“How Precious Did That Grace Appear”


An Analysis of Amazing Grace by Frank Ticheli

Stephanie M. Niewohner

Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of a Bachelor of Music Education Drake University 2013

I would like to thank all of my professors and colleagues for their help and guidance in the writing of this thesis. I am especially appreciative of Dr. William Dougherty for advising me during the complete process of this document and I am grateful for all of his expertise he has passed on to me. He helped me discover the many facets of analyzing a body of music and his mentorship has aided in my love for music theory. I want to also thank my ensemble directors Dr. A Graydon McGrannahan and Professor Robert Meuiner for sharing their love and expertise of the art form and introducing me to many great works and composers such as Frank Ticheli. Lastly I want to thank my friends and family who have supported me throughout the research and writing process. They were there to lend an ear to my thoughts, complaints, philosophies and struggles. They also were a great source of encouragement.


Among contemporary band composers, there are few who rival the musical depth that Frank Ticheli plumbs. Frank Ticheli’s compositions for band include works that range from literature for younger students (e.g., Portrait of a Clown) to professional-level compositions (e.g., Angels in the Architecture). Several analyses of his compositions are included in the Teaching Music Through Performance in Band series, and his compositions have been featured in The Instrumentalist magazine1 and listed in the books Band Directors Guide and Best Music for High School Band.2 Ticheli’s music has been praised by the Los Angeles Times3 and the New York Times,4 and several of his works have been placed on over 20 state lists by band director associations. Ticheli’s works are more than great music, they are highly educational and allow students to develop both artistry and technicality. Amazing Grace is an example of one such work. Ticheli’s setting of Amazing Grace was written in 1994. It was commissioned by John Whitwell, the conductor of Bands at Michigan State University, in memory of his father. Although the composition was written “simplistically,” as Ticheli admits,5 the “rich textures, authentic harmonies (rather than novel harmonies and clever tricks),”6 and mature orchestration used in the composition require a sense of inherent musical interpretation which can challenge any ensemble, regardless of its level of playing ability. Ticheli states that he wanted his composition to reflect the “powerful

1 2

Baumer Thopmson, “Exploring Vesuvius with Frank Ticheli,” The Instrumentalist, (June 2001): 22-26. John Darling, “A Study of Wind–Band Music of Frank Ticheli with an Analysis of Fortress, Postcard and Vesuvius.” http://etd.ohiolink.edu/send-pdf.cgi/Darling%20John%20A.pdf?osu1224192963, 2. (accessed Sep 4, 2012). 3 Los Angeles archives of Ticheli articles, http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/frank-ticheli 4 Bernard Holland, Reviews/Music; Re-enacting the Conflict Of Brahms vs. Wagner http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/13/arts/reviews-music-re-enacting-the-conflict-of-brahms-vswagner.html (accessed Dec 7, 2012). 5 Frank Ticheli, Program Notes to Amazing Grace (NY, Manhatten Beach Company, 1994). 6 Ticheli, Program Notes.


simplicity of the words and melody” as well as “traveling traditional paths in search of truth and authenticity.”7 Apart from being a wonderfully lyrical work, Amazing Grace is an educational tool that incorporates the use of the pentatonic collection, chamber scoring, polyphony, motivic direction, and an overall sense of ensemble playing. An analysis of this composition demonstrates Ticheli’s approach to the folk-hymn Amazing Grace through the use of the pentatonic system inherent in the original tune, a perfect fourth motive, a D-flat complication, and a sonata-like form to articulate a musical trajectory. Frank Ticheli was born in Monroe, Louisiana on January 21, 1958. His family moved many times, spending some time in New Orleans.8 His family later moved to Richardson, Texas and he played trumpet at Berkner High School and later went to Southern Methodist University in 1980. After receiving a Bachelor of Music degree, he taught high school and used his experiences there to influence his conducting. In 1987 he earned his doctoral degree in composition from the University of Michigan. During his years at Michigan, he studied with William Albright, George Wilson, Leslie Basset and William Bolcom.9 After earning his degrees he taught at Trinity University and later at University of California Thorton School of Music, which is where he currently teaches. Ticheli’s accolades include the Walter Beeler Prize in 1989 for Music for Winds and Percussion,10 the Charles Ives Scholarship (1986),11 a Goddard

