0n the ' Ori,gi'n

of the Si'n'halese languo'ge'. Read' belore the Ceylon R. A.,\oc'iety on tk,e SIst October, L863.-By
J,rlms Ar-rvls, Esq., lr.n.a.s.

\Vherr ir';'elve ycars ago I publishcd the Sicl,ulsct'ngard, and enlered into an inr.estiga.tion of the quesl,ion as to the origin of ihe li,rr'h,ala language, I inl,iinated ru)r belief,ik that it' belonged {,o the Ari:Lri or Northerr famiiy, as contr:rdistinguished frcnr t}re

Drauiiltan, or the Southeln class of languages. Mv sentiments on rnany a collateral subject have sinc'e undergone change. 1 ha,ve discovered errors uporr several points on which I then v'rote. I find I have assumed facts r,vhich have no foundation. I have drarvn inferences rvhich are unt,enable. But the main tluestion, the bolief of l'hich I then expressed, has only received confirmat,ory proof in the course of my later researches ; ancl they enable me, moreover, rvith due deference, but grea,t confidenr:e to disprove the statement in Sir Emerson Tennent's History c',f Ceyltn,-that ' the Sinhalese, as it' is spoken at the present day, r,nd stiLl more stril;ingly rc il erists as a written l,,tnguatte in the lileraiure of the Tslan<l, presenbs unequiuot',:tl proo.f of an affrlity rvith t'he group of languages still in use in the Dakken ;--Tamil, 'Ielingu and Malayalim'.t Sir Emersorr Ter'nent rvas, probably, indebtecl for this information to Professor Lassen.t and he to Prcfessor Rask cf Copenhagen- all of whom rvere not conver.sant with the Sinhalcse. q

Introd. tc

Lhe SirJatnn,qa,rd,

p. xlvi.

tSir Emerson Tennent's Ceylon, p. 328. fSee his S. Ind. Alterthumsk, p. 363. $Professor Bachtlingk, iays down as a philological axiom that 'it is dangorous to write of languages of which rve do not possess the most a,ccurate knorvledge'.

yet this led to no inrport:r.De roi.s ascertainecl of the Sinlutk-. r:oil Iiraa.arrls of trvo thousancl years.IGIN OX' TIIE SINHALESE LANGUAG]' t45 When more than foltyyears ago Rask wrote.as intended for elernentary schoois.ssi. alld others treatecl it as a creature of 'ine Sinltala rvrrg detir. 'far {ronr being understood' I and. so cali it.* The subsequent labours of the Rev. Nor rvas it cultivated by t'he Errglishin Ceylon Lrntil after the annexation of the Kandian Kingdom (in 1815) to the posscssions of the British Government. Ile rrioreover petceived rrot the irlcrrtitV of the ltllu wil.eov€rr. llv the aboriginal inhabitants. The languae. and the other thc *c..l researches.ittltal.cre unknorvn in Eutope. I{o effort r-v:as rrarle to set Sinhalese history in its true lighb until Turnour entered the ficld of Oriental literature.lso in point of philologica'l investigations. of the existence of the pa. not olly in regarcl to chronological ir. 'fire Siirlialese \yas nob lrnou'n in Eur:upe. Clough pu-biished his Dictionary fifteen years afterlards. p.he Delckanese groups of languages \rr-as rrot' well ascertained.e those l. ilhe A|d. i. only gar.nt results in point of philologicn.ala *" s. was definitely investigated of Tire relat. the greatest misapprehension prevailed amongst Europeans on all Oriental subjects. rviren the labours of Lassen :rucl Burnouf brought to light the Nepa.t. Betrveen it ancl Lhe l)ra.ho placed the Sinhalese in the South fndian. when he puhlished tlne Maltauansa.tt. if I ma}. unfortunately. The l)ictionary of the latter 1\. o*pi"notion of tlre ter"t" l'L r.e adopterl in it was the trastard Sinhalese of the fourteeuth centrrry. he rvas lerl awav with tfre beliel that *Speigei's KammavAohA. The 'farnil \r'as sripposecl to have been an off-shoti1. exhibiled the value of thePAii. Little.rlditional harrdle in support of their incorrect theory." el seq. the language in the highest state of crrltivation nolr-a-days... in the nationai langnaue of Ceylcn. the time \4/ilson translaterl Vilcrartr:t. rendered comparison of South-Irrdian rlialects. But the PAli.l.st.rdecl (183"i ).atirre of the Zencl.ian Comparat'iue Grammar in fixing the date of Dravidian Civilization preparatory to an investigation into the origin of the Dravidian language. 