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Applied

Fluid

Mechanics

Sixth Edition

Robert L. Mott

University of Dayton

PEARSON

Prentkv

Pearson Education International

Contents

CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS

1.1 The Big Picture 1

1.2 Objectives 3

1.3 Basic Introductory Concepts 3

1.4 The International System of Units (SI) 4

1.5 The U.S. Customary System 5

1.6 Weight and Mass 6

1.7 Temperature

1.8 Consistent Units in an Equation 9

1.9 The Definition of Pressure 11

1.10 Compressibility 13

1.11 Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity

1.12 Surface Tension 19

8

References

Internet Sites 21 Practice Problems 21 Computer Programming Assignments 24

21

14

CHAPTER 2 VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS

2.1 The Big Picture 26

2.2 Objectives 26

2.3 Dynamic Viscosity 27

2.4 Kinematic Viscosity 29

2.5 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids 30

2.6 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 33

2.7 Viscosity Measurement 35

2.8 SAE Viscosity Grades 44

2.9 ISO Viscosity Grades 46

2.10 Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems 46 References 48 Internet Sites 48 Practice Problems 49 Computer Programming Assignments 51

,

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Contents

CHAPTER 3 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

52

3.1

The Big Picture 52

3.2

Objectives 52

3.3

Absolute and Gage Pressure 53

 

3.4

Relationship between Pressure and Elevation 55

3.5

Development of the Pressure-Elevation Relation 57

3.6

Pascal's Paradox 61

3.7

Manometers 62

3.8

Barometers 67

3.9

Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid 69

 

3.10

Pressure Gages and Transducers 70 References 74 Internet Sites 75 Practice Problems 75

CHAPTER 4 FORCES DUE TO STATIC FLUIDS

83

4.1

The Big Picture 83

4.2

Objectives 85

4.3

Gases under Pressure 85

 

4.4

Horizontal Flat Surfaces under Liquids 86

4.5

Rectangular Walls 87

4.6

Submerged Plane Areas—General 90

4.7

Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged

Plane Areas

94

4.8

Piezometric Head 96

 

4.9

Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface 97

4.10

Effect of a Pressure above the Ruid Surface 103

4.11

Forces on a Curved Surface with Ruid Below It 103

4.12

Forces on Curved Surfaces with Ruid Above and Below 104 Practice Problems 105 Computer Programming Assignments 122,

CHAPTER 5 BUOYANCY AND STABILITY

123

5.1 The Big Picture

5.2 Objectives 124

5.3 Buoyancy 124

5.4 Buoyancy Materials

5.5 Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies

5.6 Stability of Floating Bodies

5.7 Degree of Stability Reference 142 Internet Sites Practice Problems

140

123

132

135

142

142

Computer Programming Assignments

152

133

Contents

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CHAPTER 6 FLOW OF FLUIDS AND BERNOULLI'S EQUATION

153

6.1

The Big Picture 153

 

6.2

Objectives 154

6.3

Fluid Row Rate and the Continuity Equation 154

 

6.4

Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing 158

 

6.5

Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing 161

 

6.6

Conservation of Energy—Bernoulli's Equation 165

6.7

Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation 167

 

6.8

Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation 169

6.9

Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 169

6.10

Torricelli's Theorem 179

 

6.11

Flow Due to a Falling

Head

182

References 185 Internet Sites 185 Practice Problems 186 Computer Programming Assignments 196

 

CHAPTER 7 GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION

 

197

7.1 The Big Picture

197

 

7.2 Objectives 199

7.3 Energy Losses and Additions

199

7.4 Nomenclature of Energy Losses and Additions

202

7.5 General Energy Equation

202

7.6 Power Required by Pumps

207

7.7 Power Delivered to Fluid Motors

211

 

Practice Problems

213

CHAPTER 8 REYNOLDS NUMBER, LAMINAR FLOW, TURBULENT FLOW, AND ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION

226

8.1

The Big Picture

226

8.2

Objectives 229

8.3

Reynolds Number

230

8.4

Critical Reynolds Numbers

231

8.5

Darcy's Equation

233

8.6

Friction Loss in Laminar Flow

233

8.7

Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow

235

8.8

Equations for the Friction Factor

242

8.9

Hazen-Williams Formula for Water Flow

243

8.10

Other Forms of the Hazen-Williams Formula

245

8.11

Nomograph for Solving the Hazen-Williams Formula References 247

245

Internet Sites

247

Practice Problems

247

Computer Programming Assignments

254

Contents

CHAPTER 9 VELOCITY PROFILES FOR CIRCULAR SECTIONS AND FLOW IN NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS

255

9.1 The Big Picture 255

9.2 Objectives 256

9.3 Velocity Profiles 256

 

9.4 Velocity Profile for Laminar Row 257

9.5 Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow 258

9.6 Flow in Noncircular Sections 260

9.7 Computational Fluid Dynamics 266 References 268 Internet Sites 268 Practice Problems 268 Computer Programming Assignments 277

CHAPTER 10 MINOR LOSSES

278

10.1 The Big Picture 278

10.2 Objectives 280

10.3 Resistance Coefficient 281

 

10.4 Sudden Enlargement 281

10.5 Exit Loss 284

10.6 Gradual Enlargement 286

 

10.7 Sudden Contraction 288

10.8 Gradual Contraction 290

10.9 Entrance Loss 292

10.10 Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings 293

 

