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Maintaining a Balance Summary 1

Identify the role of enzymes in metabolism, describe their chemical composition and use a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates Identify PH as a way of describing the acidity of a substance Explain why the maintenance of a constant internal environment is important for optimal metabolic efficiency. Describe Homeostasis as the process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment. Explain that homeostasis consists of two stages: detecting changes from the stable state; counteracting changes from the stable state. Outline the role of the nervous system in detecting and responding to environmental changes Gather, Process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to develop a model of a feedback mechanism. Identify the broad range of temperatures over which life is found compared with the narrow limits for individual species. Compare responses of named Australian ectodermic and endothermic organisms to changes in the ambient temperature and explain how these responses assist temperature regulation. Analyse information from secondary sources to

Enzymes are Organic catalysts, they are proteins and each enzyme controls a specific reaction. A lock-and-key model shows enzyme specificity. The enzyme has a specific shape which fits onto the substrate forming an enzyme-substrate complex. It has been modified to the induced-fit model. Factors affecting enzyme activity include the amount of substrate present, temperature, PH, presence of coenzymes or cofactors, the presence of heavy metals e.g. mercury, zinc and led. Ph is the measure of the acidity of a substance. The scale ranges from 1 (acid) to 7 (neutral) to 14 (base). Chemical reactions that support the process of life require specific conditions. (optimal temperature, PH and substrate concentration) A change in the internal environment can affect a biochemical pathway.

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment. Body temperature, PH, wayer concentration, sal concentrations, sugar levels, levels of dissolved gasses are all controlled by Homeostasis.

Stage 1- Detect Changes from stable state Stage 2- Counteract change Stable state

The stimulus-response pathway: Stimulus- Receptor- central nervous systemeffectors-response. The receptors detect the stimulus. The receptors stimulate a sensory neurone which sends a nervous impulse to the CNS. A nervous impulse is sent to the effectors.

Most organisms live within temperatures of 0 and 45. Some organisms have been found to life at the poles at -70 and around black smokers in the sea trenches with 200. Many species have a restricted temperature range. Endotherms use internal metabolic processes to control their body temperature. AUSTRALIAN ENDOTHERM- Red Kangaroo. If the temperature becomes too hot it will pant and lick forelimb relying on the evaporation from the body surface for cooling. Ectotherms use the energy from their environment to regulate their body temperature. AUSTRALIAN ECTOTHERM- Netted dragon (desert lizard). It lies in the sun to absorb warmth to heat its body until body temperature is around 36c. It will then retreat to its burrow to stop becoming too hot. Ectotherms- The blue tongue lizard. TO control body temperature lizards bask in the sun to gain heat and will hide in burrows or under logs to reduce temperature.

describe adaptations and responses that have occurred in Australian organisms to assist temperature regulation. Identify some responses of plants to temperature changes.

Their level of activity during the day is determined by the ambient temperature.

Endotherm- Possum. The possum has fur that helps insulate in cold weather and possums living in Tasmania have thicker fur than mainland species. Most are arboreal and nocturnal and body size changes so that the larger forms with smaller surface area. Volume ratio are in colder areas. Different climates determine the rate of photosynthesis, the rate of transpiration, surface area of stems, leaves, flowers etc and the length of life cycle. Daffodils die during the cold months leaving the bulb underground with no parts above the ground. The bulb is protected underground to survive winter and will sprout when conditions are favourable. Geraniums, when it becomes hotter, produces smaller leaves to reduce surface area exposed to the heat. The leaves have stomatas and higher temperatures can lead to increased transpiration which causes the plant to dry out.

2. Plants and animals transport dissolved nutrients and gases in a fluid medium Identify the forms in which each of the following is carried in mammalian blood: - Carbon dioxide - Oxygen - Water - Salts - Lipids - Nitrogenous waste - Other products of digestion.
Carbon Dioxide: 7% dissolves directly in the plasma. 23% combines with haemoglobin forming carbaminohaemoglobin. 70% forms hydrogen carbonate ions and travels in the plasma. Oxygen: Oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin in red blood cells. Water: Water travels in plasma as water molecules. Salt: Salts travel as either positive or negative ions. E.g potassium ions. Lipids: Lipids are insoluble in water and only travel in the blood when coated with proteinds becoming lipoproteins and travel as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or low density lipoproteins. Nitrogenous waste: Nitrogenous waste is ammonia, this is toxic so most mammals convert the ammonia to urea. This happens in the liver and the kidney filters the urea from the blood. Other products of digestion: Many products of digestion are soluble and travel dissolved in the plasma. E.g amino acids, glucose, vitamins. Haemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that is a respiratory pigment. It carries oxygen needed for respiration. More efficient oxygen intake. Arteries: - Carry blood away from the heart. - This elastic muscular wall with three main layers with muscle and elastic tissue. - Highest blood pressure is in arteries near the heart (e.g the aorta). - Small bore in diameter. - Distributes blood away from the heart. - Most arteries carry oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery) - No Valves. Capillaries - Thin walled blood vessels linking arteries to veins. - Wall is only a single cell in thickness with no elastic or muscular fibres. -

Explain the adaptive advantage of Haemoglobin. Compare the structure of arteries, capillaries and veins in relation to their function,