Composites for sustainable strengthening of masonry

Technical Committee CSM

General Information
Chair: Prof. Gianmarco DE FELICE Secretary: Dr. Daniel OLIVEIRA Activity starting in: 2012

Subject Matter
Composite materials are widely used to strengthen and repair masonry structures (buildings, bridges, towers) and structural components (walls, arches and vaults, piers and columns). FRP (Fibre-Reinforced Polymer) has been adopted in the past to realize externally bonded reinforcement systems, but other types of composites are now available. In the case of masonry buildings the use of composites with inorganic matrix is recently receiving great attention since, despite a lower bonding strength, presents numerous advantages in terms of permeability, fire resistance, simplicity of application, cost, time of execution. Numerous innovative products have been developed (bars, strips, laminates, sheets, grids) and various materials have been proposed such as high tensile steel wires (also known as SRP/G – Steel Reinforced Polymer/Grout), glass, basalt. Also, natural textiles such as flax and hemp are currently under study. Even if the interest towards these topics is increasing, as it is demonstrated by the growth of the scientific production and the development of new technologies, exhaustive design instructions, assessment procedures to verify the effectiveness of the repair, monitoring programmes and inspection criteria still need to be fully defined. As a consequence, currently available standard codes (ACI 440 7R-10, CNR-DT 200 R1/2012) do not provide practising engineers for comprehensive instructions for the strengthening design, in particular for what concerns application procedures, quality assurance of the materials, durability verification, laboratory and field testing methodologies, check of the laying quality and the effectiveness of the installation, which is instead crucial for the success of the repair/strengthening work. When the reinforcement of historic constructions is faced, the sustainability of the materials plays a fundamental role in the perspective of the preservation, valorisation and extension of the expected life of the architectural and cultural heritage, within reasonable economical and environmental efforts. Both the compatibility with masonry support and the durability need to be ensured. Accurate studies on this field, however, are still lacking and this topic appears one of the most attractive challenges to be undertaken by the scientific community in the next future. The work of the present TC aims at getting into this complex scenario, following the research activities carried out within a previous RILEM research project (TC223 - Masonry Strengthening with Composite materials - MSC). Relevant steps forward will be done, mainly focussing on the sustainability and compatibility of the materials when applied on the architectural built heritage. To this purpose, the application with of inorganic matrices and the use of natural textiles in addition to carbon, steel, glass and basalt, will be investigated as they offer good performance in terms of durability, fire resistance, material compatibility, reversibility, transpirability, application simplicity.

the knowledge of the state-of-the-art on the use of mortar-based composite materials for the strengthening of masonry constructions will be extended. Members will be recruited from international academic and research institutions. symposia). may well justify a group working in this field. Dissemination of results and interaction between multidisciplinary competences from academia. service providers and individual connections. The global . to be also diffused during the following dissemination and exploitation phase. standardization groups. field testing. carbon and steel fabric will be studied. 2. contractors and practising engineers. Experimental results and analytical/numerical design methods will be collected together with examples of application in the field and case studies. Development of techniques for the sustainable strengthening of the architectural heritage. interaction with decorative settings.g. The committee will start as a relatively small group of experts. performance of particular components. durability. Public Bodies. Research Agencies). Terms of reference The TC is proposed to work for 4 years. The large contexts of possible applications on masonry developed in the last decade at international level and the issues related to the compatibility and the sustainability of the use of composites on the architectural heritage. 4. Sustainable composite materials will be investigated that ensure a compatibility with masonry. under both static and seismic loads. The proposed TC will clarify the general problems on the basis of current experiences and will also point out possible developments and in-depth studies on specific problems (e. durability. institutions. the collaboration among institutions (Universities. Collection of existing data and widening of a systemized state-of-the-art on externally bonded mortar-based composites including the various strengthening materials and techniques and their application for the structural repair and retrofitting of masonry constructions. Experimental and numerical activities on the use of composite materials with inorganic matrixes: investigation of mechanical properties and development of testing procedures.MSC). Recently developedmaterials and techniques such as natural fibres will be included. sustainability. producers. upgrade of existing constructions by repair rather than substitution. In terms of work organization. possibly in conjunction with the activities of the RILEM Weeks. basalt. Proposal of guidelines for testing and designing externally bonded mortar-based systems for the strengthening of existing masonry constructions. use of NDT – Non Destructive Test. State-of-the-Art: Starting from the work carried out by the previous TC (TC223. reversibility.. 5. fire resistance. 3. bridges. Natural textiles such as flax and hemp together with classical glass. seismic retrofitting) which may promote activities of further TCs focussed on these topics. well representing most of the main international centres working on the subject. Sustainability will be pursued in terms of environmental and economical impact of the materials adopted in the strengthening. Detailed working programme The work of the present TC is organized in five Work Packages (WP): WP 1. following the activities undertaken by the previous research project (TC223. Cultural Heritage administration and management. planning regular meetings (two per year) and additional opportunities to exchange knowledge (seminars.MSC). The FRP subject in the ambit of RILEM is already present for concrete structures. service providers and users will contribute to promote and consolidate a more qualified and conscious approach towards existing masonry constructions.The work will focus on the following topics: 1. other RILEM TCs members working on masonry. with collaborative and fruitful purposes.

