AMPÈRE'S CIRCUITAL LAW In physics, Ampère's circuital law, discovered by André-Marie Ampère, relates the circulating magnetic

field in a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop. It is the magnetic equivalent of Gauss's law. Original Ampère's circuital law An electric current produces a magnetic field. In its original form, Ampère's Circuital law relates the magnetic field to its source, the current density :

where is the closed line integral around contour (closed curve) C. is the magnetic field in teslas. is an infinitesimal element (differential) of the contour C, is the permeability of the medium (in henries per meter), which by definition is in free space. In non-linear media, is a rank-2 tensor. is the current density (in amperes per square meter) through the surface S enclosed by contour C is a differential vector area element of surface S, with infinitesimally small magnitude and direction normal to surface S, is the current enclosed by the curve C, or strictly, the current that penetrates surface S. Equivalently, the original equation in differential form is where is the curl operator. The right hand grip rule is a mnemonic for visualizing the orientation of the magnetic field current density . encircling the

Corrected Ampère's circuital law: the Ampère-Maxwell equation James Clerk Maxwell conceived of displacement current as a polarization current in the dielectric vortex sea which he used to model the magnetic field hydrodynamically and mechanically. He added this displacement current to Ampère's circuital law at equation (112) in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. The generalized law, as corrected by Maxwell, takes the following integral form:

where in linear media is the electric displacement field (in coulombs per square meter). This Ampère-Maxwell law can also be stated in differential form:

where the second term arises from the displacement current. With the addition of the displacement current, Maxwell was able to postulate (correctly) that light was a form of electromagnetic wave. See electromagnetic wave equation for a discussion on this important discovery.


the distance from the source electric current. Introduction The Biot-Savart law and the Lorentz force are fundamental to electromagnetism just as Coulomb's law is fundamental to electrostatics. A can be regarded as the magnetic vector potential of B. where μ0 is the magnetic constant is the current..e. the magnetic field can be determined if the current density j is known: where is the unit vector in the direction of r. = is the differential element of volume. It therefore provides the B field solution to Maxwell's equations much as the Lorentz force provides the E field solution. Forms General In the magnetostatic approximation. It is also a solution to the vorticity equation curl A = B. if differential element of current is defined as then the corresponding differential element of magnetic field is where . In particular. The significance of the Biot-Savart Law is that it is an inverse square law solution to Ampère's Law. and the magnetic permeability weighting factor. uniform current I. i. Alternatively. differential element of current can be defined as and the corresponding differential element of magnetic field will be where is the current density vector and is the differential element of volume. Constant uniform current In the special case of a constant. the magnetic field B is 2 . measured in amperes is the differential length vector of the current element is the unit displacement vector from the current element to the field point and is the distance from the current element to the field point.BIOT-SAVART LAW The Biot-Savart Law is an equation in electromagnetism that describes the magnetic field vector B in terms of the magnitude and direction of the source electric current.

In particular. where the solution to and hence. (1) Magnetic Induction Current was essentially a rotational analogy to the linear electric current relationship. provided that the current density can be obtained from a quantum mechanical calculation or theory. There is no linear motion in the inductive current along the direction of the vector. Aerodynamics applications The figure shows the velocity induced at a point P (dV) by a vortex filament of strength Γ. is the Coulomb force. with being the circumferential velocity of the vortices. it represents lines of inverse square law force. In Maxwell's 1861 paper 'On Physical Lines of Force'. then the This equation is also sometimes called the Biot-Savart law. In the aerodynamic application.Point charge at constant velocity In the special case of a charged point particle magnetic field is[1]: moving at a constant. Magnetic responses applications The Biot-Savart law can be used in the calculation of magnetic responses even at the atomic or molecular level. was seen as a kind of magnetic current of vortices aligned in their axial planes. non-relativistic velocity . whereas was a weighted vorticity that was weighted for the density of the vortex sea. Hence the relationship. due to its closely analogous form to the "standard" Biot-Savart law given above. the magnetic equation is an inductive current involving spin. By analogy. Microscopic Scale On the microscopic scale. The Biot-Savart law is also used to calculate the velocity induced by vortex lines in aerodynamic theory. e. The electric current equation can be viewed as a convective current of electric charge that involves linear motion. the Biot-Savart law becomes. 3 . chemical shieldings or magnetic susceptibilities. and where.g. (2) Electric Convection Current where ρ is electric charge density. The magnetic inductive current represents lines of force. Maxwell considered magnetic permeability μ to be a measure of the density of the vortex sea. magnetic field strength was directly equated with pure vorticity (spin). the roles of vorticity and current are reversed as when compared to the magnetic application.