'lyas then in its infanc5r. lllhe distinction het'g'een the.f Yet. of the Sarrskrit.he Sanskrit bore to lhe Prdltrit. such.l books of Buclclhism. i. it may he trulv sairl that no one appliecl his from the rlate .ui. xxvii fThe learned author of tbe Drat:id. anC l. too.d Sit. A gloom enveloped t.-Introd. at. nor col1d he rlistirrgrrish the l?d. the if any thing. Tnaccessilrle rvas the path to eastern history. Upham's "lvorks published in 1833 teurled rather to mislead than to clirect the European mind. a\d.uutd.u.re he harl had in tlic publication of the Bdla. . erren the names of their Pdli versions u. One lre pr:ononnced the IXlu. as ll'ell as those of an anterior date (f 82i) of the Rev.tJ*orrora'. It 'lvas the langu:uge of tlre parapltrases--the Siurskrit. Lambrick (1834). investigated : ancl was.e. 'lvas not the case.-and leasi of ail regartling its history for upl.. S. says : 'I am inclined to Iook to Ceylon for the best means of arriving at an approximate date'.t+1 AN ESSAY ON THE OR. El-en then little u-a. $ras Yer. Easbern Languages \\rere not extensively criltivated. careful inter- latter. Sinhalicisetl. Even the 'Sa. p. Chater published a Sinhalese grammar in l8l5. but a. \Ilhen. mor.nd historical lesearchcs.ion r'i'hich t. His denial. 1'rue it is incleed that Mr. p.prayer. by his adoption of the forms of language cunent amorrgst the vulgar. as the language introduced after the Vijayan conquest. The commenceme: rt of tri"re historic knorvledge may be rega. 'tras then but irnperfectly known to the European world. 81.nskri.ce. by :i. which he must ha. but little assistance to the Philologer. Sonre consideretl it a clerir. The forrner hc regarclecl as 'the reinains of the language originally spoken.he scierce of comparative philology.ra merely existe(l as a book name. One rvoulcl havc supposecl that the sha. nruch less was the identity cf Drrsuickt: an Durtila recognized.-less las tnoln of the various moclifications which thc former had undergone .ve da. 'l'he Grammar of tl. therefore .ra could not fail to errlightcir liint on the subject.li forms in the ancient SirLhalese fi'om the Sanskritforn's rvirich predominated in our rnoilcrn dia"lect.he elernents of two rlistinct dialects. lTe recognizecl '1.ily found in the Sinhalese Yersion of the Lord's.da no relationship ri'as establishecl . Aria.re former.V imperfectll.h S'inltala. History.ed from the Satrskrit'.f.class an tr.. John Callawav rvere of little avail.li. and the latter.

is support edby cert'iss'imi. ancl the Si. It is quite true that the Sansl<rit clement.s Lesti.*e language in my Intlod.r rl* stlr'". Lhe T' u. also. in the moder. These helps combined u'ith thc lightlvhich llistory has shetl upon the subject. but.vere originally in a rude state.le. ** I porpo*u to shorv itr a paper rvhich I shall hereafter present to this Srciet.ritten ser.lIinity rvhich the FAli and *S. since then too has arisen a greater thirst for a knorvledgtr of the archeology of Budclhism. be consirlerecl as remains of usages properl. to the Szdr. With this philobgicalfacb accordthe traclitions of the Dekkan. came from the Norbh. and farther.ta.I cannot liut regard hisrenrarlis. th:r. and the knorvledg't: origin o1 the S i. I cont'ess.it.t' comrlland.ha r. I r. of the imported culture . ancl so is the fundamental part of their voca- tions to the Sanskrit zrs follorvs :-' A more critical investigation of the Ianguages of the Dehl<an has shown that they ha\ve been enriched from the Sanskrit.