcreteispouredovera

steeltendonandoncetheconcretehasgainedstrengthbutbeforetheserviceloadsareapplied,the
cablesarepulledtight,ortensioned,andanchoredagainsttheouteredgesoftheconcrete.
Nonethelessposttensionedconcretehasmoreadvantagesoverreinforcedconcretewhendealingwith
amultistoreybuilding.

1. Usageofprestressedconcretetranslatestominimalconstructioncostsascomparedtothe
usageofreinforcedconcrete
2. Prestressedconcretemakesuseofthinnerslabs,thenthefloorthicknesssavingscanbe
transformedintoadditionalfloors
3. Usageofprestressedconcreteoftentranslatestoanincreasedfloorspaceinestablishments
4. Areabletospangreaterdistanceswithminimalslabthicknesses

Duetotheattractiveadvantagesofposttensionedconcreteslabstheyarehighlyrecommendedtobe
usedespeciallyinhigherlevels.

3.2 Groun
nd Floor
nsiderationw
whendesigniingthegroundfloorsysttem:
Twomajjorconsideraationsaretaakenintocon
structuralandconstruction.Themajorstructuralconside
erationistheefactthatth
hegroundflo
oorneedsa
ofthebuildin
ngseeninAp
ppendix1.The
largeloaadbearingcaapacityduetthearchitectturallayouto
construcctionconsideerationtaken
nisthefacttthatduetotthelocationandeaseofaccessibilityofthe
construcctingthegro
oundfloormeansthereisspotentialfo
orsavingsecconomically..Thethreeproposed
floorsysstemsfortheegroundfloo
orare:
1. BandBeamandSlab
2. BeamandSllab
3. Ribbed(wafffle)Slab
3.2.1 Band Beam and Slab
ngtoCement&ConcreteeAssociation
nofAustraliaa(2003)con
nsistsofaseeriesof
Thissysttemaccordin
parallel,wideshallow
wbeams(kn
nownasband
dbeamsortthickenedslaabbands)withthefloorslab
bisdesignedasacontinu
uousslab,wiiththe
spanningtransverselybetweenttheband.TThefloorslab
ninFigure1.
shallowbandbeamsscarryingallloadsfromttheslabseen

Figu
ure1Bandbeamandsslab

(CCAA,2
2003)

3.2.2 Beam
m and Slab
dingtoCemeent&ConcreeteAssociatiionofAustraalia(2003)cconsistsofbe
eams
Thissysttemisaccord
framingintocolumn
nsandsuppo
ortingslabsspanningbetweenthebeeamsseenintheabovefigure.Itisaa
ditionalsyste
em.Therelaativelydeepb
beamsprovideastifffloo
orcapableoflongspans,,andableto
o
verytrad
resistlatteralloads.

10
0

3.2.3 Ribbe
ed (Waffle) Slab
dingtoCemeent&ConcreeteAssociatio
onofAustralia(2003)consistsofeq
qually
Ribbedffloorsaccord
spacedrribsareusuaallysupporteeddirectlybyycolumns.Th
heyareeitheeronewaysspanningsystemsknown
n
asribbedslaboratw
wowayribbedsystemkn
nownasaw
waffleslab.TThisfloorsysstemcanbeseenin
Figure2below.

Figu
ure2Ribbe
edslab

(CCAA,2
2003)

3.3 Recom
mmendattions
ppendix2,th
hefloorslabsystemreco
ommended
AftercomparingtheeadvantagessanddisadvaantagesinAp
ndslabsystem
mwithaslab
bthicknesso
of200mman
ndatotalthickness(slab+beam)of
isthebaandbeaman
450mmwithbeamw
widthof1200mm,which
hexceedstheerecommen
ndationfromCement&C
Concrete
pendix2.Itiismorethan
nadequateto
ohandletheeloadsfrom
AssociattionofAustralia(2003)ggraphsinApp
theuppeerfloors.Theeotherreaso
onsarethessimplicityofformworkm
meaningsavin
ngsinconstrructioncostss
aswellaasthebeamssbeingofshallownatureecreatingmo
oreroomun
nderthefloor.

whybandbeamslabwasnotchosenwasthefacttthatpenetrrationsthebeamsfor
Themajorreasonsw
designwhereelargeductssarelocated
d
largeductsaredifficculttohandlee.Thisisanissuewitharrchitecturald
bwerentchosenbecausseofthehigh
hformworkcostsandlow
wfirerating.
ontheggroundfloor..Ribbedslab

orecommend
dedthatmixxturesofposttensionandreinforced
dslabsareussedforthegroundfloor.
Itisalso
InAppen
ndix1,locatiionswhererreinforcedslaabsareused
dareduetotthislocationhavinganin
ncrease
numberofvarietyonthedimensionsofslab
bsizes.Thisw
wouldmeanitwillbeeassiertoconstrruct
mplermetho
odofstrengttheningandconstruction
nofconcrete
e.
reinforcedconcreteinthisareaduetoitssim
uipmentand
dmaterialssiinceitson
Reinforccedconcreteeisalsomoreecosteffectiiveintermsoflabor,equ
groundffloorandnottheupperllevels.