is or where is velocity vector of the electric charge. as first derived by Oliver Heaviside[1]. The intensity of the magnetic field has SI units of teslas. the vortex plays the role of 'cause'. The direction of a magnetic field can be demonstrated with magnetic dipoles. we see exactly the aerodynamic scenario in so much as that is the vortex axis and is the circumferential velocity as in Maxwell's 1861 paper. This is a limiting case of the formula for vortex segments of finite length: where A and B are the (signed) angles between the line and the two ends of the segment. paramagnetism. In electromagnetism the lines form solenoidal rings around the source electric current. the air currents form solenoidal rings around the source vortex axis. diamagnetism. Hence in electromagnetism. Magnetic fields also have an energy density proportional to the square of the field intensity. the force exerted by a magnetic field on a charged particle is perpendicular to both the field and the velocity the particle. such as those in electric currents and magnets. MAGNETIC FIELD Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics. Where such a field is present. measured in metres per second indicates a vector cross product is the speed of light in a vacuum measured in metres per second is the electric field vector measured in newtons per coulomb or volts per metre is the electric displacement vector μ is the magnetic permeability 4 . as can be seen when iron filings are in the presence of a magnet. the vortex plays the role of 'effect' whereas in aerodynamics. For a closer look at the effects of a magnetic field. electromagnetism. magnetic force acts on other such bodies. Definition The magnetic field (in SI units): of a point charge moving at constant velocity. Unlike the electric field. Yet when we look at the lines in isolation. see under ferromagnetism. magnetic dipoles in a magnetic field align themselves to be parallel with the field lines. a magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field in the space surrounding moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. the induced velocity at a point is given by Where Γ is the strength of the vortex d is the perpendicular distance between the point and the vortex line.In aerodynamics the induced air currents are forming solenoidal rings around a vortex axis that is playing the role that electric current plays in magnetism. and electromagnetic induction. This puts the air currents of aerodynamics into the equivalent role of the magnetic induction vector in electromagnetism. whereas in aerodynamics. All materials respond to a magnetic field to some degree. by opposing it or being attracted to it. For a vortex line of infinite length.