-f In vieri. a rvorh <lesigned t. AltcntJt. 363. ctrltrulated to assist Philologica'l inveitigntions.vords in most common use . from the North penetrated everyu'here : illany tribes are tlet rvit. cne incleerl. Yet..:tr1. fhat.fterl orr the Sirrl.hat' rvhich Sir rvhiclt sbates as being founded upon' unequivocal testimony'.rs.ation frcm that sotu'ce. '.. receivecl no such civilizing influence'. is decisive. and the phenomena of the religious and political state of the Dekkan. certain peculiarities are lil<eu'ise found.ry. T)r. il. .ichd. since able auxiliary t. n 'Dtnerson Tennent result. iri speakilg of thc T'r.nhala language : ancl those investig ations establish. Jorrrnal. the Karnd. and therefore inconsiderate. tCeylon A. stevenson of Ronibav has rT.rld trot trace the otigin r-ri t'liat langriage't Iirrleercliu tirnes later still (1853) rvhenthe sid(t.el:ite to the Siritu.nfu. Introd .ilr independent of it as to their origin.v' r'vith a verf intirnate ilcquaintanci: with the Sinhalese.' bekrnging to the South-Connt. bv rvhich I mean t. establish ). embracirrg thc r. rvhat. d'e'ftroitel'y t'o sta"te t'he origin rf the Sinhalest:. cannot be traced to onr ancient dialcct: and that these ha.ralese in cornparatively moder.erai l):rpers in the irages of the Bomba1' Asintic Societv's Jout:ni'l .rlese.ic resea. as inappiicable. have e^abled t'hcr the fact of its hat'ing received its civilir.vi z.ly possessecl bv them of the Sanshrit..rt-"antqari.isch'e alli'sthurnus ktutd'e.ical structure is peculiar. aspirates. rvhicir. etc. indicat- It.\ Professor L:rssen in his Ind. of the particr-rlar: a. their grammat. had. r'ii. xxir'.r'e been enqra. r:or.hese introductorv rentatks. as they do. double letters. not being referable to Atva teachers.moniis.ruhes then at m. and. Llrc T ct m i L. PAli language. Lasserr. ancl that settlers {ronr the }dorth broug}it to them t}reir civilization.n Sinhalese.ANEUAGE 117 energies to glean thi: inforruation. $Katnmau.r'as not al. that people' inlater times' beganto paygreater attentiou thon has appeared an invahra critical stucly of the sinhctla. P."ottt r""i*i"""r"gi* "* mt*"[ *"tr ^rrniin*t-t"t* Cakl'well's D' G" p' t'0' disappear altogether on a little invest'igat'ion ve:r.h in the l)ekkari.lese. p.tsa.f bularies.'r' Even tire Rev' Spence IIa'r"'l. arrd sometimes iess. so far as thcy r.y in contin'ation of t. rvas upi>n the publication of that Sirrhalese Grammar' horr tt' ever.lua. Their phonetic syst'em is clistinct. Nor has the civilization brought success thcr sixty relative to the antiquities of India. r\siai. Sinhalese.s alpirabets. th. of the l\ida on the Nilgiri. the vety opposite of t. at the present time.o be a cribical digest of all the researches of the last 'rvith native panclits in our otvn islancl to invesiigate ulr"u. sometimes more.n times.o bhe investigation in hancl-'The comparativc Gr:ammar of the Draviclian language by the Revd' R' Cald'n'ell (1g56 ing. THE rvorlis larrg uages o SINIIALESE I. f Sce the histoly of the Sinlrale. S. Inil .t the l)ekkanese r. Nhe II ala.1'ith ::l]l the assistatlce of llurroirer'n trtrd are t1u. lvhich orrr historical affonled to investigations connecterl rvith the lalrguage of the f the Dekhan. or Professor spiegel consiclers.mrrst. l. what' is inseparably connectecl wibh it. p. sums up their rela- are by no -"un. The traditions of the continent agree here ri.he use of sibil:uits.rut they Lhe Teluo'n.ith those of the islarid of Ceylon.'t d allpt':rrecl.* \4rith all the respect due to so distinquishecl an orientalist as Frof. clxxxvii et seq.146 AN ESSAY ON T}I]X OTiIGIN O1T. " fsee lnlruduction P. until x'ithin a short timer. rvhich have adopted only a part.

