Applied
Fluid
Mechanics
Sixth Edition
Robert L. Mott
University of Dayton
PEARSON
Prentkv
Pearson Education International
Contents
CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS
1.1 The Big Picture 1
1.2 Objectives 3
1.3 Basic Introductory Concepts 3
1.4 The International System of Units (SI) 4
1.5 The U.S. Customary System 5
1.6 Weight and Mass 6
1.7 Temperature
1.8 Consistent Units in an Equation 9
1.9 The Definition of Pressure 11
1.10 Compressibility 13
1.11 Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity
1.12 Surface Tension 19
8
References
Internet Sites 21 Practice Problems 21 Computer Programming Assignments 24
21
14
CHAPTER 2 VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS
2.1 The Big Picture 26
2.2 Objectives 26
2.3 Dynamic Viscosity 27
2.4 Kinematic Viscosity 29
2.5 Newtonian Fluids and NonNewtonian Fluids 30
2.6 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 33
2.7 Viscosity Measurement 35
2.8 SAE Viscosity Grades 44
2.9 ISO Viscosity Grades 46
2.10 Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems 46 References 48 Internet Sites 48 Practice Problems 49 Computer Programming Assignments 51
,
26
vii
viii
Contents
CHAPTER 3 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 
52 

3.1 
The Big Picture 52 

3.2 
Objectives 52 

3.3 
Absolute and Gage Pressure 53 

3.4 
Relationship between Pressure and Elevation 55 

3.5 
Development of the PressureElevation Relation 57 

3.6 
Pascal's Paradox 61 

3.7 
Manometers 62 

3.8 
Barometers 67 

3.9 
Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid 69 

3.10 
Pressure Gages and Transducers 70 References 74 Internet Sites 75 Practice Problems 75 

CHAPTER 4 FORCES DUE TO STATIC FLUIDS 
83 

4.1 
The Big Picture 83 

4.2 
Objectives 85 

4.3 
Gases under Pressure 85 

4.4 
Horizontal Flat Surfaces under Liquids 86 

4.5 
Rectangular Walls 87 

4.6 
Submerged Plane Areas—General 90 

4.7 
Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged 

Plane Areas 
94 

4.8 
Piezometric Head 96 

4.9 
Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface 97 

4.10 
Effect of a Pressure above the Ruid Surface 103 

4.11 
Forces on a Curved Surface with Ruid Below It 103 

4.12 
Forces on Curved Surfaces with Ruid Above and Below 104 Practice Problems 105 Computer Programming Assignments 122, 

CHAPTER 5 BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 
123 
5.1 The Big Picture
5.2 Objectives 124
5.3 Buoyancy 124
5.4 Buoyancy Materials
5.5 Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies
5.6 Stability of Floating Bodies
5.7 Degree of Stability Reference 142 Internet Sites Practice Problems
140
123
132
135
142
142
Computer Programming Assignments
152
133
Contents
ix
CHAPTER 6 FLOW OF FLUIDS AND BERNOULLI'S EQUATION 
153 

6.1 
The Big Picture 153 

6.2 
Objectives 154 

6.3 
Fluid Row Rate and the Continuity Equation 154 

6.4 
Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing 158 

6.5 
Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing 161 

6.6 
Conservation of Energy—Bernoulli's Equation 165 

6.7 
Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation 167 

6.8 
Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation 169 

6.9 
Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 169 

6.10 
Torricelli's Theorem 179 

6.11 
Flow Due to a Falling 
Head 
182 

References 185 Internet Sites 185 Practice Problems 186 Computer Programming Assignments 196 

CHAPTER 7 GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION 
197 

7.1 The Big Picture 197 

7.2 Objectives 199 

7.3 Energy Losses and Additions 
199 

7.4 Nomenclature of Energy Losses and Additions 
202 

7.5 General Energy Equation 
202 

7.6 Power Required by Pumps 
207 

7.7 Power Delivered to Fluid Motors 
211 

Practice Problems 
213 

CHAPTER 8 REYNOLDS NUMBER, LAMINAR FLOW, TURBULENT FLOW, AND ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION 
226 
8.1 
The Big Picture 
226 

8.2 
Objectives 229 

8.3 
Reynolds Number 
230 

8.4 
Critical Reynolds Numbers 
231 

8.5 
Darcy's Equation 
233 

8.6 
Friction Loss in Laminar Flow 
233 

8.7 
Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow 
235 

8.8 
Equations for the Friction Factor 
242 

8.9 
HazenWilliams Formula for Water Flow 
243 

8.10 
Other Forms of the HazenWilliams Formula 
245 

8.11 
Nomograph for Solving the HazenWilliams Formula References 247 
245 
Internet Sites 
247 

Practice Problems 
247 
Computer Programming Assignments
254
Contents
CHAPTER 9 VELOCITY PROFILES FOR CIRCULAR SECTIONS AND FLOW IN NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS 
255 

9.1 The Big Picture 255 

9.2 Objectives 256 

9.3 Velocity Profiles 256 

9.4 Velocity Profile for Laminar Row 257 

9.5 Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow 258 

9.6 Flow in Noncircular Sections 260 

9.7 Computational Fluid Dynamics 266 References 268 Internet Sites 268 Practice Problems 268 Computer Programming Assignments 277 

