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Applied

Fluid

Mechanics

Sixth Edition

Robert L. Mott

University of Dayton

PEARSON

Prentkv

Pearson Education International

Contents

CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS

1.1 The Big Picture 1

1.2 Objectives 3

1.3 Basic Introductory Concepts 3

1.4 The International System of Units (SI) 4

1.5 The U.S. Customary System 5

1.6 Weight and Mass 6

1.7 Temperature

1.8 Consistent Units in an Equation 9

1.9 The Definition of Pressure 11

1.10 Compressibility 13

1.11 Density, Specific Weight, and Specific Gravity

1.12 Surface Tension 19

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References

Internet Sites 21 Practice Problems 21 Computer Programming Assignments 24

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CHAPTER 2 VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS

2.1 The Big Picture 26

2.2 Objectives 26

2.3 Dynamic Viscosity 27

2.4 Kinematic Viscosity 29

2.5 Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids 30

2.6 Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 33

2.7 Viscosity Measurement 35

2.10 Hydraulic Fluids for Fluid Power Systems 46 References 48 Internet Sites 48 Practice Problems 49 Computer Programming Assignments 51

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 CHAPTER 3 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 52 3.1 The Big Picture 52 3.2 Objectives 52 3.3 Absolute and Gage Pressure 53 3.4 Relationship between Pressure and Elevation 55 3.5 Development of the Pressure-Elevation Relation 57 3.6 Pascal's Paradox 61 3.7 Manometers 62 3.8 Barometers 67 3.9 Pressure Expressed as the Height of a Column of Liquid 69 3.10 Pressure Gages and Transducers 70 References 74 Internet Sites 75 Practice Problems 75 CHAPTER 4 FORCES DUE TO STATIC FLUIDS 83 4.1 The Big Picture 83 4.2 Objectives 85 4.3 Gases under Pressure 85 4.4 Horizontal Flat Surfaces under Liquids 86 4.5 Rectangular Walls 87 4.6 Submerged Plane Areas—General 90 4.7 Development of the General Procedure for Forces on Submerged Plane Areas 94 4.8 Piezometric Head 96 4.9 Distribution of Force on a Submerged Curved Surface 97 4.10 Effect of a Pressure above the Ruid Surface 103 4.11 Forces on a Curved Surface with Ruid Below It 103 4.12 Forces on Curved Surfaces with Ruid Above and Below 104 Practice Problems 105 Computer Programming Assignments 122, CHAPTER 5 BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 123

5.1 The Big Picture

5.2 Objectives 124

5.3 Buoyancy 124

5.4 Buoyancy Materials

5.5 Stability of Completely Submerged Bodies

5.6 Stability of Floating Bodies

5.7 Degree of Stability Reference 142 Internet Sites Practice Problems

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123

132

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Computer Programming Assignments

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Contents

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 CHAPTER 6 FLOW OF FLUIDS AND BERNOULLI'S EQUATION 153 6.1 The Big Picture 153 6.2 Objectives 154 6.3 Fluid Row Rate and the Continuity Equation 154 6.4 Commercially Available Pipe and Tubing 158 6.5 Recommended Velocity of Flow in Pipe and Tubing 161 6.6 Conservation of Energy—Bernoulli's Equation 165 6.7 Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation 167 6.8 Restrictions on Bernoulli's Equation 169 6.9 Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 169 6.10 Torricelli's Theorem 179 6.11 Flow Due to a Falling Head 182 References 185 Internet Sites 185 Practice Problems 186 Computer Programming Assignments 196 CHAPTER 7 GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION 197 7.1 The Big Picture 197 7.2 Objectives 199 7.3 Energy Losses and Additions 199 7.4 Nomenclature of Energy Losses and Additions 202 7.5 General Energy Equation 202 7.6 Power Required by Pumps 207 7.7 Power Delivered to Fluid Motors 211 Practice Problems 213 CHAPTER 8 REYNOLDS NUMBER, LAMINAR FLOW, TURBULENT FLOW, AND ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO FRICTION 226
 8.1 The Big Picture 226 8.2 Objectives 229 8.3 Reynolds Number 230 8.4 Critical Reynolds Numbers 231 8.5 Darcy's Equation 233 8.6 Friction Loss in Laminar Flow 233 8.7 Friction Loss in Turbulent Flow 235 8.8 Equations for the Friction Factor 242 8.9 Hazen-Williams Formula for Water Flow 243 8.1 Other Forms of the Hazen-Williams Formula 245 8.11 Nomograph for Solving the Hazen-Williams Formula References 247 245
 Internet Sites 247 Practice Problems 247