7 8

Ticheli, Program Notes. An interview with Frank Ticheli. http://www.banddirector.com/article/rl-interviews/an-interview-with-frankticheli. (accessed Nov 17, 2012). 9 Larry Blocher, Teaching Music Through Performance in Band, vol 1, (1997 GIA Publications, Chicago), 222. 10 Walter Beeler Memorial Composition Prize, http://www.ithaca.edu/music/ensembles/windensemble/beeler/ 11 The Charles Ives Awards, http://www.artsandletters.org/awards2_popup.php?abbrev=Ives


Lieberson Fellowship (1990),12 Ross Lee Finney Award, and a Residency at the McDowell Colony(2000).13 Amazing Grace is an American folk song with words by John Newton. Newton was a British clergyman in the Church of England. He began his career at sea and after roughly five years of service in the Royal Navy and captivity on an African Island, he became a slave-ship captain. He later became Anglican Priest to Onley, Buckinghamshire. It is there, in 1779, that he wrote the words to his most famous hymn. The hymns in Newton’s book, Olney Hymns, were only recorded as written words without musical notation. Turner notes in his book Amazing Grace: The Story of America’s Most Amazing Song that Newton’s experiences of being treated worse than the African slaves on the island prior to his slave captain years are what inspired him to write that he was a “wretch” that was saved.14 During the time he was enslaved, the African mistress of Newton’s master laughed at his weakness and encouraged others to beat him.15 He had suffered a loss of dignity and in his will, he referred to Africa as “the state of misery on the coast of Africa into which my wickedness had plunged me.”16 One journey he made as a slave-ship captain was troubled with storms, and in his despair he cried out to God to save the ship if he changed his ways.17 The inspirations for the words to Amazing Grace (See Appendix C) were drawn from those experiences. The hymn was adapted by North America and was highly received in the Second Great Awakening, a revival of religious beliefs emphasizing the ideal of salvation through faith. The
12 13

Goddard Lieberson Fellowships http://www.artsandletters.org/awards2_popup.php?abbrev=Lieberson Symphony No 1 (Ticheli) The Wind Reparatory Project, http://www.windrep.org/Symphony_I_(Ticheli) 14 Steve Turner, Amazing Grace; the Story of America’s Most Amazing Song. (HarperCollins Publishers Inc, NY. 2002), 29 15 Turner, 28. 16 Turner, 29. 17 Turner, 43.


words to Amazing Grace aligned with the Christian dogma of salvation through faith alone. In his book, Turner writes that “Christianity in America emphasized the experience of conversion: the remorse over past sin and the commitment to a new way of life. The words of ‘Amazing Grace’ were an articulate expression of this.”18 The hymn was used and preserved in churches and folk tradition, most especially in the shape-note tradition. It is in shape-note singing that the song was first formally notated. The shape-note tradition was created to help teach the music to the hymns used for worship. The melody that we know today was first notated by Charles Spilman and Benjamin Shaw in Columbian Harmony in 1829; however, the text was not from Newton’s Amazing Grace hymn.19 Newton’s words were first set to the melody New Britain in William Walker’s The Southern Harmony in 1835 (See appendix D). The song’s use in churches exposed it to the slave and Black American culture. In the 1900’s Edwin Excell reshaped the tune by adding more harmonies and changing awkward transitions, which made it more appealing to the middle-class and upper-class (see Appendix E).20 As the song gained popularity, alterations to the melody and performance occurred. The Black community’s interpretation of the song produced Gospel versions, one of which was made famous by Mahalia Jackson in 1947.21 An organ version was performed by Maceo Woods in 1954, which initiated the song’s connection to funeral music.22 The song’s variations became more simplified and truer to the original melody in the 1960’s when the hippie movement

18 19

Turner, 115. Tuner, 119. 20 Turner, 137. 21 Turner, 156: Recoding by Apollo Records. 22 Turner, 158: Recording by Vee-Jay records, http://www.allmusic.com/album/amazing-grace-mw0000987022.