The electric current equation can be viewed as a convective current of electric charge that involves linear motion.1861. and the direction of the force is orthogonal to both magnetic field and charge's velocity: where is the force vector produced. Magnetic flux has the SI units of webers so the field is that of its density (an areal density). As seen from the definition. measured in newtons is electric charge that the magnetic field is acting on. See: [3] The difference between the and the vectors can be traced back to Maxwell's 1855 paper entitled On Faraday's Lines of Force. with being termed the "magnetic induction". By analogy. the SI unit of magnetic field is newton-second per coulomb-metre (or newton per ampere-metre) and is called the Tesla. equivalent to webers (Wb) per square metre or volt second per square metre. it represents lines of inverse square law force. and most modern writers refer to as the magnetic field. The vector field is known as magnetic flux density or magnetic induction or simply magnetic field. with the SI units of the latter being ampere-seconds per square metre. was seen as a kind of magnetic current of vortices aligned in their axial planes. with being the circumferential velocity of the vortices. (1) Magnetic induction current causes a magnetic current density was essentially a rotational analogy to the linear electric current relationship. measured in coulombs is velocity vector of the electric charge . except when context fails to make it clear whether the quantity being discussed is or . The vector field is known among electrical engineers as the magnetic field intensity or magnetic field strength also known as auxiliary magnetic field. the magnetic equation is an inductive current involving spin. Although the term "magnetic field" was historically reserved for . it exerts force only on a moving charge. is now understood to be the more fundamental entity. and has the SI units of Tesla (T). the possible directions being at right angles to the axis . The magnetic inductive current represents lines of force. the magnetic field exerts force on electric charge — but unlike an electric field. There is no linear motion in the inductive current along the direction of the vector. and the exact direction being at right angles to both the velocity of the particle and . It is later clarified in his concept of a sea of molecular vortices that appears in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force . The difference between B and H There are two quantities that physicists may refer to as the magnetic field. whereas was a weighted vorticity that was weighted for the density of the vortex sea. The magnitude of is the amount of force the magnetic field causes on the particle. represented pure vorticity (spin). notated and . [1][2][3][4][2] The vector field has the SI units of amperes per metre and is something of the magnetic analog to the electric displacement field represented by . Maxwell considered magnetic permeability µ to be a measure of the density of the vortex sea. Like the electric field. measured in metres per second Intuitively can be seen as a vector whose direction gives the axis of the possible directions of the force on a charged particle due to the magnetic field.This same expression for the magnetic field can also be derived from the Lorentz transformation of an electric field exerted on an electric charge from the charge's proper frame to any other inertial frame. 5 . In particular. per unit of particle charge by particle speed. and the direction of magnetic field vector is perpendicular to both source electric field and velocity of motion of source's reference frame v. Also it follows from the definition that the magnetic field vector being a vector product is a pseudovector (axial vector). as used by physicists. (2) Electric convection current where ρ is electric charge density. Within that context. Another intuitive way to view is as a bundle of lines of force that pull two unlike magnetic poles together. Hence the relationship.

and where Magnetic field of current of charged particles Current (I) through a wire produces a magnetic field ( ) around the wire. In SI units. The fields are also related by the equation (SI units) (cgs units). (A) No disturbing force (B) With an electric field. 6 . which is usually called the Biot-Savart law: where q is electric charge. Charged particle drifts in a homogenous magnetic field. then it necessarily follows from Gauss's law and from the equation of continuity of charge that is to . This fact is used to define the value of an ampere of electric current. and where is to ρ. or. The field is oriented according to the right hand grip rule. E (C) With an independent force. whereas parallels with . in cgs units. whose motion creates the magnetic field. in gauss (G) and oersteds (Oe). Ie.The extension of the above considerations confirms that where is to . parallels with . respectively. gravity) (D) In an inhomgeneous magnetic field. respectively. grad H Substituting into the definition of magnetic field the proper electric field of point-like charge (see Coulomb's law) results in the equation of magnetic field of moving charge. F (eg. measured in metres per second is the magnetic field (measured in teslas) Integrating the above expression around closed loop results in Ampere's law which is one of four Maxwell's equations. Two parallel wires carrying an electric current in the same direction will generate a magnetic field that will cause a force of attraction between them. is magnetization. measured in coulombs is velocity of the electric charge q that is generating . and are measured in teslas (T) and amperes per metre (A/m).