ivilizaticn.he an.ncl mountain fastltesses throughout. Cnsic Chetty..utan tinat which is cooked . :rncl ca.ole of Iridia{ as .rges of the Dekkan'. A.nnot be classecl iurlongst the langu.qtiitct fronr the Sinhalese as:r.l still rriore strikingly as it cxist-q as a n'ritten .ilologica. bora.re tho Tantils of the Nor:th. f gb0_g.darkness'. antl the liistoricial . or the rvorship of rlevils in Ce1. rvorship hail bcerr cliffused from a r. as fcr iustance.language in the literatule of'the island '. in accordance u'ith the la'nguagc of Mr" {lald.f leads to the inference. of tire aborigincs of Ceylori itsclf partially blencled l'i1.t the sinlia.vith six t. and.t Demonolatry. vi."irl jn I 'etnkd. it niay also bo allirmerl tha. had been peopled iu eYery clire''rtion by jIi cllffe|cnt stages of r.aklrhas.'xceptions. is ident.ecl Dai. bintaldua .'the northern ancl north-r'estern parts of Oeylon. that lt rnav be here conveniellt tO consiclcr the ltistoricrtl before identified rvith 1..hat.ilskrit.$ Thc worsliip of tlie N)gasJ mo(eover) v.8.ical rvith 'the system l'hich Lu:evaiis in the forests :r. 177 et seq. p.J.. holvet'er.anawa fot penenawa'porceive . A.l qlreslions' that relatc to tho sub. bo it.eshct. I believe it is a uniYersally admit'ted fact. r. e.S. materials fol cornparison. p. p.S. . {Asiatic liesoarches xx. with i. an.*' These u'eLe thc Yii. once called the Ndga d. 'bhey lvere either a colorty of some of the u'anrlcrlng hot'des frorn lndia.n'eli as in the rrorth-rvest frontiers of the Arya-cl.garvorshippers.he fact tha.* This is r.. .Sanskrit and Bhndclhist $'riters irpeak rvith llxich aversion.'Ilhere isalso a distinciive class callecl the liodiyas.it is now mixed up with lluddhism'.t The merrtion of ldA"gas or: Nd. cloes noi.hole of the Peninsula flom Cape Corncirin to Hjmalayi).'hom tlro yakkhas had shared the kingdom of LankA.iect. lund these. rvhich.rrotr a clirect off-shoot of tlre 'Sa.r'eli.et bhe ferv r.re the Vuid. p.. ir.t.8. . :r.tpa. or a fragmerrt.he rvl.his may Jte assentecl to l'ithorit in the lc:r.ures a. of the Rodiya diaiect we can only identify six Sinhalese words. thc u. pi.. u.us. as I shall shor" hereafter. a.l-liich have been collected of this diaject. 'l'his taken in connection ir'ith t. 171.nd. and rvhose savage conditiorr t" *o9:t" t*:1-g_E they *Dr..earth . ){lich. that t'Lte Sitrhalese belongs to the Northern ' rlivision of la. But it is also a fact.ery probable . the autlror of lhe Ceylon (]az.1tho'strictly speaking it is a 'plane' .J.ln's.ll t. that l'refore the Ar.lthough r.r:d.'ery early age throughout 1.148 AN ESSAY ON TH!] OIiIGIN OX' TIII' SINTIAI.ESE LANGUAGE 149 the PrAkrit tlialects bear to the sinhalese. 128 words gir. ' This systom within the historical period from t'he Tamil Country into Ceylon' u'hero .ettcer in givirg :L uuntber oi vi. lead to any certain results. g5.nd of n'ltom the e:r'th.nguages. }lel.Iowa fot boralu 'gravel ' . are as di. kalluwellafot kaluwata.a ' boy ' ..n entirely distinctrace of people rvlrorn they dtsignzr.g.en by Mr.cicnt barbarity of thc r. lrse i-r-rnorrgst the Ilodil'as explesses a coujectur:e '1. riifferent from ' the Sirihalese as it is spohen at tlie present dav. biti. Casie Chetty. '.. Stevensot's Kalpta Sfitra.r'c have not srifficient. arrd jb is remarkable that their ranks were replenishecl from tinie to time rvith Sinhalese convicts of nll castes from the lioyal to the plebeinn. Lr.or:ies and also in the extrente south o{ the Peninsultr.ltyt. fFrom amongst. 133' was introduced tcaldwetl in his Dravirlian Grammar says.as confinerl to tiiat porbion of this island. of the Ri-mayana. rcmembered. that the early settlers of Ceylon r''ele a poltion of the aboriginal inliabitants tif Intlia befbte its occupat'ion by the Arya race.vords r.. (\'akkhas or'1 Rdl:sliu's. ITr..y:ls or Sanskrit-speaking people of Hinrlustan first' emergecl from obsculit). have neither retainerl their natiorral character nol their national ianguage' The only tribes.lep.kli}ras or barba'rians rv}iotn Vijayri{onncl on his at:li.lese is . t'hat have not intermingled v'it'h the Sinhalese. :rncl :r'iso the Lankl. a.nrt.s to the formation of the latter.. p' 519.. For the NA. and settlecl thcmseh'es iti upper Irlcli:r.. lSee Rajdtarangani.st affecting t. Da.conjeci. the Drt-ividian territ..orcls in current..hele Tamilians cotrmencecl to *C.h the Sinh:rlcsc '. Vol. C.ga.he proposition.nurutan for mul.lt. Cashmir. corrtaining the narres fol the c()mmon rvants of mankirrd are. I shall in lutur:e designate the 'Draviclia'n" cntering upon the 1:th. arid rr.