Computer Programming Assignments

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Contents

 CHAPTER 9 VELOCITY PROFILES FOR CIRCULAR SECTIONS AND FLOW IN NONCIRCULAR SECTIONS 255 9.1 The Big Picture 255 9.2 Objectives 256 9.3 Velocity Profiles 256 9.4 Velocity Profile for Laminar Row 257 9.5 Velocity Profile for Turbulent Flow 258 9.6 Flow in Noncircular Sections 260 9.7 Computational Fluid Dynamics 266 References 268 Internet Sites 268 Practice Problems 268 Computer Programming Assignments 277 CHAPTER 10 MINOR LOSSES 278 10.1 The Big Picture 278 10.2 Objectives 280 10.3 Resistance Coefficient 281 10.4 Sudden Enlargement 281 10.5 Exit Loss 284 10.6 Gradual Enlargement 286 10.7 Sudden Contraction 288 10.8 Gradual Contraction 290 10.9 Entrance Loss 292 10.10 Resistance Coefficients for Valves and Fittings 293 10.11 Application of Standard Valves 300 10.12 Pipe Bends 303 10.13 Pressure Drop in Ruid Power Valves 305 10.14 Flow Coefficients for Valves Using Cy 310 10.15 Plastic Valves 311 References 313 Internet Sites 313 Practice Problems 314 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 319 CHAPTER 11 SERIES PIPELINE SYSTEMS 320 11.1 The Big Picture 320 11.2 Objectives 321 11.3 Class I Systems 321

11.4 Spreadsheet Aid for Class I Problems

327

 11.5 Class II Systems 330 11.6 Class III Systems 339

11.7 Pipeline Design for Structural Integrity References 345

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 Contents xi Internet Sites 346 Practice Problems 346 Computer-Aided Analysis and Design Assignments 357 CHAPTER 12 PARALLEL PIPELINE SYSTEMS 358 12.1 The Big Picture 358 12.2 Objectives 360 12.3 Systems with Two Branches 361 12.4 Systems with Three or More Branches—Networks Reference 377 368 Internet Sites 377 Practice Problems 377 Computer Programming Assignments 381 CHAPTER 13 PUMP SELECTION AND APPLICATION 382 13.1 The Big Picture 382 13.2 Objectives 384 13.3 Parameters Involved in Pump Selection 385 13.4 Types of Pumps 385 13.5 Positive-Displacement Pumps 385 13.6 Kinetic Pumps 392 13.7 Performance Data for Centrifugal Pumps 398 13.8 Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Pumps 400 13.9 Manufacturers' Data for Centrifugal Pumps 401 13.10 The Operating Point of a Pump and Pump Selection 410 13.11 Net Positive Suction Head 411 13.12 Suction Line Details 417 13.13 Discharge Line Details 418 13.14 Piping System Design and Pump Selection Procedure 419 13.15 Alternate System Operating Modes 423 13.16 Pump Selection and Specific Speed 429 13.17 Life Cycle Costs for Pumped Fluid Systems 430 13.18 Software for Piping System Design and Pump Selection 433 References 434 Internet Sites 434 Software for Piping System Design 435 Practice Problems 436 Design Problems 438 Comprehensive Design Problem 441 CHAPTER 14 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW 443