It can be more easily explained if one works backwards from the equation: where B is the magnitude of flux density.Lorentz force on wire segment Integrating the Lorentz force on an individual charged particle over a flow (current) of charged particles results in the Lorentz force on a stationary wire carrying electric current: where F = forces. The "north" and "south" poles of a magnet or a magnetic dipole are labelled similarly to north and south poles of a compass needle. measured in amperes B = magnetic field. such as a small magnet. It coincides with the direction of orientation of a magnetic dipole. The Lorentz force on a macroscopic current carrier is often referred to as the Laplace force. Near the north pole of a bar or a cylinder magnet. measured in teslas = vector cross-product l = length of wire. Pole labelling confusions See also North Magnetic Pole and South Magnetic Pole. a cluster of small particles of ferromagnetic material being brought in the magnetic field can be used to show the direction of magnetic field lines (see figure). Since dipoles are vectors and align "head to tail" with each other to minimize their magnetic potential energy. measured in newtons I = current in wire. Alternatively. and direction pointing along the wire in which the current is flowing. instead of current. The end of a compass needle that points north was historically called the "north" magnetic pole of the needle. Earth's magnetic field is probably produced by electric currents in its liquid core. or a small loop of current in the magnetic field. 1 newton of force is not easily accomplished. into the magnet. measured in SI as teslas F is the force experienced by a wire. So. measured in metres Demonstration of Fleming's left hand rule For a magnetic flux density to equal 1 tesla. measured in amperes L is the length of the wire.spots of glow in upper atmosphere above magnetic poles of Earth where energetic electrons and protons can reach air and ionize nitrogen and oxygen molecules. the magnetic field vector is directed out of the magnet. For example: the most powerful superconducting electromagnets in the world have flux densities of 'only' 20 T. Properties Magnetic field lines The direction of the magnetic field vector follows from the definition above. near the south pole. a force of 1 newton must act on a wire of length 1 metre carrying 1 ampere of current. I. measured in Newtons I is the current. This magnetic field continues inside the magnet (so there are no actual "poles" anywhere inside or outside of a magnet where the field stops or starts). the wire segment l can be considered a vector. the magnetic pole located near the geographic North Pole is actually the "south" pole. This is true obviously for both 7 . Breaking a magnet in half does not separate the poles but produces two magnets with two poles each. the current vector I is a vector with magnitude equal to the scalar current. measured in metres In the equation above. A trajectory of charged particle (electron Such motion of Solar wind plasma in the magnetic field of Earth results in Northern Lights (and Southern Lights) .

synchronous motors and induction motors use short-circuited rotors (instead of a magnet) following the rotating magnetic field of a multicoiled stator. The short-circuited turns of the rotor develop eddy currents in the rotating field of the stator. Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. three-phase systems are used where the three currents are equal in magnitude and have 120 degrees phase difference. the right hand grip rule is used instead which originated from the definition of cross product in the right hand system of coordinates. as seen in the example. but a magnetic field can only act on moving charge — hence the current. The digits from the thumb to second finger indicate 'Force'. For professional use. 'B-field'. A magnetic force can be considered as simply the relativistic part of an electric field when the latter is seen by a moving observer. and later utilised in his. and 'I(Current)' respectively. Three similar coils having mutual geometrical angles of 120 degrees will create the rotating magnetic field in this case. Other units of magnetic flux density are 1 gauss = 10-4 teslas = 100 microteslas (µT) 1 gamma = 10-9 teslas = 1 nanotesla (nT) Rotating magnetic fields Main article: Alternator The rotating magnetic field is a key principle in the operation of alternating-current motors. utilized in electric motors. electrons. it results in charge separation when a conductor with current is placed in a transverse magnetic field. It can also be remembered in the following way. and the potential difference between these sides can be measured. Relativistic explanations for the magnetic field According to special relativity. in order to overcome it.electromagnets and natural magnets. This effect was conceptualized by Nikola Tesla. electric and magnetic forces are part of a single physical phenomenon. Patent 381.968 for his work. 8 . in the equation. in practice such a system would be supplied through a three-wire arrangement with unequal currents. The equation can be adjusted to incorporate moving single charges. Nikola Tesla identified the concept of the rotating magnetic field. A rotating magnetic field can be constructed using two orthogonal coils with 90 degrees phase difference in their AC currents. The ability of the three-phase system to create a rotating field.S. Fleming's left hand rule for motion. Hall effect Main article: Hall effect Because the Lorentz force is charge-sign-dependent (see above). current and polarity can be used to determine the direction of any one of those from the other two. or F-B-I in short. However. Because magnets degrade with time. I. The Hall effect is often used to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field as well as to find the sign of the dominant charge carriers in semiconductors (negative electrons or positive holes). and these currents in turn move the rotor by the Lorentz force. and v is the velocity of that charge in metres per second. Also in 1888. an electric field perceived by one observer will be perceived by another observer in a different frame of reference as a mixture of electric fields and magnetic forces. early AC (alternating-current) electric motors. and others. A permanent magnet in such a field will rotate so as to maintain its alignment with the external field. This inequality would cause serious problems in standardization of the conductor size and so. ie protons. In 1888. and so on via where Q is the charge in coulombs. In 1885. Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. Tesla gained U. In 1882. is one of the main reasons why three-phase systems dominate the world's electrical power supply systems. with a buildup of opposite charges on two opposite sides of conductor in the direction normal to the magnetic field.

