You are on page 1of 40

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Ir. Victor Leung


Project Director, J. Roger Preston Limited

Content
Overview of traditional balancing mechanics, drawbacks & limitations Chilled water balancing with constant flow valve mechanics and problem 3 in 1 chilled water dynamic balancing technical analysis, benefits

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Traditional Chilled Water Balancing & Control


Mechanics Initial balancing with commissioning valves under full flow condition Maintain index circuit supply/ return pressure differential at preset level Modulate cooling coil chilled water control valve opening to regulate chilled water flow rate maintain preset indoor space temperature

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Traditional Chilled Water Balancing


Mechanics Initial balancing with commissioning valve under full flow condition Require comprehensive chilled water distribution circuit hydraulics analysis to determine initial commissioning valve setting & refinement / adjustment with on site measurement Problems Laborious process to determine valve setting Prone to improper and incomplete commissioning Initial static balancing under full flow condition will distorted under dynamic condition
Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing 4

Traditional Chilled Water Control


Mechanics Modulate chilled water control valve opening to regulate chilled water flow rate & maintain preset indoor space temperature Problems Space temperature controller can only modulate the control valve opening, its effect on chilled water flow rate is unknown Relatively high initial resistance due to necessary 50% control valve authority (ie full open control valve resistance = cooling coil + commissioning valve resistance)
Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing 5

Hydronic Fundamentals
Traditional control valve and Double Regulating Valve (index circuit)

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Coil

DRV

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Hydronic Fundamentals
Traditional control valve and double regulating valve (index circuit)

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Coil + DRV Coil

DRV

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Hydronic Fundamentals
Traditional control valve and double regulating valve (index circuit)

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Control Valve

Coil + DRV

Coil

DRV

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Hydronic Fundamentals
Traditional control valve and double regulating valve (index circuit)
Index circuit Index circuit Total pressure drop Total pressure drop

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Control Valve

Coil + DRV

Coil

DRV

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Chilled Water Balancing with Constant Flow Valve


Mechanics Constant Flow Valves limit chilled water flow rate to below preset Problems Only serves to limit flow rate and do not have system resistance balancing function as for commissioning valve since pressure drop across valve remains relatively constant at below preset flow rate Introduces noticeable resistance to distribution system as valve balancing action depends on pressure loss across valve

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

10

3-in-1 Chilled Water Dynamic Balancing


Mechanics Combine commissioning/ automatic balancing/ control valve functions into one Deliver exact chilled water flow rate as determined by space temperature controller Benefits System initial balancing much simplified Improves indoor condition with more direct control of chilled water flow rate Minimizes system chilled water flow resistance

Orifice controlled by actuator

Orifice selfadjusted by system pressure

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

11

Hydronic Fundamentals
Dynamic Balancing

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Coil Coil Dynamic Balancing Control valve

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

12

Hydronic Fundamentals
Dynamic Balancing

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Total Pressure drop

Coil Coil Dynamic Balancing Control valve

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

13

Advanced Technical Advanced Technical Analysis Analysis

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

14

3-in-1 Chilled Water Dynamic Balancing Static Condition


Q k1 A1 P P2 1

..(1*) ..(2*) ..(3)

A1, k1

A2, k2

Q k2 A2 P2 P3
Q k2 K P P3 1 P2 P3

Where k1 & k2 are flow coefficients, and K is relation of A2 to (P1-P3 ), From (1) and (3), we have

k1 A P P = k2 1 1 2

K P P 1 3

P P 2 3

..(4)

Under conditions of all parameters including P1, P3 and k1, k2, & K being fixed From (4), P2 varies only with A1 From (3), Q varies only with A1 Note (*) The linearity of Q in equations (1) and (2) depends on manufacturer design and construction tolerance

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

15

3-in-1 Chilled Water Dynamic Balancing Dynamic Condition


P1 P3
A1, k1 A2, k2

.... .. ( - ) no change ....

P1 P2
P2 P3
A2

K .. P P3 1
therefore, no change

Q A2 P2 P3

Flow rate remain constant with system pressure variation

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

16

What are the What are the Technical Advantages? Technical Advantages?

Commissioning System Performance Energy Efficiency

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

17

Commissioning

Performance

Energy

Easy Commissioning

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

18

Preset of Maximum Flow


Valve can be conveniently preset for maximum flow by local adjustment or remote via BMS
Max. flow setting in actuator

Max. flow setting by BMS

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

19

Commissioning

Performance

Energy

Pressure Independent Control

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

20

Pressure Independent Characteristic


Flow can be conveniently preset and then maintained constant under dynamic condition with minimum required pressure differential Accurate control of flow rate over larger control range as compared with traditional control valve

Preset Design flow

Control Signal

Valve max. flow 100% 10V Pre-set Design Flow

50%

6V

2V min kPa diff pressure max kPa

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

21

Commissioning

Performance

Energy

Good Space Temperature Control

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

22

Steady Space Temperature being maintained


30

28

Room Temp ()

26

24

22

With air conditioning With air conditioning

20

18 6:00

8:00

10:00

12:00

14:00

16:00

18:00

20:00

Time
Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing 23

Commissioning

Performance

Energy

Linear Control on Flow Rate

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

24

Linear Control of Flow Rate


Direct and linear relationship of control signal with and flow rate over noticeable large control range as compared with traditional control valve