11
1

3.4 Typiccal Floor P


Plate for L
Levels 1 to
o 3
orlevelsonetothreeseeeninAppend
dix1thesupeerimposedeeadloadsof
Duetotthearchitecturalplansfo
eachfloorcanbedeetermineforstructuralcaalculations.TThesearchiteecturaldraw
wingsarealso
ousedto
optionofcho
oiceforexam
mpleflatplatteandflatsllabssystemss
determineifparticularfloorsysttemsareano
ostcolumnstobealignedverticallyttobeeconom
micallyconsid
dered.
needmo
3.4.1 Flat P
Plate
Aflatplaate(showninFigure3)issaoneortw
wowaysysteemusuallysupporteddirrectlyoncolumnsor
loadbeaaringwalls.
Accordin
ngtoCemen
nt&ConcreteeAssociation
nofAustraliaa(2003)theprincipalfeeatureoftheeflatplate
floorisaauniformornearuniform
mthicknesswithaflatso
offitwhichreequiresonlysimpleform
mworkandis
easytocconstruct.Th
hefloorallow
wsgreatflexxibilityforloccatinghorizo
ontalservicessaboveasuspended
ceilingo
orinabulkheead.

Figu
ure3FlatP
Plate

(CCAA,2
2003)

3.4.2 Flat S
Slab
Aflatslaabisaonew
wayortwow
waysystemw
withthickeningsintheslaabatthecolumnsandlo
oadbearing
walls(drroppanels)((Cement&C
ConcreteAsso
ociationofA
Australia,200
03).Thesedrroppanelsreeducethe
affectso
ofpunchingsshearandbeendingstresssesthereforeeathinnerslabcanbeused.Anexam
mpleis
shownin
nFigure4.

12
2

Figu
ure4Flatslab
(CCA
AA,2003)

3.4.3 Recom
mmendatio
on
nthebuildin
ngsconstructtion.Botharresimpleto
Bothfloorsystemsaaremorethaanadequatetobeusedin
ndertheslab
bwhichmeaansmoreheightinbetweeenfloors.H
However
formworkandhavenobeamsun
headvantageesanddisad
dvantagesinAppendix2tthemostsuiitablefloor
afteranalyzingandccomparingth
wouldbetheeflatplateo
onlybecausethedroppanelsinthefllatslabsyste
emmayinterrferewith
systemw
servicesofthefloorss.
Nonetheelesseventh
houghtheflaatplatesysteemisrecomm
mendedamoreintensiveestructuralaanalysisis
neededtobeunderttakentoenssurethereisnopunchinggshearissues.Thishoweeverisquicktorectifyif
omesanissu
ue.Posttenssionslabsforrtheselevelsswillbeused
dduetobetterconstrucctioncosts
thisbeco
andotheeradvantageesoverreinfforcedconcreetewhichwasexplained
dearlierinth
hissection.
Ithasbeeendecidedthatapostttensiondesiggnedslabwithaslabthiccknessof220
0mmwhenttakingthe
imposed
dloadas3kP
Pa,asseenin
nthegraphinAppendix 2,willbechosen.

3.5 Plant Room Sla


ab
Accordin
ngtothearcchitecturalpllansinAppendix1,thep
plantroomissthetopfloo
orofthedesiired
buildinggsandwillsto
oremostofb
buildingsserrvices(e.g.A
Airconditionexhausts,ettc).Thereforethe
imposed
dloadonthisfloorwillbemuchgreaaterthanleveelsonetoth
hree.Levelfo
our,howeverr,ismuch
smallerinareaandh
hasasmallerramountofcolumns.Th
herefore,theetypeoffloo
orslabsystem
musedfor
onglyinfluencedbythestructuralressults.
thisleveelwillbestro
3.5.1 Recom
mmendatio
on
Thesam
metypesoffloorslabsysttemsrecomm
mendedtob
beusedarethesameasllevelsoneto
othree:flat
plateandflatslab.B
Bothdesignscanbeused
dforthisleve
elhoweveraflatplatedeesignshouldstillbeused
d
orecosteffecctiveandtim
mesavingon construction
n.However,thedesignaasstatedearrlieris
foramo
heavilyiinfluencedbythestructu
uralresultseespeciallyintthiscasewithpunchingsshear.Iftheflatplate
13
3

designisdoesnotpassthestructuralcheckstheneitheraflatslabdesignbeusedorshear
strengtheningofthecolumnsisimplemented.
Ithasbeendecidedthataposttensiondesignedslabwithaslabthicknessof240mmwhentakingthe
imposedloadas5kPa,asseeninthegraphinAppendix2,willbechosen.

