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3 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

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OBJECTIVES 1. Determine the specific gravity of solids. 2. Determine the specific gravity of liquids. MATERIALS Pycnometer, Mohr-Westphal Balance, Baume hydrometer, 500-ml graduated cylinder, leach pycnometer, test tubes, serological pipette, and rubber aspirator THEORY The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. A homogenous material such as ice or iron has the same density throughout. The SI unit of density is kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3). The cgs unit, the gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) is also widely used. The Greek letter rho (p) is often used as the symbol for density. If the mass m, of a material has a volume, V, the density r is (1) P= m v

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An object does not weigh less than it is when it is immersed in water. It only seems to weigh less because water is pushing the object upward. This force, which is exerted by any liquid on an object immersed within its confines, is called buoyant force. The apparent loss of weight an object experiences within a liquid is due to this buoyant force, as illustrated by

(2) Buoyant force of a liquid = weight of the object in air - weight of the object in water An object immersed in a liquid displaces a volume of liquid equal to its volume. The weight of this displaced liquid may be obtained by determining first the mass using the equation for density and multiplying this by the acceleration due to gravity. The weight of the displaced liquid, w, can be obtained using the equation (3) W= pVg The principle of buoyancy states that whenever a body is immersed partly or wholly in a liquid, it is buoyed by a force equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. This

equation (6) will be (7) Specific gravity of solid = weight of the solid weight of equal volume of water Using Archimedes’ principle. Therefore. equation (7) becomes (8) Specific gravity of solid = weight of the solid buoyant force of water To calculate the specific gravity of liquids. or (4) Specific gravity of solid = density of the solid density of the liquid Substituting equation (1) to equation (4). the equation above results to: (10) Specific gravity of liquid = msubs mwater .principle was discovered by Archimedes in an effort to find the solution to a problem he faced when the King asked him to find out whether the king’s crown was made of pure gold. The specific gravity or relative density of a solid is the ratio of the density of the solid to the density of water. equation (5) results to (6) Specific gravity of solid = mass of the solid mass of the water Converting mass to weight. we have (5) Specific gravity of solid = mass of the solid/volume of solid mass of the water/volume of water It was earlier stated that an object immersed in a liquid displaces an equal volume of the liquid. a general equation is used which is the same as that used to determine the specific gravity of solids: (9) Specific gravity of liquid = density of the sample liquid density of water If the given substance has the same volume as the given amount of water.

Choose a standard liquid using the following procedure: 1. Specific gravity of solids 1. b. the liquid can be used as the standard.) Add to each corn grain amount of solid sample and observe whether the sample dissolves or not. Empty the pycnometer and set aside the standard liquid. and direct reading using a hydrometer. the specific gravity-bottle method. Shake the test tube and observe whether the sample is soluble or insoluble. Specific gravity of liquids . Determination of the solubility of the powder a. d. Place a corn grain amount of the solid sample in a test tube and add 1 ml of water. There are different laboratory techniques for finding the specific gravity of liquids. With the solid sample inside the pycnometer. If the water is soluble. 3. use the water as the standard liquid. Introduce 2-5 g of the solid sample into the pycnometer and weigh it again. IV.) Place 1 ml of liquid in a test tube. If the sample is insoluble. These are the flotation method. c. 2. determine its solubility using other liquids like oil. fill the pycnometer with the standard liquid you set aside. the loss-of-weight method. use some other liquid and repeat steps (1) and (2). e. Discard the liquid and the sample properly. f. b.The specific gravity of a substance is a pure number and it no units. Determination of the solubility of the sample a. c.) If the sample is insoluble. If the water is insoluble. Fill the pycnometer with the standard liquid and weigh. Weigh the empty pycnometer. It is more correctly called the relative density. PROCEDURE A. 2. alcohol. B.

Find the weight of the unknown liquid. b. Read the specific gravity of the liquid directly on the hydrometer. Add weights to suitable position on the balance arm until the pointer returns to the zero position. g. Empty and dry the bottle with the aid of a little alcohol. Suspend the plummet from the hook. immerse the hydrometer in the sample without touching the sides of the cylinder. 3. taking care that no air bubbles remain in the bottle.1. e. d. d. 2. Weigh it with its stopper. Dry the pycnometer and weigh it again. Using the Mohr-Westphal balance a. Fill the pycnometer with water. Leach Pycnometer Ordinary Pycnometer Hydrometer . c. Determine the specific gravity of the unknown liquid. Adjust the counterpoise and leveling screw so that the pointer is on the zero position of the scale. f. c. b. Fill the graduated cylinder with the sample liquid up to about two inches below the mouth. Immerse the plummet fully in the liquid sample without it touching the sides of the cylinder. Clean and dry the Leach pycnometer. b. Fill the cylinder with the sample liquid. Find the weight of the water. c. With the aid of your forefinger. Repeat the same procedure using the unknown liquid. Using the Baume Hydrometer a. Using the Leach pycnometer a.

) Using the Mohr-Westphal balance Specific gravity of the liquid II./Sec. _________________________ . ____ Date performed: ____________ Data submitted: ____________ EXPERIMENT No. 2. OBJECTIVES 1. To determine the specific gravity of solids. ______ Group no. Specific gravity of liquids Sample 1./Course _______________________ Seat no. Specific gravity of solids Sample Standard liquid Mass of empty pycnometer Mass of pycnometer + standard liquid Mass of pycnometer +sample Mass of pycnometer +sample + standard liquid Relative density of the sample B.3 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS I. To determine the specific gravity of liquids PRESENTATION OF DATA A.Name: ________________________ ___ ___ Yr.) Using the Leach Pycnometer Mass of empty pycnometer Mass of pycnometer and water Mass of pycnometer + liquid sample Mass of water Mass of liquid sample Specific gravity of the liquid sample 2.

) Using the Baume Hydrometer Specific gravity of the liquid III. When the powder is introduced into the emptied pycnometer. A pycnometer.00 g when empty.00g when filled with water. If 54. VI.00g. A pycnometer weighs 50. weighing 21.00g.00g.00g. _________________________ 2. weighs 121. it weighs 94. An insoluble powder weighs 12.00g. Differentiate specific gravity and density. COMPUTATION ANALYSIS GEERALIZATION QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. IV. Determine the specific gravity of the oil. What is the specific gravity of the powder? . V.3. 4.96 mL of oil weighs 52. When filled with oil. what is its specific gravity? 3. it weighs 100. and the pycnometer is filled with water.78 g. the three together weighs 130. When filled with water.

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