14.40

Flow rate (m3/hr)

10.80

7.20

3.60

Test result

0.00

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

6.5

7.5

8.5

9.5

10

Control signal (V)

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

25

Commissioning

Performance

Energy

Energy Saving

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

26

Hydronic Fundamentals
Traditional control valve and double regulating valve (index circuit)
Index circuit Index circuit Total pressure drop Total pressure drop

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Control Valve

Coil + DRV

Coil

DRV

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

27

Hydronic Fundamentals
Dynamic Balancing

Pressure loss p[kPa]

Total Pressure drop

Coil Coil Dynamic Balancing Control valve

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

28

Energy Saving
in Dynamic Balancing system

160 Pressure loss p[kPa]


System with Traditional Control valve & Double Regulating Valve

160 kPa

Energy saved
System with Dynamic Balancing Control Valve

95 kPa

50

0%

% of Design Flow

100%

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

29

Commissioning

Performance

Energy

Flowrate monitoring

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

30

Flow Monitoring
Comparison with Electromagnetic Type Flowmeter
Flowmeter (electromagnetic type) Mechanics Accuracy Determine the fluid velocity by induced voltage 3-in-1 Dynamic Balancing Control Valve Determine the flow rate by calibrated opening (orifices)

Highly depend on compliance Independent of installation. of installation requirement. Typical catalogue quoted accuracy: 0.5% of operating range (flowmeter design at 9 to 2% of valve maximum flow rate 10m/s). at 2m/s Accuracy @ pipe actual flow rate of 2m/s:1.8 -2.25% Min 5D upstream & 3D downstream to ensure accurate measurement No requirement
31

Installation requirement Diff pressure

No specific requirement

Up to 35kPa for valve max. flow rate @ 2m/s

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Case Study : Office Tower in Singapore


Flowrate feedback by the Dynamic Balancing Control valve and monitored by the BMS system

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

32

Schematic of the Hydronic System


DCV CFV BPV FM b FM Q qDi

Dynamic balancing control valve Constant flow valve By-pass Valve Flowmeter to measure bypass flow Flowmeter to verify flow in riser Air Handling Unit demand flow determined from Dynamic balancing control valve feedback signal Total system demand flow = qD1 + qD2 + qD3 + + qDn Supply flow of each chiller Total plant supply flow = qS1 + qS 2 + qS 3 Bypass flow, QS QD
QD FMQ

qDn

AHUn

DCV

qD3

AHU3

DCV

qD2

AHU2

DCV

QD

qD1

AHU1

DCV

qS j QS

Qb QS qS3

FMb BPV

CFV3 CFV2 CFV1

Chiller3 Chiller2 Chiller1

Qb

qS2

Pumps and isolation valves not shown


Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

qS1
33

Flow Rate Verification


Results
QD, Required demand calculated via feedback signal of DCV (3-in1 dynamic balancing control valves) = qD1 + qD2 + qD3 +. qDn = 27.44 Lps FMQ, flow rate measured in supply mains by flowmeter = 27.38 Lps Only minor variance between summation of DCV valve and flowmeter measurement
QD FMQ Qb QS qS3 qS2 qS1 FMb BPV qDn AHUn DCV

qD3

AHU3

DCV

qD2

AHU2

DCV

qD1

AHU1

DCV

CFV3 CFV2 CFV1

Chiller3 Chiller2 Chiller1

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

34

Summary Summary

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

35

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Summary
Traditional system: Balancing valve in series with Control valve Mechanics Only achieve balancing under full load static condition which becomes distorted under dynamic condition which resistance of system components changes Constant Flow valve in series with Control valve Only limit flow rate and do not have balancing function Dynamic system: 3-in-1 Dynamic Balancing Control valve Deliver exact flow rate under dynamic condition as required by space temperature controller

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

36

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Summary (cont)
Traditional system: Balancing valve in series with Control valve Commissioning Constant Flow valve in series with Control valve Dynamic system: 3-in-1 Dynamic Balancing Control valve Convenient preset of maximum flow either locally at the valve or remotely at BMS

Require laborious No hydraulic analysis to commissioning determine required appropriate valve setting, adjustment of valve setting has to be performed and verified locally at the valve which is prone to error

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

37

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Summary (cont)
Traditional system: Constant flow balancing valve in valve in series series with control with control valve valve Energy efficiency Waste energy due to high initial full load control valve pressure loss and inability to capture reduced system resistance at partial load Nil Same as the case of Traditional system of balancing valve in series with control valve but with additional energy consumption due to balancing valve resistance Nil Dynamic system: 3-in-1 dynamic balancing control valve Energy saving due to low initial full load control valve pressure loss and ability to capture reduced system resistance at partial load Yes.

Flow rate monitoring

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

38

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

Summary (cont)
Traditional system: Balancing valve in series with Control valve System Performance Indirect relationship of space temperature control signal to chilled water flow rate and inferior modulating capability under partial load condition Constant Flow valve in series with Control valve Do not have system resistance balancing function and hence performance is inferior to traditional commissioning valve Dynamic system: 3-in-1 Dynamic Balancing Control valve Superior control performance due to direct relationship of space temperature control signal to chilled water flow rate and satisfactory modulating capability under partial load condition

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

39

Thank You! Thank You! Question and Answer Question and Answer

Chilled Water Distribution System Dynamic Balancing

40