14

4.0 Building Loadings


4.1 Vertical Loads
VerticalLoadsonthebuildingconsistsofdeadandliveloads.Thesearerequiredinordertodesign
structuralcomponentsofthebuilding.AS1170.1(AustralianStandards)mustbeusedinorderto
determinethedeadandliveloadsonthebuilding.
Deadloadsconsistoftheselfweightofthebuildingwhichisactionthatislikelytoactcontinuously
throughoutthedesignworkinglifeandvariationsinmagnitudewithtimearesmallcomparedwiththe
meanvalue.Italsoconsistsofimposedactionswhicharevariableactionsresultingfromtheintended
useofoccupancyofthestructure.Liveloadsarequitesmallcomparedtodeadloadsastheyonly
consistsofloadsthatareconstantlyonandoffsuchaspeopleenteringandexitingthestructure.
ThedeadandliveloadswerecalculatedforeachlevelusedanExcelspreadsheetthatcanbeviewedin
Appendix3.
Fromthescaledfloorplansprovided,atotalof40columnswerecountedandatributaryareaforeach
columnwascalculated.Theselfweight,superimposedloadandliveloadwerethendeterminedfrom
thestandardsforeachcolumnandthetotalforeachwascalculatedinordertoobtainthedeadandlive
loads.TheresultsobtainedfromthespreadsheetareshowninTables2and3below.
Column TributaryArea
1
14
2
25
3
24
4
24
5
26
6
22
7
18
8
39
9
48
10
48

Column TributaryArea Column TributaryArea


11
48
21
54
12
65
22
10
13
47
23
16
14
47
24
11
15
47
25
18
16
59
26
28
17
33
27
58
18
50
28
116
19
58
29
23
20
50
30
26
Table2:ColumnandTributaryArea

Level

1.2G+1.5Q

PlantRoom

714840

200

858108

Level3

565656

120

678967.2

Level2

565656

120

678967.2

Level1

565656

120

678967.2

GroundLevel

627816

160

753619.2

BasementB1

497280
100
Table3:DeadandLiveLoads

Column TributaryArea
31
61
32
24
33
32
34
62
35
65
36
30
37
20
38
43
39
46
40
19

596886

15

4.2 Wind Loads


Windanalysisisrequiredtobecompletedoutforthesuperstructureofthebuildingbeingdesignedto
ensure that the core shear walls and columns can withstand the force produced by the wind. To
calculate the lateral force on each floor, AS1170.2 (Australian Standards) is to be used. Lateral wind
loadingiscalculatedatGroundLobby,FirstFloor,SecondFloorandThirdFloor.AnExcel spreadsheet
wasusedtocalculatethelateralwindloadsandcanbefoundinAppendix3.
The heightofeachflooris thefirstbitofinformationrequiredforthewindanalysis. Theseareeasily
obtainedfromthescaleddrawingsprovided.Followingtheprocedureoutlinedinthestandards,Vsit,can
becalculatedusingthefollowingequationandinformation:

Vdes,=Vr*Md*Mz,cat*Ms*Mt
VRisfoundwithinsection3,Table3.1.BrisbaneisshowntobeinregionB.Calculatingfor
serviceability,V500isused.ThetableprovidesavalueofVR=57
Mdisfoundwithinsection3.3.2.Avalueof0.95isusedforcalculatingshearforcesandbase
overturningmoments.
MSandMTarepresumedtobeavalueof1.
Mz,catvalueisdeterminedbytable4.1(A).Withtheinformationprovided,itisknownthatwe
areinTerraincategory3.TheMz,catvaluechangesforeachfloorlevel.Forheightvalues
inbetweentheonesprovidedinthetable,alinearrelationshipisimplied.

Usingtheinformationabove,Vsit,canbecalculatedby57*0.95*Mz,cat.Allresultsareshownwithinthe
excelspreadsheetpreviouslymentioned.

WindPressureisdeterminedbythefollowingformula:p=0.6*Vdes,^2*Cfig*Cdyn.Thefollowingare
known:
air=1.2
Cdyn=1
AllKfactors=1

Therefore,thewindpressurevalues(p)canbecalculatedforeachfloorandareshownintheexcel
spreadsheet.

