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Rocket Motion

A rocket is a system whose mass is decreasing while its velocity is increasing. The ejected gas moves on the backward direction at some relative velocity with respect to the rocket. The equation for rocket motion (the moving rocket and ejecting gas) can be derived from considering the momentum change. Consider that the rocket has a mass and that is moving a velocity at any instant. As the rocket moves, the fuel is burnt and the mass is decreased by while its velocity is increased by .

Momentum at any time

: : ) ( ), where is the

Momentum at a later time

( )( relative velocity of the ejecting gas w.r.t. the rocket.

[Note: If actual velocity of fuel w.r.t. the fixed system is , we have Change in momentum in time, ( )( ) is ( )

]

[Neglecting the term

for 2nd order of smallness] (1)

The above is the equation of motion of a rocket. If the Rocket is moving horizontally, and no external force is acting on it, we can write For a Rocket moving upwards, we consider the force of gravity. Thus we write,

1

com Let us solve the equation for horizontal motion i.Lectures in Classical Mechanics. 𝑇 Total time taken to burn out all the fuel When (after all the fuel exhausted). ∫ ∫ 𝑀𝑏 𝑀𝑓 Mass of Rocket body only Mass of fuel Mass of rocket at any time 𝑀𝑏 𝑀𝑓 Thus. Abhijit Kar Gupta.e. ∫ ∫ 𝑀 𝑀 (4) 𝑀 𝑀𝑏 𝑀𝑓 (1 𝑡/𝑇). For additional interest. . mass is decreased when velocity is increased. ∫ [Consider ∫ const. the gas exits at a const.] Integrating. Compiled by Dr. when there is no influence of gravity.. we can check graphically how mass goes down with time: 𝑀 𝑡 2 . (2) [Note: -ve sign means. velocity] (3) If the fuel burns at a constant rate.. kg.abhi@gmail.I.

∫ Now consider the integral. (1 ) ) (5) (1 ) [ ] . kg. Compiled by Dr. Position can be obtained by integrating (5).Lectures in Classical Mechanics. (1 At .I.abhi@gmail. Abhijit Kar Gupta. Note that the velocity can be maximized by manipulating the ratio.com From (3). ∫ Put 1 1 (1 ) (1 ) ∫ ( ) ∫ [ ] ∫ [ *(1 *(1 ) ) (1 (1 ] ) ) (1 + ) 1+ 3 .

( ) ( ) (1 ) . when the rocket is moving upwards. Ans. the ratio of the weight of the fuel to the empty rocket must be around 270. the relative velocity of escaping gas w.r. Show that in order to reach escape velocity. the rocket is / and the th mass loss per sec. 1 4 .I. (1 Thus we get.com ( ( ( 𝑥 𝑥 (𝑣 ) 𝑢)𝑡 ) (1 ) (1 (1 ) 𝑀 𝑇 𝑀𝑓 ) ) 𝑢 (𝑡 ) (1 𝑀𝑓 𝑡 𝑀 𝑇 ) (6) If we now also consider gravitational pull. kg.abhi@gmail. equals to 1/1 of the initial mass. we have So it follows like before. Compiled by Dr.t. (7) ) # Problem For a light rocket.Lectures in Classical Mechanics. Abhijit Kar Gupta.

Abhijit Kar Gupta.abhi@gmail.I. where initial mass. kg. ∫ ∫ ( ∫ ) Consider. .com We used.Lectures in Classical Mechanics. Put 11 m/ m/s We shall get m/s ============== 5 . we assume * + is the escape velocity. Compiled by Dr. Now to approximate for a light rocket.

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Rocket Motion. Newtonian Mechanics applied to a system where mass is varying. This lecture notes series is intended to be useful for 1st year undergraduate students in physics and engineering. Plea...

Rocket Motion. Newtonian Mechanics applied to a system where mass is varying. This lecture notes series is intended to be useful for 1st year undergraduate students in physics and engineering. Please feel free to comment.

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