{See Attanagalwansa.ould seem race'. a wide difference from all the taces that the Sinhalese of the Dekkan.\Y ON 1'I{]T OI-iIC+IN OF. An utter stranger to the varions raccs cannot be three u. that. It is true enough that t. It may. the fact of Si"gara's havirrg imposed ' shaving the hair ' a.oi'the fact.hey have gliatlu:-. so much honore<l by Manu (cap' $ 130) t'hen hc declaretl l)ril\. historically. For instance. is uncleniallle t'hat' ernigrations from Ceylon to tlie soutlrorn rlistricts of llrdia har-e occasionally taken placc' lllhe Teers f'r. one cif our kings. as women among us antl twist it.E 151 fbrm settlements prior even t'o the Christian era' and lrom ''* rvhence t. a'lo celtainly imrnigrants frorn Ceylcn "' C'altlu:eIL's (.espect a quality rlistinguishable froin e\rery lace of South-Incliarr people. Cap. rounrl Pali .r'ards clet.s a punishment on the Yavanas implies that it had been previouslv customary to use the hair long : and it is also not a little remarkable that Gotama Bucldha a North-Inc'lian is represented. to state tlescen4ants of t1e Portuguese rvho sett'led in Inrlia several centuries ago. therefore. ot dialect.hence Cevlon lvas peopled. 513. the features of the Tarnils of the Southern Peninsula are peculiar.r'ith the e:r.nd a top-knot.'Sinbalese"(froni'ILtrn" lat'her Cutt-rtr. a Greek Geogra.tr"rgJ. horvevt-r:.s " *Qllrlntll's (:lirlrlrrtrl. and those of the different other: races on the other. is the colourof the Arva race. tlie ' copper colour' is that rvhich prevails over the rest : and this again it u. and twistecl .opper coloured rnan '. a-s stated bv Mt.lirt the ArSra invaclers ancl their dialect' the Sinhalese' little or nothing piiysically..pher of the thirrl centuly bcre testirnony. knot at the back of the head is identical rvith that of the Dravidian race ... into a knot at the back of the hearl is oharacteristic of all the inferior cnstes in the Sotrthern Provinces of the Tarnil Countrv.ll sa\. prove liarities of fcature' . in viert.or.eeks in this Isianrl before he perceit'es the striking differcncre bctu-cen the rlrannels ancl haltits of the Sinhalese on the one hanrl..ANG IIAC'.lrammar.* is u'orthv of notice in an inquirv into the relations of the Sinhalese r.ve frequently observerl the iacility rvith l.vith iv. (prcpcrl3"l'ir-ilrlslaldcrs)andt'heIlavars.y a casual observer.NSU I. Caldwell.|onr. rleceptive eviclence of relat'ionship and a lcss failible testi' the shape of t. ' colour as a most io .. (ib) antl here I need not labour to present. or philologicallY can norv be tracecl to a Draviclian origin. The colour as l-ell as the fcatures of the irrhabitants of thc Deklcru. ' it was from Dravidian settlers in Cevlon that the ja'ya both the with.he head and the more perman'ent pecumony.. European Teachers ha. are certainlv distinguisha.T But I submit that rve have no uncloubted tcstimorry of the same usage not having existerl in the Northern tcrritories front u. Ti. Gr.ell's (. Ceylon 'the tilernselves'. f' Up to the Jr:sent day the custom ofrvearing tbe hair long. sihalam ' bv thc olnission of the initial ' s') both of thern 'llavarrcotc castcs.:.11y thrust' out the Sinhalese be clispcnsed' These are. point's of inrluiry rvhich rnay shaclorv of a c.72. I ii. Caldrvell. hou'ever:. THI' STNHAI. anrl he s:lys it truly' ' to expect from consirleratitxrs of colour ancl complexion any real help belongs t. and that the practice of t'w'isting the hair into a. i. On the coutrary. o l.i Sanghabodhi.ctice to rvhich Agathemerus. fact ment'ioned by hiniself' artcl known p. 'It is vain' savs l{r. p.{ to have v'orn tresses a. and that. are now blacker t'han the Hindffs p. r-i2. a pla.om the p' [' *'The natives cherish their' hair their heads'. Regarding. But even supposing that such u'as not the case. prcsr:nting in this r. Caklq.hich the Sinhalese pronounce Europenn tonques.he usage referred to is equally charactcristic of the Dravidian race. 512. ancl though the complexion of the Sinhalese prescnts different shapes. afl. fCalclut. be urged by those lr.er the arrival of \ri so aboriginal inhabitants of I'anlr) and theii lartgriage hatl been that' . I'or.rly Dravidians. like Sir.rs it. [p' 515] u'e may nert direct attention to it in connection r. it an insult' to pass over 'even tlie It.l5( ) AN ]'SS. t whilst all such cotrsicleratiorrs being an lead to tlie inevitable result of the sinhalese language a Prdkri't off-shoot of the speech of the Aryas. or the Piili.'ho advocate a contrary opinion that the use of long hair by the Sinhales.ble lrom those of the Sinhalcse el'en b.ermining the race to which t'he Dravidian " :r.ortl rvhich has been frrrrn the Sanscrii'simhalan'or p.