10.11 Application of Standard Valves 300

10.12 Pipe Bends 303

10.13 Pressure Drop in Ruid Power Valves 305

 

10.14 Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cy 310

10.15 Plastic Valves 311 References 313 Internet Sites 313 Practice Problems 314 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 319

CHAPTER 11 SERIES PIPELINE SYSTEMS

320

11.1 The Big Picture

320

11.2 Objectives 321

11.3 Class I Systems

321

11.4 Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems

327

11.5 Class II Systems

330

11.6 Class III Systems

339

11.7 Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity References 345

343

Contents

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Internet Sites 346 Practice Problems 346 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 357

CHAPTER 12 PARALLEL PIPELINE SYSTEMS

 

358

12.1 The Big Picture 358

 

12.2 Objectives 360

 

12.3 Systems with Two Branches

361

12.4 Systems with Three or More Branches—Networks Reference 377

368

Internet Sites

377

Practice Problems

377

Computer Programming Assignments

381

CHAPTER 13

PUMP SELECTION AND APPLICATION

 

382

13.1 The Big Picture 382

 

13.2 Objectives 384

 

13.3 Parameters Involved in Pump Selection 385

 

13.4 Types of Pumps 385

 

13.5 Positive-Displacement Pumps

385

13.6 Kinetic Pumps 392

 

13.7 Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps 398

 

13.8 Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps 400

13.9 Manufacturers' Data for Centrifugal Pumps 401

13.10 The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection 410

 

13.11 Net Positive Suction Head 411

 

13.12 Suction Line Details 417

 

13.13 Discharge Line Details 418

13.14 Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure 419

 

13.15 Alternate System Operating Modes 423

 

13.16 Pump Selection and Specific Speed 429

13.17 Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid Systems 430

13.18 Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection 433 References 434 Internet Sites 434 Software for Piping System Design 435 Practice Problems 436 Design Problems 438 Comprehensive Design Problem 441

 

CHAPTER 14

OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW

 

443

14.1 The Big Picture 443

14.2 Objectives 444

14.3 Classification of Open-Channel Flow

445

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14.4 Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in Open-Channel Flow 446

14.5 Kinds of Open-Channel Flow 447

14.6 Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels 448

14.7 The Geometry of Typical Open Channels 453

14.8 The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels 456

14.9 Critical Row and Specific Energy

457

14.10 Hydraulic Jump 459

14.11 Open-Channel Flow Measurement

462

References 467 Internet Sites 467 Practice Problems 468 Computer Programming Assignments 471

CHAPTER 15 FLOW MEASUREMENT

473

15.1 The Big Picture 473

15.2 Objectives 474

15.3 Rowmeter Selection Factors 474

15.4 Variable-Head Meters 476

15.5 Variable-Area Meters 485

15.6 Turbine Flowmeter 486

15.7 Vortex Flowmeter 487

15.8 Magnetic Rowmeter 487

15.9 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 489

15.10 Positive Displacement Meters 489

15.11 Mass Row Measurement 490

15.12 Velocity Probes 492

15.13 Level Measurement 497

15.14 Computer-Based Data Acquisition and Processing 499 References 499 Internet Sites 499 Review Questions 500 Practice Problems 501 Computer Programming Assignments 502

.

CHAPTER 16 FORCES DUE TO FLUIDS IN MOTION

503

16.1 The Big Picture 503

16.2 Objectives 504

16.3 Force Equation 504

16.4 Impulse-Momentum Equation 505

16.5 Problem-Solving Method Using the Force Equations 505

16.6 Forces on Stationary Objects 506

16.7 Forces on Bends in Pipelines 509

16.8 Forces on Moving Objects 513 Practice Problems 514

Contents

CHAPTER 17 DRAG AND LIFT

17.1 The Big Picture 520

17.2 Objectives 521

17.3 Drag Force Equation 522

17.4 Pressure Drag 523

17.5 Drag Coefficient 524

17.6 Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow 530

17.7 Vehicle Drag 531

17.8 Compressibility Effects and Cavitation 533

17.9 Lift and Drag on Airfoils 534 References 537 Internet Sites 537 Practice Problems 537

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CHAPTER 18 FANS, BLOWERS, COMPRESSORS, AND THE FLOW OF GASES

542

18.1 The Big Picture 542

18.2 Objectives 543

18.3 Gas Flow Rates and Pressures 543

18.4 Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors 544

18.5 Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes 549

18.6 Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles 556 References 564 Internet Sites 564 Practice Problems 565 Computer Programming Assignments 567

CHAPTER 19 FLOW OF AIR IN DUCTS

568

19.1 The Big Picture 568

19.2 Objectives 570

19.3 Energy Losses in Ducts 570

19.4 Duct Design 576

19.5 Energy Efficiency and Practical Considerations in Duct Design 583 References 584 Internet Sites 584 Practice Problems 585

APPENDIXES

A Properties of Water 589

B Properties of Common Liquids 591

C Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils 593

589

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Contents

D Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 594

E Properties of Air 597

F Dimensions of Steel Pipe 601

G Dimensions of Steel Tubing 603

H Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing 604

I Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe 605

J Areas of Circles 606

K Conversion Factors

608

L Properties

of Areas

611

M Properties of Solids 613

N Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases 615

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

616

INDEX

623