as well as to their repair and seismic retrofitting. Local phenomena will also be deepened such as the bonding performance. piers and columns) will be treated. Finally. The problems of durability and reversibility will also be studied within specifically planned test series (DUR) as they are expected to play a crucial role in the application on the cultural built heritage and when mortar-based matrix are used especially if the fibres are made of steel. delegate the present follow-up TC to succeed in formulating a comprehensive proposal of international recommendations. hence. The preparation of the support preliminary to the application of the strengthening layer will be deepened as it is crucial when working on irregular surfaces like masonry. that are suitable to represent the structural behaviour at both local and global level. as well as the structural response of structural components (walls. A particular attention will be paid on historical constructions to underline the specific aspects related to their preservation. local phenomena at the interface. arches and vaults. Proposal of recommendations: The reliability of currently available standards (such as CNR-DT 200 R1/2012 and ACI 440 7R10) will be verified and updated instructions for a sustainable strengthening design will be proposed. The previous TC223 – MSC. as a consequence of the variability of strengthening systems and masonry supports. limitation parameters of efficiency and simplified analysis methods will be defined. which is expected to provide a smoother transmission of shear stresses and. the repair of masonry will be faced. WP 3. to define shared and unified terminology. uneven superficial finishing. Steel. basic design. standardized methodologies for laboratory and filed testing. effective anchorage lengths. in particular. the present TC aims at prosecuting the work already undertaken in the recent past and developing updated guidelines for testing and designing externally bonded mortar-based systems for the strengthening of . will be repaired and strengthened and then tested again to investigate the improvement provided. The performance of the bond between reinforcement and support as well as that within the reinforcement itself. Specimens already tested in the laboratory unstrengthened. Experimental investigation: An experimental series of Round-Robin Tests (RRT) will be undertaken to investigate the bonding performance of composite materials with organic matrixes on masonry support. Field testing will also be carried out to start developing techniques for the quality assurance of the materials and the assessment of the strengthening effectiveness. Life-cycle analysis will be carried out as well. a longer effective bonding length. in order to assess the environmental impact of alternative strengthening techniques. will be tested and assessed carefully. Their reliability will be verified and any discordances indentified. WP 4. tuff masonry) to develop a deeper knowledge on material properties. WP 2. Particular care will be dedicated to sustainability and compatibility issues to develop efficient methods to strengthen historic masonry constructions in the perspective of their preservation and valorisation. will be identified. brick masonry. The main feasibility problems of the execution on different masonry types (regular or irregular arrangement of blocks. The latter. carbon. the possibility of applying a layer of another flexible material between the support and the reinforcement will be investigated.behaviour of the whole construction under static and seismic loads. To this purpose. inspection and monitoring criteria. A work on current standard codes will be also included and a significant contribution to their evolution and innovation is expected. basalt and glass fibres will be used together with natural materials such as linen and hemp. Experimental activity: 2a. is expected to be crucial when dealing with inorganic matrixes. quantitative and qualitative evaluation measures. Sustainable design methods: The parameters necessary to calibrate reliable models. Therefore. level of porosity of the masonry units) will also be faced. Debonding tests will be carried out on different supports (brick. Debonding and detachment test methods will be optimized. Adequate design tools. parameter definition. since sliding between fibres and mortar may occur within the strengthening pack.