Journal.st.crient rvrr'ters. Historically Professor Lassen himself furnishes us with an item of proof v'hjch T shall here notice. a subdivision of Magadha.S.nkcn place betlveen the Yakhhas and the new settiers . the iu* un. Arya civilization has penetrated and prevailecl. (Vol.' (of \rijaya) and more eryre-rhe inhabitants of ceylon n'ere cially to its earliest members lncleitecl for the first rudiments of civilization. But r. We are not told what was the when he had founcl he could not according to tho usages of tho east be crou.qtnesses of Vijaya a greatei: share of civiiization thari anv other Country in the Dekka'n. ancl his birth pl:uce u'as I/(ilo. This being est. with whom I entirely concur in the matter.. The last supposition is hor.ve t. to suppose that Cevlon retainerl its aboriginal larrguage even aft'er the Vijayan conquest is to aflirm that the sinhalese received not even a : sprinkhng ' of tlie Arya civilization.n fronr the mention of the Yakkhas in the earjv part. E. the converse of the proposition laid <lorr. ho discarded them aII for the daughter of King Pandiya of tho nearest civilized. .' disappeared after 275 a. for he clistinctiy says 'To the great dyn:r. of our history . perceive the result to he in direct opposition to the opinion of I Mr. the language of the Arya h:r.s also come into use '" Applying this test to Ceylon ancl its language. Nor is sir }lrtrerson Ter. would lead to the inference that the P61i was the Ianguage of the conquerors. r'iz.ders the aborigincs adoptecl their dialect '.nerlwithout a queen consort. ii.nent of a different opinion.t t "i.us or lle. there is nothing in this circumstance which militates against our position. for: a time.ter of history.n by Professor Lassen holds good.l'hatever inferences rnay be drau. Lassen that' the Pdli of Ceylon rvad immecliately derived from the shores ol l{a.ANGIj'AGE r53 sinhalese atlolttecl. vol. p. state.*-that 'with the civilization of the Arya inva. says llr. The language of our first monarch Vijava rvas probably the Prili or the Prdkrit" I{e came to Ceylon shortl.s among the Gondas.* . although the mothor of two children.-*rhe only. ?5) .l the Padarias. James Prinsep (Bengal A.I'ingyt. thcre is nothing of the civilization of the Arv:ls.ablisherl. at u'hich period thev are for the last time spoken of in History as a servile class engt-r.r after Gotama.. p. which is not the case. independently of lits being mal.tlrJzs. and which v-e find rvas shortlv afterrvards used bv the Indian Monarch .tg. p.. for the alts ot agricultural life. on the other hand.toge has been rctained. xxiv . called the Veikl.s being ' a melre sprinkling ' Ceylon ta.ntJn Vijaya .sage' (p. has enjoyecl frorn the very settlement o{ fa. Tennent's Ceylon. in his rock inscriptions.vas clescenclecl through the female branch of the Royal fainily of l{a. ' that the period at rvhich a vernacdlar <lialect was commorl to the Yakkhas and \rijayan Colonists must have been extremely rcmote'* antl that the former soon tlisappearecl either: by amalgamation rvith or rlisintegration from 'the conqueror"s. whom a Yakkinni or 'non-human being' would ill ropresent. the very name girren to the Island by Yijaya. He says ' rvhenever an oriKangin-ul lung. History also shows that the nelv colonists retained a distirict and separate character: and ihat although intermarriages might ha. Lassen to rvhich I first attracted attention' For. u'ho spoke the Pd. T. p' 81.li or the M)"gadhi. having long abandoned a cont'rary opinionwhich I oxpressed in my ".ret. p.ll existing evidence '. the that far lrom it.vever the more reasonable : since we find until very recent times a distinct tribe of people in Ceylon. but t'hat having been captivated by her charns Vijaya had hor {'or his mi's|ress. 280) ' assumed by Mr. or in tho th'r VjndhYa. ansrvering to the uncouth ' Yakkhas ' or ' Monkevs ' of an. etc. a tlistinct tribe : and that they r'vhollr. ' And the position'. is supported by the eviclence of the recortLs norv discorrered in that country' : and although Frofessor Lassen regards this as a qucstion involvecl in obscurity. as among the I(olas of Guzerat and others. 360 ).ged in opening Tanks.D. 328. it may still be affrrmecl that. tlte sante u. *Sir J. und tlt" facts there st'ated clearly show t'hat he was rzof 'married ' to liuueni' as suppose<l by Mr' Caldweli. a. €NIId fo]r a system of national r'r'orship '. and thai yet that the former renrained.lingu.I52 AN ESSAY ON THD OITIGIN OF T SINHALESE I.lsol:a.5 idatsangard. it is quite clear ' from a. He r. for an organizecl Governmerrl . or merely a sprinkling of it : but lvherever.