ThenextstepoutlinedwithinthestandardsistocalculateCfig.TocalculateCfig,theCp,evaluesforboth
thewindwardandleewarddirectionsneedtobedetermined.Thesevaluesareshownintables5.2(A)
and5.2(B)respectively.Cp,eforwindwardis0.7and0.5forleeward.Sincethewindwardwallisthe
worstcasesituation,itisusedtocalculatethecriticalpressureforeachlevel.Combinedpressurefor
eachlevelcanthenbecalculatedbymultiplyingcriticalpressurebycombinedCfig.Lateralforceoneach
levelcanthenbecalculatedbymultiplyingthecombinedpressureofeachlevelbytheareaofthelevel.
ThefinalsresultsareshowninTable4below:

16

Level
GL
1stFloor
2ndFloor
3rdFloor

P
(kPa)
1.86
2.11
2.33
2.54

LoadWidth(m)
4.425
3.75
3.75
4.375

Length(m)

A(m^2)

51
225.675
51
191.25
51
191.25
51
223.125
F=Sum(PzAz)

PzAz(kN)
418.836341
403.022593
445.418132
566.284281
1833.56

Table4:LateralForceonEachFloor,F

4.3 Earthquake Loads


Itisvitaltoconsiderearthquakeloadswhendesigningamultistoryconcretebuilding.Theearthquake
loadingsdesignforthebuildingthatisbeingdesignedmustcomplywithAustralianStandards.More
specifically,itmustcomplywithAS1170.42007:EarthquakeactionsinAustraliawhichisshown
below.

AS1170.42007:EarthquakeactionsinAustralia
Section2.2DesignProcedure
(a)Importancelevel
(b)Probabilityfactor(kp)&hazardfactor(Z)
(c)Whetherdomesticstructure
(d)Sitesubsoilclass
(e)Earthquakedesigncategory(EDC)
(f)DesigninaccordancewithSection5.
TheearthquakeloadingswerecalculatedusingMicrosoftExcelandcanbeviewedintheAppendix3.
Theimportancelevelwasdeterminedtobe2andtheprobabilityandhazardfactorsweredetermined
fromtablesinAS1170.4.Theannualprobabilityofexceedance(P)was1/500sofromTable3.1itwas
determinedtheprobabilityfactoris1.Fromtable3.2,theBrisbanehazardfactorwasdeterminedtobe
0.05.
ItwasassumedthatthesoilclassisBeRockbecausethecoresaresupportedbyrock.Thenextstepin
thedesignprocedureistoperformtheEDCIIStaticCheck.Sincetheheightofthebuildingislessthan
15meters,theFiformulamustbeused.ThecoefficientscanallbedeterminedusingAS1170.4except
fortheseismicweightofthestructureateachlevelwhichiscalculatedusingthefollowingformula:Wi=
Gi+cQiwherecis0.3.Thedeadandliveloadsarecalculatedinothersectionsofthereport.
Fiiscalculatedforeachindividuallevelandarealladdedtogethertodeterminethebaseshearthat
needstobedesignedfor.Thebaseshearforthisbuildingcametoatotalof1370.16kN.

17

5.0 De
etailed Sttructure Design
5.1 Po
ost Tensio
on
As previiously discusssed in Section 3.3, a posttensioneed slab would be an appropriate ch
hoice for the
e
North/W
Westsideoftthebuilding..Thetwostrripsdesigned
dforcanbevvisuallynoteedinFigure5
5.Theirgridss
areX15
5andY15.

Figure1d
design

Figu
ure5DesiggnStrips

oingsomebaasiccalculatiions,theinittialslabdeptthwascalcu
ulatedtobe 150mm.Assketchofthe
e
Afterdo
tendonprofilecanb
beseeninFiggure6.Forth
hespreadsheeetcalculatio
ons,seeApp
pendix4.1.

Figure6Tendo
onProfile

18
8

Theverrticalpointssofcontrafflexturefor span1is104mm,span2and3is59mm,an
ndspan4iss
92mm. These vallues assisteed in calcu
ulating the drape heights which in turn assisted in
n
whatspacingg.
calculattingthestraandsrequireedandatw

wever the stress caused from th


he prestresss
Initially 4 12.7dia stands werre used at 1.13m. How
was too
o high and caused con
ncrete crushing. There
efore, the ttendons weere then spaaced at 2m
m
centerss.Thisround
dednumberalsocontrributestoth
heeaseofcconstructab
bility.

TheImm
mediatelossseswereccalculatedttobe25.4%
%andthelo
ongtermlo
osseswere 15.9%(see
e
Append
dix 4.1). Ho
owever, forr ease of caalculations they were rounded to
t 20% totaal and 10%
%
immediiate.Ifthe truelosses wereused
d,itwouldrreducethe JackingForrceandintturnreducee
theload
dsonthesslab.Thusin
neffect,byyusingthe roundedvaaluesitisusingahigherfactoroff
safety.