adopted the song as a rallying cry that recalled the folk roots of the song. Spirituals and hymns were used to raise spirits on the Freedom Marches,23 and Turner writes that such songs united people across the divides of culture, background, denominations, color, and age. Some activists believed that hymns and spirituals created a symbolic shield that offered protection from the missiles and blows of those who hated them. Some believed they could soften the hearts of white Christians who sang the same hymns on Sundays.24 The “hippie” version was made famous by singers such as Doc Watson, Jean Richie, Joan Baez and, most famously, Judy Collins. Collins had marched for civil rights and against the war in Vietnam, and she described Amazing Grace as a song that was “very bonding, very unifying, and tells an inspirational story.25 Another version was arranged for bagpipes for the Royal Scots Dragoon Guard. Tuner notes that Amazing Grace is one of the “anthems” of the United States and was used for funerals and tributes for the September 11 attacks in 2001. The song resonates with people from diverse backgrounds and has a power to unite diverse groups of people. Turner writes that “when Amazing Grace is sung in America, particularly at times of national mourning or rejoicing, people feel that they are connecting with something that is shared not only by their contemporaries but by their ancestors.”26 It is looked up as a creed to emotional and spiritual transformation. “But Now am Found” - Form The form of Ticheli’s Amazing Grace is unique in that it borrows elements from the sonata form except the characteristic of a second theme. The overarching form is: Introduction, Theme (chamber), Theme (tutti), Episode, Development, Retransition, Recapitulation and Coda.
23 24

Turner, 170. Turner, 172. 25 Turner, 182. 26 Turner, 196.


The composition emphasizes a perfect fourth motive heard at the beginning of the Amazing Grace tune and the tonal center of the work is mostly set in E-flat major with a transition to Bflat (D-flat and F) in the episode and development. The first eight measures are an introduction in a choral prelude style that begins with a simple division of parts and then grows into thicker chords before the first statement of the theme. The perfect fourth motive, derived from the first two notes of the theme, opens the work. The composition is written in E-flat and the tonal outline of the introduction cycles from E-flat to D-flat to A-flat to B-flat. The moving lines in the upper voices are written in step-wise or intervallic thirds that are a part of the E-flat pentatonic scale. The lower voices outline the chordal shifts underneath the E-flat pentatonic harmonies. The theme first appears in m. 9 in the alto saxophone. The first statement is written in a chamber-like setting with an unembellished melodic line. The harmonic voices enter on beat two, which becomes a rhythmic characteristic of the work. The accompanying instruments are written in a contrapuntal style that utilizes suspensions, parallel thirds and staggered entrances (e.g., mm. 15-16 and mm. 21-22). The entrances of the trumpets in m. 17 are written as bell tones. Statement two of the theme (mm. 25-40) is scored for upper woodwinds and brass. By the arrival of the second statement, the texture has thickened to full ensemble. The parts accompanying the melody support the harmonic progression presented in the first statement. The downbeat of the second phrase (mm. 33-44) of the theme is written as a Cm7 chord, a contrast to the tonic E-flat chord used in the first statement. This shift represents modal mixture. The tune is also rhythmically developed or embellished in the second phrase at “saved

a wretch.” The first time it appears it is written as two eighth notes, and then as a dotted rhythm in the second statement, and the triplet in the recapitulation. The accompanying voices in the second statement emphasize the second beat of the measure. The growth to the second phrase in m. 33 is created by moving quarter notes in both harmonic parts (example 1) as well as a cymbal roll.

Example 1: Amazing Grace condensed score © Manhattan Beach Music 1994

The climactic moment of the second statement diminishes in volume and thickness before the episode (see form chart in Appendix A). The episode enters as the second statement ends, which provides a smooth transition to the next section of the composition. As the melody of the theme finishes, the clarinets, saxophones and euphonium begin with an ascending melodic line outlining E-flat and after two measures the moving line continues in the flutes, low reeds horn and trombone. The moving line is brought to a stop in m. 42 (although the third clarinet and first horn lines still move). The E-flat pentatonic section of the episode (beginning in m. 43) contrasts to mm. 39-42 because the composition switches from horizontal lines to more chordal structures and longer notes. The rhythm after the breath mark (m. 43) includes a scotch-snap, which is a 16th note followed by a dotted 8th (beat 3 of example 2).