CHAPTER 10 MINOR LOSSES 
278 

10.1 The Big Picture 278 

10.2 Objectives 280 

10.3 Resistance Coefficient 281 

10.4 Sudden Enlargement 281 

10.5 Exit Loss 284 

10.6 Gradual Enlargement 286 

10.7 Sudden Contraction 288 

10.8 Gradual Contraction 290 

10.9 Entrance Loss 292 

10.10 Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings 293 

10.11 Application of Standard Valves 300 

10.12 Pipe Bends 303 

10.13 Pressure Drop in Ruid Power Valves 305 

10.14 Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cy 310 

10.15 Plastic Valves 311 References 313 Internet Sites 313 Practice Problems 314 ComputerAided Analysis and Design Assignments 319 

CHAPTER 11 SERIES PIPELINE SYSTEMS 
320 

11.1 The Big Picture 
320 

11.2 Objectives 321 

11.3 Class I Systems 
321 
11.4 Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems
327
11.5 Class II Systems 
330 
11.6 Class III Systems 
339 
11.7 Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity References 345
343
Contents 
xi 

Internet Sites 346 Practice Problems 346 ComputerAided Analysis and Design Assignments 357 

CHAPTER 12 PARALLEL PIPELINE SYSTEMS 
358 

12.1 The Big Picture 358 

12.2 Objectives 360 

12.3 Systems with Two Branches 
361 

12.4 Systems with Three or More Branches—Networks Reference 377 
368 

Internet Sites 
377 

Practice Problems 
377 

Computer Programming Assignments 
381 

CHAPTER 13 

PUMP SELECTION AND APPLICATION 
382 

13.1 The Big Picture 382 

13.2 Objectives 384 

13.3 Parameters Involved in Pump Selection 385 

13.4 Types of Pumps 385 

13.5 PositiveDisplacement Pumps 
385 

13.6 Kinetic Pumps 392 

13.7 Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps 398 

13.8 Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps 400 

13.9 Manufacturers' Data for Centrifugal Pumps 401 

13.10 The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection 410 

13.11 Net Positive Suction Head 411 

13.12 Suction Line Details 417 

13.13 Discharge Line Details 418 

13.14 Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure 419 

13.15 Alternate System Operating Modes 423 

13.16 Pump Selection and Specific Speed 429 

13.17 Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid Systems 430 

13.18 Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection 433 References 434 Internet Sites 434 Software for Piping System Design 435 Practice Problems 436 Design Problems 438 Comprehensive Design Problem 441 

CHAPTER 14 

OPENCHANNEL FLOW 
443 
14.1 The Big Picture 443
14.2 Objectives 444
14.3 Classification of OpenChannel Flow
445
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Contents
14.4 Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in OpenChannel Flow 446
14.5 Kinds of OpenChannel Flow 447
14.6 Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels 448
14.7 The Geometry of Typical Open Channels 453
14.8 The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels 456
14.9 Critical Row and Specific Energy 
457 
14.10 Hydraulic Jump 459 

14.11 OpenChannel Flow Measurement 
462 
References 467 Internet Sites 467 Practice Problems 468 Computer Programming Assignments 471
CHAPTER 15 FLOW MEASUREMENT 
473 
15.1 The Big Picture 473 

15.2 Objectives 474 

15.3 Rowmeter Selection Factors 474 

15.4 VariableHead Meters 476 

15.5 VariableArea Meters 485 

15.6 Turbine Flowmeter 486 

15.7 Vortex Flowmeter 487 

15.8 Magnetic Rowmeter 487 

15.9 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 489 

15.10 Positive Displacement Meters 489 

15.11 Mass Row Measurement 490 

15.12 Velocity Probes 492 

15.13 Level Measurement 497 

15.14 ComputerBased Data Acquisition and Processing 499 References 499 Internet Sites 499 Review Questions 500 Practice Problems 501 Computer Programming Assignments 502 . 

CHAPTER 16 FORCES DUE TO FLUIDS IN MOTION 
503 
16.1 The Big Picture 503
16.2 Objectives 504
16.3 Force Equation 504
16.4 ImpulseMomentum Equation 505
16.5 ProblemSolving Method Using the Force Equations 505
16.6 Forces on Stationary Objects 506
16.7 Forces on Bends in Pipelines 509
16.8 Forces on Moving Objects 513 Practice Problems 514
Contents
CHAPTER 17 DRAG AND LIFT
17.1 The Big Picture 520
17.2 Objectives 521
17.3 Drag Force Equation 522
17.4 Pressure Drag 523
17.5 Drag Coefficient 524
17.6 Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow 530
17.7 Vehicle Drag 531
17.8 Compressibility Effects and Cavitation 533
17.9 Lift and Drag on Airfoils 534 References 537 Internet Sites 537 Practice Problems 537
xiii
520
CHAPTER 18 FANS, BLOWERS, COMPRESSORS, AND THE FLOW OF GASES 
542 
18.1 The Big Picture 542 

18.2 Objectives 543 

18.3 Gas Flow Rates and Pressures 543 

18.4 Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors 544 

18.5 Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes 549 

18.6 Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles 556 References 564 Internet Sites 564 Practice Problems 565 Computer Programming Assignments 567 

CHAPTER 19 FLOW OF AIR IN DUCTS 
568 
19.1 The Big Picture 568
19.2 Objectives 570
19.3 Energy Losses in Ducts 570
19.4 Duct Design 576
19.5 Energy Efficiency and Practical Considerations in Duct Design 583 References 584 Internet Sites 584 Practice Problems 585
APPENDIXES
A Properties of Water 589
B Properties of Common Liquids 591
C Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils 593
589
xiv
Contents
D Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 594
E Properties of Air 597
F Dimensions of Steel Pipe 601
G Dimensions of Steel Tubing 603
H Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing 604
I Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe 605
J Areas of Circles 606
K Conversion Factors 
608 

L Properties 
of Areas 
611 
M Properties of Solids 613
N Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases 615
ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 
616 
INDEX 
623 
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