Afterkn
nowing thee spacing off the tendo
ons, load caases can be found. The
ese load caases includee
deadlo
oad,superim
mposeddeaadload,liveloadand prestressin
ngforces.TThese casesswerethen
n
runthro
oughtheprrogramSpaceGass.

utputs of th
he program
m gave the action forrce for ben
nding, sheaar and defllections forr
The ou
ultimate,serviceab
bility,andattransfer/h
hogging.Afttercheckinggthattheccapacitiesandstrength
h
oftheb
beamareOK,thefollow
wingsummariescanbe
emade;

32MP
Paconcrete
412.7
7diastrandssat2mcentres
Largestdeflectio
onis7.46mm
m
MomentCapacitty=54kNm
UltimateBendinggStrength((Mu)=35.8
8kNm
Pointofconcreteecrushingaattransfer==2551kN
Ultimate Shear Strength is 146kN; Ultimate
ShearratTransferis108kN.
Noad
dditionalreiinforcementisrequired.

Due to there bein


ng no addittional reinfforcement, it eliminates the issu
ue of ortho
ogonal steel
interferrence.Fortthedroppaaneltherein
nforcementtwouldstillhaveenou
ughclearan
ncetoavoid
d
addition
nalstressesscausedbythePTtend
dons.

19
9

5.2 Re
einforced Concrete

Figgure7Rein
nforcedconccretetransfe
erbeam

5.2.1 Slab S
Support Sysstem

Theslab
bwillbesupp
portedbytw
wowaybandbeams1200
0mmwidean
nd250mmthick,witha2
200mmslab
ontop.TThisexceedssthesuggesttionsfromSeection3.3an
ndAppendix2.Theanalyysedbeamishighlighted
inFiguree7.Thetwowaybandbeamswillbeeattachedto
otwowayslaabswhicharrestrongerthanone
wayslab
bsanddontdeflectasm
much.Theyhavepotentiaaltorsionalcrackingduetothetwow
waybending
momenttsandthisw
willrequirem
momentresisstingreinforccementinbo
othdirectionsasshowninAppendix
4.2(b)..

20
0

5.2.2 Distribution of Moments (Slab)

Thebendingmoments,Mx*andMy*,are51kNmand35kNm,respectively.Thedistributionofmoments
throughtheslabiscoveredinAppendix4.2(b).

5.2.3 Bending Moments & Shear Forces (Beams)

Themaximumnegativemomentis2743kNmatnode3oftheSpaceGassprintoutandtheshearforceat
thatpointis1017kN.Themaximumpositivemomentis1870kNmatthepointwiththecolumnabove
andtheshearforceatthispointis3912kN.ThespreadsheetandSpaceGassprintoutareshownin
Appendix4.2.

5.2.4 Reinforcement Requirements

Theslabthicknessis200mmandthebeamis1200mmwideand250mmdeep.Thecoverforfire
resistanceof120minutesis50mmwhichisaccountedforinthecalculations.Themaximumdeflection
was25.9mmatthegroundfloorcolumn.Creep,shrinkageandcrackingarealsotakenintoaccount.The
reinforcementrequirementsareN12barsat110mmspacing(onelayer)forbothdirectionsintheslab,
20N36barsat110mmspacing(twolayers)forthetopofthetransferslab,and20N30barsat110mm
spacing(twolayers)forthebottomofthebandbeam.Themidspancalculationswereusedmostlyasa
referenceandtodoublecheckthatthemaximumswereattheMax.Neg.MomentandMax.Pos.
Moment.ThecalculationsanddrawingsareshowninAppendix4.2.

5.2.5 Reinforcement Details

TheseareshowninAppendix4.2.

21

6.0 Column and Core Wall Loads

6.1 Core Wall Design


CoreWallsareessentialinastructuralbuildingastheycontributetoholdingupthebuilding.Thereare
twocorewallsperlevelinthebuildingthatisbeingdesigned,onearoundeachofthetwoelevatorson
eachfloor.
Tobeginthecorewalldesign,theareaofthecorewallandcentroidsneedtobecalculated.Thenext
stepistoobtainallthelateralloadsforeachlevelwhichconsistsofwindandearthquakeloads.The
baseshearandbasemomentscanthenbecalculated.Theresultsobtainedfromtheaboveprocedure
canbeseeninthetablebelow:

HeightZ(m)

16.35(L3)
12.6(L2)
8.85(L1)
5.1(G)
BaseShear
BaseMoment

Wind(AS1170.2)
WuE/N WuN/S

Earthquake(AS1170.4)
EuE/W

EuN/S

Fy
Fx
Fx(kN) Fx(kN)
Fx(kN)
(kN)
(kN)
Fy(kN)
466.35
566.28
623.7
187.11 187.11
623.7
366.81
445.41
373.23
11.96 11.96
373.23
331.91
403.02
244.03
73.2
73.2
244.03
344.92
418.83
129.19
38.75 38.75
129.19
1509.99 1833.54 1370.15 311.02 311.02 1370.15
16947.78 20573.6 17718.72 4055.4 4055.4 17718.72
Table5:WindandEarthquakeValues

