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Klaus Austin V.

Fuentes Jan Michael Gaite

NatSci-A7 Submitted to: Ms. Ivy Claire Mordeno

WEATHER DISTURBANCE a general term that describes any pulse of energy moving through the atmosphere. They are important in that they can act as focusing mechanisms for storm formation, or even to intensify low pressure systems. To be more technical, they are typically mid or upper atmospheric troughs of low pressure that are embedded in the general wind flow of the atmosphere.

TYPES: 1. TYPHOON A large heat engine, where great amounts of heat are being produced from the process of latent heat of condensation. This occurs as water vapor is being evaporated from the ocean surface and condensed into cloud droplets. CAUSES: 1. Pre-existing Disturbance or low pressure area must have formed in the low levels of the atmosphere to start winds converging and uplift. 2. Warm Water to a sufficient depth to support the energy that a hurricane will need. The temperature needs to be about 26.5 Celsius or 80 Fahrenheit to a depth of about 50 meters or 150 feet deep. 3. Low Stability will allow deep convection or cumulonimbus clouds to build to great heights in the atmosphere. A stable air mass will inhibit cloud development and not allow for significant cloud growth to support the deep convection needed for a hurricane to develop.

4. Coriolis Force The disturbed area of weather needs to be at least 4-5 away from the equator. This is the approximate distance from the equator for the Coriolis force to achieve a gradient wind balance to sustain the low pressure area. 5. Moist Mid Level of the atmosphere. If there is dry air aloft it will weaken or choke off the updrafts in the cumulus clouds. 6. Low Vertical Wind Shear from the surface to upper troposphere. This allows for the thunderstorm clouds to build to great heights. If the wind speed increases or changes direction with height, the cumulonimbus clouds get deformed can not sustain the hurricane heat engine.

7. Divergence in the upper Atmosphere allows for the transport of mass away from the hurricane.

2. TROPICAL CYCLONE a storm system characterized by a low-pressure center numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain.

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CAUSES: 1. Water temperatures of at least 26.5 C (79.7 F) are needed down to a depth of at least 50 m (160 ft); waters of this temperature cause the overlying atmosphere to be unstable enough to sustain convection and thunderstorms. Rapid cooling with height, which allows the release of the heat of condensation that powers a tropical cyclone. High humidity is needed, especially in the lower-to-mid troposphere; when there is a great deal of moisture in the atmosphere, conditions are more favorable for disturbances to develop. Low amounts of wind shear are needed, as high shear is disruptive to the storm's circulation. Tropical cyclones generally need to form more than 555 km (345 mi) or 5 degrees of latitude away from the equator, allowing the Coriolis effect to deflect winds blowing towards the low pressure center and creating a circulation. Formative tropical cyclone needs a pre-existing system of disturbed weather, although without a circulation no cyclonic development will take place.

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3. TORNADO is a violently rotating columns of air usually produced by severe thunderstorms. In appearance they are generally funnel shaped but may also have the likeness of a rope (skinny tornado) or wedge (very wide tornado). There can be several mini tornadoes circulating around a larger one. These are called multi vortex tornadoes and are usually violent. Some tornadoes form over water and these are called waterspouts. Most waterspouts form from high instability of growing convective clouds over water. Landspouts are similar to waterspouts as are not associated with a thunderstorm mesocyclone. HOW TORNADOES ARE FORMED:
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Tornadoes form in generally strong wind shear conditions. This is observed as winds increase in speed and change direction (veer) with increasing altitude. Invisible horizontal tubes of sinning air are created by this process. As thunderstorms form, these tubes are tilted vertically. Thunderstorms start to rotate with diameters ranging from 2-6miles. If the rotation is strong enough, a wall cloud develops. This is a cloud that rotates, hanging low under the updraft of the thunderstorm. If a burst of air drops

from a nearby downdraft it may enter the strong updraft under the wall cloud. The column of air is stretched and a tornado is formed. In this sense, most tornadoes actually form from the ground up. It is simply highly saturated air dropping from the thunderstorm which gives the appearance of a tornado touching down. How fast do tornadoes move? - A tornado on average moves at speeds of 30mph, but can range stationary to about 70mph.