chaired by M. both at national and international level.Experimental data on composite materials and strengthening systems based on the use of inorganic matrixes .). Pellegrino. 216-SAM (Strategies for the assessment of historic masonry structures with NDT). Training courses will be also provided to practising engineers. sustainability. Discussion workshops will be planned to be open to users. Year WP Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 4 91-4 5-8 12 1-4 5-8 9-12 1-4 5-8 9-12 1-4 5-8 9-12 1 2 3 4 5 Technical environment The proposed TC will contribute to clarify scientific aspects concerning the strengthening of existing masonry structures with innovative materials. Tannert. 239-MCM (On-site measurement of concrete and masonry structures by visualized NDT).RILEM guideline recommendations for the proper application of mortar-based composite . Binda.existing masonry constructions. Criteria of preservation of the historical structures (compatibility with the substrate. industrial and professional people and service providers. Expected achievements The following results will be pursued: . SGM (Specifications for non-structural grouting of historic masonries and architectural surfaces). chaired by L. Ohtsu and 240-FDS (A framework for durability design of fibre-reinforced strain-hardening cement-based composites SHCC). chaired by A. PhD students and young researchers.c. chaired by G. chaired by C. reversibility) and sustainability of the strengthening techniques will be pursued. 234-DUC (Design procedures for the use of composites in strengthening of reinforced concrete structures). chaired by T. particularly in the field of historic constructions.Harmonized experimental procedures and modelling methods to characterize material properties and structural behaviour . Miltiadou-Fezans. WP 5. the TC integrates the standardization and recommendation groups which have been or are still active in the field of the application of FRP and composite materials on structures (mainly concerning r.State-of-the-Art on the strengthening of masonry constructions with mortar-based composites . Other active TCs correlated to the subject are: DHM (Design and application of hydraulic grouts for repair and strengthening of historic masonry structures). Dissemination of knowledge: Dissemination of results will be performed by seminars to be organized in educational and professional institutions.RILEM guidelines including standardized methodologies to run traction and debonding testing in the laboratory and in the field . Van Zijl. Moreover.

Dr. especially when seismic risk or other severe hazardous causes of damage are present.Proposal of prescriptions on the materials (fibres and matrices) and on quality assurance criteria . Group of users Testing laboratories.-Ing. LOURENCO Prof. Daniel OLIVEIRA Dr. Thanasis TRIANTAFILLOU Dr. Gianmarco DE FELICE Dr Laura DE LORENZIS Dr. contractors. preservation and management of Cultural Heritage is a topical subject in many countries. Alberto VISKOVIC . Elie KAMSEU Dr. service providers and general users of masonry structures and Cultural Heritage buildings. Arkadiusz KWIECIEN Prof. Specific use of the results The use of innovative materials and techniques on existing masonry structures needs specific systematizations. Claudio MAZZOTTI Prof. Viktor MECHTCHERINE Prof. efficient and aware repair/strengthening/retrofitting solutions will be proposed. Andrea PROTA Prof. Masoud MOTAVALLI Prof.materials on existing masonry structures. managers of Cultural Heritage. Innovative. academics. Maria Rosa VALLUZZI Prof.Seminars and training courses. Antonio NANNI Dr.Workshops/symposia to integrate contribution from users. in the light of the remarkable scientific developments now available at international level. Paulo B. Dr. including specific aspects for the design of the reinforcement of historic constructions . The outcomes of the present TC include the development of sustainable strengthening techniques to be applied on the built architectural heritage. industrial and professional people. Elio SACCO Prof. Such a goal will be also achieved by the development of on-site testing methods to assess the actual effectiveness of the application of the strengthening layer on the support. Maurizio GUADAGNINI Mr. and service providers . ensuring their preservation and valorisation. Claudio MODENA Prof. In this connection. that will allow the expected life of historic masonry constructions to be extended within economical and environmental efforts. Active Members                   Prof. industrial and professional people. Catherine PAPANICOLAOU Dr.

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