ctla.sealso n.[ourna] fbr 1842.ancl the third u'ith the iocal .nd nrerelv another name for Caur|. ancl in sonre places the l{istorian descri}res the corresporrclence as having been carried on in ' the Pd'li |anguage'' 'There is anclthcr circumstance r'vhich lnal' be here noticed' The birthplace of the first. settlers of ce. :r.. follorvs Sanskrit and P6U.ne-tenths of its vocables of Sanskrit origin.ith Arian and lJraviclian Princes. lerl the Rev.t it is clearly tlaceable to tbe Sinhalese.. as r. spoke the Telingu'well.Ttutta. and. p.a) is usually fiht: . It is iclentical \vith tdla and Ldd.everal of its elements.as not only able to converse reaclilv I'ith dialect of the conquerors (rvhich rt'as probably the Pr6krit) . but it must be remembered t.h centurv nfter Chrjst. and lTte Zend at all events a so-called Pro.the sinhalese has undergone a Yast change. r'r'hich rvas at this time subject being melted 'n'ith the preexisting language.s a branch of the Southern farniJ.ka. but rvithout ' loss of time to preach to t. a language of the North.hich bole the nearest relation to such larrguages as tlie Suraseni. This sho$. distant connection rvith the Draviclian-. f.ratively a rilodern age. . but I may here rernark tlitr. It is a'lso ascertained from our historical Annals that our Kirrgs hacl frequent intercourse $. rla. 195.uthor of Kduyad'arsa. as stated in the r9iclalsan. tl King Pancluua for: a R. p. -l-See It South Inclian class. [Tis authority goes further.* that there are threer elements in the Sinhalese. an<l in the second to the Sanscrit.l proof ' of the fact. exhibits the treatest affinitv to the Pdli ancl the most.hat the pure Sinhalese so formed upon t. JSee lJombay Asiatic. as it is knou. savs that erren in comp:i.atsan(Jct0. Statr.e. SriWekrama RAja Sinha.t AN lrssAY oN THIi ollIGiN ol.ve m. u'hose organs of speech r. or thd language of the land'. and the Sinhalese but indilTerently.me cla'ss as tbat of tlne et ceterrt.her ein. p' 53). Colebrook to ha. ancl his Comrnentator explains to nrearr tlle )'tagad'hr (or P6ii) and' Pancltr:r'la (the Zend)' Hence all circumstances corrsidered it is verv clear that' the Prili rvas the langnage of the band from Lrt'k:t. \rras grc:rtly cultir-ated throughout thc greatcst part of Centra'l Inclia.qard. anrl moclifyiug it so as to suit it to the tongue of men. tire :r.gadht.rlathe conparat-ir. that on the arrivai of llahindu in the Island he the people. if one thing is clearer than another it is that neally every s-orrl in the first is directly traceable to the Pali.y.oyal Princeris : but it is probable th at tlrc letttrr of invitation. The last inferenco receives confirlllator'.I5.riters.nltale. rvhich. and not Dravidian u.ozaz under tht: liead of the southern family .hem in ' the Sinhalesc ' language. Dancli.['Q.1'1{It SINHALNJSE LANG TIAGE 155 language of tht lettors rvhich accompanie':l the embasslr sent by Vijal'a.e specimen cf the ancient and r.i.tha into the P6li.'r-ell as of Brtnga (rvhich latter is only a clifferent pronunciation of Yanga.u'.the Dranlas. to his brother (see l'I ahawnnsa.y proof froru anothel historical {act. for he says : ' The HinrJi.{ His orvn obselvations.Iie establishment of the \/iiayan clynasty appears to have been rlrarvnt cliieflyfrom the Sanshrit in the l5t.otlern Sinhalesir in trIrc Sid. viz. yet it mav lle readily believecl tha.