Thefactorsthatneedtobeconsideredwhendesigningacorewallinclude:

LocalDesignofCoreWalls
DesignLoadPerMetreofWall,N*
DesignAxialStrengthofWallPerMetre
WorstCaseforShear
WorstCaseforBending
EstimateAsinBoundaryElements
EstimateforRemainingVerticalReinforcement
WorstCompressionStress
WorstTensionStress

Checksweredoneforeachcasewhenrequiredandthedesignpassedallchecks.Thefullcalculations
canbeviewedinAppendix5.1.Figure8showsthegeneralshapeofthedesignedcorewallalongwithits
boundaryelementsinthetopsection.
22


Figure8:CoreWaallDesign

23
3

6.2 Co
olumn Dessign

Generally,columnsp
pickupthevverticalloadssoneachfloorand,togeetherwithan
nylateralforces
ntothefootiing.Theload
dinthe
produceedbywindorearthquakee,eventuallyytransferallforcesdown
columnisminimumattheroofaandmaximum
oadiscarried
dbyboththeeconcrete
matfootinglevel.Thelo
barsofcolum
mn.Thecolum
mnsizehasd
designedtob
beconstantalltheway
andtheembeddedrreinforcingb
ooffromfoo
oting.
tothero
AS3600
0:2009Sectio
on10:DesignofColumnforStrength
handServiceeabilityarem
mostlyusediinthedesign
n
oftheco
olumninthissproject.TheClausesthisdesignuseedarelistedbelow:

Clause10.1.3.2ShortCo
olumn
Clause10.5.2Radiusofggyration
Clause10.1.2Minimumbendingmo
oment
Clause10.6.2.2Squashload
Clause10.7.1Limitationonlongitudinalsteel
Clause10.7.3Confinemeenttotheco
ore
oflongitudin
nalreinforcem
ment
Clause10.7.4Restrainto
pressionpoin
nt
Clause10.6.2.3Decomp
Clause10.6.2.5Balancepoint

Figurre9Colum
mnLayout
Theminimumandultimatemom
mentwereussedintheco
olumndesign
nareatLevel1(southern
nportionof
ding).
thebuild
24
4

Plantlevel 1

3750mm

L3
3750mm

L2

3750mm

L1

5100mm

GL

7500mm

7500mm
7500

7500mm
7500mm
7500

5954mm

Figure10SectionalElevationAlongGridX

Basically,thematerialpropertiesusedare40MPaofcompressivestrength(fc)and500MPaofyield
strength.Thecolumnsizeisassumedtobe500mmby500mmfortheloadcomputationoncolumnat
grid3X(internal).Beforecheckingthecolumnsizewhetheritisadequateforthedesignbyusingthe
ultimateloadandminimumandultimatemoment,thereareseveralelementsareneededfor
determiningtheultimateload,forinstantbandbeamsize,slabthickness,deadandliveload.Thefull
calculationsareprovidedinAppendix5.2.

Firstofall,therearegoingtobetwodifferentcolumnsizeswhichisonefortheinternalandedge
respectively.Fortheinternalcolumndesign,theloadoncolumnatgrid3xisperformedinthedesign
aswellasthefollowingresultsareusedtoplotthestrengthlineforcolumnsectionormomentand
interactiongraph.Theresultsusedtoplotthestrengthinteractioncurveareshownbelow:
25

Ultimateload,N*
3427kN
Minimummoment,M*min
43kNm
Squashload,Nuo
7898kN
Purebendingmoment,Muo 176kNm
Balancepoint,Nub
2619kN
Balancepoint,Mub
552kNm
Decompressionpoint,Nu
5311kN
Decompressionpoint,Mu
420kNm
Table6Strengthinteraction

Belowistheresultofthestrengthinteractioncurve:
GraphPoints
Xaxis
Yaxis
SquashLoadPoint
0
7898
DecompressionPoint(D)
420
5311
BalancePoint(B)
552
2619
PureBendingPoint
176
0
Table7Strengthinteractionresults

26


Figure11Columnstrrengthdiagraam
Mb
M*

71.393
32 kN.m
71.393
32 kN.m

Nu
740
00
Nu
444
40
0.85N
Nu
377
74
N*
3426.87
74

kN
kN
kN
kN

from
graph

0.85N
Nu>N*OK
K
Tablee7Column
nstrength

Therefore,theresulttofthestren
ngthinteracttioncurvesh
howsthatthecolumnsizzeiswithinth
hecurve
whichm
meansthecolumnsizeisadequatefortheminimu
umbendingmoment.Fu
urthermore,
reinforcementbarsaarealsoinclu
udedinthed
design,for500mmby50
00mmcolum
mnsize,wearregoingto
numbersofYY20barwhichistheprim
maryreinforcementasweellasusing50mmcover,sincethe
use12n
momentt,M*iswithinthestrenggthinteractio
ondiagramtthereforetheereisincreasecolumncaapacityby
secondaaryreinforcementisnotrequiredininternalcolumn.(RDH,pL.1)
27
7


50mm

12Y20

500mm

500mm
Figure12ColumnCrosssection

Forcolumnatgrid5x,thefirstattemptwasusing500mmby300mmcolumnsize,duetotheMbisout
oftheinteractioncurve;thereforefurtherincreasingcolumncapacityisrequiredbyincreasingcolumn
sizeandreinforcement.ThefinalresultisshownbelowandthefullcalculationisprovidedinAppendix
5.2.