14.1 The Big Picture 443

14.2 Objectives 444

14.3 Classification of Open-Channel Flow

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14.4 Hydraulic Radius and Reynolds Number in Open-Channel Flow 446

14.5 Kinds of Open-Channel Flow 447

14.6 Uniform Steady Flow in Open Channels 448

14.7 The Geometry of Typical Open Channels 453

14.8 The Most Efficient Shapes for Open Channels 456

 14.9 Critical Row and Specific Energy 457 14.10 Hydraulic Jump 459 14.11 Open-Channel Flow Measurement 462

References 467 Internet Sites 467 Practice Problems 468 Computer Programming Assignments 471

 CHAPTER 15 FLOW MEASUREMENT 473 15.1 The Big Picture 473 15.2 Objectives 474 15.3 Rowmeter Selection Factors 474 15.4 Variable-Head Meters 476 15.5 Variable-Area Meters 485 15.6 Turbine Flowmeter 486 15.7 Vortex Flowmeter 487 15.8 Magnetic Rowmeter 487 15.9 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 489 15.10 Positive Displacement Meters 489 15.11 Mass Row Measurement 490 15.12 Velocity Probes 492 15.13 Level Measurement 497 15.14 Computer-Based Data Acquisition and Processing 499 References 499 Internet Sites 499 Review Questions 500 Practice Problems 501 Computer Programming Assignments 502 . CHAPTER 16 FORCES DUE TO FLUIDS IN MOTION 503

16.1 The Big Picture 503

16.2 Objectives 504

16.3 Force Equation 504

16.4 Impulse-Momentum Equation 505

16.5 Problem-Solving Method Using the Force Equations 505

16.6 Forces on Stationary Objects 506

16.7 Forces on Bends in Pipelines 509

16.8 Forces on Moving Objects 513 Practice Problems 514

Contents

CHAPTER 17 DRAG AND LIFT

17.1 The Big Picture 520

17.2 Objectives 521

17.3 Drag Force Equation 522

17.4 Pressure Drag 523

17.5 Drag Coefficient 524

17.6 Friction Drag on Spheres in Laminar Flow 530

17.7 Vehicle Drag 531

17.8 Compressibility Effects and Cavitation 533

17.9 Lift and Drag on Airfoils 534 References 537 Internet Sites 537 Practice Problems 537

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 CHAPTER 18 FANS, BLOWERS, COMPRESSORS, AND THE FLOW OF GASES 542 18.1 The Big Picture 542 18.2 Objectives 543 18.3 Gas Flow Rates and Pressures 543 18.4 Classification of Fans, Blowers, and Compressors 544 18.5 Flow of Compressed Air and Other Gases in Pipes 549 18.6 Flow of Air and Other Gases through Nozzles 556 References 564 Internet Sites 564 Practice Problems 565 Computer Programming Assignments 567 CHAPTER 19 FLOW OF AIR IN DUCTS 568

19.1 The Big Picture 568

19.2 Objectives 570

19.3 Energy Losses in Ducts 570

19.4 Duct Design 576

19.5 Energy Efficiency and Practical Considerations in Duct Design 583 References 584 Internet Sites 584 Practice Problems 585

APPENDIXES

A Properties of Water 589

B Properties of Common Liquids 591

C Typical Properties of Petroleum Lubricating Oils 593

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D Variation of Viscosity with Temperature 594

E Properties of Air 597

F Dimensions of Steel Pipe 601

G Dimensions of Steel Tubing 603

H Dimensions of Type K Copper Tubing 604

I Dimensions of Ductile Iron Pipe 605

J Areas of Circles 606

 K Conversion Factors 608 L Properties of Areas 611

M Properties of Solids 613

N Gas Constant, Adiabatic Exponent, and Critical Pressure Ratio for Selected Gases 615

 ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 616 INDEX 623