Example 2: Dotted Rhythm, Education Scotland

The motive of a perfect fourth is also included in the episode and it becomes the highlight of the development section. The last two measures of the episode echo the previous two measures, but the perfect fourth motive in the alto saxophone is the beginning of the development section. The episode’s tonal center begins in E-flat (pentatonic) and momentarily shifts to D-flat in m. 42. The occurrence of the D-flat chord (Example 5) relates back to the introduction (Example 4). In mm. 43-47, the episode shifts to B-flat to set up the development in the dominant key. The B-flat tonal center governs the majority of the development and is characteristic of tonal writing and the sonata-like principle (See appendix A and B). The episode moves the composition from E-flat to B-flat through an E-flat pentatonic collection. The development begins with the perfect fourth motive in the horn (m. 47). The next placement of the motive (in the clarinet), occurs three beats after the horn’s motive. This pattern continues throughout the first section of the development in the flute and later in the saxophones, trombone and tuba. The development’s texture is exposed somewhat like the first statement of the theme; however, the overall melodic content is more polyphonic. The second section of the development (m. 56) begins with a tonal shift to D-flat. The motive is placed in horn and tenor saxophone and then again in the clarinet. The melodic motive lines mimic those of the first section of the development. The flutes and oboe have a short motive figure in A-flat that echoes the first melodic line. The flutes restate the melodic motive, again in D-flat.


The third section of the development begins at m. 64. At this point, the tonal center is shifting from F to B-flat, the dominant key of the composition. As the band plays an F chord (m. 64), the trumpets play the perfect fourth motive (C to F and G to C) in a bell-tone configuration similar to first statement of the theme. The tonal center of F is reinforced by the E-naturals in the clarinets in mm. 66 to 68. The composition is the most chromatic and furthest away from the diatonic/pentatonic system in the development. Although maximal distance from the diatonic and pentatonic system occurs in this section, the structure of the third section of the development is related to the composition by means of the circle of fifths when the tonal center cycles through F and B-flat. The retransition begins in m. 70 with a tutti B-flat chord. The scotch-snap figure from the episode is restated at the beginning of the retransition (see m. 70). After the first two measures, the transition decreases in volume and the low reeds and brass begin a crescendo to the recapitulation. The melodic line that drives the phrase is built on a rising third followed by lowered second. The harmonic voices accompanying the line outline the tonic and dominant of the tonal center (B-flat and F). This emphasizes the dominant characteristic of the retransition typical of classical diatonic compositions. At m. 80, the melodic line is written as a diminution and the upper voices add to the line before the recapitulation. The final full statement of the theme is in m. 83. The flutes, saxophone, and trumpets are a countermelody while the lows reeds and brass voice the harmony. The overall structure of the recapitulation is different from the second section in that the melody is voiced differently and the countermelody is more complex.


The climax occurs at m. 91 in the second period of the theme. The growth to the climax includes a large ritardando, moving eighth notes in the countermelody, and the textural addition of the suspended cymbal. The climax is rhythmically texturized (rather than just harmonically or melodically) with staggered entrances of m. 91. The rhythms add another element to the texture of the work. The melody and countermelody peak on beat one, the low reeds and low brass and timpani on the “and” of beat one, and the trumpets, horn and crash cymbals on beat two. The climax is prominent through mm. 91-95 and only begins to subside when the last chord of the theme is played in m. 97. As the composition concludes, a segment of the theme is restated in the coda by the alto saxophone, similar to the first statement, but now, the melody is supported by the moving harmony in the low reeds and clarinets. As the saxophones finishes the thematic segment, the horns and low brass cycle through a series of chromatic chords before the final tonic chord. “How Sweet the Sound” - Pentatonicism One of the notable traits of Ticheli’s Amazing Grace is the use of the pentatonic collection. The pentatonic system is formulated around the circle of fifths.27 The pentatonic scale was used in the musical language of the British Isles, West Africa, and Amerindian America as well as in Chinese, Javanese and other “oriental” cultures. In the 19 th century composers “discovered” pentatonicism and utilized it in their work either to compose against the norm or to evoke a sense of exoticism of the orient or of folk tunes (i.e., primitivism and nationalism). The melody to Amazing Grace stemmed from the folk music in America that often incorporates


Jerry Day-O’Connel Pentatonic, New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 2 edition, vol 19 Macmillan Publishers Limited 2001, 316.



the pentatonic scale. The original melody began in the folk/shape-note tradition and Ticheli utilized pentatonism throughout the composition to support the original melody (example 3).

Example 3: New Britain, Columbian Harmony, 1829.

The hymn text itself has been linked to several melodies and can be adapted to many melodies today. The New Britain tune came from shape-note tradition, which is based on the syllables fasol-la-fa-sol-la-mi-fa (Appendix D). Pentatonicism in Ticheli’s Amazing Grace is introduced in the first eight measures (example 4). The first two statements of the theme are written as the authentic melody and are thus in the E-flat pentatonic collection.