and that one stationary observer may perceive a magnetic force where a moving observer perceives only an electric field. It was Albert Einstein who showed. The direction of the field is the equilibrium direction of a magnetic dipole (like a compass needle) placed in the field. Another observer is moving alongside the two lines of charge (at the same velocity) and observes only electrostatic repulsive force and acceleration. A changing magnetic field is mathematically the same as a moving magnetic field (see relativity of motion). The first or "stationary" observer seeing the two lines (and second observer) moving past with some known velocity also observes that the "moving" observer's clock is ticking more slowly (due to time dilation) and thus observes the repulsive acceleration of the lines of charge more slowly than that which the "moving" observer sees. the electric field of this charge due to space contraction is no longer seen by the observer as spherically symmetric due to non-radial time dilation. Particles with zero spin never have magnetic moment which is the consequence that a magnetic field is the result of motion of electric field. A magnetic field is a vector field: it associates with every point in space a (pseudo) vector that may vary through time.[4] When an electric charge is moving from the perspective of an observer. This is known as Faraday's law of induction and is the principle behind electric generators and electric motors. in a classical electrodynamics context. under Maxwell's formulation. Thus. Some electrically neutral particles (like the neutron) with non-zero spin also have magnetic moment due to the charge distribution in their inner structure. the Lorentz transformation of the field from a proper reference frame to a non-moving reference frame). Thus. One of the products of these transformations is the part of the electric field which only acts on moving charges — and we call it the "magnetic field". The earliest of these arguments came about in 1905 with Einstein's famous paper on the special theory of relativity. Spinning charged particles also have magnetic moment. A Lorentz transformation is applied to Heaviside's versions of Maxwell's equations and this results in the appearance of the magnetic force term vXB. textbooks on electromagnetism have been mentioning yet another relativistic approach in which the four vector for current density might be used to introduce an electric current term into the Coulomb force such as to convert it into the Biot-Savart law. and it must be computed using the Lorentz transformations. The principle behind Purcell's derivation was that the relativistic gamma factor combined with the induced charge was able to convert the Coulomb force into the vXB force. In 1963. The quantum-mechanical motion of electrons in atoms produces the magnetic fields of permanent ferromagnets. using special relativity. This pseudo-force is precisely the same as the electromagnetic force in a classical context. The Lorentz transformation of a spherically-symmetric proper electric field E of a moving electric charge (for example. there were still two distinct fields describing different phenomena. magnetic forces are a manifestation of electric fields of charges in motion and may be predicted from knowledge of the electric fields and the velocity of movement (relative to some observer) of the charges. according to Einstein's field transformation equations (that is. It is a relativistic manifestation of the more fundamental electric field.There are three different arguments for this assertion. 9 . A thought experiment one can do to show this is with two identical infinite and parallel lines of charge having no motion relative to each other but moving together relative to an observer. the electric field of an electron moving in a conducting wire) from the charge's reference frame to the reference frame of a non-moving observer results in the following term which we can define or label as "magnetic field". The reduction of repulsive acceleration can be thought of as an added attractive force. that electric and magnetic fields are two aspects of the same thing (a rank-2 tensor). producing a set of four equations relating the two fields. using special relativity. part of it is manifested as an electric field component. Edmund Purcell published another argument in which he applied the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction to a neutral current carrying wire in order to invoke an electric charge density. that reduces the electrostatic repulsive force and also increases in magnitude with increasing velocity. Maxwell did much to unify static electricity and magnetism. More recently. However.

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