-orcls) is estin:rated by Mr.n even at the present clav.a fact which is farther borne crut by the facility with v'hich Bucldhagosa of Patali.ra.s the intimate relationship which originallv existed betlveen the Sinhala and the dialect of Pataliputta .vlon was . by a process of shortening the rvords of that language.lcri.. Stevenson to consicler the Si. for (]uwhe places the language of Ltt'ln' in ths 5a.ory. Sura.: l{alabar and Telingu after the clorninntion o{ the Dekkan princes. r.ere incapable of enunciating s.iltr..c. I shall hereafter aclduce 'unequivoca.e leat'n from hist. that the Si.e. or rather a nrodificatioir of it lr. Dr. *See lntrorlucti' n.abas alanka. which contains the most (i. one in connection with the Sanskrit-another wjth the Pali.nlr. extant in this Island.Prd'l.t. It is certainlv true.lu. was perhaps this iatter phenomenon in th"e Sinhalese that. i. rvas in lhe Fdti or the PrAlrrit. and from th.t this change consisterl in t'he v. lvho colonized Oeylon.ta clialect .i. Rrahminical lr. the language of I'dtu. arrd aithough in course of several centuries as statetl in the sr_. xxxvi. horvever.rit. therefore a l anguage of the Arian and not of the Gramrnar nov. ri.setza. thaf' of. rrriiitate against this opinion.. et. such as the aspirates ancl combinecl collsonilnts. he also places thc Muld. that the only Sinhalese to XIa. translatecl the Sinhalese Attha. tleposed Sinhalesc King. It is also a fact to which I malr b1isflt allude here. of rvhom the last.

ge of the Sinh:-r'lese proper'lv so-callecl' . p' 3f . Sttruey of La. from tile a clegree as to just'ify the the Islancl) lvas ever inr-erted to such India supposition that.'idian origin of thc Sinhalese.'.fths.hich frorn the influence of the Pdli chieflv rlerived front the seYeral <listinct heacls.tht u-hich contains the fe$'cst ha. Ancl a'ltliough there is a slight rlifference o{ opinion betrveen which I'rofessor Max Muller and mvself as to the relationship yet it will be exists betu.ngurvho were &ge.r't'rl'hu' or Bt"hur--ancl tlie languagc of thc Tamilians.nhalesp' into ilre Loi-.rly as s:r.s at least fou. Sinha'Iese.156 at ItssAY oN it'Hft oRrclrN ol rlru srNrrAr'rlsE LANGTIAGT :rnd the l[ctra. the Sa'n'sl.i:avellcr1.lon'.l*'uoo krtn. Cali5vcll a'rl l{ax Nl*ller'' nan)es to those rvho .erret. p. of its 'wortls rlerivccl from the sarne sourcc' In the Southern' :rnd enter less f amily agairr Sanskrit l'ords i. Rudrlliists and Colonjsts {rom J"lc'. betu'een t.trrti viz'.vitlitrn (irammar 1. the numerous spoken clialects of India-Hindustani' in the Uutr*rutti.t bc cleemecl to impii'lt coniirlence tliey have hai-e the holo'r to labour in the beaten path in rvJrich I)ra.ri't estabBefore hol'ever I proceed to aclcluce t'he promised proof to rvhich T purlish the non-Drar. Guzerdi6. ho\l.guage of tire people. the main obsen'ed that that clifference is one rvhich cloes not affect now lives onlv in question in hancl.trocluctorv rema"rks by quoting the expressed opinion of tu'o of the most eminent v-hic6' tingulsts oith" . tlie u'hole mass of the J)rnviclians eriterecl from Cel. nea. etc' all preserving traces of t'heir common systern of theii: gtammarJ the living parent '. The aul"hor: of the invnluahle ma--v conclucle I ' savs.ept irt lhe Si.t the natural course of migration (rriz'.ngu'ages..n11 ttxt'rtils originallll tltti'retl frorrt. mv ir. 73. .the langu:r. :lncl upon pose to lay befoi:c this Societ-v at' :-'i future opporluuity x.r-f. -lr.rmon la.llrere js no relation.lre of rare occulrl:ence' ex.he sinhtllese l:r. . gengAli. He savs:-'The Sanskrit iis offspring.nskrit arrrl the language of the Ruclclhist l iterature has rts the Hi'ndi' i't'scl'f ' nt.eetr the saDskri"i and bhe singlralese.u. nor is there :l'nlr rcason for supposing rirainland to th:r.