Example 4: Amazing Grace condensed score © Manhattan Music 1994

Many of the chords used throughout the work that do not create tonal triads are usually pentatonic clusters or quartal/quintal harmonies. The next appearance of a pentatonic cluster chord occurs in the second section of the episode in m. 43 after the breath mark (example 5).


Example 5: Amazing Grace condensed score © Manhattan Beach Music 1994

In m. 42, the D-flat chord and the E-flat quartal/quintal chord that follows re-establishes the pentatonic color of the composition. The composition strays away from the pentatonic system during the development. The pentatonic collection in E-flat does not return until m. 83 when the main theme of ‘Amazing Grace’ reappears. “That Saved a Wretch” - D-Flat Complication Although the composition is in E-flat major and is written mostly diatonically, Ticheli introduces a D-flat “complication” in m. 2 and then returns to it throughout the composition. The D-flat in m. 2 (example 4) lies outside of the pentatonic system established in the opening. The D-flat recurs again in the harmony as a passing tone in the peak of the second statement of the theme in m. 34. The next occurrence of the D-flat complication is written as a D-flat major chord in the first section of the episode (m. 41). The episode is the first time within the body of the composition that D-flat is used tonally, which binds it to the beginning eight measures. The harmonization in m. 42 outlines a D-flat major chord with an added G in flutes and oboe. Ticheli added a breath after this chord, and he notes that it should be a phrase separation rather than a musical pause.28 This breath separates the D-flat harmonization from the next section of the episode that utilizes the E-flat pentatonic system.


Frank Ticheli, Score prefix (Manhattan Beach Company, 1994).


A tonal shift to D-flat occurs at the second section of the development (m. 56). The tonal center is also supported by the D-flat in the low brass and low reeds. The flutes and oboe have a short motive in A-flat that echoes the first melodic line. The flutes restate the melodic motive in D-flat. This moment of the D-flat complication utilizes D-flat within the perfect fourth motive and it is the lengthiest section in D-flat. The introductory D-flat tonal shift and the shift in the episode lead up to the D-flat tonal moment in the development. The return and the recapitulation shift back to the E-flat pentatonic collection. The Dflat complication returns as the coda finishes. At the coda, the low brass cycle through nondiatonic chords. The chromatic chords all include D-flat which incorporates the complication of D-flat just before the composition ends (example 6).

Example 6: Amazing Grace condensed score © Manhattan Beach Music 1994 (mm. 101-104)

The last three measures reiterate the E-flat pentatonic chord that the work is centered around and the flutes play an added 4th to the final chord to resolve from the chromatic chords. “Was Blind but Now I See” - Ticheli’s Music Through his use of diatonicism blended with pentatonicism, Frank Ticheli has written a “simplistic” setting of the hymn-song Amazing Grace that has a unique touch due to his incorporation of the D-flat complication. The folk-hymn Amazing Grace has developed and grown in its significance through many generations and through many different groups of people. Ticheli’s setting brings back the authentic melodies written in Excell’s version while


developing the perfect fourth motive, pentatonicism and D-flat through the episode and development. The composition is an excellent example of Ticheli’s characteristic compositional style. Ticheli has an aesthetic grasp on the art of composing, and as a conductor and educator is sharing his philosophy of music in a tangible composition. He advises that to be a successful and honest musician you should take apart and analyze music you love in order to discover why it means something to you.29 He notes that “Music should take us to places that words never can, places we can’t hold in our hands or even describe.”30 Amazing Grace is an exemplary composition that is meaningful and takes performers and listeners to intangible places.

29 30

Paul Smith, Band Composer Series: Frank Ticheli, http://blogs.jwpepper.com/?p=3281. Dan Blaufuss, “A Conversation with Frank Ticheli,” The Instrumentalist, (March 2008). 50.