28

ColumnStrength
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

Mb
M*
Nu
Nu
0.85Nu
N*

200

590.7
590.7
8000
4800
4080
1756

400

600

800

1000

1200

kN.m
kN.m
kN
fromgraph
kN
kN
kN
0.85Nu<N*NOTOK
Figure13andTable8Columnstrength

Hence,weincreasedthesizeto600mmby450mmaswellasincreaseprimaryreinforcementand
secondaryreinforcementtoenhancethecolumncapacity.Theresultsareshowninthespreadsheetin
Appendix5.2.Thecoveris50mmandwillbeusing10N28.Thesectionviewofthereinforcementdetail
isshowninFigure14.

10N28

600mm

450mm
Figure14ColumnCrosssection
29

7.0 Cost Estimations

Initialestimatesofthetotalcostofthebuilding,forthepurposeofdeterminingthemaximumpossible
designfeeisrequired.However,thispartoftheprojectdiscussesthesubstructuredesignsothetotal
costsofallbelowgroundworksisgiveninthisreport.TherelevantRawlinsonextractsweretakenand
putintoaMicrosoftExcelspreadsheetinordertodeterminethetotalsubstructurecosts.Thetotal
costswascalculatedtobe$6,629,238.11(seeAppendix6)andtheprocesstodeterminethisfinal
amountisshownbelow.

7.1 Foundations Concrete Form Work


ThefloorplansofeachlevelwereprintedoutinA3sizeandtheslabs,columnsandpilesoneachlevel
werenotedandmeasured.Usingthedimensionsgivenonthefloorplans,ascalewasdeterminedso
thedimensionsofstructuralcomponentscouldbemeasured.However,notalldimensionsweregiven
soestimationsweremade.
Thedepthandwidthofalltheslabs,columnsandpileswereobtainedandtheareasofeachwere
calculated.Thevolumecouldthereforebecalculatedandthetotalvolumeofeachstructural
componentcouldbecalculatedbymultiplyingthevolumebythenumberofeachcomponentthereare
oneachlevel.Foreachlevel,thevolumesofallthestructuralcomponentswereaddedtogetherto
determinetototalvolumeofconcreteneeded.

7.2 External Wall and Foundations


Fortheexternalwall,theperimeterofthebuildingwasmeasuredanditwasapproximately200m.The
wallheightisgivenas2.9msotheareafortheexternalwallareacanbecalculatedtobe580meterssq.
Stripfootingwascalculatedmultiplyingthedepthandwidthandcalculatingthetotalarea.Thetotal
areaisthenmultipliedbythetotallengthofthestripfootingwhichis200mtoobtainatotalvolumeof
210meterssq.Thedimensionsforthefoundationbeamsweretakentocalculateavolumeof0.3675
meterscubedandthereare40beamssothetotalvolumeforfoundationbeamscanbecalculatedtobe
14.7meterscubed.ThecostestimationExcelspreadsheetcanbeviewedinAppendix6.

7.3 Costs
7.3.1 Parking
TherewillbetwolevelsofundergroundparkinginthismultistoreyconcretebuildingcalledB1andB2.
Theareaforeachlevelwascalculatedtobeapproximately1500meterssqperlevel.Thereinforced
concreteconstruction,includingdeskover,mechanicalventilation,firesprinklersandlandscapingtotop
ofdeckforeachlevelis$1417.5persqmetersotheoverallcostsperlevelwascalculatedtobe$2126
250.Thereforethetotalcostsforparkingconstructionis$4252500.Itisassumedthattheexcavation
costsareincludedinthesecosts.
7.3.2 External Walls
Theareasoftheexternalwallswerecalculatedtobe580meterssqoneachlevelasmentionedbefore.
Fortheinsituconcretewalls,25MPareinforcedconcretewallsformedinClass4formworkand
30