APPENDIX A: Form Chart
Theme Chorale Prelude Statement One Chamber Statement Two - Tutti Episode Motivic Development and Variation Retransition Final Climatic Statement Coda Phrases mm 1-8 P1: mm 9-16 P2: mm 17-24 P1: mm 25-32 P2: mm 33-40 Section I: mm 39-42 Section II: mm 43 - 47 Section I: mm 47-55 Section II: mm 56-63 Section III: mm 64-69 mm 70-82 P1: mm 83-90 P2: mm 91-98 mm 99-106 Key Eb Eb Eb Eb/Db Eb (pentatonic) Bb Db/F F/Bb Bb Eb Eb

APPENDIX B: Form Timeline

1-8 Intro

9-24 Statement I

25-40 Statement II

39-47 Episode





Development ReTrans Final Statement Coda


APENDIX C: Amazing Grace Text

Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound, That saved a wretch like me.... I once was lost but now am found, Was blind, but now, I see. T'was Grace that taught... my heart to fear. And Grace, my fears relieved. How precious did that Grace appear... the hour I first believed. Through many dangers, toils and snares... we have already come. T'was Grace that brought us safe thus far... and Grace will lead us home. The Lord has promised good to me... His word my hope secures. He will my shield and portion be... as long as life endures. Yea, when this flesh and heart shall fail, and mortal life shall cease, I shall possess within the veil, a life of joy and peace. When we've been here ten thousand years... bright shining as the sun. We've no less days to sing God's praise... then when we've first begun. Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound, That saved a wretch like me.... I once was lost but now am found, Was blind, but now, I see.


APPENDIX D: Sacred Harp Arrangement

APPENDIX E: Edwin Excell’s Arrangement


Bibliography “An Interview with Frank Ticheli.” Band Director.com, 2008, http://www.banddirector.com/article/rl-interviews/an-interview-with-frank-ticheli (accessed Nov 17, 2012). Blaufuss, Dan. “A Conversation with Frank Ticheli,” The Instrumentalist, vol 62 (March 2008). 18-24. Blocher, Larry; Ray Crame, Eugene Corporon, Tim Lautzenheiser, Edward S. Lisk, Richard Miles Teaching Music Through Performance in Band, vol 1. 1997 GIA Publications, Chicago, Illinois. Darling, John. “A Study of Wind–Band Music of Frank Ticheli with an Analysis of Fortress, Postcard and Vesuvius.” Ohio State University, 2001, http://etd.ohiolink.edu/sendpdf.cgi/Darling%20John%20A.pdf?osu1224192963 (accessed Sep 4, 2012). Day-O’Connel, Jerry. Pentatonic, New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 2nd edition, vol 19. Macmillan Publishers Limited 2001. Dotted Rhythm, Education Scotland, www.educationscotland.gov.uk/nqmusic/national4/concepts/dottedrhythm.asp (accessed Dec 7, 2012). Goddard Lieberson Fellowships, American Academy of Arts and Letters. http://www.artsandletters.org/awards2_popup.php?abbrev=Lieberson (accessed Dec 7, 2012). Holland, Bernard. Reviews/Music; Re-enacting the Conflict Of Brahms vs. Wagner, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/13/arts/reviews-music-re-enacting-the-conflict-ofbrahms-vs-wagner.html (accessed Dec 7, 2012). Los Angeles archives of Ticheli articles, http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/frank-ticheli, (accessed Nov 17, 2012). McGraw, Hugh. “New Britain,” Columbian Harmony, 1829. The Sacred Harp 1991 Edition Sacred Harp Publishing Co, Georgia. Smith, Paul; “Band Composer Series: Frank Ticheli,” April 11, 2012, JW Pepper; 2012, http://blogs.jwpepper.com/?p=3281 (accessed Nov 17, 2012). Symphony No 1 (Ticheli) The Wind Reparatory Project Oct, 2012 http://www.windrep.org/Symphony_I_(Ticheli) (accessed Dec 11, 2012). Teaching Music Through Performance; composer search “Ticheli”; GIA Publications, 2012 http://www.teachingmusic.org/search.cfm; (accessed Dec 7, 2012). The Charles Ives Awards, http://www.artsandletters.org/awards2_popup.php?abbrev=Ives Thompson, Baumer, “Exploring Vesuvius with Frank Ticheli”, The Instrumentalist, vol 55 (June 2001) 22-26 Ticheli, Frank. Amazing Grace, Manhattan Beach Company, NY, 1994 Turner, Steve. Amazing Grace; the Story of America’s Most Amazing Song. 2002 HarperCollins Publishers Inc, NY. Walter Beeler Memorial Composition Prize, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, 2011, http://www.ithaca.edu/music/ensembles/windensemble/beeler/ (accessed Dec 7, 2012).

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