reinforcedattherateof100kg/cummeterwereusedandtheywereselectedtobe150mmthick.The
totalcostingfortheseinsituconcretewallscametoatotalof$852600forallfivelevels.Theformwork
itselfdonetoonefaceinClass2costed$13746perlevelandthetotalcostingcametoatotalof$68
730.Thisisreinforcedbyincreasingthewallthicknessby25mmforevery10kgrcum.
Surfacefinishesandappliedfinisheswerethefinalstepsfortheseexternalwalls.Thewallsneedtobe
acidetchedwhichinvolvesallowingthereactionofadilutesolutionofhydrochloricacidtotheconcrete
surface,thenrinsingoffwithwater.Theacidchemicallyreactswiththesurface,dissolvingitand
allowingitandotherwatersolublecontaminantstobewashedaway.Totalcostsforacidetchingcame
to$104400.Cementrenderingtoonefacealsoneedstobecompletedandthiswillcostatotalof$130
500.
7.3.3 Concrete Work
Concreteneedstobedeliveredtothesitebeforeanyworkcancommence.Todeterminehowmuch
concretewasneeded,thetotalvolumeofslabs,columnsandpilesperlevelwascalculated.Itwas
determinedthatitwouldbemostcosteffectivetouse32MPaconcretewhichcosts$142percubic
meter.Thereforethetotalcostingforconcreteneededatthesitecametoatotalof$372992.82.
Thevolumeoffoundationbeamsandingroundstripfootingswerecalculatedintheexternalwalland
foundationssectionabove.Thesevolumeswerethenjustmultipliedbythepricepercubicmeterof
eachcomponentand25MPareinforcedconcretewasselectedasthiswouldbethemostcosteffective.
Thetotalscostsoffoundationbeamscameto$2656.6andthetotalcostsforthestripfootingscameto
$44820.
Finally,theconcreteworkforsuspendedslabs,stairsandfillingmustbeaddressed.Itwasdecidedto
use150mmthicksuspendedslabsthatcost$219percubicmeter.Thetotalcostsforalllevelscametoa
totalof$492750asitwascalculatedthatthevolumeofeachslabisapproximately300meterscubed
perlevel.Itwasassumedthatthevolumeofstairsforeachvolumeis50meterscubedandthepriceper
cubicmeteris$265.Thereforethetotalcostsforstairscameto$92750forthewholebuilding.The
piersneedfillingforthissubstructureandareonlyinthebottomtwobelowgroundlevels.Thetotal
costsforthepierfillingcameto$176610.

31

8.0 References

CementandConcreteAssociationofAustralia.2003.GuidetoLongSpanConcreteFloors.
http://www.concrete.net.au/publications/pdf/Longspan%20Floors.pdf(accessedbetweenMay10andMay20,
2011).

AustralianStandards.2002.AS/NZS1170.1:2002.
http://www.saiglobal.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/online/Script/OpenDoc.asp?name=AS%2FNZS+1170%2E1%3A
2002&path=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Esaiglobal%2Ecom%2FPDFTemp%2Fosu%2D2011%2D05%2D22%2F8638031
145%2F1170%2E1%2D2002%28%2BA2%29%2Epdf&docn=AS926477837210(accessedMay14,2011).

AustralianStandards.2011.AS/NZS1170.2:2011.
http://www.saiglobal.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/online/Script/OpenDoc.asp?name=AS%2FNZS+1170%2E2%3A
2011&path=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Esaiglobal%2Ecom%2FPDFTemp%2Fosu%2D2011%2D05%2D22%2F8638031
145%2F1170%2E2%2D2011%2Epdf&docn=AS0733798054AT(accessedMay15,2011).

AustralianStandards.2007.AS/NZS1170.4:2007.
http://www.saiglobal.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/online/Script/OpenDoc.asp?name=AS+1170%2E4%2D2007&p
ath=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Esaiglobal%2Ecom%2FPDFTemp%2Fosu%2D2011%2D05%2D22%2F8638031145%2F
1170%2E4%2D2007%2Epdf&docn=AS073378349XAT(accessedMay16,2011).

AustralianStandards.2009.AS36002009.
http://www.saiglobal.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/online/Script/OpenDoc.asp?name=AS+1170%2E4%2D2007&p
ath=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Esaiglobal%2Ecom%2FPDFTemp%2Fosu%2D2011%2D05%2D22%2F8638031145%2F
1170%2E4%2D2007%2Epdf&docn=AS073378349XAT(accessedMay17,2011).

32

9.0 Appendices

33

9.1 Appendix 1 Design Layout

34

9.2 Appendix 2 Comparative Analysis

35

9.3 Appendix 3 Building Loads

36

9.4 Appendix 4 Detailed Structural Design



























37

9.4.1 Appendix 4.1 Posttensioned

38

9.4.2 Appendix 4.2 Reinforced Concrete

39

9.5 Appendix 5 Loadbearing Design



























40

9.5.1 Appendix 5.1 Core wall



























41

9.5.2 Appendix 5.2 Column

42

9.6 Appendix 6 Cost Estimation

43